263 relations: Acer rubrum, Ajacán Mission, Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal, Albemarle Sound, Alexandria, Virginia, Algal bloom, Algonquian languages, American eel, American Revolutionary War, Amish, Annapolis, Maryland, Aquatic plant, Atlantic coastal plain, Atlantic menhaden, Atlantic Ocean, Atlantic sturgeon, Bald eagle, Baltimore, Baltimore Steam Packet Company, Basking shark, Battle of the Chesapeake, Beautiful Swimmers, Benedict, Maryland, Blair A. Rudes, Bolide, Bottlenose dolphin, Brackish water, British Army, British Isles, Bugeye, Bull shark, Burning of Washington, Callinectes sapidus, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Calvert Cliffs State Park, Calvert County, Maryland, Cape Charles (headland), Cape Charles, Virginia, Cape Henry, Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail, Cavalier, Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis, Chesapeake & Delaware Canal, Chesapeake (novel), Chesapeake Bay Bridge, Chesapeake Bay Bridge–Tunnel, Chesapeake Bay deadrise, Chesapeake Bay Flotilla, Chesapeake Bay Foundation, Chesapeake Bay impact crater, ..., Chesapeake Bay Interpretive Buoy System, Chesapeake Bay Magazine, Chesapeake Bay Program, Chesapeake Bay Retriever, Chesapeake Climate Action Network, Chesapeake people, Chesapeake, Virginia, Chessie (sea monster), Chester River, Choptank River, Clam, Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation, College of William & Mary, Colony of Virginia, Crab, Crisfield, Maryland, Cynthia Voigt, DDT, Dead zone (ecology), Delaware, Delaware Bay, Delaware River, Delmarva Peninsula, Dicey's Song, Drainage basin, Eastern oyster, Eastern Shore of Maryland, Eastern Shore of Virginia, Egeria densa, Elizabeth River (Virginia), Elkton, Maryland, England, Eocene, Estuary, Fin whale, Fish, Fish kill, Fjord, Food chain, Fort Washington Park, Fossil, Found footage (film technique), George Washington, Georgia (U.S. state), Giovanni da Verrazzano, Great blue heron, Great Ireland, Haplosporidium nelsoni, Harford County, Maryland, Havre de Grace, Maryland, Hispaniola, History of New York City, History of North Carolina, History of Virginia, Humid subtropical climate, Humpback whale, Humphrey Gilbert, Hypoxia (environmental), Impact event, Intracoastal Waterway, Invasive species, Isopoda, Jacob Have I Loved, James A. Michener, James River, Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau, John Barth, John Smith (explorer), Joshua Barney, Katherine Paterson, Kent County, Maryland, Kent Island (Maryland), Kingdom of England, Kingdom of France, Landsat program, Laurentide Ice Sheet, List of islands of Maryland, Log canoe, Loggerhead sea turtle, Los Angeles Times, Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón, Manatee, Manta ray, Maryland, Matapeake, Maryland, Megafauna, Minke whale, Mississippi River, Moonlight Feels Right, Mudflat, Nanticoke River, National Estuarine Research Reserve, National Historic Trail, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Park Service, Near-threatened species, New York (state), New York Bay, Newbery Medal, Newport, Rhode Island, Nitrogen, Norfolk, Virginia, North Atlantic right whale, North Carolina, NPR, Nutrient pollution, Old Bay Seasoning, Osprey, Oyster, Oyster farming, Oyster Wars, Pamlico Sound, Pandemic, Patapsco River, Patriot Games, Patuxent River, Pedro Menéndez Márquez, Pennsylvania, Peregrine falcon, Perkinsus marinus, Pfiesteria piscicida, Philadelphia, Phosphorus, Phragmites, Piedmont (United States), Pinus taeda, Piping plover, Pocomoke River, Polyhaline, Port of Baltimore, Portsmouth, Virginia, Potomac River, Province of Maryland, Pulitzer Prize, Pungy, Ramsar Convention, Rappahannock River, Red Kayak, Rhode Island, Ria, Roanoke Colony, Roanoke Island, Royal Navy, Ruppia maritima, Sabbatical: A Romance, Salinity, San Miguel de Guadalupe, Sandy Point State Park, Sapelo Island, Scalloped hammerhead, Scientists Cliffs, Maryland, Sediment, Sei whale, Shark, Shellfish, Siege of Yorktown, Sir George Cockburn, 10th Baronet, Skipjack (boat), Society of Jesus, South Carolina in the American Revolution, Spain, Spartina, Starbuck (band), Stingray, Striped bass, Surface runoff, Suspension bridge, Susquehanna River, Tangier, Virginia, Taxodium distichum, The Baltimore Sun, The Bay (film), The Boston Globe, The Capital, The Economist, The Narrows, The Tidewater Tales, The Washington Post, Tide, Tiger shark, Tom Clancy, Toxicity, Tributary, Turbidity, United States Army Corps of Engineers, United States Department of the Interior, United States Navy, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Urban area, Verrazano-Narrows Bridge, Virginia, Virginia Beach, Virginia, Virginia Company, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Walter Raleigh, War of 1812, Washington, D.C., Washington–Rochambeau Revolutionary Route, Wastewater, Water pollution, Water quality, Waterman (occupation), West Virginia, Western Shore of Maryland, Wicomico River (Maryland eastern shore), Wicomico River (Potomac River tributary), Wild rice, William W. Warner, Wilmington, Delaware, WTOP-FM, York River (Virginia), Yorktown, Virginia, Zostera. Expand index (213 more) » « Shrink index
Acer rubrum, the red maple, also known as swamp, water or soft maple, is one of the most common and widespread deciduous trees of eastern and central North America.
The Ajacán Mission (also Axaca, Axacam, Iacan, Jacán, Xacan) was a Spanish attempt in 1570 to establish a Jesuit mission in the vicinity of the Virginia Peninsula to bring Christianity to the Virginia Indians.
The Albemarle and Chesapeake Canal was built by a corporation in 1856-1860 to afford inland navigation between the Chesapeake Bay and the Albemarle Sound.
Albemarle Sound is a large estuary on the coast of North Carolina in the United States located at the confluence of a group of rivers, including the Chowan and Roanoke.
Alexandria is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
An algal bloom is a rapid increase or accumulation in the population of algae in freshwater or marine water systems, and is recognized by the discoloration in the water from their pigments.
The Algonquian languages (or; also Algonkian) are a subfamily of Native American languages which includes most of the languages in the Algic language family.
The American eel (Anguilla rostrata) is a facultative catadromous fish found on the eastern coast of North America.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
The Amish (Pennsylvania German: Amisch, Amische) are a group of traditionalist Christian church fellowships with Swiss German Anabaptist origins.
Annapolis is the capital of the U.S. state of Maryland, as well as the county seat of Anne Arundel County.
Aquatic plants are plants that have adapted to living in aquatic environments (saltwater or freshwater).
The Atlantic coastal plain is a physiographic region of low relief along the East Coast of the United States.
The Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) is a North American species of fish in the herring family, Clupeidae.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) is a North American member of the Acipenseridae family and is among the oldest fish species in the world.
The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus, from Greek ἅλς, hals "sea", αἰετός aietos "eagle", λευκός, leukos "white", κεφαλή, kephalē "head") is a bird of prey found in North America.
Baltimore is the largest city in the U.S. state of Maryland, and the 30th-most populous city in the United States.
The Baltimore Steam Packet Company, nicknamed the, was an American steamship line from 1840 to 1962 that provided overnight steamboat service on the Chesapeake Bay, primarily between Baltimore, Maryland, and Norfolk, Virginia.
The basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) is the second-largest living shark, after the whale shark, and one of three plankton-eating shark species, along with the whale shark and megamouth shark.
The Battle of the Chesapeake, also known as the Battle of the Virginia Capes or simply the Battle of the Capes, was a crucial naval battle in the American Revolutionary War that took place near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay on 5 September 1781.
Beautiful Swimmers: Watermen, Crabs and the Chesapeake Bay (1976) is a Pulitzer Prize non-fiction book by William W. Warner about the Chesapeake Bay, blue crabs and watermen.
Benedict is a small unincorporated town and census-designated place in Charles County, Maryland, United States located on the Patuxent River in southern Maryland.
Blair A. Rudes (May 18, 1951, Gloversville, New York – March 16, 2008, Charlotte, North Carolina) was an American linguist known for his work on Native American languages.
A bolide (French via Latin from the Greek βολίς bolís, "missile") is an extremely bright meteor, especially one that explodes in the atmosphere.
Bottlenose dolphins, the genus Tursiops, are the most common members of the family Delphinidae, the family of oceanic dolphin.
Brackish water is water that has more salinity than fresh water, but not as much as seawater.
The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.
The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.
The bugeye is a type of sailboat developed in the Chesapeake Bay for oyster dredging.
The bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas), also known as the Zambezi shark (informally "zambi") in Africa, and Lake Nicaragua shark in Nicaragua, is a requiem shark commonly found worldwide in warm, shallow waters along coasts and in rivers.
The Burning of Washington was a British invasion of Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States, during the War of 1812.
Callinectes sapidus (from the Greek calli-.
The Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (CCNPP) is a nuclear power plant located on the western shore of the Chesapeake Bay near Lusby, Calvert County, Maryland in the Mid-Atlantic United States.
Calvert Cliffs State Park is a public recreation area in Lusby, Calvert County, Maryland, that protects a portion of cliffs that extend for 24 miles along the eastern flank of the Calvert Peninsula on the west side of Chesapeake Bay from Chesapeake Beach southward to Drum Point.
Calvert County is a county located in the U.S. state of Maryland.
Cape Charles is a headland, or cape, in Northampton County, Virginia.
Cape Charles is a town / municipal corporation in Northampton County, Virginia, United States.
Cape Henry is a cape on the Atlantic shore of Virginia located in the northeast corner of Virginia Beach.
The Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail is a series of water routes in the United States extending approximately along the Chesapeake Bay, the nation's largest estuary, and its tributaries in Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, and in the District of Columbia.
The term Cavalier was first used by Roundheads as a term of abuse for the wealthier Royalist supporters of King Charles I and his son Charles II of England during the English Civil War, the Interregnum, and the Restoration (1642 – c. 1679).
Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis KG, PC (31 December 1738 – 5 October 1805), styled Viscount Brome between 1753 and 1762 and known as The Earl Cornwallis between 1762 and 1792, was a British Army general and official.
The Chesapeake & Delaware Canal (C&D Canal) is a -long, -wide and -deep ship canal that connects the Delaware River with the Chesapeake Bay in the states of Delaware and Maryland in the United States.
Chesapeake is a novel by James A. Michener, published by Random House in 1978.
The Chesapeake Bay Bridge (commonly known as the "Bay Bridge") is a major dual-span bridge in the U.S. state of Maryland. Spanning the Chesapeake Bay, it connects the state's rural Eastern Shore region with the urban Western Shore. The original span, opened in 1952 and with a length of, was the world's longest continuous over-water steel structure; the parallel span was added in 1973. The bridge is officially named the "Gov. William Preston Lane Jr. Memorial Bridge" after William Preston Lane Jr. who, as the 52nd Governor of Maryland, initiated its construction in the late 1940s finally after decades of political indecision and public controversy. The bridge is part of U.S. Route 50 (US 50) and US 301, and serves as a vital link in both routes. As part of cross-country US 50, it connects the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area with Ocean City, Maryland, Rehoboth Beach, Delaware, and other coastal tourist resort destinations. As part of US 301, it serves as part of an alternative route for Interstate 95 travelers, between northern Delaware and the Washington, D.C., area. Because of this linkage, the bridge is busy and has become known as a point of traffic congestion, particularly during peak hours and summer months.
The Chesapeake Bay Bridge–Tunnel (CBBT) is a bridge–tunnel crossing at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay, the Hampton Roads harbor, and nearby mouths of the James and Elizabeth Rivers in the American state of the Commonwealth of Virginia.
The Chesapeake Bay deadrise or deadrise workboat is a type of traditional fishing boat used in the Chesapeake Bay.
The Chesapeake Bay Flotilla was a motley collection of barges and gunboats that the United States assembled under the command of Joshua Barney, an 1812 privateer captain, to stall British attacks in the Chesapeake Bay which came to be known as the "Chesapeake Campaign" during the War of 1812.
The Chesapeake Bay Foundation (CBF) is a non-profit organization devoted to the restoration and protection of the Chesapeake Bay in the United States.
The Chesapeake Bay impact crater was formed by a bolide that impacted the eastern shore of North America about 35.5 ± 0.3 million years ago, in the late Eocene epoch.
Chesapeake Bay Interpretive Buoy System (CBIBS) is a network of observational buoys that are deployed throughout the Chesapeake Bay to observe the estuary's changing conditions and to serve as way points along the Captain John Smith Chesapeake National Historic Trail.
Chesapeake Bay Magazine is a monthly publication focusing on boating, leisure, and lifestyle on the Chesapeake Bay and surrounding areas.
The Chesapeake Bay Program is the regional partnership that directs and conducts the restoration of the Chesapeake Bay in the United States.
The Chesapeake Bay Retriever is a large-sized breed of dog belonging to the Retriever, Gundog, and Sporting breed groups.
The Chesapeake Climate Action Network (CCAN) is the first grassroots nonprofit organization dedicated exclusively to fighting global warming in Maryland, Virginia, and the District of Columbia.
The Chesepian or Chesapeake were a Native American tribe who inhabited the area now known as South Hampton Roads in the U.S. state of Virginia.
Chesapeake is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia.
In American folklore, Chessie is a sea monster said to live in the midst of the Chesapeake Bay, similarly to the Loch Ness Monster, which is believed to live in the Loch Ness and is known as Nessie.
The Chester River is a major tributary of the Chesapeake Bay on the Delmarva Peninsula.
The Choptank River is a major tributary of the Chesapeake Bay and the largest river on the Delmarva Peninsula.
Clam is a common name for several kinds of bivalve molluscs.
The Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation (CERF) is a private, nonprofit organization that was created in 1971.
The College of William & Mary (also known as William & Mary, or W&M) is a public research university in Williamsburg, Virginia. Founded in 1693 by letters patent issued by King William III and Queen Mary II, it is the second-oldest institution of higher education in the United States, after Harvard University. William & Mary educated American Presidents Thomas Jefferson (third), James Monroe (fifth), and John Tyler (tenth) as well as other key figures important to the development of the nation, including the fourth U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall of Virginia, Speaker of the House of Representatives Henry Clay of Kentucky, sixteen members of the Continental Congress, and four signers of the Declaration of Independence, earning it the nickname "the Alma Mater of the Nation." A young George Washington (1732–1799) also received his surveyor's license through the college. W&M students founded the Phi Beta Kappa academic honor society in 1776 and W&M was the first school of higher education in the United States to install an honor code of conduct for students. The establishment of graduate programs in law and medicine in 1779 makes it one of the earliest higher level universities in the United States. In addition to its undergraduate program (which includes an international joint degree program with the University of St Andrews in Scotland and a joint engineering program with Columbia University in New York City), W&M is home to several graduate programs (including computer science, public policy, physics, and colonial history) and four professional schools (law, business, education, and marine science). In his 1985 book Public Ivies: A Guide to America's Best Public Undergraduate Colleges and Universities, Richard Moll categorized William & Mary as one of eight "Public Ivies".
The Colony of Virginia, chartered in 1606 and settled in 1607, was the first enduring English colony in North America, following failed proprietary attempts at settlement on Newfoundland by Sir Humphrey GilbertGILBERT (Saunders Family), SIR HUMPHREY" (history), Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, University of Toronto, May 2, 2005 in 1583, and the subsequent further south Roanoke Island (modern eastern North Carolina) by Sir Walter Raleigh in the late 1580s. The founder of the new colony was the Virginia Company, with the first two settlements in Jamestown on the north bank of the James River and Popham Colony on the Kennebec River in modern-day Maine, both in 1607. The Popham colony quickly failed due to a famine, disease, and conflict with local Native American tribes in the first two years. Jamestown occupied land belonging to the Powhatan Confederacy, and was also at the brink of failure before the arrival of a new group of settlers and supplies by ship in 1610. Tobacco became Virginia's first profitable export, the production of which had a significant impact on the society and settlement patterns. In 1624, the Virginia Company's charter was revoked by King James I, and the Virginia colony was transferred to royal authority as a crown colony. After the English Civil War in the 1640s and 50s, the Virginia colony was nicknamed "The Old Dominion" by King Charles II for its perceived loyalty to the English monarchy during the era of the Protectorate and Commonwealth of England.. From 1619 to 1775/1776, the colonial legislature of Virginia was the House of Burgesses, which governed in conjunction with a colonial governor. Jamestown on the James River remained the capital of the Virginia colony until 1699; from 1699 until its dissolution the capital was in Williamsburg. The colony experienced its first major political turmoil with Bacon's Rebellion of 1676. After declaring independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1775, before the Declaration of Independence was officially adopted, the Virginia colony became the Commonwealth of Virginia, one of the original thirteen states of the United States, adopting as its official slogan "The Old Dominion". The entire modern states of West Virginia, Kentucky, Indiana and Illinois, and portions of Ohio and Western Pennsylvania were later created from the territory encompassed, or claimed by, the colony of Virginia at the time of further American independence in July 1776.
Crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" (abdomen) (translit.
Crisfield is a city in Somerset County, Maryland, United States, located on the Tangier Sound, an arm of the Chesapeake Bay.
Cynthia Voigt (born February 25, 1942) is an American writer of books for young adults dealing with various topics such as adventure, mystery, racism and child abuse.
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, commonly known as DDT, is a colorless, tasteless, and almost odorless crystalline chemical compound, an organochlorine, originally developed as an insecticide, and ultimately becoming infamous for its environmental impacts.
Dead zones are hypoxic (low-oxygen) areas in the world's oceans and large lakes, caused by "excessive nutrient pollution from human activities coupled with other factors that deplete the oxygen required to support most marine life in bottom and near-bottom water.
Delaware is one of the 50 states of the United States, in the Mid-Atlantic or Northeastern region.
Delaware Bay is the estuary outlet of the Delaware River on the Northeast seaboard of the United States.
The Delaware River is a major river on the Atlantic coast of the United States.
The Delmarva Peninsula, or simply Delmarva, is a large peninsula on the East Coast of the United States, occupied by most of Delaware as well as the Eastern Shore of Maryland and the Eastern Shore of Virginia.
Dicey's Song is a novel by Cynthia Voigt.
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.
The eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica)—also called Wellfleet oyster, Atlantic oyster, Virginia oyster, or American oyster—is a species of true oyster native to the eastern seaboard and Gulf of Mexico coast of North America.
The Eastern Shore of Maryland is a part of the U.S. state of Maryland that lies predominantly on the east side of the Chesapeake Bay and consists of nine counties.
The Eastern Shore of Virginia consists of two counties (Accomack and Northampton) on the Atlantic coast of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
Egeria densa, the large-flowered waterweed or Brazilian waterweed, is a species of Egeria native to warm temperate South America in southeastern Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay.
The Elizabeth River is a U.S. Geological Survey.
Elkton is a town in and the county seat of Cecil County, Maryland, United States.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The Eocene Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
The fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), also known as finback whale or common rorqual and formerly known as herring whale or razorback whale, is a marine mammal belonging to the parvorder of baleen whales.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
The term fish kill, known also as fish die-off, refers to a localized die-off of fish populations which may also be associated with more generalized mortality of aquatic life.
Geologically, a fjord or fiord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by a glacier.
A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).
Fort Washington, located near the community of Fort Washington, Maryland, was for many decades the only defensive fort protecting Washington D.C. The original fort, overlooking the Potomac River, was completed in 1809, and was begun as Fort Warburton, but renamed in 1808.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
Found footage is a film subgenre in which all or a substantial part of the work is presented as if it were discovered film or video recordings.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States.
Giovanni da Verrazzano (sometimes also incorrectly spelled Verrazano) (1485–1528) was an Italian explorer of North America, in the service of King Francis I of France.
The great blue heron (Ardea herodias) is a large wading bird in the heron family Ardeidae, common near the shores of open water and in wetlands over most of North America and Central America, as well as the Caribbean and the Galápagos Islands.
Great Ireland (Old Norse: Írland hið mikla or Írland it mikla), also known as White Men's Land (Hvítramannaland), and in Latin similarly as Hibernia Major and Albania, was a land said by various Norsemen to be located near Vinland.
Haplosporidium nelsoni is a pathogen of oysters, that originally caused oyster populations to experience high mortality rates in the 1950s, and still is quite prevalent today.
Harford County is a county in the U.S. state of Maryland.
Havre de Grace, abbreviated HdG, is a city in Harford County, Maryland, situated at the mouth of the Susquehanna River and the head of Chesapeake Bay.
Hispaniola (Spanish: La Española; Latin and French: Hispaniola; Haitian Creole: Ispayola; Taíno: Haiti) is an island in the Caribbean island group, the Greater Antilles.
The written history of New York City began with the first European explorer the Italian Giovanni da Verrazzano in 1524.
The history of North Carolina from prehistory to the present covers the experiences of the people who have lived in the territory that now comprises the U.S. state of North Carolina.
The History of Virginia begins with documentation by the first Spanish explorers to reach the area in the 1500s, when it was occupied chiefly by Algonquian, Iroquoian, and Siouan peoples.
A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and mild to cool winters.
The humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) is a species of baleen whale.
Sir Humphrey Gilbert (c. 1539 – 9 September 1583) of Compton in the parish of Marldon and of Greenway in the parish of Churston Ferrers, both in Devon, England, was an adventurer, explorer, member of parliament and soldier who served during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I and was a pioneer of the English colonial empire in North America and the Plantations of Ireland.
Hypoxia refers to low oxygen conditions.
An impact event is a collision between astronomical objects causing measurable effects.
The Intracoastal Waterway (ICW) is a inland waterway along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the United States, running from Boston, Massachusetts, southward along the Atlantic Seaboard and around the southern tip of Florida, then following the Gulf Coast to Brownsville, Texas.
An invasive species is a species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.
Isopoda is an order of crustaceans that includes woodlice and their relatives.
Jacob Have I Loved is a children's novel by Katherine Paterson.
James Albert Michener (February 3, 1907 – October 16, 1997) was an American author of more than 40 books, most of which were fictional, lengthy family sagas covering the lives of many generations in particular geographic locales and incorporating solid history.
The James River is a river in the U.S. state of Virginia.
Marshal Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau (1 July 1725 – 10 May 1807) was a French nobleman and general who played a major role in helping the Thirteen Colonies win independence during the American Revolution.
John Simmons Barth (born May 27, 1930) is an American writer, best known for his postmodernist and metafictional fiction.
John Smith (bapt. 6 January 1580 – 21 June 1631) was an English soldier, explorer, colonial governor, Admiral of New England, and author.
Joshua Barney (6 July 1759 – 1 December 1818) was an American Navy officer who served in the Continental Navy during the Revolutionary War.
Katherine Womeldorf Paterson (born October 31, 1932) is a Chinese-born American writer best known for children's novels.
Kent County is a county located in the U.S. state of Maryland.
Kent Island is the largest island in the Chesapeake Bay, and a historic place in Maryland.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of France (Royaume de France) was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe.
The Landsat program is the longest-running enterprise for acquisition of satellite imagery of Earth.
The Laurentide Ice Sheet was a massive sheet of ice that covered millions of square kilometers, including most of Canada and a large portion of the northern United States, multiple times during the Quaternary glacial epochs— from 2.588 ± 0.005 million years ago to the present.
Maryland has 281 named islands within its many waters and waterways, including the Atlantic ocean; the Chesapeake bay and its many tributary tidal rivers, creeks and bays; as well as within larger whitewater rivers like the upper Potomac.
The log canoe is a type of sailboat developed in the Chesapeake Bay region.
The loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta), or loggerhead, is an oceanic turtle distributed throughout the world.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón (c. 1475, probably Castile, Spain – 18 October 1526) was a Spanish explorer who in 1526 established the short-lived San Miguel de Guadalupe colony, the first European attempt at a settlement in what is now the continental United States.
Manatees (family Trichechidae, genus Trichechus) are large, fully aquatic, mostly herbivorous marine mammals sometimes known as sea cows. There are three accepted living species of Trichechidae, representing three of the four living species in the order Sirenia: the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis), the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), and the West African manatee (Trichechus senegalensis).
Manta rays are large rays belonging to the genus Manta.
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east.
Matapeake is an unincorporated community located south of Stevensville on Kent Island, Maryland.
In terrestrial zoology, megafauna (from Greek μέγας megas "large" and New Latin fauna "animal life") are large or giant animals.
The minke whale, or lesser rorqual, is a type of baleen whale.
The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.
"Moonlight Feels Right" is the debut single recorded by the American band Starbuck.
Mudflats or mud flats, also known as tidal flats, are coastal wetlands that form when mud is deposited by tides or rivers.
The Nanticoke River is a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay on the Delmarva Peninsula.
The National Estuarine Research Reserve System is a network of 28 protected areas established by partnerships between the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and coastal states.
National Historic Trail is an officially recognized trail with national historic significance in the United States.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
The National Park Service (NPS) is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations.
A near-threatened species is a species which has been categorized as "Near Threatened" (NT) by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as that may be considered threatened with extinction in the near future, although it does not currently qualify for the threatened status.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
New York Bay is the collective term for the marine areas surrounding the river mouth of the Hudson River into the Atlantic Ocean, in New Jersey and New York City.
The John Newbery Medal is a literary award given by the Association for Library Service to Children, a division of the American Library Association (ALA).
Newport is a seaside city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Norfolk is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
The North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis, which means "good, or true, whale of the ice") is a baleen whale, one of three right whale species belonging to the genus Eubalaena, all of which were formerly classified as a single species.
North Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.
Nutrient pollution, a form of water pollution, refers to contamination by excessive inputs of nutrients.
Old Bay Seasoning is a blend of herbs and spices that is marketed in the United States by McCormick & Company, and produced in Maryland.
The osprey or more specifically the western osprey (Pandion haliaetus) — also called sea hawk, river hawk, and fish hawk — is a diurnal, fish-eating bird of prey with a cosmopolitan range.
Oyster is the common name for a number of different families of salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats.
Oyster farming is an aquaculture (or mariculture) practice in which oysters are raised for human consumption.
The Oyster Wars were a series of sometimes violent disputes between oyster pirates and authorities and legal watermen from Maryland and Virginia in the waters of the Chesapeake Bay and the Potomac River from 1865 until about 1959.
Pamlico Sound in North Carolina in the US is the largest lagoon along the North American East Coast, extending long and 24 to 48 km (15 to 20 miles) wide.
A pandemic (from Greek πᾶν pan "all" and δῆμος demos "people") is an epidemic of infectious disease that has spread across a large region; for instance multiple continents, or even worldwide.
The Patapsco River is a U.S. Geological Survey.
Patriot Games (1987) is a novel by Tom Clancy.
The Patuxent River is a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay in the state of Maryland.
Pedro Menéndez Márquez (? – 1600) was a Spanish military officer, conquistador, and governor of Spanish Florida.
Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
The peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), also known as the peregrine, and historically as the duck hawk in North America, is a widespread bird of prey (raptor) in the family Falconidae.
Perkinsus marinus is a species of alveolates belonging to the phylum Perkinsozoa.
Pfiesteria piscicida is a dinoflagellate species of the genus Pfiesteria that some researchers claim is responsible for many harmful algal blooms in the 1980s and 1990s on the coast of North Carolina and Maryland.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Phragmites is a genus of four species of large perennial grasses found in wetlands throughout temperate and tropical regions of the world.
The Piedmont is a plateau region located in the eastern United States.
Pinus taeda, commonly known as loblolly pine, is one of several pines native to the Southeastern United States, from central Texas east to Florida, and north to Delaware and southern New Jersey.
The piping plover (Charadrius melodus) is a small sand-colored, sparrow-sized shorebird that nests and feeds along coastal sand and gravel beaches in North America.
The Pocomoke River stretches approximately U.S. Geological Survey.
Polyhaline is a salinity category term applied to brackish estuaries and other water bodies with a salinity of between 18 and 30 parts per thousand.
Helen Delich Bentley Port of Baltimore is a shipping port along the shores and several branches of the Patapsco River in Baltimore, Maryland.
Portsmouth is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia.
The Potomac River is located within the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States and flows from the Potomac Highlands into the Chesapeake Bay.
The Province of Maryland was an English and later British colony in North America that existed from 1632 until 1776, when it joined the other twelve of the Thirteen Colonies in rebellion against Great Britain and became the U.S. state of Maryland.
The Pulitzer Prize is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature, and musical composition in the United States.
The pungy is a type of schooner developed in and peculiar to the Chesapeake Bay region.
The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands.
The Rappahannock River is a river in eastern Virginia, in the United States, approximately in length.
Red Kayak is a young adult novel by American author Priscilla Cummings.
Rhode Island, officially the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, is a state in the New England region of the United States.
A ria is a coastal inlet formed by the partial submergence of an unglaciated river valley.
The Roanoke Colony, also known as the Lost Colony, was established in 1585 on Roanoke Island in what is today's Dare County, North Carolina.
Roanoke Island is an island in Dare County on the Outer Banks of North Carolina, United States.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Ruppia maritima is a species of aquatic plant known by the common names beaked tasselweed, widgeon grass, ditch-grass and tassel pondweed.
Sabbatical: A Romance is a novel by the American writer John Barth, published in 1982.
Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).
San Miguel de Guadalupe, founded in 1526 by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón,In early 1521, Ponce de León had made a poorly documented, disastrous attempt to plant a colony near Charlotte Harbor, Florida but was quickly repulsed by the native Calusa.
Sandy Point State Park is a public recreation area located on Sandy Point at the western end of the Chesapeake Bay Bridge in Anne Arundel County, Maryland.
Sapelo Island is a state-protected barrier island located in McIntosh County, Georgia.
The scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini) is a species of hammerhead shark, and part of the family Sphyrnidae.
Scientists' Cliffs is an unincorporated community in Calvert County, Maryland, United States.
Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.
The sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis) is a baleen whale, the third-largest rorqual after the blue whale and the fin whale.
Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head.
Shellfish is a food source and fisheries term for exoskeleton-bearing aquatic invertebrates used as food, including various species of molluscs, crustaceans, and echinoderms.
The Siege of Yorktown, also known as the Battle of Yorktown, the Surrender at Yorktown, German Battle or the Siege of Little York, ending on October 19, 1781, at Yorktown, Virginia, was a decisive victory by a combined force of American Continental Army troops led by General George Washington and French Army troops led by the Comte de Rochambeau over a British Army commanded by British peer and Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis.
Admiral of the Fleet Sir George Cockburn, 10th Baronet (22 April 1772 – 19 August 1853) was a Royal Navy officer.
The skipjack is a traditional fishing boat used on the Chesapeake Bay for oyster dredging.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
South Carolina shared the outrage against British tax policies in the 1760s that violated what they saw as their constitutional rights to "no taxation without representation." Merchants joined the boycotts against buying British products.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spartina, commonly known as cordgrass or cord-grass, is a genus of plants in the grass family, frequently found in coastal salt marshes.
Starbuck was a rock band formed in Atlanta, Georgia in 1974 by keyboardist/vocalist/record producer Bruce Blackman and marimba player Bo Wagner.
Stingrays are a group of sea rays, which are cartilaginous fish related to sharks.
The striped bass (Morone saxatilis), also called Atlantic striped bass, striper, linesider, rock or rockfish, is an anadromous Perciforme fish of the family Moronidae found primarily along the Atlantic coast of North America.
Surface runoff (also known as overland flow) is the flow of water that occurs when excess stormwater, meltwater, or other sources flows over the Earth's surface.
A suspension bridge is a type of bridge in which the deck (the load-bearing portion) is hung below suspension cables on vertical suspenders.
The Susquehanna River (Lenape: Siskëwahane) is a major river located in the northeastern United States.
Tangier is a town in Accomack County, Virginia, United States, on Tangier Island in Chesapeake Bay.
Taxodium distichum (bald cypress, cypress, southern-cypress, white-cypress, tidewater red-cypress, Gulf-cypress, red-cypress, or swamp cypress) is a deciduous conifer in the family Cupressaceae that grows on saturated and seasonally inundated soils in the lowlands of the Southeastern and Gulf Coastal Plains of the United States.
The Baltimore Sun is the largest general-circulation daily newspaper based in the American state of Maryland and provides coverage of local and regional news, events, issues, people, and industries.
The Bay is a 2012 American found footage horror film directed by Barry Levinson and written by Michael Wallach.
The Boston Globe (sometimes abbreviated as The Globe) is an American daily newspaper founded and based in Boston, Massachusetts, since its creation by Charles H. Taylor in 1872.
The Capital is a daily newspaper published in Annapolis since 1884.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Narrows is the tidal strait separating the boroughs of Staten Island and Brooklyn in New York City.
The Tidewater Tales is a 1987 novel by the American writer John Barth.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of Earth.
The tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier) is a species of requiem shark and the only extant member of the genus Galeocerdo.
Thomas Leo Clancy Jr. (April 12, 1947 – October 1, 2013) was an American novelist best known for his technically detailed espionage and military-science storylines set during and after the Cold War.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem (or parent) river or a lake.
Turbidity is the cloudiness or haziness of a fluid caused by large numbers of individual particles that are generally invisible to the naked eye, similar to smoke in air.
The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is a U.S. federal agency under the Department of Defense and a major Army command made up of some 37,000 civilian and military personnel, making it one of the world's largest public engineering, design, and construction management agencies.
The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is the United States federal executive department of the U.S. government responsible for the management and conservation of most federal lands and natural resources, and the administration of programs relating to Native Americans, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, territorial affairs, and insular areas of the United States.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
With 1925 origins as a research station on Solomons Island, the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science (UMCES) is one of the University System of Maryland's two scientific research centers.
An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.
The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge (also referred to as the Verrazano Bridge and formerly the Narrows Bridge) is a double-decked suspension bridge that connects the New York City boroughs of Staten Island and Brooklyn and is named for Giovanni da Verrazzano.
Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
Virginia Beach is an independent city located on the southeastern coast of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
The Virginia Company refers collectively to two joint stock companies chartered under James I on 10 April 1606 with the goal of establishing settlements on the coast of North America.
The Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) is one of the largest marine research and education centers in the United States.
Sir Walter Raleigh (or; circa 155429 October 1618) was an English landed gentleman, writer, poet, soldier, politician, courtier, spy and explorer.
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
The Washington–Rochambeau Revolutionary Route (W3R) is a 680 mile-long (1,094 km) series of roads used by the Continental Army under the command of George Washington and the Expédition Particulière under the command of Jean-Baptiste de Rochambeau during their 1781 march from Newport, Rhode Island to Yorktown, Virginia, United States.
Wastewater (or waste water) is any water that has been affected by human use.
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities.
Water quality refers to the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological characteristics of water.
A waterman is a river worker who transfers passengers across and along city centre rivers and estuaries in the United Kingdom and its colonies.
West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region of the Southern United States.
Maryland's Western Shore (not to be confused with Western Maryland) is an area of Maryland west of the Chesapeake Bay.
The Wicomico River is a U.S. Geological Survey.
The Wicomico River is a U.S. Geological Survey.
Wild rice (Ojibwe: Manoomin, Sanskrit: 'नीवार', IAST:; also called Canada rice, Indian rice, and water oats) are four species of grasses forming the genus Zizania, and the grain that can be harvested from them.
William W. Warner (April 2, 1920 – April 18, 2008) was an American biologist and writer.
Wilmington (Lenape: Paxahakink, Pakehakink) is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Delaware.
WTOP-FM (103.5 FM, "WTOP Radio", "WTOP News") is a commercial FM radio station licensed to serve Washington, D.C. WTOP is owned by Hubbard Broadcasting through licensee Washington, DC FCC License Sub, LLC and broadcasts an all-news format.
The York River is a navigable estuary, approximately long,U.S. Geological Survey.
Yorktown is a census-designated place (CDP) in York County, Virginia, United States.
Zostera is a small genus of widely distributed seagrasses, commonly called marine eelgrass or simply eelgrass.
Bahia de Chesapeake, Bahía de Chesapeake, Cheasapeake Bay, Cheasepeake Bay, Chesapeake Bay (Md. and Va.), Chesapeake Bay Estuarine Complex, Chesapeake Bay Region, Chesapeake Bay Region (Md. and Va.), Chesapeake Bay Watershed, Chesapeake Bay region, Chesapeake Bay watershed, Chesapeake River, Chesapeake bay, Chesapeake river, Chesepeake bay, Depletion of oysters in the Chesapeake Bay, Flora and fauna of the Chesapeake Bay, Pollution in the Chesapeake Bay, Pollution of the Chesapeake Bay, Susquehanna Flats, Susquehanna flats, The Chesapeake Bay.