339 relations: Abolitionism in the United States, Alabama, Alexander Cuming, Amaranthus palmeri, American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, American Civil War, American Revolutionary War, Andrew Jackson, Anglo-Cherokee War, Ani-kutani, Antebellum South, Anthropologist, Appalachia, Appalachian Mountains, Appomattox Court House National Historical Park, Archaic period (North America), Arizona, Arkansas, Arkansas River, Asheville Citizen-Times, Athens, Georgia, Attakullakulla, Ball Ground, Georgia, Battle of Claremore Mound, Battle of Horseshoe Bend (1814), Battle of Pea Ridge, Battle of Taliwa, Benjamin Hawkins, Bill John Baker, Black drink, Black Fox (Cherokee chief), Black Indians in the United States, Blood quantum laws, Bob Benge, Booger Dance, Calhoun, Georgia, Catawba people, Charles R. Hicks, Chattahoochee River, Chattanooga, Tennessee, Chenopodium berlandieri, Cheoah River, Cherokee ethnobotany, Cherokee Heritage Center, Cherokee heritage groups, Cherokee language, Cherokee Nation, Cherokee Nation (1794–1907), Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, Cherokee National Holiday, ..., Cherokee Phoenix, Cherokee removal, Cherokee syllabary, Cherokee treaties, Cherokee, North Carolina, Cherokee–American wars, Chickamauga Cherokee, Chickamauga Creek, Chickasaw, Chief Justice, Chief Vann House Historic Site, Chieftains Museum (Major Ridge Home), Chisholm Tavern (Knoxville), Choctaw, Chota (Cherokee town), Christianity, Civil rights movement, Clan, Clement V. Rogers, Colony of Virginia, Common-law marriage, Communal work, Confederate States Army, Confederate States of America, Congregational church, Connecticut, Continental Congress, Coosa chiefdom, Cornstalk, Covelo, California, Creek War, Cucurbita, Cultural assimilation, Cumberland Plateau, Cumberland River, Cunne Shote, Curtis Act of 1898, Dahlonega, Georgia, Daniel Boone, Daniel Webster, Dawes Act, Dawes Commission, Dawes Rolls, Deerskin trade, Delaware languages, Delaware Nation, Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era, Doublehead, Dover Publications, Dragging Canoe, Duck River (Tennessee), Dust Bowl, Easement, Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, Elias Boudinot, Elias Boudinot (Cherokee), Ely S. Parker, Emerson's letter to Martin Van Buren, Erie people, Ethnography, Ethnologue, Etowah Indian Mounds, Etymology, European Americans, European colonization of the Americas, Federal Road (Cherokee lands), Five Civilized Tribes, Flint corn, Fort Loudoun (Tennessee), Fort Smith, Arkansas, Four Mothers Society, Franklin Gritts, Freedman, French and Indian War, George II of Great Britain, George Troup, George Washington, Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia Gold Rush, Georgia Land Lotteries, Glottochronology, Great Lakes, Great Smoky Mountains, Greater Los Angeles, Green Corn Ceremony, Haskell Indian Nations University, Hayfork, California, Helianthus annuus, Henry Clay, Henry Timberlake, Heredity, Hernando de Soto, Illinois, Indian agent, Indian country, Indian Relocation Act of 1956, Indian removal, Indian Removal Act, Indian Reorganization Act, Indian Territory, Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands, Iroquoian languages, Iroquois, Iva annua, Jackson County, North Carolina, James Mooney, James Vann, Jim Crow laws, John Howard Payne, John Marshall, John Martin Thompson, John Ridge, John Rogers (Cherokee chief), John Rollin Ridge, John Ross (Cherokee chief), John Stuart (loyalist), John Watts (Cherokee chief), Joseph J. Clark, Joseph Vann, Junaluska, Keetoowah Nighthawk Society, Kentucky, Keowee River, Kituwa, Knoxville, Tennessee, Lake Erie, Larry Echo Hawk, Lenape, List of federally recognized tribes, List of people of self-identified Cherokee ancestry, Little Tennessee River, Little Turkey, London, Lord Dunmore's War, Lynn Riggs, Major Ridge, Manahoac, Martin Van Buren, Matrifocal family, Matrilineality, Medicine man, Mesoamerican writing systems, Milledgeville, Georgia, Mingo, Mirabeau B. Lamar, Missionary, Mississippi, Mississippi River, Mississippian culture, Missouri, Missouri Bootheel, Missouri Territory, Moccasin, Mohegan, Moon-eyed people, Moravian Church, Mound, Moundville Archaeological Site, Moytoy of Tellico, Mulatto, Muscogee, Nacogdoches, Texas, Nancy Ward, Narragansett people, Nashville, Tennessee, National Republican Party, Native American Church, Native Americans in the United States, Navy Cross, Ned Christie, New Echota, New Jersey, Nikwasi, Nimrod Jarrett Smith, North Carolina, North Georgia, Nullification Crisis, Oconaluftee (Great Smoky Mountains), Oconostota, Oklahoma, Oklahoma Territory, One-drop rule, Oostanaula River, Oral history, Oregon, Osage Nation, Ostenaco, Overhill Cherokee, Pamunkey, Park City, Utah, Park Hill, Oklahoma, Pathkiller, Philadelphia, Pisgah Phase, Polygamy, Polysynthetic language, Proto-Iroquoian language, Qualla Boundary, Racial segregation, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Reconstruction era, Red Clay State Park, Red River of the South, Red Sticks, Redbird Smith, Representative democracy, Richmond, Virginia, Robert E. Lee, Rome, Georgia, Royal Proclamation of 1763, Rusk County, Texas, Sam Houston, Samuel Worcester, San Francisco Bay Area, San Miguel, Contra Costa County, California, Savannah, Georgia, Scotch-Irish Americans, Scottish Highlands, Scottish Indian trade, Sequoyah, Seven Years' War, Shawnee, Shell gorget, Sic, SIL International, Simon Girty, Slavery, Slavery among Native Americans in the United States, Smallpox, South Carolina, Southeastern United States, Southwestern Community College (North Carolina), Sovereignty, Spanish Texas, Spinning wheel, Stand Watie, State of Sequoyah, Steamboat, Suicide, Sundance Film Festival, Supreme Court of the United States, Syllabary, Tahlequah, Oklahoma, Tellico Blockhouse, Tennessee, Tennessee River, Texas Cherokees, Texas Revolution, The Bowl (Cherokee chief), Tom Threepersons, Trail of Tears, Treaty of Bird's Fort, Treaty of Indian Springs (1825), Treaty of New Echota, Treaty of St. Louis (1825), Tsali, Tuckasegee River, Tugaloo, Tulsa World, Tuscarora people, Tuscarora War, Tutelo, Ulster, Unicode, United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians, United States Census Bureau, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Unto These Hills, Vermont, Wampum, War of 1812, Washington, D.C., Watauga Association, West Coast of the United States, Western Carolina University, Westo, White River (Arkansas–Missouri), White-tailed deer, Will Rogers, William Clark, William G. McLoughlin, William Holland Thomas, William McIntosh, William Penn Adair, Winfield Scott, Woodland period, Worcester v. Georgia, Yamasee, Yamasee War. Expand index (289 more) » « Shrink index
Abolitionism in the United States was the movement before and during the American Civil War to end slavery in the United States.
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Sir Alexander Cuming, 2nd Baronet (1691–1775) was a Scottish adventurer to North America; he returned to Britain with a delegation of Cherokee chiefs.
Amaranthus palmeri is a species of edible flowering plant in the amaranth genus.
The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM) was among the first American Christian missionary organizations.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845) was an American soldier and statesman who served as the seventh President of the United States from 1829 to 1837.
The Anglo–Cherokee War (1758–1761; in the Cherokee language: the "war with those in the red coats" or "War with the English"), was also known from the Anglo-European perspective as the Cherokee War, the Cherokee Uprising, or the Cherokee Rebellion.
The Ani-kutani (ᎠᏂᎫᏔᏂ) were the ancient priesthood of the Cherokee people.
The Antebellum era was a period in the history of the Southern United States, from the late 18th century until the start of the American Civil War in 1861, marked by the economic growth of the South.
An anthropologist is a person engaged in the practice of anthropology.
Appalachia is a cultural region in the Eastern United States that stretches from the Southern Tier of New York to northern Alabama, Mississippi and Georgia.
The Appalachian Mountains (les Appalaches), often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America.
The Appomattox Court House National Historical Park is a National Historical Park of original and reconstructed 19th century buildings in Appomattox County, Virginia.
In the classification of the archaeological cultures of North America, the Archaic period or "Meso-Indian period" in North America, accepted to be from around 8000 to 1000 BC in the sequence of North American pre-Columbian cultural stages, is a period defined by the archaic stage of cultural development.
Arizona (Hoozdo Hahoodzo; Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state in the southwestern region of the United States.
Arkansas is a state in the southeastern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2017.
The Arkansas River is a major tributary of the Mississippi River.
The Asheville Citizen-Times is a major daily newspaper of Asheville, North Carolina.
Athens, officially Athens–Clarke County, is a consolidated city–county and American college town in the U.S. state of Georgia.
Attakullakulla (Cherokee, Ata-gul' kalu; often called Little Carpenter by the English) (c. 1708–1777) was an influential Cherokee leader and the tribe's First Beloved Man, serving from 1761 to around 1775.
Ball Ground is a city in Cherokee County, Georgia, United States.
The Battle of Claremore Mound, also known as the Battle of the Strawberry Moon, or the Claremore Mound Massacre, was one of the chief battles of the war between the Osage and Cherokee Indians.
The Battle of Horseshoe Bend (also known as Tohopeka, Cholocco Litabixbee, or The Horseshoe), was fought during the War of 1812 in the Mississippi Territory, now central Alabama.
The Battle of Pea Ridge (March 7 – 8, 1862), also known as the Battle of Elkhorn Tavern, was a major battle of the American Civil War fought near Leetown, northeast of Fayetteville, Arkansas.
The Battle of Taliwa was fought in Ball Ground, Georgia in 1755.
Benjamin Hawkins (August 15, 1754June 6, 1816, Encyclopedia of Alabama, accessed July 15, 2011) was an American planter, statesman, and U.S. Indian agent.
Bill John Baker (born February 9, 1952) is the current Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation.
Black drink is a name for several kinds of ritual beverages brewed by Native Americans in the Southeastern United States.
Black Fox (c. 1746-1811) (also known as Enoli, Inali) was a Cherokee leader during the Cherokee–American wars.
Black Indians are people of mixed African-American and Native American heritage, who have strong ties to Native American culture.
Blood quantum laws or Indian blood laws are those enacted in the United States and the former colonies to define qualification by ancestry as Native American, sometimes in relation to tribal membership.
Bob Benge (c. 1762–1794), also known as "Captain Benge" (or "The Bench" to frontiersmen), was one of the most feared Cherokee leaders on the frontier during the Cherokee–American wars (1783-1794) in the area of present-day Tennessee.
The Booger Dance (Cherokee: tsu'nigadu'li, "many persons' faces covered over") is a traditional dance of the Cherokee tribe, performed with ritual masks.
Calhoun is a city in Gordon County, Georgia, United States.
The Catawba, also known as Issa or Essa or Iswä but most commonly Iswa (Catawba: iswa - "people of the river"), are a federally recognized tribe of Native Americans, known as the Catawba Indian Nation. They live in the Southeast United States, along the border of North Carolina near the city of Rock Hill, South Carolina.
Charles Renatus Hicks (December 23, 1767 – January 20, 1827) was one of the most important Cherokee leaders in the early 19th century; together with James Vann and Major Ridge, he was one of a triumvirate of younger mixed-race chiefs urging the tribe to acculturate to European-American ways.
The Chattahoochee River forms the southern half of the Alabama and Georgia border, as well as a portion of the Florida border.
Chattanooga is a city in the U.S. state of Tennessee, with a population of 177,571 in 2016.
Chenopodium berlandieri, also known by the common names pitseed goosefoot, huauzontle, lamb's quarters, and lambsquarters is an annual herbaceous plant in the goosefoot family.
The Cheoah River is a tributary of the Little Tennessee River in North Carolina in the United States.
This is a list of plants documented to have been traditionally used by the Cherokee, and how they are used.
The Cherokee Heritage Center is a non-profit historical society and museum campus that seeks to preserve the historical and cultural artifacts, language, and traditional crafts of the Cherokee.
Cherokee heritage groups are associations, societies and other organizations located primarily in the United States, which are made up of people who may have distant heritage from a Cherokee tribe, or who identify as having such ancestry.
Cherokee (ᏣᎳᎩ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, Tsalagi Gawonihisdi) is an endangered Iroquoian language and the native language of the Cherokee people.
The Cherokee Nation (Cherokee: ᏣᎳᎩᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ, Tsalagihi Ayeli), also known as the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, is the largest of three Cherokee federally recognized tribes in the United States.
The Cherokee Nation (ᏣᎳᎩᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ, pronounced Tsalagihi Ayeli) from 1794–1907 was a legal, autonomous, tribal government in North America recognized from 1794 to 1907.
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia,, was a United States Supreme Court case.
The Cherokee National Holiday is an annual event held each Labor Day weekend in Tahlequah, Oklahoma.
The Cherokee Phoenix (translit) was the first newspaper published by Native Americans in the United States and the first published in a Native American language.
Cherokee removal, part of the Trail of Tears, refers to the forced relocation between 1836 and 1839 of the Cherokee Nation from their lands in Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Alabama to the Indian Territory (present day Oklahoma) in the then Western United States, and the resultant deaths along the way and at the end of the movement of an estimated 4000 Cherokee.
The Cherokee syllabary is a syllabary invented by Sequoyah to write the Cherokee language in the late 1810s and early 1820s.
The Cherokee have participated in over forty treaties in the past three hundred years.
Cherokee (Cherokee language: ᏣᎳᎩ) is a census-designated place (CDP) in Swain and Jackson counties in western North Carolina, United States, within the Qualla Boundary land trust.
The Cherokee–American wars, also known as the Chickamauga Wars, were a series of back-and-forth raids, campaigns, ambushes, minor skirmishes, and several full-scale frontier battles in the Old Southwest from 1776 to 1795 between the Cherokee (Ani-Yunwiya or "Nana Waiya", Tsalagi) and the Americans on the frontier.
The Chickamauga Cherokee were a group that separated from the greater body of the Cherokee tribes during the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783).
Chickamauga Creek refers to two short tributaries of the Tennessee River, which join the river near Chattanooga, Tennessee.
The Chickasaw are an indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands.
The Chief Justice is the presiding member of a supreme court in any of many countries with a justice system based on English common law, such as the Supreme Court of Bangladesh, the Supreme Court of Canada, the Supreme Court of Singapore, the Court of Final Appeal of Hong Kong, the Supreme Court of Japan, the Supreme Court of India, the Supreme Court of Pakistan, the Supreme Court of Nigeria, the Supreme Court of Nepal, the Constitutional Court of South Africa, the Supreme Court of Ireland, the Supreme Court of New Zealand, the High Court of Australia, the Supreme Court of the United States, and provincial or state supreme courts.
The Chief Vann House is the first brick residence in the Cherokee Nation, and has been called the "Showplace of the Cherokee Nation".
Chieftains Museum, also known as the Major Ridge Home, is a two-story white frame house built around a log house of 1792 in Cherokee country (today it is within present-day Rome, Georgia).
Chisholm Tavern was a historic building at Front and Gay streets in Knoxville, Tennessee.
The Choctaw (in the Choctaw language, Chahta)Common misspellings and variations in other languages include Chacta, Tchakta and Chocktaw.
Chota (also spelled Chote, Echota, Itsati, and other similar variations) is a historic Overhill Cherokee town site in Monroe County, Tennessee, in the southeastern United States.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) was a decades-long movement with the goal of securing legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already held.
A clan is a group of people united by actual or perceived kinship and descent.
Clement Vann Rogers (1839–1911) was a Cherokee senator and judge in Indian Territory.
The Colony of Virginia, chartered in 1606 and settled in 1607, was the first enduring English colony in North America, following failed proprietary attempts at settlement on Newfoundland by Sir Humphrey GilbertGILBERT (Saunders Family), SIR HUMPHREY" (history), Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, University of Toronto, May 2, 2005 in 1583, and the subsequent further south Roanoke Island (modern eastern North Carolina) by Sir Walter Raleigh in the late 1580s. The founder of the new colony was the Virginia Company, with the first two settlements in Jamestown on the north bank of the James River and Popham Colony on the Kennebec River in modern-day Maine, both in 1607. The Popham colony quickly failed due to a famine, disease, and conflict with local Native American tribes in the first two years. Jamestown occupied land belonging to the Powhatan Confederacy, and was also at the brink of failure before the arrival of a new group of settlers and supplies by ship in 1610. Tobacco became Virginia's first profitable export, the production of which had a significant impact on the society and settlement patterns. In 1624, the Virginia Company's charter was revoked by King James I, and the Virginia colony was transferred to royal authority as a crown colony. After the English Civil War in the 1640s and 50s, the Virginia colony was nicknamed "The Old Dominion" by King Charles II for its perceived loyalty to the English monarchy during the era of the Protectorate and Commonwealth of England.. From 1619 to 1775/1776, the colonial legislature of Virginia was the House of Burgesses, which governed in conjunction with a colonial governor. Jamestown on the James River remained the capital of the Virginia colony until 1699; from 1699 until its dissolution the capital was in Williamsburg. The colony experienced its first major political turmoil with Bacon's Rebellion of 1676. After declaring independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1775, before the Declaration of Independence was officially adopted, the Virginia colony became the Commonwealth of Virginia, one of the original thirteen states of the United States, adopting as its official slogan "The Old Dominion". The entire modern states of West Virginia, Kentucky, Indiana and Illinois, and portions of Ohio and Western Pennsylvania were later created from the territory encompassed, or claimed by, the colony of Virginia at the time of further American independence in July 1776.
Common-law marriage, also known as sui iuris marriage, informal marriage, marriage by habit and repute, or marriage in fact, is a legal framework in a limited number of jurisdictions where a couple is legally considered married, without that couple having formally registered their relation as a civil or religious marriage.
Communal work is a gathering for mutually accomplishing a task or for communal fundraising, for example through a knitting bee.
The Confederate States Army (C.S.A.) was the military land force of the Confederate States of America (Confederacy) during the American Civil War (1861–1865).
The Confederate States of America (CSA or C.S.), commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865.
Congregational churches (also Congregationalist churches; Congregationalism) are Protestant churches in the Reformed tradition practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs.
Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
The Continental Congress, also known as the Philadelphia Congress, was a convention of delegates called together from the Thirteen Colonies.
The Coosa chiefdom was a powerful Native American paramount chiefdom in what are now Gordon and Murray counties in Georgia, in the United States.
Cornstalk (Shawnee: Hokoleskwa or Hokolesqua) (ca. 1720 – November 10, 1777) was a prominent leader of the Shawnee nation just prior to the American Revolution (1775-1783).
Covelo is a census-designated place (CDP) in Mendocino County, California, United States.
The Creek War (1813–1814), also known as the Red Stick War and the Creek Civil War, was a regional war between opposing Creek factions, European empires and the United States, taking place largely in today's Alabama and along the Gulf Coast.
Cucurbita (Latin for gourd) is a genus of herbaceous vines in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae, also known as cucurbits, native to the Andes and Mesoamerica.
Cultural assimilation is the process in which a minority group or culture comes to resemble those of a dominant group.
The Cumberland Plateau is the southern part of the Appalachian Plateau in the Appalachian Mountains of the United States.
The Cumberland River is a major waterway of the Southern United States.
Standing Turkey, also known as Cunne Shote (or Kunagadoga) succeeded his uncle, Connecorte (or Old Hop, aka Kanagatucko), as First Beloved Man of the Cherokee upon the latter's death in 1760.
The Curtis Act of 1898 was an amendment to the United States Dawes Act; it resulted in the break-up of tribal governments and communal lands in Indian Territory (now Oklahoma) of the Five Civilized Tribes of Indian Territory: the Choctaw, Chickasaw, Muscogee (Creek), Cherokee, and Seminole.
The city of Dahlonega is the county seat of Lumpkin County, Georgia, United States.
Daniel Boone (September 26, 1820) was an American pioneer, explorer, woodsman, and frontiersman, whose frontier exploits made him one of the first folk heroes of the United States.
Daniel Webster (January 18, 1782October 24, 1852) was an American politician who represented New Hampshire (1813–1817) and Massachusetts (1823–1827) in the United States House of Representatives; served as a Senator from Massachusetts (1827–1841, 1845–1850); and was the United States Secretary of State under Presidents William Henry Harrison (1841), John Tyler (1841–1843), and Millard Fillmore (1850–1852).
The Dawes Act of 1887 (also known as the General Allotment Act or the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887), authorized the President of the United States to survey American Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians.
The American Dawes Commission, named for its first chairman Henry L. Dawes, was authorized under a rider to an Indian Office appropriation bill, March 3, 1893.
The Dawes Rolls (or Final Rolls of Citizens and Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes, or Dawes Commission of Final Rolls) were created by the United States Dawes Commission.
The deerskin trade between Colonial America and the Native Americans was one of the most important trading relationships between Europeans and Native Americans, especially in the southeast.
The Delaware languages, also known as the Lenape languages, are Munsee and Unami, two closely related languages of the Eastern Algonquian subgroup of the Algonquian language family.
The Delaware Nation, also known as the Delaware Tribe of Western Oklahoma and sometimes called the Absentee or Western Delaware, based in Anadarko, Oklahoma NewsOk. 4 Aug 2009 (retrieved 5 August 2009) is one of three federally recognized tribes of Delaware Indians in the United States, along with the Delaware Indians based in Bartlesville, Oklahoma and the Stockbridge-Munsee Community of Wisconsin.
Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era in the United States of America was based on a series of laws, new constitutions, and practices in the South that were deliberately used to prevent black citizens from registering to vote and voting.
Doublehead (1744–1807) or Incalatanga (Tal-tsu'tsa in Cherokee), was one of the most feared warriors of the Cherokee during the Cherokee–American wars.
Dover Publications, also known as Dover Books, is an American book publisher founded in 1941 by Hayward Cirker and his wife, Blanche.
Dragging Canoe (ᏥᏳ ᎦᏅᏏᏂ, pronounced Tsiyu Gansini, "he is dragging his canoe") (c. 1738–February 29, 1792) was a Cherokee war chief who led a band of disaffected Cherokee against colonists and United States settlers in the Upper South.
The Duck River, long,U.S. Geological Survey.
The Dust Bowl, also known as the Dirty Thirties, was a period of severe dust storms that greatly damaged the ecology and agriculture of the American and Canadian prairies during the 1930s; severe drought and a failure to apply dryland farming methods to prevent wind erosion (the Aeolian processes) caused the phenomenon.
An easement is a nonpossessory right to use and/or enter onto the real property of another without possessing it.
The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians (EBCI), (Cherokee: ᏣᎳᎩᏱ ᏕᏣᏓᏂᎸᎩ, Tsalagiyi Detsadanilvgi) is a federally recognized Native American tribe in the United States, who are descended from the small group of 800 Cherokee who remained in the Eastern United States after the Indian Removal Act moved the other 15,000 Cherokee to the west in the 19th century.
Elias Boudinot (May 2, 1740 – October 24, 1821) was a lawyer and statesman from Elizabeth, New Jersey who was a delegate to the Continental Congress (more accurately referred to as the Congress of the Confederation) and served as President of Congress from 1782 to 1783.
Elias Boudinot (born Gallegina Uwati, also known as Buck Watie) (1802 – June 22, 1839) was a member of a prominent family of the Cherokee Nation who was born in and grew up in present-day Georgia.
Ely Samuel Parker (1828 – August 31, 1895), (born Hasanoanda, later known as Donehogawa) was a Seneca attorney, engineer, and tribal diplomat.
Ralph Waldo Emerson's "Letter to Martin Van Bur en" (1838) was written in response to the government's efforts to remove the Cherokee people from their native lands.
The Erie people (also Erieehronon, Eriechronon, Riquéronon, Erielhonan, Eriez, Nation du Chat) were a Native American people historically living on the south shore of Lake Erie.
Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
Etowah Indian Mounds (9BR1) are a archaeological site in Bartow County, Georgia south of Cartersville, in the United States.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
European Americans (also referred to as Euro-Americans) are Americans of European ancestry.
The European colonization of the Americas describes the history of the settlement and establishment of control of the continents of the Americas by most of the naval powers of Europe.
The Federal Road, originally called Georgia Road, was a federal toll highway passing through the Cherokee Nation in the northern part of the U.S. state of Georgia.
The term "Five Civilized Tribes" derives from the colonial and early federal period in the history of the United States.
Flint corn (Zea mays var. indurata; also known as Indian corn or sometimes calico corn) is a variant of maize, the same species as common corn.
Fort Loudoun was a British colonial-era fort located in what is now Monroe County, Tennessee, United States.
Fort Smith is the second-largest city in Arkansas and one of the two county seats of Sebastian County.
The Four Mothers Society or Four Mothers Nation is a religious, political, and traditionalist organization of Muscogee Creek, Cherokee, Choctaw and Chickasaw people, as well as the Natchez people enrolled in these tribes, in Oklahoma.
Franklin Gritts, also known as Oau Nah Jusah, or They Have Returned, (August 8, 1915 – November 8, 1996) was a Cherokee artist best known for his contributions to the "Golden Era" of Native American art, both as a teacher and an artist.
A freedman or freedwoman is a former slave who has been released from slavery, usually by legal means.
The French and Indian War (1754–63) comprised the North American theater of the worldwide Seven Years' War of 1756–63.
George II (George Augustus; Georg II.; 30 October / 9 November 1683 – 25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 (O.S.) until his death in 1760.
George McIntosh Troup (September 8, 1780 – April 26, 1856) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Georgia.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States.
The Georgia Gold Rush was the second significant gold rush in the United States and the first in Georgia, and overshadowed the previous rush in North Carolina.
The Georgia land lotteries were an early nineteenth century system of land redistribution in Georgia.
Glottochronology (from Attic Greek γλῶττα "tongue, language" and χρóνος "time") is the part of lexicostatistics dealing with the chronological relationship between languages.
The Great Lakes (les Grands-Lacs), also called the Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Lakes of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River.
The Great Smoky Mountains are a mountain range rising along the Tennessee–North Carolina border in the southeastern United States.
Greater Los Angeles is the second-largest urban region in the United States, encompassing five counties in southern California, extending from Ventura County in the west to San Bernardino County and Riverside County on the east, with Los Angeles County in the center and Orange County to the southeast.
The Green Corn Ceremony (Busk) is an annual ceremony practiced among various Native American peoples associated with the beginning of the yearly corn harvest.
Haskell Indian Nations University is a federally operated tribal university in Lawrence, Kansas.
Hayfork is a census-designated place (CDP) in Trinity County, California, United States.
Helianthus annuus, the common sunflower, is a large annual forb of the genus Helianthus grown as a crop for its edible oil and edible fruits.
Henry Clay Sr. (April 12, 1777 – June 29, 1852) was an American lawyer, planter, and statesman who represented Kentucky in both the United States Senate and House of Representatives.
Henry Timberlake (1730 or 1735 – September 30, 1765) was a colonial Anglo-American officer, journalist, and cartographer.
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
Hernando de Soto (1495 – May 21, 1542) was a Spanish explorer and conquistador who led the first Spanish and European expedition deep into the territory of the modern-day United States (through Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and most likely Arkansas).
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.
In United States history, an Indian agent was an individual authorized to interact with Native American tribes on behalf of the U.S. government.
Indian country is any of the many self-governing Native American communities throughout the United States.
The Indian Relocation Act of 1952 (also known as Public Law 959 or the Adult Vocational Training Program) was a United States law intended to encourage Native Americans in the United States to leave Indian reservations, acquire vocational skills, and assimilate into the general population.
Indian removal was a forced migration in the 19th century whereby Native Americans were forced by the United States government to leave their ancestral homelands in the eastern United States to lands west of the Mississippi River, specifically to a designated Indian Territory (roughly, modern Oklahoma).
The Indian Removal Act was signed by President Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830.
The Indian Reorganization Act of June 18, 1934, or the Wheeler-Howard Act, was U.S. federal legislation that dealt with the status of Native Americans (known in law as American Indians or Indians).
As general terms, Indian Territory, the Indian Territories, or Indian country describe an evolving land area set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of Native Americans who held aboriginal title to their land.
Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands, Southeastern cultures, or Southeast Indians are an ethnographic classification for Native Americans who have traditionally inhabited the Southeastern United States and the northeastern border of Mexico, that share common cultural traits.
The Iroquoian languages are a language family of indigenous peoples of North America.
The Iroquois or Haudenosaunee (People of the Longhouse) are a historically powerful northeast Native American confederacy.
Iva annua, the annual marsh elder or sumpweed, is a North American herbaceous annual plant in the sunflower family.
Jackson County is a county located in the southwest of the U.S. state of North Carolina.
James Mooney (February 10, 1861 – December 22, 1921) was an American ethnographer who lived for several years among the Cherokee.
James Vann (ca. 1765–68 – February 19, 1809) was an influential Cherokee leader, one of the triumvirate with Major Ridge and Charles R. Hicks, who led the Upper Towns of East Tennessee and North Georgia.
Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States.
John Howard Payne (June 9, 1791 – April 10, 1852) was an American actor, poet, playwright, and author who had most of his theatrical career and success in London.
John James Marshall (September 24, 1755 – July 6, 1835) was an American politician and the fourth Chief Justice of the United States from 1801 to 1835.
John Martin Thompson (1829–1907) was a lumberman, Native American tribal and civic leader, born in the old Cherokee Nation prior to removal in what is now Cass County, Georgia, USA.
John Ridge, born Skah-tle-loh-skee (Yellow Bird) (c. 1802 – June 22, 1839), was from a prominent family of the Cherokee Nation, then located in present-day Georgia.
John Rogers was the last elected Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation West, elected 11 October 1839 by the faction of Old Settlers who rejected the unity constitution of September 1839.
John Rollin Ridge (Cherokee name: Cheesquatalawny, or Yellow Bird, March 19, 1827 – October 5, 1867), a member of the Cherokee Nation, is considered the first Native American novelist.
John Ross (October 3, 1790 – August 1, 1866), also known as Koo-wi-s-gu-wi (meaning in Cherokee: "Mysterious Little White Bird"), was the Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation from 1828–1866, serving longer in this position than any other person.
John Stuart (25 September 1718 – 21 March 1779) was a Scottish-born official of the British Empire in the colony of South Carolina, North America.
John Watts (or Kunokeski), also known as Young Tassel, was one of the leaders of the Chickamauga Cherokee (or "Lower Cherokee") during the Cherokee-American wars.
Admiral Joseph James "Jocko" Clark, USN (November 12, 1893 – July 13, 1971) was an admiral in the United States Navy, who commanded aircraft carriers during World War II.
Joseph H. Vann (11 February 1798 – 23 October 1844) was a Cherokee leader of mixed-race ancestry, a businessman and planter in Georgia, Tennessee and Indian Territory.
Junaluska, (Cherokee: Tsunu’lahun’ski) (c.1775 – October 20, 1868), was a leader of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians who reside in and around western North Carolina.
The Keetoowah Nighthawk Society was a Cherokee Native American organisation formed ca. 1900 that pledged itself and its followers to return to the traditional "old ways" of Indian life, led by Redbird Smith, a Cherokee National Council and original Keetoowah Society member, and forming in the Indian Territories of present-day Oklahoma.
Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States.
The Keowee River is created by the confluence of the Toxaway River and the Whitewater River in northern Oconee County, South Carolina.
The Cherokee believe the ancient settlement of Kituwa (also spelled Kituwah, Keetoowah, Kittowa, Kitara and other similar variations) or giduwa (Cherokee:ᎩᏚᏩ), on the Tuckasegee River is their original settlement and is one of the "seven mother towns" in the Southeast.
Knoxville is a city in the U.S. state of Tennessee, and the county seat of Knox County.
Lake Erie is the fourth-largest lake (by surface area) of the five Great Lakes in North America, and the eleventh-largest globally if measured in terms of surface area.
Larry J. Echo Hawk (born August 2, 1948) is an attorney, legal scholar and politician.
The Lenape, also called the Leni Lenape, Lenni Lenape and Delaware people, are an indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands, who live in Canada and the United States.
There is a list of federally recognized tribes in the contiguous United States of America.
This list of self-identified people of Cherokee ancestry includes notable people who claim to have some Cherokee ancestry but are not enrolled citizens of any of the three Cherokee tribes.
The Little Tennessee River is a tributary of the Tennessee River that flows through the Blue Ridge Mountains of Georgia, North Carolina, and Tennessee, in the southeastern United States.
Little Turkey (1758–1801) was First Beloved Man of the Cherokee people, becoming, in 1794, the first Principal Chief of the original Cherokee Nation.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Lord Dunmore's War — or Dunmore's War — was a 1774 conflict between the Colony of Virginia and the Shawnee and Mingo American Indian nations.
Rollie Lynn Riggs (August 31, 1899 – June 30, 1954) was an American author, poet, playwright and screenwriter born on a farm near Claremore, Oklahoma.
Major Ridge, The Ridge (and sometimes Pathkiller II) (c. 1771 – June 22, 1839) (also known as Nunnehidihi, and later Ganundalegi) was a Cherokee leader, a member of the tribal council, and a lawmaker.
The Manahoac, also recorded as Mahock, were a small group of Siouan-language American Indians in northern Virginia at the time of European contact.
Maarten "Martin" Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862) was an American statesman who served as the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841.
A matrifocal family structure is one where mothers head families and fathers play a less important role in the home and in bringing up children.
Matrilineality is the tracing of descent through the female line.
A medicine man or medicine woman is a traditional healer and spiritual leader who serves a community of indigenous people of the Americas.
Mesoamerica, along with Mesopotamia and China, is among the three known places in the world where writing has developed independently.
Milledgeville is a city in and the county seat of Baldwin County in the U.S. state of Georgia.
The Mingo people are an Iroquoian-speaking group of Native Americans made up of peoples who migrated west to the Ohio Country in the mid-18th century, primarily Seneca and Cayuga.
Mirabeau Buonaparte Lamar (August 16, 1798 – December 19, 1859), an attorney born in Georgia, became a Texas politician, poet, diplomat and soldier.
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.
Mississippi is a state in the Southern United States, with part of its southern border formed by the Gulf of Mexico.
The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.
The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American civilization archeologists date from approximately 800 CE to 1600 CE, varying regionally.
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States.
The Missouri Bootheel is the southeasternmost part of the state of Missouri, extending south of 36°30' north latitude, so called because its shape in relation to the rest of the state resembles the heel of a boot.
The Territory of Missouri was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from June 4, 1812 until August 10, 1821.
A moccasin is a shoe, made of deerskin or other soft leather, consisting of a sole (made with leather that has not been "worked") and sides made of one piece of leather, stitched together at the top, and sometimes with a vamp (additional panel of leather).
The Mohegan are an American Indian people historically based in present-day Connecticut; the majority are associated with the Mohegan Indian Tribe, a federally recognized tribe living on a reservation in the eastern upper Thames River valley of south-central Connecticut. It is one of two federally recognized tribes in the state, the other being the Mashantucket Pequot whose reservation is in Ledyard, Connecticut. There are also three state-recognized tribes: Schaghticoke, Paugusett, and Eastern Pequot. At the time of European contact, the Mohegan and Pequot were a unified tribal entity living in the southeastern Connecticut region, but the Mohegan gradually became independent as the hegemonic Pequot lost control over their trading empire and tributary groups. The name Pequot was given to the Mohegan by other tribes throughout the northeast and was eventually adopted by themselves. In 1637, English Puritan colonists destroyed a principal fortified village at Mistick with the help of Uncas, Wequash, and the Narragansetts during the Pequot War. This ended with the death of Uncas' cousin Sassacus at the hands of the Mohawk, an Iroquois Confederacy nation from west of the Hudson River. Thereafter, the Mohegan became a separate tribal nation under the leadership of their sachem Uncas. Uncas is a variant anglicized spelling of the Algonquian name Wonkus, which translates to "fox" in English. The word Mohegan (pronounced) translates in their respective Algonquin dialects (Mohegan-Pequot language) as "People of the Wolf". Over time, the Mohegan gradually lost ownership of much of their tribal lands. In 1978, Chief Rolling Cloud Hamilton petitioned for federal recognition of the Mohegan. Descendants of his Mohegan band operate independently of the federally recognized nation. In 1994, a majority group of Mohegan gained federal recognition as the Mohegan Tribe of Indians of Connecticut (MTIC). They have been defined by the United States government as the "successor in interest to the aboriginal entity known as the Mohegan Indian Tribe.", Mohegan Nation (Connecticut) Land Claim Settlement Act (1994), Legal Information Institute, Cornell University Law School, accessed 12 January 2013 The United States took land into trust the same year, under an act of Congress to serve as a reservation for the tribe. Most of the Mohegan people in Connecticut today live on the Mohegan Reservation at near Uncasville in the Town of Montville, New London County. The MTIC operate one of two Mohegan Sun Casinos on their reservation in Uncasville.
The moon-eyed people are a race of people from Cherokee tradition who are said to have lived in Appalachia until the Cherokee expelled them.
The Moravian Church, formally named the Unitas Fratrum (Latin for "Unity of the Brethren"), in German known as Brüdergemeine (meaning "Brethren's Congregation from Herrnhut", the place of the Church's renewal in the 18th century), is one of the oldest Protestant denominations in the world with its heritage dating back to the Bohemian Reformation in the fifteenth century and the Unity of the Brethren (Czech: Jednota bratrská) established in the Kingdom of Bohemia.
A mound is a heaped pile of earth, gravel, sand, rocks, or debris.
Moundville Archaeological Site, also known as the Moundville Archaeological Park, is a Mississippian culture site on the Black Warrior River in Hale County, near the city of Tuscaloosa, Alabama.
Moytoy of Tellico, (d. 1741) (Amo-adawehi in Cherokee, meaning "rainmaker.") was a prominent leader of the Cherokee in the American Southeast.
Mulatto is a term used to refer to people born of one white parent and one black parent or to people born of a mulatto parent or parents.
The Muscogee, also known as the Mvskoke, Creek and the Muscogee Creek Confederacy, are a related group of Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands.
Nacogdoches is a small city situated in East Texas and the county seat of Nacogdoches County, Texas, United States.
Nanyehi (Cherokee: ᎾᏅᏰᎯ: "One who goes about"), known in English as Nancy Ward (ca. 1738–1822 or 1824) was a Beloved Woman of the Cherokee, which means that she was allowed to sit in councils and to make decisions, along with the chiefs and other Beloved Women.
The Narragansett tribe are an Algonquian American Indian tribe from Rhode Island.
Nashville is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Tennessee and the seat of Davidson County.
The National Republican Party, also known as the Anti-Jacksonian Party and sometimes the Adams Party, was a political party in the United States, which evolved from a faction of the Democratic-Republican Party.
The Native American Church (NAC), also known as Peyotism and Peyote Religion, is a Native American religion that teaches a combination of traditional Native American beliefs and Christianity, with sacramental use of the entheogen peyote.
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.
The Navy Cross is the United States military's second-highest decoration awarded for valor in combat.
Ned Christie (December 14, 1852 – November 3, 1892), also known as NeDe WaDe in Cherokee, was a Cherokee statesman.
New Echota was the capital of the Cherokee Nation from 1825 to their forced removal in the 1830s.
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.
Nikwasi is an archaeological site located on the floodplain of the Little Tennessee River located in contemporary Franklin, North Carolina.
Nimrod Jarrett Smith (1837–1893), or Tsaladihi, was the fourth Principal Chief of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians.
North Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
North Georgia is the hilly to mountainous northern region of the U.S. state of Georgia.
The Nullification Crisis was a United States sectional political crisis in 1832–33, during the presidency of Andrew Jackson, which involved a confrontation between South Carolina and the federal government.
Oconaluftee is the name of a river valley in the Great Smoky Mountains of North Carolina, located in the Southeastern United States.
Oconostota (c. 1710-1783) (also "Stalking Turkey") was a skiagusta of Chota and the First Beloved Man of the Cherokee from 1775 to 1781.
Oklahoma (Uukuhuúwa, Gahnawiyoˀgeh) is a state in the South Central region of the United States.
The Territory of Oklahoma was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from May 2, 1890, until November 16, 1907, when it was joined with the Indian Territory under a new constitution and admitted to the Union as the State of Oklahoma.
The one-drop rule is a social and legal principle of racial classification that was historically prominent in the United States asserting that any person with even one ancestor of sub-Saharan African ancestry ("one drop" of black blood)Davis, F. James.
The Oostanaula River (pronounced "oo-stuh-NA-luh") is a principal tributary of the Coosa River, about long,U.S. Geological Survey.
Oral history is the collection and study of historical information about individuals, families, important events, or everyday life using audiotapes, videotapes, or transcriptions of planned interviews.
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States.
The Osage Nation (Osage: Ni-u-kon-ska, "People of the Middle Waters") is a Midwestern Native American tribe of the Great Plains who historically dominated much of present-day Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas, and Oklahoma.
Ostenaco (Ustanakwa, or "Big Head") (also known as Judd's Friend), lived c. 1703 – 1780.
Overhill Cherokee was the term for the Cherokee people located in their historic settlements in what is now the U.S. state of Tennessee in the Southeastern United States, on the west side of the Appalachian Mountains.
The Pamunkey Indian Tribe is one of 11 Virginia Indian tribes recognized by the Commonwealth of Virginia, and the state's first federally recognized tribe, receiving its status in January 2016.
Park City is a city in Summit County, Utah, United States.
Park Hill is an unincorporated community and census-designated place (CDP) in southwestern Cherokee County, Oklahoma in the United States.
Pathkiller, (c 1720 to January 8, 1828) was a Cherokee warrior, town chief, and Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
The Pisgah Phase (1000 to 1450/1500 CE) is an archaeological phase of the South Appalachian Mississippian culture (a regional variation of the Mississippian culture) in parts of northeastern Tennessee, western North Carolina and northwestern South Carolina.
Polygamy (from Late Greek πολυγαμία, polygamía, "state of marriage to many spouses") is the practice of marrying multiple spouses.
In linguistic typology, polysynthetic languages are highly synthetic languages, i.e. languages in which words are composed of many morphemes (word parts that have independent meaning but may or may not be able to stand alone).
Proto-Iroquoian is the name given to the hypothetical proto-language of the Iroquoian languages.
The Qualla Boundary or The Qualla is territory held as a land trust for the federally recognized Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, who reside in western North Carolina.
Racial segregation is the separation of people into racial or other ethnic groups in daily life.
Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, lecturer, philosopher, and poet who led the transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century.
The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 (the Presidential Proclamation of December 8, 1863) to 1877.
Red Clay State Historic Park is a state park located in southern Bradley County, Tennessee.
The Red River, or sometimes the Red River of the South, is a major river in the southern United States of America. The river was named for the red-bed country of its watershed. It is one of several rivers with that name. Although it was once a tributary of the Mississippi River, the Red River is now a tributary of the Atchafalaya River, a distributary of the Mississippi that flows separately into the Gulf of Mexico. It is connected to the Mississippi River by the Old River Control Structure. The south bank of the Red River formed part of the US–Mexico border from the Adams–Onís Treaty (in force 1821) until the Texas Annexation and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The Red River is the second-largest river basin in the southern Great Plains. It rises in two branches in the Texas Panhandle and flows east, where it acts as the border between the states of Texas and Oklahoma. It forms a short border between Texas and Arkansas before entering Arkansas, turning south near Fulton, Arkansas, and flowing into Louisiana, where it flows into the Atchafalaya River. The total length of the river is, with a mean flow of over at the mouth.
Red Sticks (also Redsticks or Red Clubs), the name deriving from the red-painted war clubs of some Native American Creeks—refers to an early 19th-century traditionalist faction of these people in the American Southeast.
Redbird Smith (1850–1918) was a Cherokee traditionalist and political activist.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
Richmond is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 – October 12, 1870) was an American and Confederate soldier, best known as a commander of the Confederate States Army.
Rome is the largest city in and the county seat of Floyd County, Georgia, United States.
The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763, by King George III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War.
Rusk County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas.
Sam Houston (March 2, 1793July 26, 1863) was an American soldier and politician.
Samuel Austin Worcester (January 19, 1798 – April 20, 1859), was a missionary to the Cherokee, translator of the Bible, printer, and defender of the Cherokee's sovereignty.
The San Francisco Bay Area (popularly referred to as the Bay Area) is a populous region surrounding the San Francisco, San Pablo and Suisun estuaries in the northern part of the U.S. state of California.
San Miguel is a census-designated place in Contra Costa County, California.
Savannah is the oldest city in the U.S. state of Georgia and is the county seat of Chatham County.
Scotch-Irish (or Scots-Irish) Americans are American descendants of Presbyterian and other Ulster Protestant Dissenters from various parts of Ireland, but usually from the province of Ulster, who migrated during the 18th and 19th centuries.
The Highlands (the Hielands; A’ Ghàidhealtachd, "the place of the Gaels") are a historic region of Scotland.
The trans-Atlantic trade in deerskins was a significant commercial activity in Colonial America that was greatly influenced, and at least partially dominated, by Scottish traders and their firms.
Sequoyah (ᏍᏏᏉᏯ Ssiquoya, as he signed his name, or ᏎᏉᏯ Se-quo-ya, as is often spelled in Cherokee; named in English George Gist or George Guess) (17701843), was a Cherokee silversmith.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
The Shawnee (Shaawanwaki, Ša˙wano˙ki and Shaawanowi lenaweeki) are an Algonquian-speaking ethnic group indigenous to North America. In colonial times they were a semi-migratory Native American nation, primarily inhabiting areas of the Ohio Valley, extending from what became Ohio and Kentucky eastward to West Virginia, Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Western Maryland; south to Alabama and South Carolina; and westward to Indiana, and Illinois. Pushed west by European-American pressure, the Shawnee migrated to Missouri and Kansas, with some removed to Indian Territory (Oklahoma) west of the Mississippi River in the 1830s. Other Shawnee did not remove to Oklahoma until after the Civil War. Made up of different historical and kinship groups, today there are three federally recognized Shawnee tribes, all headquartered in Oklahoma: the Absentee-Shawnee Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma, and Shawnee Tribe.
Shell gorgets are a Native American art form of polished, carved shell pendants worn around the neck.
The Latin adverb sic ("thus", "just as"; in full: sic erat scriptum, "thus was it written") inserted after a quoted word or passage indicates that the quoted matter has been transcribed or translated exactly as found in the source text, complete with any erroneous or archaic spelling, surprising assertion, faulty reasoning, or other matter that might otherwise be taken as an error of transcription.
SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics) is a U.S.-based, worldwide, Christian non-profit organization, whose main purpose is to study, develop and document languages, especially those that are lesser-known, in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy, translate the Christian Bible into local languages, and aid minority language development.
Simon Girty (November 14, 1741 – February 18, 1818) (Sometimes referred to as Katepacomen. However, this moniker may simply have been an American invention, as was often the case with early historical anecdotes, since no such name or term appears to exist in the most likely native languages -- i.e.: Shawnee, Wyandot, Lenape or Haudenosaunee). Girty was an American colonial of Irish birth who served as a liaison between the British and their Indian allies during the American Revolution.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Slavery among Native Americans in the United States includes slavery by Native Americans as well as slavery of Native Americans roughly within the present-day United States.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
South Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The Southeastern United States (Sureste de Estados Unidos, Sud-Est des États-Unis) is the eastern portion of the Southern United States, and the southern portion of the Eastern United States.
Southwestern Community College is a two-year college located in Sylva, North Carolina, an educational institution providing post-secondary education and lower-level tertiary education, granting certificates, diplomas, and associate degrees.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
Spanish Texas was one of the interior provinces of the Spanish colonial Viceroyalty of New Spain from 1690 until 1821.
A spinning wheel is a device for spinning thread or yarn from natural or synthetic fibres.
Stand Watie (lit) (December 12, 1806 – September 9, 1871) — also known as Standhope Uwatie, Tawkertawker, and Isaac S. Watie — was a leader of the Cherokee Nation, and the only Native American to attain a general's rank in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War.
The State of Sequoyah was a proposed state to be established from the Indian Territory in the eastern part of present-day Oklahoma.
A steamboat is a boat that is propelled primarily by steam power, typically driving propellers or paddlewheels.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
The Sundance Film Festival, a program of the Sundance Institute, takes place annually in Park City, Utah.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent the syllables or (more frequently) moras which make up words.
Tahlequah (''Cherokee'': ᏓᎵᏆ) is a city in Cherokee County, Oklahoma, United States located at the foothills of the Ozark Mountains.
The Tellico Blockhouse was an early American outpost located along the Little Tennessee River in Vonore, Monroe County, Tennessee.
Tennessee (translit) is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States.
The Tennessee River is the largest tributary of the Ohio River.
Texas Cherokees were the small settlements of Cherokee people who lived temporarily in what is now Texas, after being forcibly relocated from their homelands, primarily during the time that Spain, and then Mexico, controlled the territory.
The Texas Revolution (October 2, 1835 – April 21, 1836) was a rebellion of colonists from the United States and Tejanos (Texas Mexicans) in putting up armed resistance to the centralist government of Mexico.
The Bowl (also Chief Bowles); (Cherokee: Di'wali) (ca. 1765 – July 16, 1839) was one of the leaders of the Chickamauga Cherokee during the Cherokee–American wars, served as a Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation–West, and was a leader of the Texas Cherokees (Tshalagiyi nvdagi).
Tom Threepersons (July 22, 1889 – April 2, 1969) was a Cherokee lawman.
The Trail of Tears was a series of forced relocations of Native American peoples from their ancestral homelands in the Southeastern United States, to areas to the west (usually west of the Mississippi River) that had been designated as Indian Territory.
The Treaty of Bird’s Fort, or Bird’s Fort Treaty was a peace treaty between the Republic of Texas and some of the Indian tribes of Texas and Oklahoma, signed on September 29, 1843.
The Treaty of Indian Springs, also known as the Second Treaty of Indian Springs and the Treaty with the Creeks, is a treaty concluded between the Muscogee and the United States on February 12, 1825 at what is now the Indian Springs Hotel Museum.
The Treaty of New Echota (7 Stat. 488) was a treaty signed on December 29, 1835, in New Echota, Georgia by officials of the United States government and representatives of a minority Cherokee political faction, the Treaty Party.
The Treaty of St.
Tsali (ᏣᎵ), originally of Coosawattee Town (Kusawatiyi), was a noted leader of the Cherokee during two different periods of the history of the tribe.
The Tuckasegee River (variant spellings include Tuckaseegee and Tuckaseigee) flows entirely within western North Carolina.
Tugaloo was a Cherokee town on the Tugaloo River, at the mouth of Toccoa Creek, near present-day Toccoa, Georgia and Travelers Rest in Stephens County, Georgia.
The Tulsa World is the daily newspaper for the city of Tulsa, Oklahoma, and primary newspaper for the northeastern and eastern portions of Oklahoma.
The Tuscarora (in Tuscarora Skarù:ręˀ, "hemp gatherers" or "Shirt-Wearing People") are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government of the Iroquoian-language family, with members today in North Carolina, New York, and Ontario.
The Tuscarora War was fought in North Carolina from September 22, 1711 until February 11, 1715 between the British, Dutch, and German settlers and the Tuscarora Native Americans.
The Tutelo (also Totero, Totteroy, Tutera; Yesan in Tutelo) were Native American people living above the Fall Line in present-day Virginia and West Virginia.
Ulster (Ulaidh or Cúige Uladh, Ulster Scots: Ulstèr or Ulster) is a province in the north of the island of Ireland.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
The United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma (ᎠᏂᎩᏚᏩᎩ ᎠᏂᏣᎳᎩ or Anigiduwagi Anitsalagi, abbreviated United Keetoowah Band or UKB) is a federally recognized tribe of Cherokee Native Americans headquartered in Tahlequah, Oklahoma.
The United States Census Bureau (USCB; officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.
Unto These Hills is an outdoor historical drama during summers at the 2,800-seat Mountainside Theatre in Cherokee in western North Carolina.
Vermont is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Wampum is a traditional shell bead of the Eastern Woodlands tribes of American Indians.
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
The Watauga Association (sometimes referred to as the Republic of Watauga) was a semi-autonomous government created in 1772 by frontier settlers living along the Watauga River in what is now Elizabethton, Tennessee.
The West Coast or Pacific Coast is the coastline along which the contiguous Western United States meets the North Pacific Ocean.
Western Carolina University (WCU) is a coeducational public university located in Cullowhee, North Carolina, United States.
The Westo were a Native American tribe encountered in the Southeastern U.S. by Europeans in the 17th century.
The White River is a 722-mile (1,162-km) long river that flows through the U.S. states of Arkansas and Missouri.
The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), also known as the whitetail or Virginia deer, is a medium-sized deer native to the United States, Canada, Mexico, Central America, and South America as far south as Peru and Bolivia.
William Penn Adair "Will" Rogers (November 4, 1879 – August 15, 1935) was a stage and motion picture actor, vaudeville performer, American cowboy, humorist, newspaper columnist, and social commentator from Oklahoma.
William Clark (August 1, 1770 – September 1, 1838) was an American explorer, soldier, Indian agent, and territorial governor.
William Gerald McLoughlin (June 11, 1922 – December 28, 1992) was an historian and prominent member of the history department at Brown University from 1954 to 1992.
William Holland Thomas (February 5, 1805 – May 10, 1893) was Principal Chief of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians (the only white man ever to be a chief of the Cherokee) and was elected as North Carolina state senator, serving from 1848–1860.
William McIntosh (1775 – April 30, 1825),Hoxie, « McIntosh, William, Jr.
William Penn Adair (1830–1880) was a leader of the Cherokee Nation, an attorney who served in political office both before and after the American Civil War, and as a justice of their court.
Winfield Scott (June 13, 1786 – May 29, 1866) was a United States Army general and the unsuccessful presidential candidate of the Whig Party in 1852.
In the classification of Archaeological cultures of North America, the Woodland period of North American pre-Columbian cultures spanned a period from roughly 1000 BCE to European contact in the eastern part of North America, with some archaeologists distinguishing the Mississippian period, from 1000 CE to European contact as a separate period.
Worcester v. Georgia,, was a case in which the United States Supreme Court vacated the conviction of Samuel Worcester and held that the Georgia criminal statute that prohibited non-Native Americans from being present on Native American lands without a license from the state was unconstitutional.
The Yamasee were a multiethnic confederation of Native Americans who lived in the coastal region of present-day northern coastal Georgia near the Savannah River and later in northeastern Florida.
The Yamasee or Yemassee War (1715–1717) was a conflict between British settlers of colonial South Carolina and various Native American tribes, including the Yamasee, Muscogee, Cherokee, Catawba, Apalachee, Apalachicola, Yuchi, Savannah River Shawnee, Congaree, Waxhaw, Pee Dee, Cape Fear, Cheraw, and others.
Ah-ni-yv-wi-ha, Ah-ni-yv-wi-ya, Ani Yun Wiya, Ani'yunwi'yah, Ani-Yun-Wiya, Aniyawiya, Aniyunwiya, Cheoroke, Cherokee (tribe), Cherokee Freedman, Cherokee Indian, Cherokee Indians, Cherokee People, Cherokee Spirituality and Culture, Cherokee citizen, Cherokee empire, Cherokee freedmen, Cherokee people, Cherokees, Keetoowah tribe, List of Cherokee people, Tsalagi, Tsalgi, ᏣᎳᎩ.