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Index Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen. [1]

419 relations: Abdominal distension, Abdominal pain, Abiraterone, Abortion, Aclarubicin, Acute kidney injury, Acute myeloid leukemia, Adenine, Adenosine, Adjuvant therapy, Adverse effect, Air raid on Bari, AL amyloidosis, Alkyl, Alkylation, Allergy, Allies of World War II, Alopecia areata, Alopecia totalis, Amine, Anaerobic exercise, Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, Androgen, Anemia, Anemia of chronic disease, Angiogenesis, Ankylosing spondylitis, Anorexia (symptom), Anthracycline, Anti-Cancer Drugs, Antibiotic, Antibody, Antibody-drug conjugate, Antiemetic, Antifolate, Antimetabolite, Apoptosis, Arsphenamine, Assisted reproductive technology, Asymptomatic, Autoimmunity, Autonomic nervous system, Autotransplantation, Azacitidine, Aziridine, Bacteria, Bevacizumab, Bladder cancer, Bleeding, Bleomycin, ..., Blood cell, Blood transfusion, Blood vessel, Blood–brain barrier, Body surface area, Bone marrow, Bone marrow suppression, Bortezomib, Brain, Brain tumor, Breast cancer, Brentuximab 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Expand index (369 more) »

Abdominal distension

Abdominal distension occurs when substances, such as air (gas) or fluid, accumulate in the abdomen causing its outward expansion beyond the normal girth of the stomach and waist.

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Abdominal pain

Abdominal pain, also known as a stomach ache, is a symptom associated with both non-serious and serious medical issues.

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Abiraterone, developmental code name CB-7598, also known as 17-(3-pyridyl)androsta-5,16-dien-3β-ol, is a synthetic, steroidal CYP17A1 inhibitor.

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Abortion is the ending of pregnancy by removing an embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus.

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Aclarubicin (INN) or aclacinomycin A is an anthracycline drug that is used in the treatment of cancer.

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Acute kidney injury

Acute kidney injury (AKI), previously called acute renal failure (ARF), is an abrupt loss of kidney function that develops within 7 days.

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Acute myeloid leukemia

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells, characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal cells that build up in the bone marrow and blood and interfere with normal blood cells.

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Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).

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Adenosine is both a chemical found in many living systems and a medication.

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Adjuvant therapy

Adjuvant therapy, also known as adjunct therapy, add-on therapy, and adjuvant care, is therapy that is given in addition to the primary or initial therapy to maximize its effectiveness.

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Adverse effect

In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.

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Air raid on Bari

The air raid on Bari was an air attack by German bombers on Allied forces and shipping in Bari, Italy on 2 December 1943 during World War II.

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AL amyloidosis

Amyloid light-chain (AL) amyloidosis, primary systemic amyloidosis (PSA) or just primary amyloidosis is the most common form of systemic amyloidosis in the US.

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In organic chemistry, an alkyl substituent is an alkane missing one hydrogen.

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Alkylation is the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another.

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Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.

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Allies of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).

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Alopecia areata

Alopecia areata, also known as spot baldness, is a condition in which hair is lost from some or all areas of the body.

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Alopecia totalis

Alopecia totalis is the loss of all skull and facial hair.

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In organic chemistry, amines are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair.

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Anaerobic exercise

Anaerobic exercise is a physical exercise intense enough to cause lactate to form.

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Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma

Anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma involving aberrant T cells or null lymphocytes.

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An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone which regulates the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.

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Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.

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Anemia of chronic disease

Anemia of chronic disease, or anemia of chronic inflammation, is a form of anemia seen in chronic infection, chronic immune activation, and malignancy.

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Angiogenesis is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels.

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Ankylosing spondylitis

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a type of arthritis in which there is long term inflammation of the joints of the spine.

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Anorexia (symptom)

Anorexia (from Ancient Greek ανορεξία: 'ἀν-' "without" + 'όρεξις', spelled 'órexis' meaning "appetite") is the decreased sensation of appetite.

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Anthracyclines are a class of drugs used in cancer chemotherapy extracted from Streptomyces bacterium such as Streptomyces peucetius var.

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Anti-Cancer Drugs

Anti-Cancer Drugs (print:, online) is an international medical journal, which aims to promote and encourage research on anti-cancer agents.

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An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.

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An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.

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Antibody-drug conjugate

Antibody-drug conjugates or ADCs are an important class of highly potent biopharmaceutical drugs designed as a targeted therapy for the treatment of people with cancer.

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An antiemetic is a drug that is effective against vomiting and nausea.

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Antifolates are a class of antimetabolite medications that antagonise (that is, block) the actions of folic acid (vitamin B9).

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An antimetabolite is a chemical that inhibits the use of a metabolite, which is another chemical that is part of normal metabolism.

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Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.

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Arsphenamine, also known as Salvarsan or compound 606, is a drug that was introduced at the beginning of the 1910s as the first effective treatment for syphilis, and was also used to treat trypanosomiasis.

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Assisted reproductive technology

Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is the technology used to achieve pregnancy in procedures such as fertility medication, in vitro fertilization and surrogacy.

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In medicine, a disease is considered asymptomatic if a patient is a carrier for a disease or infection but experiences no symptoms.

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Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues.

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Autonomic nervous system

The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.

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Autotransplantation is the transplantation of organs, tissues, or even particular proteins from one part of the body to another in the same person (auto- meaning "self" in Greek).

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Azacitidine (INN; trade name Vidaza) is a chemical analog of cytidine, a nucleoside in DNA and RNA.

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Aziridines are organic compounds containing the aziridine functional group, a three-membered heterocycle with one amine group (-NH-) and two methylene bridges (--). The parent compound is aziridine (or ethylene imine), with molecular formula.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Bevacizumab, sold under the trade name Avastin, is medication used to treat a number of types of cancers and a specific eye disease.

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Bladder cancer

Bladder cancer is any of several types of cancer arising from the tissues of the urinary bladder.

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Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.

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Bleomycin is a medication used to treat cancer. This includes Hodgkin's lymphoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, testicular cancer, ovarian cancer, and cervical cancer among others. Typically used with other cancer medications, it can be given intravenously, by injection into a muscle or under the skin. It may also be administered inside the chest to help prevent the recurrence of a fluid around the lung due to cancer; however talc is better for this. Common side effects include fever, weight loss, vomiting, and rash. A severe type of anaphylaxis may occur. It may also cause inflammation of the lungs that can result in lung scarring. Chest X-rays every couple of weeks are recommended to check for this. Bleomycin may cause harm to the baby if used during pregnancy. It is believed to primarily work by preventing the making of DNA. Bleomycin was discovered in 1962. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. It is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 14 USD and 78 USD a dose. It is made by the bacterium Streptomyces verticillus.

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Blood cell

A blood cell, also called a haematopoietic cell, hemocyte, or hematocyte, is a cell produced through hematopoiesis and found mainly in the blood.

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Blood transfusion

Blood transfusion is generally the process of receiving blood or blood products into one's circulation intravenously.

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Blood vessel

The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.

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Blood–brain barrier

The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).

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Body surface area

In physiology and medicine, the body surface area (BSA) is the measured or calculated surface area of a human body.

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Bone marrow

Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.

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Bone marrow suppression

Bone marrow suppression also known as myelotoxicity or myelosuppression, is the decrease in production of cells responsible for providing immunity (leukocytes), carrying oxygen (erythrocytes), and/or those responsible for normal blood clotting (thrombocytes).

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Bortezomib (BAN, INN and USAN; marketed as Velcade by Takeda Oncology; Chemobort by Cytogen and Bortecad by Cadila Healthcare) is an anti-cancer drug and the first therapeutic proteasome inhibitor to be used in humans.

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The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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Brain tumor

A brain tumor occurs when abnormal cells form within the brain.

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Breast cancer

Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.

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Brentuximab vedotin

Brentuximab vedotin (INN, trade name Adcetris) is an antibody-drug conjugate medication used to treat relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL).

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Busulfan (Myleran, GlaxoSmithKline, Busulfex IV, Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc.) is a cancer drug, in use since 1959.

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Camptotheca (happy tree, cancer tree, or tree of life) is a genus of medium-sized deciduous trees growing to tall, native to southern China and Tibet.

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Camptothecin (CPT) is a topoisomerase inhibitor.

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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Cancer and nausea

Cancer and nausea are associated in about fifty percent of people affected by cancer.

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Cancer staging

Cancer staging is the process of determining the extent to which a cancer has developed by growing and spreading.

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Cancer-related fatigue

Cancer-related fatigue is a subjective symptom of fatigue that is experienced by nearly all cancer patients.

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Capecitabine, sold under the brand name Xeloda among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat breast cancer, gastric cancer and colorectal cancer.

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Carboplatin, sold under the trade name Paraplatin among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of forms of cancer.

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Carboxylic acid

A carboxylic acid is an organic compound that contains a carboxyl group (C(.

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Cardiotoxicity is the occurrence of heart electrophysiology dysfunction or muscle damage.

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Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

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Carmustine (bis-chloroethylnitrosourea, BCNU, BiCNU) is a medication used mainly for chemotherapy It is a nitrogen mustard β-chloro-nitrosourea compound used as an alkylating agent.

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Catharanthus roseus

Catharanthus roseus, commonly known as the Madagascar periwinkle, rose periwinkle, or rosy periwinkle, is a species of flowering plant in the dogbane family Apocynaceae.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell cycle

The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.

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Cell division

Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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Central venous catheter

A central venous catheter (CVC), also known as a central line, central venous line, or central venous access catheter, is a catheter placed into a large vein.

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Cerebrospinal fluid

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.

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Cetuximab is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor used for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer, metastatic non-small cell lung cancer and head and neck cancer.

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Chemical warfare

Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.

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Chemotherapy (journal)

Chemotherapy: International Journal of Experimental and Clinical Chemotherapy is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering antimicrobial chemotherapy, published by Karger Publishers.

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Chemotherapy regimen

A chemotherapy regimen is a regimen for chemotherapy, defining the drugs to be used, their dosage, the frequency and duration of treatments, and other considerations.

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Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a progressive, enduring, and often irreversible condition featuring pain, numbness, tingling and sensitivity to cold in the hands and feet (sometimes progressing to the arms and legs) that afflicts between 30% and 40% of patients undergoing chemotherapy.

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Childhood cancer

Childhood cancer (also known as pediatric cancer) is cancer in a child.

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Chills is a feeling of coldness occurring during a high fever, but sometimes is also a common symptom which occurs alone in specific people.

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Chlorambucil, sold under the brand name Leukeran among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), Hodgkin lymphoma, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

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No description.

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Cholestasis is a condition where bile cannot flow from the liver to the duodenum.

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Chromosome abnormality

A chromosome abnormality, disorder, anomaly, aberration, or mutation is a missing, extra, or irregular portion of chromosomal DNA.

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Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia

Chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML) is a type of leukaemia, which are cancers of the blood-forming cells of the bone marrow.

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Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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Cirrhosis is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.

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Cisplatin is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of cancers.

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Cladribine, sold under the brand name Leustatin among others, is a medication used to treat hairy cell leukemia (HCL, leukemic reticuloendotheliosis) and B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

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Clinical Medicine Insights: Oncology

Clinical Medicine Insights: Oncology is a peer-reviewed open access academic journal focusing on clinical applications of oncology.

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Clofarabine is a purine nucleoside antimetabolite marketed in the US and Canada as Clolar.

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Colectomy (col- + -ectomy) is bowel resection of the large bowel (colon).

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Colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).

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Complete blood count

A complete blood count (CBC), also known as a complete blood cell count, full blood count (FBC), or full blood exam (FBE), is a blood panel requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood, such as the cell count for each cell type and the concentrations of various proteins and minerals.

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Complications of pregnancy

Complications of pregnancy are health problems that are caused by pregnancy.

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Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.

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Covalent bond

A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

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CRC Press

The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.

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Cryo-preservation or cryo-conservation is a process where organelles, cells, tissues, extracellular matrix, organs or any other biological constructs susceptible to damage caused by unregulated chemical kinetics are preserved by cooling to very low temperatures (typically −80 °C using solid carbon dioxide or −196 °C using liquid nitrogen).

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A cure is a substance or procedure that ends a medical condition, such as a medication, a surgical operation, a change in lifestyle or even a philosophical mindset that helps end a person's sufferings; or the state of being healed, or cured.

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Current Medicinal Chemistry

Current Medicinal Chemistry is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by Bentham Science Publishers.

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Cyclooxygenase (COX), officially known as prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS), is an enzyme (specifically, a family of isozymes) that is responsible for formation of prostanoids, including thromboxane and prostaglandins such as prostacyclin, from arachidonic acid.

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Cyclophosphamide (CP), also known as cytophosphane among other, is a medication used as chemotherapy and to suppress the immune system.

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Cytarabine, also known as cytosine arabinoside (ara-C), is a chemotherapy medication used to treat acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

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Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.

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Cytosine (C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).

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Cytostasis (cyto – cell; stasis – stoppage) is the inhibition of cell growth and multiplication.

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Cytotoxicity is the quality of being toxic to cells.

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Dacarbazine (DTIC), also known as imidazole carboxamide, is a chemotherapy medication used in the treatment of melanoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma.

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Dactinomycin, also known as actinomycin D, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer.

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Daunorubicin, also known as daunomycin, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat cancer.

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Decitabine (trade name Dacogen), or 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, acts as an Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitor.

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In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.

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Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication.

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Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.

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Dihydrofolate reductase

Dihydrofolate reductase, or DHFR, is an enzyme that reduces dihydrofolic acid to tetrahydrofolic acid, using NADPH as electron donor, which can be converted to the kinds of tetrahydrofolate cofactors used in 1-carbon transfer chemistry.

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Dihydrofolic acid

Dihydrofolic acid (conjugate base dihydrofolate) (DHF) is a folic acid (vitamin B9) derivative which is converted to tetrahydrofolic acid by dihydrofolate reductase.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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DNA repair

DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.

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DNA replication

In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.

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Docetaxel (DTX), sold under the brand name Taxotere among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer.

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Doxorubicin, sold under the trade names Adriamycin among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat cancer.

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Drug delivery

Drug delivery refers to approaches, formulations, technologies, and systems for transporting a pharmaceutical compound in the body as needed to safely achieve its desired therapeutic effect.

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Drug overdose

The term drug overdose (or simply overdose or OD) describes the ingestion or application of a drug or other substance in quantities greater than are recommended or generally practiced.

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Drug resistance

Drug resistance is the reduction in effectiveness of a medication such as an antimicrobial or an antineoplastic in curing a disease or condition.

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Embryo cryopreservation

Cryopreservation of embryos is the process of preserving an embryo at sub-zero temperatures, generally at an embryogenesis stage corresponding to pre-implantation, that is, from fertilisation to the blastocyst stage.

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Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Epirubicin is an anthracycline drug used for chemotherapy.

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The epothilones are a class of potential cancer drugs.

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Erectile dysfunction

Erectile dysfunction (ED), also known as impotence, is a type of sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual activity.

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Erythema (from the Greek erythros, meaning red) is redness of the skin or mucous membranes, caused by hyperemia (increased blood flow) in superficial capillaries.

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Erythropoietin (EPO), also known as hematopoietin or hemopoietin, is a glycoprotein cytokine secreted by the kidney in response to cellular hypoxia; it stimulates red blood cell production (erythropoiesis) in the bone marrow.

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Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.

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Etoposide, sold under the brand name Etopophos among others, is a chemotherapy medication used for the treatments of a number of types of cancer.

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Experimental cancer treatment

Experimental cancer treatments are medical therapies intended or claimed to treat cancer by improving on, supplementing or replacing conventional methods (surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and immunotherapy).

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Expert Review of Hematology

Expert Review of Hematology is a MEDLINE-indexed, peer-reviewed, international medical journal publishing review articles and original papers on all aspects of hematology.

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Extravasation is the leakage of a fluid out of its container.

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Female infertility

Female infertility refers to infertility in female humans.

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Fertility preservation

Fertility preservation is the effort to help cancer patients retain their fertility, or ability to procreate.

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Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.

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Filgrastim, sold under the brand name Neupogen among others, is a medication used to treat low blood neutrophils.

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Fludarabine, sold under the brand name Fludara among others, is a chemotherapy medication used in the treatment of leukemia and lymphoma.

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Fluorouracil (5-FU), sold under the brand name Adrucil among others, is a medication used to treat cancer.

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FOLFOX is a chemotherapy regimen for treatment of colorectal cancer, made up of the drugs.

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Folinic acid

Folinic acid, also known as leucovorin, is a medication used to decrease the toxic effects of methotrexate and pyrimethamine.

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In biology, folliculogenesis is the maturation of the ovarian follicle, a densely packed shell of somatic cells that contains an immature oocyte.

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Fotemustine is a nitrosourea alkylating agent approved for use in the treatment of metastatic melanoma.

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Fractional kill

In oncology, the fact that one round of chemotherapy does not kill all the cells in a tumor is a poorly understood phenomenon called fractional kill, or fractional cell kill.

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Functional group

In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules.

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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.

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Gemcitabine, sold under the brand name Gemzar, among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer.

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Gemtuzumab ozogamicin

Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (marketed by Wyeth as Mylotarg) is a drug-linked monoclonal antibody (an antibody-drug conjugate) that was used to treat acute myeloid leukemia from 2000 to 2010.

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In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Gene duplication

Gene duplication (or chromosomal duplication or gene amplification) is a major mechanism through which new genetic material is generated during molecular evolution.

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Germ cell tumor

A germ cell tumor (GCT) is a neoplasm derived from germ cells.

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Glycopeptides are peptides that contain carbohydrate moieties (glycans) covalently attached to the side chains of the amino acid residues that constitute the peptide.

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Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue

A gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRH analogue or analog), also known as a luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonist (LHRH agonist) or LHRH analogue is a synthetic peptide drug modeled after the human hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).

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Granulocytes are a category of white blood cells characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm.

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Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF or GCSF), also known as colony-stimulating factor 3 (CSF 3), is a glycoprotein that stimulates the bone marrow to produce granulocytes and stem cells and release them into the bloodstream.

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Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).

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Haematopoiesis (from Greek αἷμα, "blood" and ποιεῖν "to make"; also hematopoiesis in American English; sometimes also haemopoiesis or hemopoiesis) is the formation of blood cellular components.

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Hair follicle

The hair follicle is a dynamic organ found in mammalian skin.

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Hair loss

Hair loss, also known as alopecia or baldness, refers to a loss of hair from part of the head or body.

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Heart arrhythmia

Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.

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A hematoma (US spelling) or haematoma (UK spelling) is a localized collection of blood outside the blood vessels, due to either disease or trauma including injury or surgery and may involve blood continuing to seep from broken capillaries.

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Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood, or umbilical cord blood.

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Hemolysis or haemolysis, also known by several other names, is the rupturing (lysis) of red blood cells (erythrocytes) and the release of their contents (cytoplasm) into surrounding fluid (e.g. blood plasma).

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Hepatic veno-occlusive disease

Hepatic veno-occlusive disease or veno-occlusive disease with immunodeficiency (VODI) is a condition in which some of the small veins in the liver are obstructed.

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Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) implies chemical-driven liver damage.

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Herpes simplex

Herpes simplex is a viral disease caused by the herpes simplex virus.

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Herpesviridae is a large family of DNA viruses that cause diseases in animals, including humans.

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Hickman line

A Hickman line is a central venous catheter most often used for the administration of chemotherapy or other medications, as well as for the withdrawal of blood for analysis.

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History of cancer chemotherapy

The era of cancer chemotherapy began in the 1940s with the first use of nitrogen mustards and folic acid antagonist drugs.

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Hodgkin's lymphoma

Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is a type of lymphoma which is generally believed to result from white blood cells of the lymphocyte kind.

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Hormonal therapy (oncology)

Hormonal therapy in oncology is hormone therapy for cancer and is one of the major modalities of medical oncology (pharmacotherapy for cancer), others being cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted therapy (biotherapeutics).

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Hyperkalemia, also spelled hyperkalaemia, is an elevated level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.

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Hyperphosphatemia is an electrolyte disturbance in which there is an abnormally elevated level of phosphate in the blood.

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Hyperthermia therapy

Hyperthermia therapy is a type of medical treatment in which body tissue is exposed to higher temperatures in an effort to treat cancer.

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Hyperuricemia is an abnormally high level of uric acid in the blood.

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Hypothermia cap

A hypothermia cap (also referred to as cold cap or cooling cap) is a therapeutic device used to cool the human scalp.

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Idarubicin or 4-demethoxydaunorubicin is an anthracycline antileukemic drug.

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Ifosfamide (IFO), sold under the brand name Ifex among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer.

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Imatinib, sold under the brand names Gleevec among others, is a medication used to treat cancer.

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Immune checkpoint

Immune checkpoints are regulators of the immune system.

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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Immunogenic cell death

Immunogenic cell death or immunogenic apoptosis is a form of cell death caused by some cytostatic agents such as anthracyclines, oxaliplatin and bortezomib, or radiotherapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT).

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Immunosuppression is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the immune system.

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Immunotherapy is the "treatment of disease by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response".

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In vitro fertilisation

In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is a process of fertilisation where an egg is combined with sperm outside the body, in vitro ("in glass").

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In vivo

Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.

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Infertility is the inability of a person, animal or plant to reproduce by natural means.

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Ingestion is the consumption of a substance by an organism.

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Inhalation (also known as inspiration) happens when oxygen from the air enters the lungs.

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Intercalation (biochemistry)

In biochemistry, intercalation is the insertion of molecules between the planar bases of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).

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International nonproprietary name

The International Nonproprietary Name (INN) is an official generic and non-proprietary name given to a pharmaceutical drug or an active ingredient.

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Interstitial lung disease

Interstitial lung disease (ILD), or diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD), is a group of lung diseases affecting the interstitium (the tissue and space around the air sacs of the lungs).

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Intrathecal administration

Intrathecal administration is a route of administration for drugs via an injection into the spinal canal, or into the subarachnoid space so that it reaches the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and is useful in spinal anaesthesia, chemotherapy, or pain management applications.

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Intravenous therapy

Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).

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Irinotecan, sold under the brand name Camptosar among others, is a medication used to treat colon cancer, and small cell lung cancer.

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Iron supplement

Iron supplements, also known as iron salts and iron pills, are a number of iron formulations used to treat and prevent iron deficiency including iron deficiency anemia.

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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.

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Journal of Medicinal Chemistry

The Journal of Medicinal Chemistry is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering research in medicinal chemistry.

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Labile cell

In cellular biology, labile cells are cells that multiply constantly throughout life.

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Lenalidomide (trade name Revlimid) is a derivative of thalidomide introduced in 2004.

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Lenograstim is a recombinant granulocyte colony-stimulating factor which functions as an immunostimulator.

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Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.

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Leuprorelin, also known as leuprolide, is a manufactured version of a hormone used to treat prostate cancer, breast cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and early puberty.

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Ligand (biochemistry)

In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.

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The lignans are a large group of polyphenols found in plants.

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Limb perfusion

Limb perfusion is a medical technique that is used to deliver drugs locally directly to a site of interest.

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Lipophilicity (from Greek λίπος "fat" and φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene.

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A liposome is a spherical vesicle having at least one lipid bilayer.

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List of antineoplastic agents

This is a list of antineoplastic agents used to treat cancer.

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List of chemotherapeutic agents

This is a list of chemotherapeutic agents (also known as cytotoxic agents) that are known to be of use in chemotherapy for cancer.

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The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l, sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,, p. 124. ("Days" and "hours" are examples of other non-SI units that SI accepts.) although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre", a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English. One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.

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Lomustine (INN), abbreviated as CCNU (original brand name (formerly available) is CeeNU, now marketed as Gleostine), is an alkylating nitrosourea compound used in chemotherapy.

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Lung cancer

Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.

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Lupus nephritis

Lupus nephritis (also known as SLE nephritis) is an inflammation of the kidneys caused by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease.

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Lymphoma is a group of blood cancers that develop from lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).

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Magnetic drug delivery

Magnetic nanoparticle-based drug delivery is a means in which magnetic particles such as iron oxide nanoparticles are a component of a delivery vehicle for magnetic drug delivery, due to their easiness and simplicity with magnet-guidance.

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Malignancy is the tendency of a medical condition to become progressively worse.

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Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.

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Medical emergency

A medical emergency is an acute injury or illness that poses an immediate risk to a person's life or long-term health.

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Medicinal fungi

Medicinal fungi are those fungi which produce medically significant metabolites or can be induced to produce such metabolites using biotechnology.

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Melanoma, also known as malignant melanoma, is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes.

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Melphalan (trade name Alkeran, in former USSR also known as Sarcolysin) is a chemotherapy drug belonging to the class of nitrogen mustard alkylating agents.

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Mercaptopurine (6-MP), sold under the brand name Purinethol among others, is a medication used for cancer and autoimmune diseases.

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Mesoporous silica

Mesoporous silica is a mesoporous form of silica and a recent development in nanotechnology.

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A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.

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Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; it is typically spoken of as such spread by a cancerous tumor.

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Methotrexate (MTX), formerly known as amethopterin, is a chemotherapy agent and immune system suppressant.

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A micromanipulator is a device which is used to physically interact with a sample under a microscope, where a level of precision of movement is necessary that cannot be achieved by the unaided human hand.

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A micrometastasis is a small collection of cancer cells that has been shed from the original tumor and spread to another part of the body through the lymphovascular system.

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Microtubules are tubular polymers of tubulin that form part of the cytoskeleton that provides the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and some bacteria with structure and shape.

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Mitomycin C

Mitomycin C is a mitomycin that is used as a chemotherapeutic agent by virtue of its antitumour activity.

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The mitomycins are a family of aziridine-containing natural products isolated from Streptomyces caespitosus or Streptomyces lavendulae. They include mitomycin A, mitomycin B, and mitomycin C. When the name mitomycin occurs alone, it usually refers to mitomycin C, its international nonproprietary name.

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In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.

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Mitotic inhibitor

A mitotic inhibitor is a drug that inhibits mitosis, or cell division.

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Mitoxantrone (INN, BAN, USAN; also known as Mitozantrone in Australia; trade name Novantrone) is an anthracenedione antineoplastic agent.

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Mitozolomide (INN) is an antineoplastic.

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Molecules (journal)

Molecules is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal that focuses on all aspects of synthetic organic chemistry and natural product chemistry.

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MOPP (chemotherapy)

MOPP is a combination chemotherapy regimen used to treat Hodgkin's disease.

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Motor nerve

A motor nerve is a nerve located in the central nervous system (CNS), usually the spinal cord, that sends motor signals from the CNS to the muscles of the body.This is different from the motor neuron, which includes a cell body and branching of dendrites, while the nerve is made up of a bundle of axons.

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In animal anatomy, the mouth, also known as the oral cavity, buccal cavity, or in Latin cavum oris, is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds.

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Mucositis is the painful inflammation and ulceration of the mucous membranes lining the digestive tract, usually as an adverse effect of chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment for cancer.

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Multiple myeloma

Multiple myeloma, also known as plasma cell myeloma, is a cancer of plasma cells, a type of white blood cell normally responsible for producing antibodies.

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Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.

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In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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N-Nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU) is a highly reliable carcinogen, mutagen, and teratogen.

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The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).

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Nanoparticles are particles between 1 and 100 nanometres (nm) in size with a surrounding interfacial layer.

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National Comprehensive Cancer Network

National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) is an alliance of 27 cancer centers in the United States, most of which are designated by the National Cancer Institute (one of the U.S. National Institutes of Health) as comprehensive cancer centers.

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Natural product

A natural product is a chemical compound or substance produced by a living organism—that is, found in nature.

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Nausea or queasiness is an unpleasant sense of unease, discomfort, and revulsion towards food.

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Nelarabine is a chemotherapy drug used in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

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Neoadjuvant therapy

Neoadjuvant therapy is the administration of therapeutic agents before a main treatment.

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Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.

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Nephrotoxicity is toxicity in the kidneys.

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Neutropenia or neutropaenia is an abnormally low concentration of neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) in the blood.

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Neutropenic enterocolitis

Neutropenic enterocolitis, also known as typhlitis or typhlenteritis, and less commonly called caecitis or cecitis, is inflammation of the cecum (part of the large intestine) that may be associated with infection.

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Neutrophils (also known as neutrocytes) are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant (40% to 70%) type of white blood cells in most mammals.

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Nitrogen mustard

Nitrogen mustards are cytotoxic chemotherapy agents derived from mustard gas.

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Nitrosourea is both the name of a molecule, and a class of compounds that include a nitroso (R-NO) group and a urea.

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A nomogram (from Greek νόμος nomos, "law" and γραμμή grammē, "line"), also called a nomograph, alignment chart or abaque, is a graphical calculating device, a two-dimensional diagram designed to allow the approximate graphical computation of a mathematical function.

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Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a group of blood cancers that includes all types of lymphoma except Hodgkin's lymphomas.

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Non-small-cell lung carcinoma

Non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is any type of epithelial lung cancer other than small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC).

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Novobiocin, also known as albamycin or cathomycin, is an aminocoumarin antibiotic that is produced by the actinomycete Streptomyces niveus, which has recently been identified as a subjective synonym for S. spheroides a member of the order Actinobacteria.

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Nucleobases, also known as nitrogenous bases or often simply bases, are nitrogen-containing biological compounds that form nucleosides, which in turn are components of nucleotides, with all of these monomers constituting the basic building blocks of nucleic acids.

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Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.

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Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.

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An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer.

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Ototoxicity is the property of being toxic to the ear (oto-), specifically the cochlea or auditory nerve and sometimes the vestibular system, for example, as a side effect of a drug.

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Oxaliplatin, sold under the brand name Eloxatin, is a cancer medication used to treat colorectal cancer.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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P-glycoprotein 1 (permeability glycoprotein, abbreviated as P-gp or Pgp) also known as multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) or ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 1 (ABCB1) or cluster of differentiation 243 (CD243) is an important protein of the cell membrane that pumps many foreign substances out of cells.

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Paclitaxel (PTX), sold under the brand name Taxol among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer.

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Palliative care

Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to specialized medical and nursing care for people with life-limiting illnesses.

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A patient is any recipient of health care services.

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Paul Ehrlich

Paul Ehrlich (14 March 1854 – 20 August 1915) was a German Jewish physician and scientist who worked in the fields of hematology, immunology, and antimicrobial chemotherapy.

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Pemetrexed (brand name Alimta) is a chemotherapy drug manufactured and marketed by Eli Lilly and Company.

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Penicillin (PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (use by mouth), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use).

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Pentostatin (or deoxycoformycin, trade name Nipent, manufactured by SuperGen) is an anticancer chemotherapeutic drug.

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Performance status

In medicine (oncology and other fields), performance status is an attempt to quantify cancer patients' general well-being and activities of daily life.

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Peripheral neuropathy

Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected.

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Peripheral venous catheter

In medicine, a peripheral venous catheter (PVC), peripheral venous line or peripheral venous access catheter is a catheter (small, flexible tube) placed into a peripheral vein for intravenous therapy such as medication fluids.

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Peripherally inserted central catheter

A peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC or PIC line), less commonly called a percutaneous indwelling central catheter, is a form of intravenous access that can be used for a prolonged period of time (e.g., for long chemotherapy regimens, extended antibiotic therapy, or total parenteral nutrition) or for administration of substances that should not be done peripherally (e.g., antihypotensive agents a.k.a. pressors).

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Pfizer Inc. is an American pharmaceutical conglomerate headquartered in New York City, with its research headquarters in Groton, Connecticut.

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Pharmacology & Therapeutics

Pharmacology & Therapeutics is a medical review journal published by Elsevier.

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Pharmacotherapy is therapy using pharmaceutical drugs, as distinguished from therapy using surgery (surgical therapy), radiation (radiation therapy), movement (physical therapy), or other modes.

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Philadelphia chromosome

The Philadelphia chromosome or Philadelphia translocation (Ph) is a specific genetic abnormality in chromosome 22 of leukemia cancer cells (particularly chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells).

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Phlebitis or venitis is the inflammation of a vein, usually in the legs.

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A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.

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Pirarubicin (INN) is an anthracycline drug.

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Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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Planta Medica

Planta Medica is a peer-reviewed journal, is published by Thieme Medical Publishers and covers medicinal plants and bioactive natural products of natural origin.

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Plasma cell dyscrasia

Plasma cell dyscrasias (also termed plasma cell disorders and plasma cell proliferative diseases) are a spectrum of progressively more severe monoclonal gammopathies in which a clone or multiple clones of pre-malignant or malignant plasma cells (sometimes in association with lymphoplasmacytoid cells or B lymphocytes) over-produce and secrete into the blood stream a myeloma protein, i.e. an abnormal monoclonal antibody or portion thereof.

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Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.

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Platelet transfusion

Platelet transfusion, also known as platelet concentrate, is used to prevent or treat bleeding in people with either a low platelet count or poor platelet function.

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Podophyllotoxin (PPT), also known as podofilox, is a medical cream that is used to treat genital warts and molluscum contagiosum.

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Podophyllum is an herbaceous perennial plant in the family Berberidaceae, described as a genus by Linnaeus in 1753.

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In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.

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A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.

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Port (medical)

In medicine, a port is a small medical appliance that is installed beneath the skin.

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Post-chemotherapy cognitive impairment

Post-chemotherapy cognitive impairment (PCCI) (also known in the scientific community as "CRCIs or Chemotherapy-Related Cognitive Impairments" and in lay terms as chemotherapy-induced cognitive dysfunction or impairment, chemo brain, or chemo fog) describes the cognitive impairment that can result from chemotherapy treatment.

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Prednisolone is a steroid medication used to treat certain types of allergies, inflammatory conditions, autoimmune disorders, and cancers.

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Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.

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Premature ovarian failure

Premature ovarian failure (POF) is the loss of function of the ovaries before age 40.

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Procarbazine is a chemotherapy medication used for the treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma and brain cancers.

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A prodrug is a medication or compound that, after administration, is metabolized (i.e., converted within the body) into a pharmacologically active drug.

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Prognosis (Greek: πρόγνωσις "fore-knowing, foreseeing") is a medical term for predicting the likely or expected development of a disease, including whether the signs and symptoms will improve or worsen (and how quickly) or remain stable over time; expectations of quality of life, such as the ability to carry out daily activities; the potential for complications and associated health issues; and the likelihood of survival (including life expectancy).

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Proliferative index

Proliferation, as one of the hallmarks and most fundamental biological processes in tumors, is associated with tumor progression, response to therapy, and cancer patient survival.

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Proteasome inhibitor

Proteasome inhibitors are drugs that block the action of proteasomes, cellular complexes that break down proteins.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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A pseudoallergy is a condition named for its similar presentation to a true allergy, though due to different causes.

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Psoriasis is a long-lasting autoimmune disease characterized by patches of abnormal skin.

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A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound that consists of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.

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Pyrimidine is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound similar to pyridine.

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Quinolone antibiotic

A quinolone antibiotic is any member of a large group of broad-spectrum bactericides that share a bicyclic core structure related to the compound 4-quinolone.

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Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.

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Radiation-induced cognitive decline

Radiation-induced cognitive decline describes the possible correlation between radiation therapy and mild cognitive impairment.

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Radical (chemistry)

In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.

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Receptor tyrosine kinase

Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are the high-affinity cell surface receptors for many polypeptide growth factors, cytokines, and hormones.

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Red blood cell

Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.

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Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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A refractory mineral is a mineral that is resistant to decomposition by heat, pressure, or chemical attack.

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Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.

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Rituximab, sold under the brand name Rituxan among others, is a medication used to treat certain autoimmune diseases and types of cancer.

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Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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Route of administration

A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body.

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S phase

S phase (synthesis phase) is the part of the cell cycle in which DNA is replicated, occurring between G1 phase and G2 phase.

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Semustine is a drug used in chemotherapy.

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Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.

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Shingles, also known as herpes zoster, is a viral disease characterized by a painful skin rash with blisters in a localized area.

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Signal transduction

Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.

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Sinopodophyllum is an herbaceous perennial plant in the family Berberidaceae, described as a genus in 1979.

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Skin cancer

Skin cancers are cancers that arise from the skin.

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Small molecule

Within the fields of molecular biology and pharmacology, a small molecule is a low molecular weight (< 900 daltons) organic compound that may regulate a biological process, with a size on the order of 1 nm.

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Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.

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Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a signaling sphingolipid, also known as lysosphingolipid.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Stem cell

Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.

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Stomach cancer

Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, is cancer developing from the lining of the stomach.

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Streptomyces peucetius

Streptomyces peucetius is a bacterium species in the genus Streptomyces.

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Streptozotocin or streptozocin (INN, USP) (STZ) is a naturally occurring alkylating antineoplastic agent that is particularly toxic to the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas in mammals.

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Sulfonamide (medicine)

Sulfonamide (also called sulphonamide, sulfa drugs or sulpha drugs) is the basis of several groups of drugs.

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Sulfur mustard

Sulfur mustard, commonly known as mustard gas, is the prototypical substance of the sulfur-based family of cytotoxic and vesicant chemical warfare agents known as the sulfur mustards which have the ability to form large blisters on exposed skin and in the lungs.

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Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.

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Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.

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Systemic lupus erythematosus

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), also known simply as lupus, is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in many parts of the body.

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Targeted therapy

Targeted therapy or molecularly targeted therapy is one of the major modalities of medical treatment (pharmacotherapy) for cancer, others being hormonal therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy.

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Taxanes are a class of diterpenes.

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Taxus baccata

Taxus baccata is a conifer native to western, central and southern Europe, northwest Africa, northern Iran and southwest Asia.

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Taxus brevifolia

Taxus brevifolia, the Pacific yew or western yew, is a conifer native to the Pacific Northwest of North America.

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Temozolomide (TMZ; brand names Temodar and Temodal and Temcad) is an oral chemotherapy drug.

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Teniposide (trade name Vumon) is a chemotherapeutic medication used in the treatment of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), Hodgkin's lymphoma, certain brain tumours, and other types of cancer.

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Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.

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A teratoma is a tumor made up of several different types of tissue, such as hair, muscle, or bone.

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Tetrahydrofolic acid

Tetrahydrofolic acid, or tetrahydrofolate, is a folic acid derivative.

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Tetrazine is an unstable compound that consists of a six-membered aromatic ring containing four nitrogen atoms with the molecular formula C2H2N4.

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Thalidomide, sold under the brand name Immunoprin, among others, is an immunomodulatory drug and the prototype of the thalidomide class of drugs.

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Thiol is an organosulfur compound that contains a carbon-bonded sulfhydryl (R–SH) group (where R represents an alkyl or other organic substituent).

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The thiopurine drugs are purine antimetabolites widely used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, autoimmune disorders (e.g., Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis), and organ transplant recipients.

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Thiotepa (INN, chemical name: N,N′,N′′-triethylenethiophosphoramide) is an alkylating agent used to treat cancer.

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Thrombocytopenia is a condition characterized by abnormally low levels of thrombocytes, also known as platelets, in the blood.

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Thymidine monophosphate

Thymidine monophosphate (TMP), also known as thymidylic acid (conjugate base thymidylate), deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP), or deoxythymidylic acid (conjugate base deoxythymidylate), is a nucleotide that is used as a monomer in DNA.

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Thymidylate synthase

Thymidylate synthetase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) to deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP).

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---> Thymine (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.

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Tioguanine, also known as thioguanine or 6-thioguanine (6-TG) is a medication used to treat acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).

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DNA topoisomerase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the TOP1 gene.

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Topoisomerase inhibitor

Topoisomerase inhibitors are chemical compounds that block the action of topoisomerase (topoisomerase I and II), which is a type of enzyme that controls the changes in DNA structure by catalyzing the breaking and rejoining of the phosphodiester backbone of DNA strands during the normal cell cycle.

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Topotecan (trade name Hycamtin) is a chemotherapeutic agent that is a topoisomerase inhibitor.

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Total body irradiation

Total body irradiation (TBI) is a form of radiotherapy used primarily as part of the preparative regimen for haematopoietic stem cell (or bone marrow) transplantation.

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Trametes versicolor

Trametes versicolor – also known as Coriolus versicolor and Polyporus versicolor – is a common polypore mushroom found throughout the world.

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Transcription (biology)

Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.

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Trastuzumab, sold under the brand name Herceptin among others, is a monoclonal antibody used to treat breast cancer.

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Trastuzumab emtansine

Trastuzumab emtansine also known as ado-trastuzumab emtansine and sold under the trade name Kadcyla, is an antibody-drug conjugate consisting of the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin) linked to the cytotoxic agent emtansine (DM1).

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Treatment of cancer

Cancer can be treated by surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy, targeted therapy (including immunotherapy such as monoclonal antibody therapy) and synthetic lethality.

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Trifunctional purine biosynthetic protein adenosine-3

Trifunctional purine biosynthetic protein adenosine-3 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GART gene.

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Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX), also known as co-trimoxazole among other names, is an antibiotic used to treat a variety of bacterial infections.

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Tubulin in molecular biology can refer either to the tubulin protein superfamily of globular proteins, or one of the member proteins of that superfamily.

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Tumor antigen

Tumor antigen is an antigenic substance produced in tumor cells, i.e., it triggers an immune response in the host.

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Tumor hypoxia

Tumor hypoxia is the situation where tumor cells have been deprived of oxygen.

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Tumor lysis syndrome

Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a group of metabolic abnormalities that can occur as a complication during the treatment of cancer, where large amounts of tumor cells are killed off (lysed) at the same time by the treatment, releasing their contents into the bloodstream.

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Tumor suppressor

A tumor suppressor gene, or antioncogene, is a gene that protects a cell from one step on the path to cancer.

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Tumour heterogeneity

Tumour heterogeneity describes the observation that different tumour cells can show distinct morphological and phenotypic profiles, including cellular morphology, gene expression, metabolism, motility, proliferation, and metastatic potential.

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Type II topoisomerase

Type II topoisomerases cut both strands of the DNA helix simultaneously in order to manage DNA tangles and supercoils.

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Uracil (U) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA that are represented by the letters A, G, C and U. The others are adenine (A), cytosine (C), and guanine (G).

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Usage is the manner in which written and spoken language is used, the "points of grammar, syntax, style, and the choice of words", and "the way in which a word or phrase is normally and correctly used".

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Vasculitis is a group of disorders that destroy blood vessels by inflammation.

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Vertigo is a symptom where a person feels as if they or the objects around them are moving when they are not.

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Vinblastine is a chemotherapy medication, typically used with other medications, to treat a number of types of cancer.

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Vinca alkaloid

Vinca alkaloids are a set of anti-mitotic and anti-microtubule alkaloid agents originally derived from the periwinkle plant Catharanthus roseus (basionym Vinca rosea) and other vinca plants.

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Vincristine, also known as leurocristine and marketed under the brandname Oncovin among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer. This includes acute lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, neuroblastoma, and small cell lung cancer among others. It is given intravenously. Most people experience some side effects from vincristine treatment. Commonly it causes a change in sensation, hair loss, constipation, difficulty walking, and headaches. Serious side effects may include neuropathic pain, lung damage, or low blood white cells. It will likely cause harm to the baby if given during pregnancy. It works by stopping cells from dividing properly. Vincristine was first isolated in 1961. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 1.80 and 42.60 USD per dose. It is a vinca alkaloid that can be obtained from the Madagascar periwinkle Catharanthus roseus.

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Vindesine is an anti-mitotic vinca alkaloid used in chemotherapy.

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Vinflunine (INN, trade name Javlor) is a novel fluorinated ''vinca'' alkaloid derivative undergoing research for the treatment of bladder cancer.

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Vinorelbine (NVB), sold under the brand name Navelbine among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer.

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Viral hepatitis

Viral hepatitis is liver inflammation due to a viral infection.

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Virotherapy is a treatment using biotechnology to convert viruses into therapeutic agents by reprogramming viruses to treat diseases.

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Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.

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Water retention (medicine)

The term water retention (also known as fluid retention) or hydrops, hydropsy, edema, signifies an abnormal accumulation of clear, watery fluid in the tissues or cavities of the body.

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White blood cell

White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.

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Winged infusion set

Butterfly needle A winged infusion set—also known as "butterfly" or "scalp vein" set—is a device specialized for venipuncture: i.e. for accessing a superficial vein for either intravenous injection or phlebotomy.

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Word sense

In linguistics, a word sense is one of the meanings of a word (some words have multiple meanings, some words have only one meaning).

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Wyeth was a pharmaceutical company purchased by Pfizer in 2009.

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Xerostomia, also known as dry mouth and dry mouth syndrome, is dryness in the mouth, which may be associated with a change in the composition of saliva, or reduced salivary flow, or have no identifiable cause.

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Yale School of Medicine

The Yale School of Medicine is the graduate medical school at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemotherapy

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