117 relations: Aircraft, Albert Einstein, ALICE experiment, American Institute of Physics, Askaryan radiation, Atmosphere of Earth, Biomolecule, Blazar, Bremsstrahlung, Bullet, CERN, Charged particle, Classical electromagnetism, Coherence (physics), Cone, Cosmic ray, Cosmic ray visual phenomena, Criticality accident, Dielectric, Dispersion (optics), Electromagnetic radiation, Electromagnetic spectrum, Electron, Electronvolt, England, Fluorescence, Fluorine-18, Four-momentum, Frank–Tamm formula, Gamma ray, Group velocity, High Altitude Water Cherenkov Experiment, High Energy Stereoscopic System, IACT, IceCube Neutrino Observatory, Igor Tamm, Ilya Frank, Iodine-131, Journal of Biomedical Optics, Kramers–Kronig relations, Large Hadron Collider, Light echo, List of light sources, MAGIC (telescope), Mass, Matter, Matter wave, Mechanical equilibrium, Metamaterial, Momentum, ..., Nature Nanotechnology, Nauka (publisher), Neutrino, New Mexico, Nitrogen-13, Nobel Prize in Physics, Nonradiation condition, Nuclear fission product, Nuclear reactor, Oliver Heaviside, Pair production, Particle accelerator, Particle physics, Pavel Cherenkov, Pergamon Press, Permeability (electromagnetism), Permittivity, Phase velocity, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, Phosphorus-32, Photon, Photonic crystal, Physical constant, Physical Review, Physics-Uspekhi, Pierre Auger Observatory, Polymath, Pool-type reactor, Positron, Positron emission, Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Propagation constant, Radioactive decay, Radioluminescence, Refractive index, Ring-imaging Cherenkov detector, Science (journal), Sergey Ivanovich Vavilov, Shock wave, Similarity (geometry), Small (journal), Smith–Purcell effect, Sonic boom, Sound, South African Medical Journal, Soviet Union, Special relativity, Spectral density, Speed, Speed of light, STACEE, Stimulated emission, Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, Super-Kamiokande, Supernova remnant, Supersonic speed, Tachyon, Transition radiation, Ultraviolet, Vacuum, Velocity, VERITAS, Vitreous body, Water, Wavelength, X-ray, Yttrium-90. Expand index (67 more) » « Shrink index
An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is one of seven detector experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN.
The American Institute of Physics (AIP) promotes science, the profession of physics, publishes physics journals, and produces publications for scientific and engineering societies.
The Askaryan radiation also known as Askaryan effect is the phenomenon whereby a particle traveling faster than the phase velocity of light in a dense dielectric (such as salt, ice or the lunar regolith) produces a shower of secondary charged particles which contain a charge anisotropy and thus emits a cone of coherent radiation in the radio or microwave part of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
A biomolecule or biological molecule is a loosely used term for molecules and ions that are present in organisms, essential to some typically biological process such as cell division, morphogenesis, or development.
A blazar is a very compact quasar (quasi-stellar radio source) associated with a presumed supermassive black hole at the center of an active, giant elliptical galaxy.
Bremsstrahlung, from bremsen "to brake" and Strahlung "radiation"; i.e., "braking radiation" or "deceleration radiation", is electromagnetic radiation produced by the deceleration of a charged particle when deflected by another charged particle, typically an electron by an atomic nucleus.
A bullet is a kinetic projectile and the component of firearm ammunition that is expelled from the gun barrel during shooting.
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.
In physics, a charged particle is a particle with an electric charge.
Classical electromagnetism or classical electrodynamics is a branch of theoretical physics that studies the interactions between electric charges and currents using an extension of the classical Newtonian model.
In physics, two wave sources are perfectly coherent if they have a constant phase difference and the same frequency, and the same waveform.
A cone is a three-dimensional geometric shape that tapers smoothly from a flat base (frequently, though not necessarily, circular) to a point called the apex or vertex.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
Cosmic ray visual phenomena, or "light flashes" (LF), are spontaneous flashes of light visually perceived by some astronauts outside the magnetosphere of the Earth, such as during the Apollo program.
A criticality accident is an uncontrolled nuclear fission chain reaction.
A dielectric (or dielectric material) is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field.
In optics, dispersion is the phenomenon in which the phase velocity of a wave depends on its frequency.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In physics, the electronvolt (symbol eV, also written electron-volt and electron volt) is a unit of energy equal to approximately joules (symbol J).
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
Fluorine-18 (18F) is a fluorine radioisotope which is an important source of positrons.
In special relativity, four-momentum is the generalization of the classical three-dimensional momentum to four-dimensional spacetime.
The Frank–Tamm formula yields the amount of Cherenkov radiation emitted on a given frequency as a charged particle moves through a medium at superluminal velocity.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
The group velocity of a wave is the velocity with which the overall shape of the wave's amplitudes—known as the modulation or envelope of the wave—propagates through space.
The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Experiment or High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (also known as HAWC) is a gamma-ray and cosmic ray observatory located on the flanks of the Sierra Negra volcano in the Mexican state of Puebla at an altitude of 4100 meters, at.
High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) is a system of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACT) for the investigation of cosmic gamma rays in the photon energy range of 0.03 to 100 TeV.
IACT stands for Imaging Atmospheric (or Air) Cherenkov Telescope or Technique.
The IceCube Neutrino Observatory (or simply IceCube) is a neutrino observatory constructed at the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station in Antarctica.
Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm (a; 8 July 1895 – 12 April 1971) was a Soviet physicist who received the 1958 Nobel Prize in Physics, jointly with Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov and Ilya Mikhailovich Frank, for their 1934 discovery of Cherenkov radiation.
Ilya Mikhailovich Frank (Илья́ Миха́йлович Франк) (23 October 1908 – 22 June 1990) was a Soviet winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1958 jointly with Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov and Igor Y. Tamm, also of the Soviet Union.
Iodine-131 (131I) is an important radioisotope of iodine discovered by Glenn Seaborg and John Livingood in 1938 at the University of California, Berkeley.
The Journal of Biomedical Optics is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by SPIE.
The Kramers–Kronig relations are bidirectional mathematical relations, connecting the real and imaginary parts of any complex function that is analytic in the upper half-plane.
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and most powerful particle collider, the most complex experimental facility ever built and the largest single machine in the world.
Reflected light following path B arrives shortly after the direct flash following path A but before light following path C. B and C have the same apparent distance from the star as seen from Earth. A light echo is a physical phenomenon caused by light reflected off surfaces distant from the source, and arriving at the observer with a delay relative to this distance.
This is a list of sources of light, including both natural and artificial processes that emit light.
MAGIC (Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov Telescopes) is a system of two Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes situated at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on La Palma, one of the Canary Islands, at about 2200 m above sea level.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.
Matter waves are a central part of the theory of quantum mechanics, being an example of wave–particle duality.
In classical mechanics, a particle is in mechanical equilibrium if the net force on that particle is zero.
A metamaterial (from the Greek word μετά meta, meaning "beyond") is a material engineered to have a property that is not found in nature.
In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.
Nature Nanotechnology is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Nature Publishing Group.
Nauka (Наука, lit. trans.: Science) is a Russian publisher of academic books and journals.
A neutrino (denoted by the Greek letter ν) is a fermion (an elementary particle with half-integer spin) that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity.
New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.
Nitrogen-13 is a radioisotope of nitrogen used in positron emission tomography (PET).
The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.
Classical nonradiation conditions define the conditions according to classical electromagnetism under which a distribution of accelerating charges will not emit electromagnetic radiation.
Nuclear fission products are the atomic fragments left after a large atomic nucleus undergoes nuclear fission.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
Oliver Heaviside FRS (18 May 1850 – 3 February 1925) was an English self-taught electrical engineer, mathematician, and physicist who adapted complex numbers to the study of electrical circuits, invented mathematical techniques for the solution of differential equations (equivalent to Laplace transforms), reformulated Maxwell's field equations in terms of electric and magnetic forces and energy flux, and independently co-formulated vector analysis.
Pair production is the creation of an elementary particle and its antiparticle from a neutral boson.
A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.
Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.
Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov (Па́вел Алексе́евич Черенко́в, July 28, 1904 – January 6, 1990) was a Soviet physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in physics in 1958 with Ilya Frank and Igor Tamm for the discovery of Cherenkov radiation, made in 1934.
Pergamon Press was an Oxford-based publishing house, founded by Paul Rosbaud and Robert Maxwell, which published scientific and medical books and journals.
In electromagnetism, permeability is the measure of the ability of a material to support the formation of a magnetic field within itself.
In electromagnetism, absolute permittivity, often simply called permittivity, usually denoted by the Greek letter ε (epsilon), is the measure of resistance that is encountered when forming an electric field in a particular medium.
The phase velocity of a wave is the rate at which the phase of the wave propagates in space.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences is a fortnightly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society.
Phosphorus-32 is a radioactive isotope of phosphorus.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
A photonic crystal is a periodic optical nanostructure that affects the motion of photons in much the same way that ionic lattices affect electrons in solids.
A physical constant, sometimes fundamental physical constant or universal constant, is a physical quantity that is generally believed to be both universal in nature and have constant value in time.
Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.
Physics-Uspekhi (Advances in Physical Sciences) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal.
The Pierre Auger Observatory is an international cosmic ray observatory in Argentina designed to detect ultra-high-energy cosmic rays: sub-atomic particles traveling nearly at the speed of light and each with energies beyond 1018 eV.
A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much,"The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Latin: uomo universalis, "universal man") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.
NC State's PULSTAR Reactor is a 1 MW pool-type research reactor with 4% enriched, pin-type fuel consisting of '''UO2''' pellets in zircaloy cladding.NC State's Pulstar Nuclear Reactor. Pool-type reactors, also called swimming pool reactors, are a type of nuclear reactor that has a core (consisting of the fuel elements and the control rods) immersed in an open pool of usually water.
The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron.
Positron emission or beta plus decay (β+ decay) is a subtype of radioactive decay called beta decay, in which a proton inside a radionuclide nucleus is converted into a neutron while releasing a positron and an electron neutrino (νe).
The Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences (Доклады Академии Наук СССР, Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR (DAN SSSR), Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences de l'URSS) was a Soviet journal that was dedicated to publishing original, academic research papers in physics, mathematics, chemistry, geology, and biology.
The propagation constant of a sinusoidal electromagnetic wave is a measure of the change undergone by the amplitude and phase of the wave as it propagates in a given direction.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Radioluminescence is the phenomenon by which light is produced in a material by bombardment with ionizing radiation such as alpha particles, beta particles, or gamma rays.
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
The ring-imaging Cherenkov, or RICH, detector is a device for identifying the type of an electrically charged subatomic particle of known momentum, that traverses a transparent refractive medium, by measurement of the presence and characteristics of the Cherenkov radiation emitted during that traversal.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Sergey Ivanovich Vavilov (Серге́й Ива́нович Вави́лов (– January 25, 1951) was a Soviet physicist, the President of the USSR Academy of Sciences from July 1945 until his death. His elder brother Nikolai Vavilov was a famous Russian geneticist.
In physics, a shock wave (also spelled shockwave), or shock, is a type of propagating disturbance.
Two geometrical objects are called similar if they both have the same shape, or one has the same shape as the mirror image of the other.
Small is a peer-reviewed interdisciplinary journal.
The Smith–Purcell effect was the precursor of the free electron laser (FEL).
A sonic boom is the sound associated with the shock waves created whenever an object traveling through the air travels faster than the speed of sound.
In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.
The South African Medical Journal is a monthly peer-reviewed open-access medical journal which has been published in South Africa since 1884.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.
The power spectrum S_(f) of a time series x(t) describes the distribution of power into frequency components composing that signal.
In everyday use and in kinematics, the speed of an object is the magnitude of its velocity (the rate of change of its position); it is thus a scalar quantity.
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.
The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE), is a gamma ray detector located near Albuquerque, New Mexico.
Stimulated emission is the process by which an incoming photon of a specific frequency can interact with an excited atomic electron (or other excited molecular state), causing it to drop to a lower energy level.
The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) was a neutrino observatory located 2100 m underground in Vale's Creighton Mine in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada.
Super-Kamiokande (semi-abbreviation of full name: Super-Kamioka Neutrino Detection Experiment, also abbreviated to Super-K or SK; スーパーカミオカンデ) is a neutrino observatory located under Mount Ikeno near the city of Hida, Gifu Prefecture, Japan.
A supernova remnant (SNR) is the structure resulting from the explosion of a star in a supernova.
Supersonic travel is a rate of travel of an object that exceeds the speed of sound (Mach 1).
A tachyon or tachyonic particle is a hypothetical particle that always moves faster than light.
Transition radiation (TR) is a form of electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle passes through inhomogeneous media, such as a boundary between two different media.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
Vacuum is space devoid of matter.
The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference, and is a function of time.
VERITAS (Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System) is a major ground-based gamma-ray observatory with an array of four 12 meter optical reflectors for gamma-ray astronomy in the GeV – TeV photon energy range.
The vitreous body is the clear gel that fills the space between the lens and the retina of the eyeball of humans and other vertebrates.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Yttrium-90,, is a medically significant isotope of yttrium.
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