379 relations: A Game at Chess, A History of Chess, Abdul-Aziz ibn Abdullah Al ash-Sheikh, Abstract strategy game, Adjournment (games), Adolf Anderssen, Adriaan de Groot, Afrasiyab (Samarkand), Age of Enlightenment, Aggression, Alan Turing, Alexander Alekhine, Alexander Kotov, Alexander McDonnell, Alfred Binet, Algebraic notation (chess), Algorithm, Amber chess tournament, Anatoly Karpov, Anne Sunnucks, Aron Nimzowitsch, Arpad Elo, Artificial intelligence, Ashtapada, Asian Games, Association for Computing Machinery, Automaton, Aviezri Fraenkel, Azerbaijan, Backgammon, Backward pawn, Baku, Baldassare Castiglione, Baruch Harold Wood, Battery (chess), Benjamin Franklin, Benny Andersson, Bernhard Horwitz, Bishop (chess), Bitola, Björn Ulvaeus, Blindfold chess, Board game, Bobby Fischer, Boden's Mate, Boris Spassky, British Chess Variants Society, British Museum, Café de la Régence, Candidates Tournament, ..., Carmina Burana, Castling, Cavalry, Chariot, Chaturanga, Cheating in chess, Check (chess), Checkmate, Chess (musical), Chess (Northwestern University), Chess annotation symbols, Chess as mental training, Chess clock, Chess club, Chess columns in newspapers, Chess composer, Chess diagram, Chess endgame, Chess engine, Chess in the arts, Chess Life, Chess Olympiad, Chess opening, Chess or the King's Game, Chess piece, Chess piece relative value, Chess problem, Chess prodigy, Chess strategy, Chess tactic, Chess theory, Chess title, Chess960, Chess960 starting position, ChessBase, Chessboard, Chessgames.com, Classical World Chess Championship 2000, Claude Shannon, Cleveland Public Library, Coffeehouse, Cognitive psychology, Combination (chess), Combinatorial game theory, Combinatorics, Computer, Computer engineering, Congress, Consejo Superior de Deportes, Contract bridge, Correspondence chess, David Pritchard (chess player), David Vincent Hooper, Decoy (chess), Deep Blue (chess computer), Deep Blue versus Garry Kasparov, Deflection (chess), Descriptive notation, Diagonal, Dice, Dirk Jan ten Geuzendam, Discovered attack, Dominican Order, Dortmund Sparkassen Chess Meeting, Double check, Doubled pawns, Dover Publications, Draw (chess), Draw by agreement, Drosophila, Dunsany's Chess, East India, Edinburgh, Edward Winter (chess historian), Eight queens puzzle, El Ajedrecista, Elo rating system, Emanuel Lasker, En passant, Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings, Endgame study, English Chess Federation, Ernst Zermelo, European Individual Chess Championship, European Team Chess Championship, Evergreen Game, Everyman Chess, EXPTIME, Fairy chess piece, Fast chess, Fatwa, Fernand Gobet, FIDE, FIDE titles, Fifty-move rule, First-move advantage in chess, Fork (chess), François-André Danican Philidor, Frank Marshall (chess player), Gambit Publications, Game complexity, Game theory, Garry Kasparov, Geography of chess, Gioachino Greco, Giovanni Leonardo Di Bona, Giulio Cesare Polerio, Glossary of chess, Go (game), Grand Chess, Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia, Grandmaster (chess), Greek language, Gupta Empire, H. J. R. Murray, Handbuch des Schachspiels, Hans L. Bodlaender, Harry Golombek, Harry Potter, Henry Bird (chess player), Hexagonal chess, HIARCS, History of India, Hoax, Hou Yifan, Howard Staunton, HTC Touch HD, Human–computer chess matches, Hypermodernism (chess), Iberian Peninsula, IBM, ICCF numeric notation, Immortal Game, Infantry, Infinite chess, Initiative (chess), Intelligence, Interference (chess), International Correspondence Chess Federation, International Olympic Committee, Internet chess server, Interzonal, Isolated pawn, Jacobus de Cessolis, James Mason (chess player), Janggi, Johannes Zukertort, José Raúl Capablanca, Josef Kling, Judit Polgár, Ken Whyld, King (chess), Knight (chess), Knight Moves (film), Knight's tour, Knowledge, Larry Parr (chess player), Lasker versus Bauer, Amsterdam, 1889, Latvian Gambit, Lewis chessmen, Libro de los juegos, Liev Schreiber, Linares International Chess Tournament, List of chess books, List of chess games, List of chess players, List of chess variants, List of strong chess tournaments, List of World Chess Championships, London 1851 chess tournament, Losing Chess, Lothar Schmid, Louis-Charles Mahé de La Bourdonnais, Luděk Pachman, Luis Ramírez de Lucena, M-Tel Masters, Magical objects in Harry Potter, Magnus Carlsen, Makruk, Max Euwe, Mexico City, Middle Ages, Mikhail Botvinnik, Mikhail Tal, Mikhail Yudovich, Mind sport, Mind Sports Organisation, Misanthropy, Mobile phone, Moors, Morality, Morphy versus the Duke of Brunswick and Count Isouard, Musical theatre, Muslim conquest of Persia, Muslim world, My Great Predecessors, National Library of the Netherlands, National Museum, Warsaw, Neuroimaging, New In Chess, Nicholas II of Russia, Nigel Short, Noam Elkies, Nobility, Nona Gaprindashvili, North American Computer Chess Championship, Northwestern University, Olympic Games, Open Court Publishing Company, Opposite-colored bishops endgame, Ostrava, Outline of chess, Overloading (chess), Oxford University Press, Paul Morphy, Paul Rudolf von Bilguer, Pawn (chess), Pawn Sacrifice, Pawn structure, Pawnless chess endgame, Pedro Damiano, Perception, Perpetual check, Personality psychology, Pin (chess), Portable Game Notation, Portuguese language, Prague, Princeton University Press, Professional Chess Association, Promotion (chess), Queen (chess), Raven's Progressive Matrices, Réti Opening, Renaissance, Reuben Fine, Richard Réti, Romantic chess, Rook (chess), Rook and pawn versus rook endgame, Ruy López de Segura, Ruy Lopez, Sacrifice (chess), Salamanca, Sam Loyd, Samarkand, Sasanian Empire, Scholar's mate, Scrabble, Searching for Bobby Fischer, Serial killer, Shannon number, Shatranj, Shatranj Ke Khilari, Shogi, Sicilian Defence, Siegbert Tarrasch, Silk Road, Simon & Schuster, Simpson's-in-the-Strand, Sittuyin, Skewer (chess), Solving chess, Soviet Union, Spaniards, Stalemate, Star Trek, Statistical model, Staunton chess set, Susan Polgar, Tassilo von Heydebrand und der Lasa, Tata Steel Chess Tournament, The Book of the Courtier, The Cambridge History of English and American Literature, The Chess Variant Pages, The Defense, The exchange (chess), The Guardian, The Morals of Chess, The Oxford Companion to Chess, The Royal Game, The Seventh Seal, The Turk, The Week in Chess, Three-dimensional chess, Threefold repetition, Thriller (genre), Through the Looking-Glass, Tigran Petrosian, Tim Krabbé, Tim Rice, Time control, Tobey Maguire, Topology, Two knights endgame, Umayyad conquest of Hispania, Undermining (chess), United States Chess Federation, Uzbekistan, Vasily Smyslov, Vera Menchik, Veselin Topalov, Viktor Korchnoi, Viswanathan Anand, Vladimir Kramnik, Walter de Gruyter, War elephant, Warsaw, White and Black in chess, Wilhelm Steinitz, William Caxton, Women's World Chess Championship, World Chess Championship, World Chess Championship 1948, World Chess Championship 1972, World Chess Championship 2006, World Chess Championship 2007, World Chess Championship 2008, World Chess Championship 2013, World Chess Championship 2014, World Chess Solving Championship, World Computer Chess Championship, World Correspondence Chess Championship, World Junior Chess Championship, World Senior Chess Championship, Xiangqi, Zermelo's theorem (game theory), Zugzwang, Zwischenzug. 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A Game at Chess is a comic satirical play by Thomas Middleton, first staged in August 1624 by the King's Men at the Globe Theatre, notable for its political content.
The book A History of Chess was written by H. J. R. Murray (1868–1955) and published in 1913.
An abstract strategy game is a strategy game that does not rely on a theme.
Some board games, such as chess and Go, use an adjournment mechanism to suspend the game in progress so it can be continued at another time, typically the following day.
Karl Ernst Adolf Anderssen (July 6, 1818 – March 13, 1879)"Anderssen, Adolf" in The New Encyclopædia Britannica.
Adrianus Dingeman (Adriaan) de Groot (Santpoort, 26 October 1914 – Schiermonnikoog, 14 August 2006) was a Dutch chess master and psychologist, who conducted some of the most famous chess experiments of all time in the 1940s-60.
Afrasiyab (Afrosiyob) is an ancient site of northern Samarkand, Uzbekistan, that was occupied from c 500 BC to 1220 AD.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Aggression is overt, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting damage or other unpleasantness upon another individual.
Alan Mathison Turing (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist.
Alexander Alekhine (Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Але́хин, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Alekhin;; March 24, 1946) was a Russian and French chess player and the fourth World Chess Champion.
Alexander Alexandrovich Kotov (Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Ко́тов; – 8 January 1981) was a Soviet chess grandmaster and author.
Alexander McDonnell (1798–1835) was an Irish chess master, who contested a series of six matches with the world's leading player Louis-Charles Mahé de La Bourdonnais in the summer of 1834.
Alfred Binet (July 8, 1857 – October 18, 1911) was a French psychologist who invented the first practical IQ test, the Binet–Simon test.
Algebraic notation (or AN) is a method for recording and describing the moves in a game of chess.
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.
The Amber chess tournament (officially the Amber Rapid and Blindfold Chess Tournament, previously Melody Amber) was an annual invitation-only event for some of the world's best players, from 1992 to 2011.
Anatoly Yevgenyevich Karpov (Анато́лий Евге́ньевич Ка́рпов; born May 23, 1951) is a Russian chess grandmaster and former World Champion.
Patricia Anne Sunnucks (born 21 February 1927) is an author and the several-time British Women's Chess Champion (1957, 1958, 1964).
Aron Nimzowitsch (Ārons Nimcovičs, Аро́н Иса́евич Нимцо́вич, Aron Isayevich Nimtsovich; born Aron Niemzowitsch; 7 November 1886 – 16 March 1935) was a Russian-born, Danish leading chess grandmaster and influential chess writer.
Arpad Emmerich Elo (born Árpád Imre Élő; August 25, 1903 – November 5, 1992) was the creator of the Elo rating system for two-player games such as chess.
Artificial intelligence (AI, also machine intelligence, MI) is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence (NI) displayed by humans and other animals.
Ashtāpada (अष्टापद) or Ashtapadi is an Indian board game which predates chess and was mentioned on the list of games that Gautama Buddha would not play.
The Asian Games, also known as Asiad, is a continental multi-sport event held every four years among athletes from all over Asia.
The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is an international learned society for computing.
An automaton (plural: automata or automatons) is a self-operating machine, or a machine or control mechanism designed to automatically follow a predetermined sequence of operations, or respond to predetermined instructions.
Aviezri Siegmund Fraenkel (אביעזרי פרנקל) (born June 7, 1929) is an Israeli mathematician who has made notable contributions to combinatorial game theory.
Backgammon is one of the oldest known board games.
In chess, a backward pawn is a pawn that is behind all pawns of the same color on the adjacent files and cannot be safely advanced.
Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.
Baldassare Castiglione (December 6, 1478 – February 2, 1529),Dates of birth and death, and cause of the latter, from, Italica, Rai International online.
Baruch Harold Wood MSc OBE (13 July 1909 – 4 April 1989), generally known as B. H. Wood, was an English chess player, editor and author.
A battery in chess is a formation that consists of two or more pieces on the same rank, file, or diagonal.
Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
Göran Bror Benny Andersson (born 16 December 1946) is a Swedish musician, composer, member of the Swedish music group ABBA, and co-composer of the musicals Chess, Kristina från Duvemåla, and Mamma Mia!.
Bernhard Horwitz (1807 in Neustrelitz – 1885) was a German chess master and chess writer.
A bishop (♗,♝) is a piece in the board game of chess.
Bitola (Битола known also by several alternative names) is a city in the southwestern part of the Republic of Macedonia.
Björn Kristian Ulvaeus (credited as Björn Ulvæus; born 25 April 1945) is a Swedish songwriter, producer, a member of the Swedish musical group ABBA, and co-composer of the musicals Chess, Kristina från Duvemåla, and Mamma Mia!.
Blindfold chess (also known as sans voir) is a form of chess play wherein the players do not see the positions of the pieces or touch them.
A board game is a tabletop game that involves counters or moved or placed on a pre-marked surface or "board", according to a set of rules.
Robert James Fischer (March 9, 1943January 17, 2008) was an American chess grandmaster and the eleventh World Chess Champion.
Boden's Mate is a checkmating pattern in chess characterized by bishops on two criss-crossing diagonals (for example, bishops on a6 and f4 delivering mate to a king on c8), with possible flight squares for the king being occupied by friendly pieces.
Boris Vasilievich Spassky (Бори́с Васи́льевич Спа́сский; born January 30, 1937) is a Russian chess grandmaster.
The British Chess Variants Society (or BCVS) was an association of chess variant players and developers active between 1997 and 2010.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
The Café de la Régence in Paris was an important European centre of chess in the 18th and 19th centuries.
The Candidates Tournament is a chess tournament organized by FIDE, chess' international governing body, since 1950, as the final contest to determine the challenger for the World Chess Championship.
Carmina Burana (Latin for "Songs from Beuern"; "Beuern" is short for Benediktbeuern) is the name given to a manuscript of 254 poems and dramatic texts mostly from the 11th or 12th century, although some are from the 13th century.
Castling is a move in the game of chess involving a player's king and either of the player's original rooks.
Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.
A chariot is a type of carriage driven by a charioteer using primarily horses to provide rapid motive power.
Chaturanga (चतुरङ्ग), or catur for short, is an ancient Indian strategy game which is commonly theorized to be the common ancestor of the board games chess, shogi, sittuyin, makruk, xiangqi and janggi.
Cheating in chess refers to a deliberate violation of the rules of chess or other unethical behaviour that is intended to give an unfair advantage to a player or team.
A check is a condition in chess, shogi, and xiangqi that occurs when a player's king (or general in xiangqi) is under threat of on their opponent's next turn.
Checkmate (often shortened to mate) is a game position in chess and other chess-like games in which a player's king is in check (threatened with) and there is no way to remove the threat.
Chess is a musical with music by Benny Andersson and Björn Ulvaeus of the pop group ABBA, lyrics by Tim Rice, and a book by Richard Nelson based on an idea by Rice.
Chess was a pioneering chess program from the 1970s, written by Larry Atkin and David Slate at Northwestern University.
When annotating chess games, commentators frequently use widely recognized annotation symbols.
There are efforts to use the game of chess as a tool to aid the intellectual development of young people.
A chess clock consists of two adjacent clocks with buttons to stop one clock while starting the other, so that the two clocks never run simultaneously.
A chess club is a club formed for the purpose of playing the board game of chess.
The earliest known chess column appeared in the Lancet in 1823, but due to lack of popularity disappeared after less than a year.
A chess composer is a person who creates endgame studies or chess problems.
A chess diagram is graphic representation and stylized of a specific moment in a chess game, showing the different positions occupied by chess pieces in given time during game development.
In chess and chess-like games, the endgame (or end game or ending) is the stage of the game when few pieces are left on the board.
In computer chess, a chess engine is a computer program that analyses chess or chess variant positions and makes decisions on the best chess moves.
Chess became a source of inspiration in the arts in literature soon after the spread of the game to the Arab World and Europe in the Middle Ages.
The monthly Chess Life and bi-monthly Chess Life Kids (formerly School Mates and Chess Life for Kids) are the official magazines published by the United States Chess Federation (US Chess).
The Chess Olympiad is a biennial chess tournament in which teams from all over the world compete.
A chess opening or simply an opening refers to the initial moves of a chess game.
Chess or the King's Game (Das Schach- oder Königsspiel) is a book on chess.
A chess piece, or chessman, is any of the six different movable objects used on a chessboard to play the game of chess.
In chess, the chess piece relative value system conventionally assigns a point value to each piece when assessing its relative strength in potential exchanges.
A chess problem, also called a chess composition, is a puzzle set by somebody using chess pieces on a chess board, that presents the solver with a particular task to be achieved.
Chess prodigies are children who can beat experienced adult players and even Masters at chess.
Chess strategy is the aspect of chess playing concerned with evaluation of chess positions and setting of goals and long-term plans for future play.
In chess, a tactic refers to a sequence of moves that limits the opponent's options and may result in tangible gain.
The game of chess is commonly divided into three phases: the opening, middlegame, and endgame.
A chess title is a title created by a chess governing body and bestowed upon players based on their performance and rank.
Chess960, also called Fischer Random Chess (originally Fischerandom), is a variant of chess invented and advocated by former world chess champion Bobby Fischer, announced publicly on June 19, 1996, in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
A Chess960 starting position is one of 960 possible initial game positions in the chess variant Chess960.
ChessBase GmbH is a German company that markets chess software, maintains a chess news site, and operates servers for online chess.
A chessboard is the type of checkerboard used in the board game chess, consisting of 64 squares (eight rows and eight columns).
Chessgames.com is an Internet chess community with over 224,000 members.
The Classical World Chess Championship 2000, known at the time as the Braingames World Chess Championships, was held from 8 October 2000 – 4 November 2000 in London, United Kingdom.
Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001) was an American mathematician, electrical engineer, and cryptographer known as "the father of information theory".
Cleveland Public Library, located in Cleveland, Ohio operates the Main Library on Superior Avenue in downtown Cleveland, 27 branches throughout the city, a mobile library, a Public Administration Library in City Hall, and the Ohio Library for the Blind and Physically Disabled.
A coffeehouse, coffee shop or café (sometimes spelt cafe) is an establishment which primarily serves hot coffee, related coffee beverages (café latte, cappuccino, espresso), tea, and other hot beverages.
Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking".
In chess, a combination is a sequence of moves, often initiated by a sacrifice, which leaves the opponent few options and results in tangible gain.
Combinatorial game theory (CGT) is a branch of mathematics and theoretical computer science that typically studies sequential games with perfect information.
Combinatorics is an area of mathematics primarily concerned with counting, both as a means and an end in obtaining results, and certain properties of finite structures.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
Computer engineering is a discipline that integrates several fields of computer science and electronics engineering required to develop computer hardware and software.
A congress is a formal meeting of the representatives of different nations, constituent states, organizations (such as trade unions, and political parties), or groups.
The National Sports Council (Consejo Superior de Deportes, CSD) is the Spanish Government organisation for directing the development of sport within the Spain.
Contract bridge, or simply bridge, is a trick-taking card game using a standard 52-card deck.
Correspondence chess is chess or variant chess played by various forms of long-distance correspondence, often through a correspondence chess server, a public internet chess forum, email, or the postal system.
David Brine Pritchard (19 October 1919 – 12 December 2005)David Pritchard. The Times (London).
David Vincent Hooper (31 August 1915 – May 1998), born in Reigate, was a British chess player and writer.
In chess, decoying is the tactic of ensnaring a piece, usually the king or queen, by forcing it to move to a poisoned square with a sacrifice on that square.
Deep Blue was a chess-playing computer developed by IBM.
Deep Blue versus Garry Kasparov was a pair of six-game chess matches between world chess champion Garry Kasparov and an IBM supercomputer called Deep Blue.
Deflection in chess is a tactic that forces an opposing piece to leave the square, rank or file it occupies, thus exposing the king or a valuable piece.
Descriptive notation is a notation for recording chess games, and at one time was the most popular notation in English- and Spanish-speaking countries.
In geometry, a diagonal is a line segment joining two vertices of a polygon or polyhedron, when those vertices are not on the same edge.
Dice (singular die or dice; from Old French dé; from Latin datum "something which is given or played") are small throwable objects with multiple resting positions, used for generating random numbers.
Dirk Jan ten Geuzendam (born January 11, 1957) is a Dutch chess writer, commentator and organizer.
In chess, a discovered attack is an attack revealed when one piece moves out of the way of another.
The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum, postnominal abbreviation OP), also known as the Dominican Order, is a mendicant Catholic religious order founded by the Spanish priest Dominic of Caleruega in France, approved by Pope Honorius III via the Papal bull Religiosam vitam on 22 December 1216.
The Dortmund Sparkassen Chess Meeting is an elite chess tournament held every summer in Dortmund, Germany.
In chess, a double check is a check delivered by two pieces simultaneously.
In chess, doubled pawns are two pawns of the same color residing on the same file.
Dover Publications, also known as Dover Books, is an American book publisher founded in 1941 by Hayward Cirker and his wife, Blanche.
In chess, a draw is the result of a game ending in a tie.
In chess, a draw by (mutual) agreement is the outcome of a game due to the agreement of both players to a draw.
Drosophila is a genus of flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called "small fruit flies" or (less frequently) pomace flies, vinegar flies, or wine flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger around overripe or rotting fruit.
Dunsany's Chess, also known as Dunsany's Game, is an asymmetric chess variant in which one side has standard chess pieces, and the other side has 32 pawns.
East India is a region of India consisting of the Indian states of Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Odisha and also the union territory Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.
Edward Winter (born 1955) is an English chess journalist, archivist, historian, collector and author.
The eight queens puzzle is the problem of placing eight chess queens on an 8×8 chessboard so that no two queens threaten each other.
El Ajedrecista (The Chess Player) is an automaton built in 1912 by Leonardo Torres y Quevedo, one of the first autonomous machines capable of playing chess.
The Elo rating system is a method for calculating the relative skill levels of players in zero-sum games such as chess.
Emanuel Lasker (December 24, 1868 – January 11, 1941) was a German chess player, mathematician, and philosopher who was World Chess Champion for 27 years (from 1894 to 1921).
En passant (in passing) is a move in chess.
The Encyclopedia of Chess Openings is a classification system for the opening moves in chess.
In the game of chess, an endgame study, or just study, is a composed position—that is, one that has been made up rather than one from an actual game—presented as a sort of puzzle, in which the aim of the solver is to find the essentially unique way for one side (usually White) to win or draw, as stipulated, against any moves the other side plays.
The English Chess Federation (ECF) is the governing chess organisation in England and is affiliated to FIDE.
Ernst Friedrich Ferdinand Zermelo (27 July 1871 – 21 May 1953) was a German logician and mathematician, whose work has major implications for the foundations of mathematics.
The European Individual Chess Championship is a chess tournament organised by the European Chess Union.
The European Team Championship (often abbreviated in texts and games databases as ETC) is an international team chess event, eligible for the participation of European nations whose chess federations are located in zones 1.1 to 1.9.
The Evergreen Game is a famous chess game, won by Adolf Anderssen against Jean Dufresne in 1852.
Everyman Chess, formerly known as Cadogan Chess, is a major publisher of books and CDs about chess.
In computational complexity theory, the complexity class EXPTIME (sometimes called EXP or DEXPTIME) is the set of all decision problems that have exponential runtime, i.e., that are solvable by a deterministic Turing machine in O(2p(n)) time, where p(n) is a polynomial function of n. In terms of DTIME, We know and also, by the time hierarchy theorem and the space hierarchy theorem, that so at least one of the first three inclusions and at least one of the last three inclusions must be proper, but it is not known which ones are.
A fairy chess piece, variant chess piece, unorthodox chess piece, or heterodox chess piece is a chess piece not used in conventional chess but incorporated into certain chess variants and some chess problems.
Fast chess (also known as speed chess) is a variation of chess in which each side is given less time to make their moves than under normal tournament time controls.
A fatwā (فتوى; plural fatāwā فتاوى.) in the Islamic faith is a nonbinding but authoritative legal opinion or learned interpretation that the Sheikhul Islam, a qualified jurist or mufti, can give on issues pertaining to the Islamic law.
Fernand Gobet (born February 12, 1962 in Switzerland) is a cognitive scientist and a cognitive psychologist, currently Professor of Cognitive Psychology at the University of Liverpool.
The Fédération Internationale des Échecs or World Chess Federation is an international organization that connects the various national chess federations around the world and acts as the governing body of international chess competition.
The World Chess Federation, FIDE (Fédération Internationale des Échecs), awards several performance-based titles to chess players, up to and including the highly prized Grandmaster title.
The fifty-move rule in chess states that a player can claim a draw if no has been made and no pawn has been moved in the last fifty moves (for this purpose a "move" consists of a player completing their turn followed by the opponent completing their turn).
The first-move advantage in chess is the inherent advantage of the player (White) who makes the first move in chess.
In chess, a fork is a tactic whereby a single piece makes two or more direct attacks simultaneously.
François-André Danican Philidor (September 7, 1726 – August 31, 1795), often referred to as André Danican Philidor during his lifetime, was a French composer and chess player.
Frank James Marshall (August 10, 1877 – November 9, 1944) was the U.S. Chess Champion from 1909 to 1936, and one of the world's strongest chess players in the early part of the 20th century.
Gambit Publications is a major publisher of chess books.
Combinatorial game theory has several ways of measuring game complexity.
Game theory is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers".
Garry Kimovich Kasparov (Га́рри Ки́мович Каспа́ров,; Armenian: Գարրի Կիմովիչ Կասպարով; born Garik Kimovich Weinstein, 13 April 1963) is a Russian chess grandmaster, former world chess champion, writer, and political activist, who many consider to be the greatest chess player of all time.
Chess is played all over the world.
Gioacchino Greco (c. 1600 – c. 1634) was an Italian chess player and writer.
Giovanni Leonardo di Bona or Giovanni Leonardo da Cutri (both given names can be seen also in the reversed order Leonardo Giovanni), known as Il Puttino (1542–1597), was an early Italian chess master.
Giulio Cesare Polerio (c. 1550, Lanciano – c. 1610, Rome; reconstruction of places and dates by Adriano Chicco) was an Italian chess theoretician and player.
This page explains commonly used terms in chess in alphabetical order.
Go is an abstract strategy board game for two players, in which the aim is to surround more territory than the opponent.
Grand Chess is a large-board chess variant invented by Dutch games designer Christian Freeling in 1984.
The Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia is the most senior and most influential Muslim religious and legal authority in Saudi Arabia.
The title Grandmaster (GM) is awarded to chess players by the world chess organization FIDE.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire, existing from approximately 240 to 590 CE.
Harold James Ruthven Murray (24 June 1868 – 16 May 1955) was an English educationalist, inspector of schools, and prominent chess historian.
Handbuch des Schachspiels (Handbook of Chess, often simply called the Handbuch) is a chess book, first published in 1843 by Tassilo von Heydebrand und der Lasa.
Hans Leo Bodlaender (born April 21, 1960), retrieved 2012-02-18.
Harry Golombek OBE (1 March 1911 – 7 January 1995), was a British chess grandmaster, chess arbiter, chess author, and wartime codebreaker.
Harry Potter is a series of fantasy novels written by British author J. K. Rowling.
Henry Edward Bird (Portsea in Hampshire, 14 July 1830 – 11 April 1908) was an English chess player, and also an author and accountant.
Hexagonal chess refers to a group of chess variants played on boards composed of hexagon.
HIARCS is a proprietary UCI chess engine developed by Mark Uniacke.
The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.
A hoax is a falsehood deliberately fabricated to masquerade as the truth.
Hou Yifan (born 27 February 1994), China Chess League is a Chinese chess grandmaster and three-time Women's World Chess Champion.
Howard Staunton (1810 – 22 June 1874) was an English chess master who is generally regarded as having been the world's strongest player from 1843 to 1851, largely as a result of his 1843 victory over Pierre Charles Fournier de Saint-Amant.
The HTC Touch HD, also known as the HTC T828X or its codename the HTC Blackstone, is a Windows Mobile 6.1 Pocket PC designed and manufactured by HTC launched in 2008.
This article documents the progress of significant human–computer chess matches.
Hypermodernism is a school of chess that emerged after World War I. It featured challenges to the chess ideas of central European masters, including Wilhelm Steinitz's approach to the centre and the rules established by Siegbert Tarrasch.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
ICCF numeric notation is the official chess game notation for all International Correspondence Chess Federation games.
The Immortal Game was a chess game played by Adolf Anderssen and Lionel Kieseritzky on 21 June 1851 in London, during a break of the first international tournament.
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.
Infinite chess is any of several variations of the game chess played on an unbounded chessboard.
Initiative in a chess position belongs to the player who can make threats that cannot be ignored.
Intelligence has been defined in many different ways to include the capacity for logic, understanding, self-awareness, learning, emotional knowledge, reasoning, planning, creativity, and problem solving.
In the game of chess, interference occurs when the line between an attacked piece and its defender is interrupted by sacrificially interposing a piece.
International Correspondence Chess Federation (ICCF) was founded in 1951 as a new appearance of the International Correspondence Chess Association (ICCA), which was founded in 1945, as successor of the Internationaler Fernschachbund (IFSB), founded in 1928.
The International Olympic Committee (IOC; French: Comité International Olympique, CIO) is a Swiss private non-governmental organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, which is the authority responsible for the modern Olympic Games.
An Internet chess server (ICS) is an external server that provides the facility to play, discuss, and view the board game of chess over the Internet.
Interzonal chess tournaments were tournaments organized by the World Chess Federation FIDE from the 1950s to the 1990s.
In chess, an isolated pawn is a pawn that has no friendly pawn on an adjacent.
Jacobus de Cessolis (Jacopo da Cessole) (c. 1250 – c. 1322) was an Italian author of the most famous morality book on chess in the Middle Ages.
James Mason (November 19, 1849 – January 12, 1905) was an Irish-born chess player, journalist and writer, who became one of the world's best half-dozen players in the 1880s.
Janggi (including romanizations changgi and jangki), sometimes called Korean chess, is a strategy board game popular in Korea.
Johannes Hermann Zukertort (Polish: Jan Hermann Cukiertort; 7 September 1842 – 20 June 1888) was a leading German-Polish chess master.
José Raúl Capablanca y Graupera (19 November 1888 – 8 March 1942) was a Cuban chess player who was world chess champion from 1921 to 1927.
Josef Kling (19 March 1811 – 1 December 1876), also found in English-language sources as Joseph Kling, was a German chess master and chess composer.
Judit Polgár (born 23 July 1976) is a Hungarian chess grandmaster.
Kenneth Whyld (6 March 1926 – 11 July 2003) was a British chess author and researcher, best known as the co-author (with David Hooper) of The Oxford Companion to Chess, a single-volume chess reference work in English.
In chess, the king (♔,♚) is the most important piece.
The knight (♘ ♞) is a piece in the game of chess, representing a knight (armored cavalry).
Knight Moves is a 1992 American thriller film, directed by Carl Schenkel and written by Brad Mirman, about a chess grandmaster who is accused of several grisly murders.
A knight's tour is a sequence of moves of a knight on a chessboard such that the knight visits every square only once.
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.
Lawrence "Larry" Parr (May 21, 1946 – April 2, 2011) was a chess player, author and editor.
The chess game between Emanuel Lasker and Johann Bauer played in Amsterdam in 1889 is one of the most famous on account of Lasker's sacrifice of both bishops to eliminate the pawn cover around his opponent's king, winning material and the game.
The Latvian Gambit (or Greco Countergambit) is a chess opening characterised by the moves: It is one of the oldest chess openings, having been analysed in the 17th century by Gioachino Greco, after whom it is sometimes named.
The Lewis chessmen (Lewisbrikkene; Fir-Tàilisg; Lewis chesmen) or Uig chessmen, named after the bay where they were found, are a group of distinctive 12th-century chess pieces, along with other gaming pieces, most of which are carved from walrus ivory.
The Libro de los Juegos, ("Book of games"), or Libro de axedrez, dados e tablas, ("Book of chess, dice and tables", in Old Spanish) was commissioned by Alfonso X of Castile, Galicia and León and completed in his scriptorium in Toledo in 1283,Sonja Musser Golladay, (PhD diss., University of Arizona, 2007), 31.
Isaac Liev Schreiber (born October 4, 1967) is an American actor, director, screenwriter, and producer.
The Linares International Chess Tournament (Spanish: Torneo Internacional de Ajedrez Ciudad de Linares) was an annual chess tournament, usually played around the end of February, which takes its name from the city of Linares in the Jaén province of Andalusia, Spain, in which it is held.
This is a list of chess books that are used as references in articles related to chess.
This is a list of notable chess games sorted chronologically.
This list of chess players includes people who are primarily known as chess players and have an article on the English Wikipedia.
A chess variant (or unorthodox chess) is a game "related to, derived from, or inspired by chess".
This article depicts many of the strongest international chess tournaments in history.
The following is a list of World Chess Championships including the hosting cities.
London 1851 was the first international chess tournament.
Losing Chess (also known as Antichess, the Losing Game, Giveaway Chess, Suicide Chess, Killer Chess, Must-Kill, Take-All Chess, Capture Chess or Losums) is one of the most popular chess variants.
Lothar Maximilian Lorenz Schmid (10 May 1928 – 18 May 2013) was a German chess grandmaster.
Louis-Charles Mahé de La Bourdonnais (1795– December 1840) was a French chess master, possibly the strongest player in the early 19th century.
Luděk Pachman (German: Ludek Pachmann, May 11, 1924 in Bělá pod Bezdězem, today Czech Republic – March 6, 2003 in Passau, Germany) was a Czechoslovak-German chess grandmaster, chess writer, and political activist.
Luis Ramírez de Lucena (c. 1465 – c. 1530) was a Spanish chess player who published the first still-existing chess book.
Mtel Masters was an annual super-GM chess tournament held between 2005 and 2009 in Sofia, Bulgaria, sponsored and organized by the Bulgarian mobile network operator, M-Tel.
The following is a list of magical objects used in the Harry Potter series.
Sven Magnus Øen Carlsen (born 30 November 1990) is a Norwegian chess grandmaster and the current World Chess Champion.
Makruk (หมากรุก), or Thai chess, is a board game that descended from the 6th-century Indian game of chaturanga or a close relative thereof, and therefore related to chess.
Machgielis "Max" Euwe, PhD (May 20, 1901 – November 26, 1981) was a Dutch chess Grandmaster, mathematician, author, and chess administrator.
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Mikhail Moiseyevich Botvinnik (Михаи́л Моисе́евич Ботви́нник,; – May 5, 1995) was a Soviet and Russian International Grandmaster and World Chess Champion for most of 1948 to 1963.
Mikhail Nekhemyevich Tal (Mihails Tāls; Михаил Нехемьевич Таль, Mikhail Nekhem'evich Tal,; sometimes transliterated Mihails Tals or Mihail Tal; 9 November 1936 – 28 June 1992) was a Soviet Latvian chess Grandmaster and the eighth World Chess Champion (from 1960 to 1961).
Mikhail Mikhailovich Yudovich (8 June 1911 in Roslavl – 19 September 1987 in Moscow) was a Russian chess master, journalist, and writer.
A mind sport, or as it's more commonly referred to an altsport, is a game of skill where the competition is based on a particular type of the intellectual ability as opposed to physical exercise.
The Mind Sports Organisation (MSO) is an association for promoting mental-skill games (Mind Sport) including Contract Bridge, Chess, Go, Mastermind, and Scrabble.
Misanthropy is the general hatred, dislike, distrust or contempt of the human species or human nature.
A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.
The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta during the Middle Ages.
Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
The chess game played in 1858 at an opera house in Paris between the American chess master Paul Morphy and two strong amateurs, the German noble Karl II, Duke of Brunswick and the French aristocrat Comte Isouard de Vauvenargues, is among the most famous of chess games.
Musical theatre is a form of theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue, acting and dance.
The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran, led to the end of the Sasanian Empire of Persia in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran (Persia).
The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.
My Great Predecessors is a series of chess books written by former World Champion Garry Kasparov et al.
The National Library of the Netherlands (Dutch: Koninklijke Bibliotheek or KB; Royal Library) is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798.
The National Museum in Warsaw (Muzeum Narodowe w Warszawie), popularly abbreviated as MNW, is a national museum in Warsaw, one of the largest museums in Poland and the largest in the capital.
Neuroimaging or brain imaging is the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function/pharmacology of the nervous system.
New In Chess (NIC) is a chess magazine that appears eight times a year with chief editors International Grandmaster Jan Timman and Dirk Jan ten Geuzendam.
Nicholas II or Nikolai II (r; 1868 – 17 July 1918), known as Saint Nicholas II of Russia in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917.
Nigel David Short (born 1 June 1965) is an English chess grandmaster, chess columnist, chess coach and chess commentator.
Noam David Elkies (born August 25, 1966) is an American mathematician and professor of mathematics at Harvard University.
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
Nona Gaprindashvili (ნონა გაფრინდაშვილი; born 3 May 1941) is a Georgian chess player, the sixth women's world chess champion (1962–1978), and first female Grandmaster.
The North American Computer Chess Championship was a computer chess championship held from 1970 to 1994.
Northwestern University (NU) is a private research university based in Evanston, Illinois, United States, with other campuses located in Chicago and Doha, Qatar, and academic programs and facilities in Miami, Florida, Washington, D.C., and San Francisco, California.
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.
The Open Court Publishing Company is a publisher with offices in Chicago and La Salle, Illinois.
The opposite-colored bishops endgame is a chess endgame in which each side has a single bishop, but the bishops reside on opposite-colored squares on the chessboard, thus cannot attack or block each other.
Ostrava (Ostrawa, Ostrau or Mährisch Ostrau) is a city in the north-east of the Czech Republic and is the capital of the Moravian-Silesian Region.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to chess: Chess is a two-player board game played on a chessboard (a square-checkered board with 64 squares arranged in an eight-by-eight grid).
Overloading (also overworking) is a chess tactic in which a defensive piece is given an additional defensive assignment which it cannot complete without abandoning its original defensive assignment.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Paul Charles Morphy (June 22, 1837 – July 10, 1884) was an American chess player.
Paul Rudolf (or Rudolph) von Bilguer (21 September 1815 – 16 September 1840) was a German chess master and chess theoretician from Ludwigslust in the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
The pawn (♙,♟) is the most numerous piece in the game of chess, and in most circumstances, also the weakest.
Pawn Sacrifice is a 2014 American biographical drama film.
In chess, the pawn structure (sometimes known as the pawn skeleton) is the configuration of pawns on the chessboard.
A pawnless chess endgame is a chess endgame in which only a few pieces remain and none of them is a pawn.
Pedro Damiano (in Portuguese, Pedro Damião; Damiano is the Italian form, much like the Latin Damianus) was a Portuguese chess player who lived from 1480 to 1544.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
In the game of chess, perpetual check is a situation in which one player can force a draw by an unending series of checks.
Personality psychology is a branch of psychology that studies personality and its variation among individuals.
In chess, a pin is a situation brought on by an attacking piece in which a defending piece cannot move without exposing a more valuable defending piece on its other side to capture by the attacking piece.
Portable Game Notation (PGN) is a plain text computer-processible format for recording chess games (both the moves and related data), supported by many chess programs.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
The Professional Chess Association (PCA), which existed between 1993 and 1996, was a rival organisation to FIDE, the international chess organization.
Promotion is a chess rule that requires a pawn that reaches its eighth to be immediately replaced by the player's choice of a queen, knight, rook, or bishop of the same.
The queen (♕,♛) is the most powerful piece in the game of chess, able to move any number of squares vertically, horizontally or diagonally.
Raven's Progressive Matrices (often referred to simply as Raven's Matrices) or RPM is a nonverbal group test typically used in educational settings.
The Réti Opening is a hypermodern chess opening whose traditional or classic method begins with the moves: White plans to bring the d5-pawn under attack from the, or entice it to advance to d4 and undermine it later.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Reuben Fine (October 11, 1914 – March 26, 1993) was an American chess grandmaster, psychologist, university professor, and author of many books on both chess and psychology.
Richard Selig Réti (28 May 1889, Bösing, now Pezinok – 6 June 1929, Prague) was an Austro-Hungarian, later Czechoslovak chess grandmaster, chess author, and composer of endgame studies.
Romantic chess was the style of chess prevalent from the late 15th century until the 1880s.
A rook (♖,♜) is a piece in the strategy board game of chess.
The rook and pawn versus rook endgame is of fundamental importance to chess endgames,,,, and has been widely studied,. Precise play is usually required in these positions.
Rodrigo (Ruy) López de Segura (c. 1530 – c. 1580) was a Spanish priest and later bishop in Segura whose 1561 book Libro de la invención liberal y arte del juego del Axedrez was one of the first definitive books about modern chess in Europe, preceded only by Pedro Damiano's 1512 book, Luis Ramírez de Lucena's 1497 book (the oldest surviving printed book on chess), and the Göttingen manuscript (authorship and exact date of the manuscript are unknown).
The Ruy Lopez, also called the Spanish Opening or Spanish Game, is a chess opening characterised by the moves: The Ruy Lopez is named after 16th-century Spanish bishop Ruy López de Segura.
In chess, a sacrifice is a move giving up a piece with the objective of gaining tactical or positional compensation in other forms.
Salamanca is a city in northwestern Spain that is the capital of the Province of Salamanca in the community of Castile and León.
Samuel Loyd (January 30, 1841 – April 10, 1911), born in Philadelphia and raised in New York City, was an American chess player, chess composer, puzzle author, and recreational mathematician.
Samarkand (Uzbek language Uzbek alphabet: Samarqand; سمرقند; Самарканд; Σαμαρκάνδη), alternatively Samarqand, is a city in modern-day Uzbekistan and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in Central Asia.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
In chess, Scholar's Mate is the checkmate achieved by the following moves, or similar: The same mating pattern may be reached by various move orders.
Scrabble is a word game in which two to four players score points by placing tiles bearing a single letter onto a board divided into a 15×15 grid of squares.
Searching for Bobby Fischer, released in the United Kingdom as Innocent Moves, is a 1993 American drama film written and directed by Steven Zaillian.
A serial killer is typically a person who murders three or more people,A serial killer is most commonly defined as a person who kills three or more people for psychological gratification; reliable sources over the years agree.
The Shannon number, named after Claude Shannon, is a conservative lower bound (not an estimate) of the game-tree complexity of chess of 10120, based on an average of about 103 possibilities for a pair of moves consisting of a move for White followed by one for Black, and a typical game lasting about 40 such pairs of moves.
Shatranj (شطرنج, from Middle Persian chatrang) is an old form of chess, as played in the Persian Empire.
Shatranj Ke Khilari (English: The Chess Players) is a 1977 Indian film written and directed by Satyajit Ray, based on Munshi Premchand's short story of the same name.
(), also known as Japanese chess or the Game of Generals, is a two-player strategy board game in the same family as chess, chaturanga, makruk, shatranj, janggi and xiangqi, and is the most popular of a family of chess variants native to Japan.
The Sicilian Defence is a chess opening that begins with the following moves: The Sicilian is the most popular and best-scoring response to White's first move 1.e4.
Siegbert Tarrasch (5 March 1862 – 17 February 1934) was one of the strongest chess players and most influential chess teachers of the late 19th and early 20th century.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.
Simpson's-in-the-Strand is one of London's oldest traditional English restaurants.
Sittuyin (စစ်တုရင်), also known as Burmese chess, is a variant of chess that is a direct offspring of the Indian game of chaturanga which arrived in 8th century AD.
In chess, a skewer is an attack upon two pieces in a line and is similar to a pin.
Solving chess means finding an optimal strategy for playing chess, i.e. one by which one of the players (White or Black) can always force a victory, or both can force a draw (see Solved game).
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spaniards are a Latin European ethnic group and nation.
Stalemate is a situation in the game of chess where the player whose turn it is to move is not in check but has no legal move.
Star Trek is an American media franchise based on the science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry.
A statistical model is a mathematical model that embodies a set of statistical assumptions concerning the generation of some sample data and similar data from a larger population.
The Staunton chess set is composed of a particular style of chess pieces used to play the game of chess.
Susan Polgar (born April 19, 1969, as Polgár Zsuzsanna and often known as Zsuzsa Polgár) is a Hungarian-born American chess Grandmaster.
Tassilo, Baron von Heydebrand und der Lasa (known in English as "Baron von der Lasa", 17 October 1818, Berlin – 27 July 1899, Storchnest near Lissa, Greater Poland, then German Empire) was an important German chess master, chess historian and theoretician of the nineteenth century, a member of the Berlin Chess Club and a founder of the Berlin Chess School (the Berlin Pleiades).
The Tata Steel Chess Tournament is an annual chess tournament held in January in Wijk aan Zee, the Netherlands.
The Book of the Courtier (Il Cortegiano) is a courtesy book.
The Cambridge History of English and American Literature is an encyclopedia of literary criticism that was published by Cambridge University Press between 1907 and 1921.
The Chess Variant Pages is a popular non-commercial Internet website devoted to chess variants.
The Defense is the third novel written by Vladimir Nabokov during his emigration to Berlin, published in 1930.
The exchange in chess refers to a situation in which one player loses a minor piece (i.e. a bishop or knight) but captures the opponent's rook.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Morals of Chess is an essay on chess by the American intellectual Benjamin Franklin, which was first published in The Columbian Magazine in December 1786.
The Oxford Companion to Chess is a reference book on the game of chess, written by David Hooper and Kenneth Whyld.
The Royal Game (or Chess Story; in the original German Schachnovelle, "Chess Novella") is a novella by Austrian author Stefan Zweig first published in 1941, just before the author's death by suicide.
The Seventh Seal (Det sjunde inseglet) is a 1957 Swedish epic historical fantasy film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman.
The Turk, also known as the Mechanical Turk or Automaton Chess Player (Schachtürke, "chess Turk"; A Török), was a fake chess-playing machine constructed in the late 18th century.
The Week in Chess (TWIC) is one of the first, if not the first, Internet-based chess news services.
Three-dimensional chess (or 3D chess) refers to any chess variant that uses multiple boards at different levels, allowing the chess pieces to move in three physical dimensions.
In chess and some other abstract strategy games, the threefold repetition rule (also known as repetition of position) states that a player can claim a draw if the same position occurs three times, or will occur after their next move, with the same player to move.
Thriller is a broad genre of literature, film and television, having numerous, often overlapping subgenres.
Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There (1871) is a novel by Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson), the sequel to Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865).
Tigran Vartanovich Petrosian (Тигра́н Варта́нович Петрося́н; Տիգրան Պետրոսյան; June 17, 1929 – August 13, 1984) was a Soviet Armenian Grandmaster, and World Chess Champion from 1963 to 1969.
Tim Krabbé (born 13 April 1943) is a Dutch journalist and novelist.
Sir Timothy Miles Bindon Rice (born 10 November 1944) is an English author and Academy Award, Golden Globe Award, Tony Award, and Grammy Award-winning lyricist.
A time control is a mechanism in the tournament play of almost all two-player board games so that each round of the match can finish in a timely way and the tournament can proceed.
Tobias Vincent Maguire (born June 27, 1975) is an American actor and film producer.
In mathematics, topology (from the Greek τόπος, place, and λόγος, study) is concerned with the properties of space that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, crumpling and bending, but not tearing or gluing.
The two knights endgame is a chess endgame with a king and two knights versus a king.
The Umayyad conquest of Hispania was the initial expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate over Hispania, largely extending from 711 to 788.
Undermining (also known as removal of the guard, or removing the defender) is a chess tactic in which a defensive piece is captured, leaving one of the opponent's pieces undefended or under-defended.
The United States Chess Federation (also known as US Chess or USCF) is the governing body for chess competition in the United States and represents the U.S. in FIDE, the World Chess Federation.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
Vasily Vasilyevich Smyslov (Василий Васильевич Смыслов; 24 March 1921 – 27 March 2010) was a Soviet and Russian chess grandmaster, who was World Chess Champion from 1957 to 1958.
Vera Frantsevna Menchik (Вера Францевна Менчик; Věra Menčíková; 16 February 1906 – 27 June 1944) was a British-Czechoslovak-Russian chess player who gained renown as the world's first women's chess champion.
Veselin Aleksandrov Topalov (pronounced; Весели́н Александров Топа́лов; born 15 March 1975) is a Bulgarian chess grandmaster and former FIDE World Chess Champion.
Viktor Lvovich Korchnoi (p; 23 March 1931 – 6 June 2016) was a Soviet (until 1976) and Swiss (since 1994) chess grandmaster and writer.
Viswanathan "Vishy" Anand (born 11 December 1969) is an Indian chess grandmaster, a former World Chess Champion, and the current World Rapid Chess Champion.
Vladimir Borisovich Kramnik (Влади́мир Бори́сович Кра́мник; born 25 June 1975) is a Russian chess grandmaster.
Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.
A war elephant is an elephant that is trained and guided by humans for combat.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
In chess, the player who moves first is referred to as "White" and the player who moves second is referred to as "Black".
Wilhelm (later William) Steinitz (May 17, 1836 – August 12, 1900) was an Austrian and later American chess master, and the first undisputed World Chess Champion, from 1886 to 1894.
William Caxton (c. 1422 – c. 1491) was an English merchant, diplomat, writer and printer.
The Women's World Chess Championship (WWCC) is played to determine the women's world champion in chess.
The World Chess Championship (sometimes abbreviated as WCC) is played to determine the World Champion in chess.
The 1948 World Chess Championship was a quintuple round-robin tournament played to determine the new World Chess Champion following the death of the previous champion Alexander Alekhine in 1946.
The World Chess Championship 1972 was a match for the World Chess Championship between challenger Bobby Fischer of the United States and defending champion Boris Spassky of the Soviet Union.
The World Chess Championship 2006 was a match between Classical World Chess Champion Vladimir Kramnik, and FIDE World Chess Champion Veselin Topalov.
The World Chess Championship 2007 was held in Mexico City, from 12 September 2007 to 30 September 2007 to decide the world champion in the board game chess.
The World Chess Championship 2008 was a best-of-twelve-games match between the incumbent World Chess Champion, Viswanathan Anand, and the previous World Champion, Vladimir Kramnik.
The World Chess Championship 2013 was a match between reigning world champion Viswanathan Anand and challenger Magnus Carlsen, to determine the 2013 World Chess Champion.
The World Chess Championship 2014 was a match between the world champion Magnus Carlsen and challenger Viswanathan Anand, to determine the World Chess Champion.
The World Chess Solving Championship (WCSC) is an annual competition in the solving of chess problems organised by the World Federation for Chess Composition (WFCC), previously by FIDE via the Permanent Commission of the FIDE for Chess Compositions (PCCC).
World Computer Chess Championship (WCCC) is an annual event where computer chess engines compete against each other.
The World Correspondence Chess Championship determines the World Champion in correspondence chess.
The World Junior Chess Championship is an under-20 chess tournament (players must have been under 20 years old on 1 January in the year of competition) organized by the World Chess Federation (FIDE).
The World Senior Chess Championship is an annual chess tournament established in 1991 by FIDE, the World Chess Federation.
Xiangqi, also called Chinese chess, is a strategy board game for two players.
In game theory, Zermelo’s theorem, named after Ernst Zermelo, says that in any finite two-person game of perfect information in which the players move alternatingly and in which chance does not affect the decision making process, if the game cannot end in a draw, then one of the two players must have a winning strategy (i.e. force a win).
Zugzwang (German for "compulsion to move") is a situation found in chess and other games wherein one player is put at a disadvantage because they must make a move when they would prefer to pass and not move.
The zwischenzug (German: "intermediate move") is a chess tactic in which a player, instead of playing the expected move (commonly a), first interposes another move posing an immediate threat that the opponent must answer, and only then plays the expected move.
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