325 relations: Aide-de-camp, Albania, Alexander I of Yugoslavia, Allies of World War II, American Airlines Flight 293, Amfilohije Radović, Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, Ante Pavelić, Anti-Chetnik Battalions, Anti-Communist Volunteer Militia, Anti-fascism, Arkan, Army of Republika Srpska, Association against Bulgarian Bandits, Axis powers, Čačak, Čajniče, Čelebić, Šibenik, Štip, Štrpci massacre, Žepa, Ba (Ljig), Bačka, Balkan Air Force, Banat, Banja Luka, Battle of Kosovo, Battle of Loznica (1941), Benkovac, Berane, Bijeljina, Bijeljina massacre, Bijelo Polje, Blagoje Adžić, Bleiburg repatriations, Blue Guard (Slovene), Boško Todorović, Bora Đorđević, Bosanska Krajina, Bosansko Grahovo massacre, Bosnia (region), Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosniaks, Bratunac, Brčko, Brigandage, Bucharest, Budapest, Bulgaria, ..., Bulgarian language, Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Carinthia (Slovenia), Case Black, Case White, Cheta, Chetnik war crimes in World War II, Chetniks in occupied Serbia (1916–18), Chetniks in the Balkan Wars, Chicago, Collaborationism, Company (military unit), Constitutional Court of Serbia, Cossacks, Counter-terrorism, Craiova, Crimea, Croatian Parliament, Croats, Dalmatia, David Bruce MacDonald, Dayton Agreement, Democratic Party (Yugoslavia), Dimitrije Ljotić, Dinara Division, Dobroslav Jevđević, Draža Mihailović, Dragan Čavić, Dragiša Vasić, Dragomir Jovanović, Drina, Dubrovnik, Eparchy, Erdut killings, Ethnic cleansing, European Union, Facts on the ground, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Ferhat Pasha Mosque, First Balkan War, Flag desecration, Foča, Foča ethnic cleansing, Franz Böhme, Fyodor Tolbukhin, Gata, Croatia, Gendarmerie, George W. Bush, Goražde, Gorizia, Government of National Salvation, Grčarice, Greater Serbia, Greens (Montenegro), Harry S. Truman, Herzegovina, High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina, High treason, Hungarian occupation of Yugoslav territories, Ibar (river), Ilija Trifunović-Birčanin, Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising, Imperial and Royal Military Administration in Serbia, Independent Democratic Serb Party, Independent State of Croatia, Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization, International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, Interwar period, Invasion of Yugoslavia, Ismet Popovac, Istria, Italian governorate of Montenegro, Jasenovac concentration camp, Jezdimir Dangić, Joseph Stalin, Josip Broz Tito, Kalinovik, Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of Yugoslavia, KOS (Yugoslavia), Kosta Pećanac, Kragujevac massacre, Kraljevo massacre, Krnjeuša massacre, Kruševac, Lanham, Maryland, Lazar of Serbia, League of Communists of Yugoslavia, Legion of Merit, Libertyville, Illinois, Lika, Lim-Sandžak Chetnik Detachment, List of Chetnik voivodes, London, Macedonian Bulgarians, Macedonian Front, Mario Roatta, Maximilian von Weichs, Metković, Midwestern United States, Miklós Kállay, Milan Aćimović, Milan Gurović, Milan Lukić, Milan Nedić, Milan Stojadinović, Military intelligence, Milorad Pupovac, Mirko Jović, Momčilo Đujić, Momčilo Ninčić, Montenegro, Morava (river), National Assembly (Serbia), Nazi Germany, Neo-fascism, Neretva, Nevesinje, New Serb Democracy, Nikola Kalabić, Nikola Kavaja, Nikola Poplašen, Noel Malcolm, Novi Sad, Obraz (organization), Obrovac, Croatia, Office of Strategic Services, Omer Pasha Mosque, Operation Alfa, Operation Barbarossa, Operation Halyard, Operation Margarethe, Operation Mihailovic, Operation Panzerfaust, Operation Uzice, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Oslobođenje, OZNA, Ozren (Bosnia and Herzegovina), Pavle Đurišić, Pavle, Serbian Patriarch, Pećanac Chetniks, People's Radical Party, Peter II of Yugoslavia, Pljevlja, Poglavnik, Province of Ljubljana, Prozor-Rama, Puniša Račić, Quisling, Rab concentration camp, Radovan Karadžić, RAM Plan, Ratko Mladić, Ravna Gora (Suvobor), Red Star Belgrade, Reliquary, Renzo Dalmazzo, Republic of Serbian Krajina, Republic of Užice, Republika Srpska, Resistance during World War II, Riblja Čorba, Rome, Royal Yugoslav Army, Russian Protective Corps, Sabrina P. Ramet, Sandžak, SANU Memorandum, Sarajevo, Second Army (Italy), Second Balkan War, Security agency, Serb Democratic Party (Bosnia and Herzegovina), Serb National Alliance, Serb Volunteer Guard, Serbian Campaign of World War I, Serbian Chetnik Organization, Serbian National Defense Council, Serbian National Renewal, Serbian nationalism, Serbian Orthodox Church, Serbian parliamentary election, 2003, Serbian parliamentary election, 2007, Serbian Progressive Party, Serbian Radical Party, Serbian Renewal Movement, Serbian State Guard, Serbian Volunteer Corps (World War II), Serbianisation, Serbs, Serbs of Croatia, Sevastopol, Seven Enemy Offensives, Shkodër, Siege of Sarajevo, Sir Fitzroy Maclean, 1st Baronet, Sjeverin massacre, Slavonia, Slobodan Milošević, Slovene People's Party (historical), Slovenia, Social Democratic Party of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Special Operations Executive, Split, Croatia, Srebrenica, Srebrenica massacre, Stalinism, Stevan Moljević, Stevo Rađenović, Stjepan Mesić, Struganik, Styria (Slovenia), Supreme Macedonian-Adrianople Committee, Syrmia, Tehran Conference, Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia, Terrorism, Tito–Šubašić Agreements, Tomislav Nikolić, Toplica Uprising, Trebinje, Trial in absentia, Trial of Mihailović et al., Trieste, Trnovo, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Trotskyism, Trubar massacre, Turkey, Turkish language, Ultra, Unfree labour, United Kingdom, United States, University of Zagreb, Uprising in Serbia (1941), Ustashe, Ustashe Militia, Vanguard, Velimir Piletić, Višegrad, Višegrad massacres, Vis (island), Vittorio Ambrosio, Vladimir Žerjavić, Voćin massacre, Vojislav Šešelj, Vojislav Mihailović, Vuk Drašković, Vukovar massacre, War in Donbass, William Deakin, Winston Churchill, World War II, World War II persecution of Serbs, Yalta Conference, Young Turk Revolution, Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland order of battle, Yugoslav colonisation of Kosovo, Yugoslav government-in-exile, Yugoslav irredentism, Yugoslav Partisans, Yugoslav People's Army, Yugoslav Radical Union, Yugoslav Wars, Yugoslavia, Zaharije Ostojić, Zvornik, Zvornik massacre, 104th Jäger Division (Wehrmacht), 114th Jäger Division (Wehrmacht), 1st Mountain Division (Wehrmacht), 2nd Panzer Army, 373rd (Croatian) Infantry Division (Wehrmacht). Expand index (275 more) » « Shrink index
An aide-de-camp (French expression meaning literally helper in the military camp) is a personal assistant or secretary to a person of high rank, usually a senior military, police or government officer, a member of a royal family, or a head of state.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
Alexander I (– 9 October 1934), also known as Alexander the Unifier, served as a prince regent of the Kingdom of Serbia from 1914 and later became King of Yugoslavia from 1921 to 1934 (prior to 1929 the state was known as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes).
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
American Airlines Flight 293 was a regularly scheduled flight which was hijacked by Nikola Kavaja, a Serbian nationalist and anti-communist, on June 20, 1979.
Metropolitan Amfilohije Radović (Амфилохије Радовић;; born January 7, 1938) is a Serbian Orthodox bishop, the current Metropolitan bishop of Montenegro and the Littoral, making him the head of the Serbian Orthodox Church in Montenegro.
The Crimean peninsula was annexed from Ukraine by the Russian Federation in February–March 2014.
Ante Pavelić (14 July 1889 – 28 December 1959) was a Croatian general and military dictator who founded and headed the fascist ultranationalist organization known as the Ustaše in 1929 and governed the Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH), a fascist Nazi puppet state built out of Yugoslavia by the authorities of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, from 1941 to 1945.
The Anti-Chetnik Battalions (Protivčetnički Bataljoni) were established by the supreme headquarter of the communist forces in Independent State of Croatia (modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia) at the beginning of the WWII to fight against Chetniks.
The Anti-Communist Volunteer Militia (Milizia Volontaria Anti Comunista, MVAC) were local armed auxiliary units composed of Chetniks and Slovene anti-Partisans in Italian-occupied parts of Yugoslavia.
Anti-fascism is opposition to fascist ideologies, groups and individuals.
Željko Ražnatović (Жељко Ражнатовић,; 17 April 1952 – 15 January 2000), better known as Arkan (Аркан), was a Serbian career criminal and commander of a paramilitary force in the Yugoslav Wars, called the Serb Volunteer Guard.
The Army of Republika Srpska (Војска Републике Српске/Vojska Republike Srpske; ВРС/VRS), commonly referred to in English as the Bosnian Serb Army (BSA), was the military of Republika Srpska (RS), the self-proclaimed Serb secessionist republic, a territory within the newly independent Bosnia and Herzegovina (formerly part of Yugoslavia), which it defied, active during the Bosnian War (1992–95).
The Association against Bulgarian Bandits (Удружење против бугарских бандита/Udruženje protiv bugarskih bandita) was a paramilitary organization based in Štip, then in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
Čačak (Чачак) is a city and the administrative center of the Moravica District in central Serbia.
Čajniče (Чајниче) is a town and municipality located in Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Čelebić is a village in the municipality of Livno, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Šibenik (Sebenico) is a historic city in Croatia, located in central Dalmatia where the river Krka flows into the Adriatic Sea.
Štip (Штип) is the largest urban agglomeration in the eastern part of the Republic of Macedonia, serving as the economic, industrial, entertainment and educational focal point for the surrounding municipalities.
The Štrpci massacre was the massacre of 19 civilians (18 Bosniaks and one Croat) on 27 February 1993, taken from a Belgrade-Bar train at Štrpci station near Višegrad, on Bosnian territory.
Žepa (Cyrillic: Жепа) is a town in eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina, in the municipality of Rogatica, in the Republika Srpska entity.
Ba (Ба) is a village in the municipality of Ljig in Central Serbia.
Bačka (Бачка / Bačka,; Bácska) is a geographical and historical area within the Pannonian Plain bordered by the river Danube to the west and south, and by the river Tisza to the east.
The Balkan Air Force (BAF) was an Allied air formation operating in the Balkans during World War II.
The Banat is a geographical and historical region in Central Europe that is currently divided among three countries: the eastern part lies in western Romania (the counties of Timiș, Caraș-Severin, Arad south of the Körös/Criș river, and the western part of Mehedinți); the western part in northeastern Serbia (mostly included in Vojvodina, except a part included in the Belgrade Region); and a small northern part lies within southeastern Hungary (Csongrád county).
Banja Luka (Бања Лука) or Banjaluka (Бањалука), is the second largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the de facto capital of the Republika Srpska entity.
The Battle of Kosovo took place on 15 June 1389 between an army led by the Serbian Prince Lazar Hrebeljanović and an invading army of the Ottoman Empire under the command of Sultan Murad Hüdavendigâr.
The Battle of Loznica involved an attack on the German garrison of that town by the Jadar Chetnik Detachment on 31 August 1941.
Benkovac is a town and municipality (Općina) in the interior of Zadar County, Croatia.
Berane (Serbian/Montenegrin Cyrillic: Беране) is one of the largest towns of northeastern Montenegro and a former administrative centre of the Ivangrad District.
Bijeljina is a city located in Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Bijeljina massacre involved the killing of between 48 and 78 civilians by Serb paramilitary groups in Bijeljina on 1–2 April 1992 during the Bosnian War.
Bijelo Polje (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Бијело Поље) is a town in northeastern Montenegro on the Lim River.
Blagoje Adžić (Благоје Аџић; 2 September 1932 – 1 March 2012) was the acting minister of defence in the Yugoslav government.
Bleiburg repatriations (see terminology) is a term encompassing events that took place after the end of World War II in Europe, when tens of thousands of soldiers and civilians associated with the Axis fleeing Yugoslavia were repatriated to that country.
The Blue Guard (Plava garda), also known as the Slovene Chetniks (Slovenski četniki, Slovenački četnici), was a Slovenian anti-communist militia under the leadership of major Karl Novak.
Boško Todorović was a Chetnik commander and delegate of the Chetnik leader Draža Mihailović in eastern Bosnia during World War II.
Borisav "Bora" Đorđević (Борисав-Бора Ђорђевић), also known as Bora Čorba (Serbian Cyrillic: Бора Чорба), is a Serbian singer, songwriter and poet.
Bosanska Krajina (Cyrillic: Босанска Крајина),; sometimes translated as Bosnian Frontier) or, sometimes, simply just Krajina, is a geographical region, a subregion of Bosnia, in western Bosnia and Herzegovina enclosed by a number of rivers, namely the Sava (north), Glina (northwest), Vrbanja and Vrbas (east and southeast, respectively). The region is also a historic, economic and cultural entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina, famous for its natural beauties and wildlife diversity. The largest city, and its historical center is Banja Luka. Other cities include Bihać, Cazin, Velika Kladuša, Prijedor, Sanski Most, Gradiška, Kozarska Dubica, Novi Grad, Bosanska Krupa, Ključ, Bosanski Petrovac, Kotor Varoš, Šipovo, Mrkonjić Grad, Drvar, Bosansko Grahovo, Gornji Vakuf, Bugojno, Donji Vakuf, Jajce, Kneževo, Bužim, Laktaši, and Čelinac. Bosanska Krajina is not a formal entity within the structure of Bosnia and Herzegovina; however it has a significant cultural and historical identity that was formed through several historic and economic events. The territory of Bosanska Krajina is currently divided between two entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina: Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Bosansko Grahovo massacre was a massacre committed by Chetniks on 27 July 1941.
Bosnia (Bosna/Босна) is the northern region of Bosnia and Herzegovina, encompassing roughly 81% of the country; the other eponymous region, the southern part, is Herzegovina.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
The Bosniaks (Bošnjaci,; singular masculine: Bošnjak, feminine: Bošnjakinja) are a South Slavic nation and ethnic group inhabiting mainly the area of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Bratunac is a town and municipality located in easternmost part of Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Brčko is a town, municipality and the administrative seat of Brčko District in northern Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Brigandage is the life and practice of highway robbery and plunder.
Bucharest (București) is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural, industrial, and financial centre.
Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
The Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Българска православна църква, Balgarska pravoslavna tsarkva) is an autocephalous Orthodox Church.
Carinthia (Koroška), also Slovene Carinthia or Slovenian Carinthia (Slovenska Koroška), is a traditional region in northern Slovenia.
Case Black (Fall Schwarz), also known as the Fifth Enemy Offensive (Peta neprijateljska ofanziva) in Yugoslav historiography and often identified with its final phase, the Battle of the Sutjeska (Bitka na Sutjesci) was a joint attack by the Axis taking place from 15 May to 16 June 1943, which aimed to destroy the main Yugoslav Partisan force, near the Sutjeska river in south-eastern Bosnia.
Case White (Fall Weiss), also known as the Fourth Enemy Offensive (Četvrta neprijateljska ofenziva/ofanziva) was a combined Axis strategic offensive launched against the Yugoslav Partisans throughout occupied Yugoslavia during World War II.
A Cheta (çeta; чета; чета / četa; çete; τσέτης) was an armed band organized by the mostly Bulgarian, Serbian, Albanian, Greek and Aromanian population on the territory of the Ottoman Empire that undertook anti-Turkish activity.
During the Second World War, Chetniks committed numerous war crimes that were primarily directed towards Yugoslav Partisans and the non-Serbian population of Yugoslavia.
The Kingdom of Serbia was occupied by Austria-Hungary and the Kingdom of Bulgaria on 1 January 1916.
The Serbian Chetnik Organization, which had organized a guerilla faction that fought in Ottoman Macedonia between 1903 and 1912, was subsequently put under the supervision of the Serbian Army.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
Collaborationism is cooperation with the enemy against one's country in wartime.
A company is a military unit, typically consisting of 80–150 soldiers and usually commanded by a major or a captain.
The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Serbia (Уставни суд Републике Србије; Ustavni sud Republike Srbije) is the court authorized to perform judicial review in the Republic of Serbia.
Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.
Counter-terrorism (also spelled counterterrorism) incorporates the practice, military tactics, techniques, and strategy that government, military, law enforcement, business, and intelligence agencies use to combat or prevent terrorism.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
The Croatian Parliament (Hrvatski sabor) or the Sabor is the unicameral representative body of the citizens of the Republic of Croatia; it is Croatia's legislature.
Croats (Hrvati) or Croatians are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Croatia.
Dalmatia (Dalmacija; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia and Istria.
David Bruce MacDonald is a full Professor in Political Science at the University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada and is the Research Leadership Chair for the College of Social and Applied Human Sciences.
The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also known as the Dayton Agreement, Dayton Accords, Paris Protocol or Dayton–Paris Agreement, (Dejtonski mirovni sporazum, Dejtonski mirovni sporazum, Daytonski sporazum) is the peace agreement reached at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, United States, in November 1995, and formally signed in Paris, France, on 14 December 1995.
The Yugoslav Democratic Party, State Party of Serbian, Croatian and Slovene Democrats and Democratic Party was the name of a series of liberal political parties that existed in succession in the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later the Kingdom of Yugoslavia).
Dimitrije Ljotić (Димитрије Љотић; 12 August 1891 – 23 April 1945) was a Serbian fascist politician and ideologue who established the Yugoslav National Movement (Zbor) in 1935 and collaborated with German occupational authorities in the Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia during World War II.
The Dinara Division (Динарска дивизија / Dinarska divizija) was a Chetnik division that existed during World War II.
Dobroslav Jevđević (Доброслав Јевђевић,; 28 December 1895 – October 1962) was a Bosnian Serb politician and self-appointed Chetnik commander (војвода) in the Herzegovina region of the Axis-occupied Kingdom of Yugoslavia during World War II.
Dragoljub "Draža" Mihailović (Драгољуб Дража Михаиловић, known to his supporters as Uncle Draža (Чича Дража / Čiča Draža; 27 April 1893 – 17 July 1946), was a Yugoslav Serb general during World War II. A staunch royalist, he retreated to the mountains near Belgrade when the Germans overran Yugoslavia in April 1941 and there he organized bands of guerrillas known as the Chetnik Detachments of the Yugoslav Army. The organisation is commonly known as the Chetniks, although the name of the organisation was later changed to the Yugoslav Army in the Homeland (JVUO, ЈВУО). Founded as the first Yugoslav resistance movement, it was royalist and nationalist, as opposed to the other, Josip Broz Tito's Partisans who were communist. Initially, the two groups operated in parallel, but by late 1941 began fighting each other in the attempt to gain control of post-war Yugoslavia. Many Chetnik groups collaborated or established modus vivendi with the Axis powers. Mihailović himself collaborated with Milan Nedić and Dimitrije Ljotić at the end of the war. After the war, Mihailović was captured by the communists. He was tried and convicted of high treason and war crimes by the communist authorities of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, and executed by firing squad in Belgrade. The nature and extent of his responsibility for collaboration and ethnic massacres remains controversial. On 14 May 2015, Mihailović was rehabilitated after a ruling by the Supreme Court of Cassation, the highest appellate court in Serbia.
Dragan Čavić (Драган Чавић) (born 10 March 1958, Zenica) is a Bosnian politician of Serb ethnicity, who was the President of Republika Srpska in 2002-2006, after having been Vice President of Republika Srpska in 2000-2002.
Dragomir "Dragiša" Vasić (Драгиша Васић; 2 September 1885 – 20 April 1945) was a Serbian lawyer, writer and publicist who became one of the chief Chetnik ideologues during World War II.
Dragomir "Dragi" Jovanović (27 July 1902 – 17 July 1946) was a Serbian politician and Axis collaborator who served as the mayor of Belgrade from 1941 to 1944, during World War II.
The Drina (Serbian Cyrillic: Дрина) is a long international river, which forms a large portion of the border between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia.
Dubrovnik (historically Ragusa) is a Croatian city on the Adriatic Sea.
Eparchy is an anglicized Greek word (ἐπαρχία), authentically Latinized as eparchia, which can be loosely translated as the rule or jurisdiction over something, such as a province, prefecture, or territory.
The Erdut killings were a series of murders of 37 Hungarian and Croat civilians in the village of Erdut, Croatia committed by Croatian Serb forces and Serb Volunteer Guard paramilitaries between November 1991 and June 1992, during the Croatian War of Independence.
Ethnic cleansing is the systematic forced removal of ethnic or racial groups from a given territory by a more powerful ethnic group, often with the intent of making it ethnically homogeneous.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Facts on the ground is a diplomatic and geopolitical term that means the situation in reality as opposed to in the abstract.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.
Ferhat Pasha Mosque (Ferhat-pašina džamija, Ferhad Paşa Camii), also known as the Ferhadija Mosque, is a central building in the city of Banja Luka and one of the greatest achievements of Bosnia and Herzegovina’s 16th century Ottoman Islamic architecture in Europe.
The First Balkan War (Балканска война; Αʹ Βαλκανικός πόλεμος; Први балкански рат, Prvi Balkanski rat; Birinci Balkan Savaşı), lasted from October 1912 to May 1913 and comprised actions of the Balkan League (the kingdoms of Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece and Montenegro) against the Ottoman Empire.
Flag desecration is a term applied to the desecration of flags or violation of flag protocol, a various set of acts that intentionally destroy, damage, or mutilate a flag in public.
Foča (Фоча) is a town and a municipality located in Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
There was a campaign of ethnic cleansing in the area of the town of Foča committed by Serb military, police, and paramilitary forces on Bosniak civilians from 7 April 1992 to January 1994 during the Bosnian War.
Franz Friedrich Böhme (15 April 1885 – 29 May 1947) was an Austrian general in the Wehrmacht during World War II, serving as Commander of the XVIII Mountain Corps, Hitler's Plenipotentiary Commanding General (Bevollmächtigter Kommandierender General) in the Balkans, and commander-in-chief in German-occupied Norway during World War II.
Fedor Ivanovich Tolbukhin (Фёдор Ива́нович Толбу́хин; June 16, 1894 – October 17, 1949) was a Soviet military commander.
Gata is a village located at the foot of the mountain Mosor, 16 miles east of the city of Split, and 1.3 miles inland from the coast of the Adriatic sea.
Wrong info! --> A gendarmerie or gendarmery is a military component with jurisdiction in civil law enforcement.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
Goražde (Горажде) is a city and the administrative center of Bosnian-Podrinje Canton Goražde of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Gorizia (Gorica, colloquially stara Gorica 'old Gorizia'; Görz, Standard Friulian: Gurize; Southeastern Friulian: Guriza; Bisiacco: Gorisia) is a town and comune in northeastern Italy, in the autonomous region of Friuli Venezia Giulia.
The Government of National Salvation (Vlada narodnog spasa / Влада народног спаса; Regierung der nationalen Rettung), also referred to as the Nedić's regime (Nedićev režim / Недићев режим), was the second Serbian puppet government, after the Commissioner Government, established on the Territory of the (German) Military Commander in Serbia during World War II.
Grčarice (locally also Grčav(i)ce,Snoj, Marko. 2009. Etimološki slovar slovenskih zemljepisnih imen. Ljubljana: Modrijan and Založba ZRC, p. 152. in older sources also Gerčarice, Masern,Leksikon občin kraljestev in dežel zastopanih v državnem zboru, vol. 6: Kranjsko. 1906. Vienna: C. Kr. Dvorna in Državna Tiskarna, p. 48. Gottscheerish: MasharəPetschauer, Erich. 1980. "Die Gottscheer Siedlungen – Ortsnamenverzeichnis." In Das Jahrhundertbuch der Gottscheer (pp. 181–197). Klagenfurt: Leustik.) is a village in the Municipality of Ribnica in southern Slovenia.
The term Greater Serbia or Great Serbia (Велика Србија / Velika Srbija) describes the Serbian nationalist and irredentist ideology of the creation of a Serb state which would incorporate all regions of traditional significance to Serbs, including regions outside Serbia that are populated by Serbs.
The Greens (Zelenaši/Зеленаши) were a group of Montenegrin separatists, most notable for instigating the Christmas Uprising of 1919, and for trying to re-establish the Kingdom of Montenegro as an Axis client state during World War II.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Herzegovina (or; Serbian: Hercegovina, Херцеговина) is the southern region of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina, together with the Office of the High Representative (OHR) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, were created in 1995 immediately after the signing of the Dayton Agreement which ended the 1992–95 Bosnian War.
Treason is criminal disloyalty.
The Hungarian occupation of Yugoslav territories consisted of the military occupation, then annexation, of the Bačka, Baranja, Međimurje and Prekmurje regions of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia by the Kingdom of Hungary during World War II.
The Ibar, also known as the Ibër and Ibri (Ibër, Ibri, Ибар), is a river that flows through eastern Montenegro, Serbia and Kosovo, with a total length of.
Ilija Trifunović-Birčanin (Илија Трифуновић-Бирчанин; 1877 – 3 February 1943) was a Serbian Chetnik military commander (vojvoda, војвода).
The Ilinden–Preobrazhenie Uprising or simply the Ilinden Uprising of August 1903 (Илинденско-Преображенско въстание, Ilindensko-Preobražensko vǎstanie; Илинденско востание, Ilindensko vostanie; Εξέγερση του Ίλιντεν, Eksegersi tou Ilinden), was an organized revolt against the Ottoman Empire, which was prepared and carried out by the Internal Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Organization.
The K.u.k. Military Administration in Serbia (German: K.u.k. Militärverwaltung in Serbien) was the Austro-Hungarian military administration in the Kingdom of Serbia from 1915 to 1918.
The Independent Democratic Serb Party (Samostalna demokratska srpska stranka or SDSS, Самостална демократска српска странка, СДСС) is a social democratic political party of Croatian Serbs.
The Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH; Unabhängiger Staat Kroatien; Stato Indipendente di Croazia) was a World War II fascist puppet state of Germany and Italy.
The Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO; Вътрешна Македонска Революционна Организация (ВМРО), Vatreshna Makedonska Revolyutsionna Organizatsiya (VMRO); Внатрешна Македонска Револуционерна Организација, Vnatrešna Makedonska Revolucionerna Organizacija) was a revolutionary national liberation movement in the Ottoman territories in Europe, that operated in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, more commonly referred to as the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), was a body of the United Nations established to prosecute serious crimes committed during the Yugoslav Wars, and to try their perpetrators.
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
The invasion of Yugoslavia, also known as the April War or Operation 25, was a German-led attack on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers which began on 6 April 1941 during World War II.
Ismet Popovac (died 21 August 1943) was a Bosnian Muslim lawyer and physician who led a Muslim Chetnik militia known as the Muslim People's Military Organization (MNVO) in Bosnia and Herzegovina during World War II.
Istria (Croatian, Slovene: Istra; Istriot: Eîstria; Istria; Istrien), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea.
The Italian governorate of Montenegro (Governatorato del Montenegro) existed from October 1941 to September 1943 as an occupied territory under military government of Fascist Italy during World War II.
The Jasenovac concentration camp (Logor Jasenovac/Логор Јасеновац,; יאסענאוואץ) was an extermination camp established in Slavonia by the authorities of the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) during World War II.
Jezdimir Dangić (Јездимир Дангић; 4 May 1897 – 22 August 1947) was a Bosnian Serb Chetnik commander during World War II.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Josip Broz (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз,; 7 May 1892 – 4 May 1980), commonly known as Tito (Cyrillic: Тито), was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and political leader, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980.
Kalinovik (Калиновик) is a town and municipality located in Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija, Краљевина Југославија; Кралство Југославија) was a state in Southeast Europe and Central Europe, that existed from 1918 until 1941, during the interwar period and beginning of World War II.
The Counterintelligence Service or KOS (Kontraobavještanja služba; Protuobavještajna služba; Контраобавештајна служба/Kontraobaveštajna služba; Kontraobveščevalna služba; Контраразузнавачка служба) was the counterintelligence service of the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) that existed between 1946 and the breakup of Yugoslavia in 1991.
Konstantin "Kosta" Milovanović Pećanac (Коста Миловановић Пећанац; 1879–1944) was a Serbian Chetnik commander (vojvoda) during the Balkan Wars, World War I and World War II.
The Kragujevac massacre was the mass murder of between 2,778 and 2,794 mostly Serb men and boys in Kragujevac by German soldiers on 21 October 1941.
The Kraljevo massacre was the mass murder of approximately 2,000 residents of the central Serbian city of Kraljevo by the Wehrmacht between 15 and 20 October 1941, during World War II.
The Krnjeuša massacre was a massacre of civilians committed by Chetniks on 9-10 August 1941.
Kruševac (Крушевац) is a city and the administrative center of the Rasina District in central Serbia.
Lanham is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in Prince George's County, Maryland.
Prince Lazar Hrebeljanović (Лазар Хребељановић; ca. 1329 – 15 June 1389) was a medieval Serbian ruler who created the largest and most powerful state on the territory of the disintegrated Serbian Empire.
The League of Communists of Yugoslavia, before 1952 the Communist Party of Yugoslavia, was the country's largest communist party, and the ruling party of SFR Yugoslavia.
The Legion of Merit (LOM) is a military award of the United States Armed Forces that is given for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services and achievements.
Libertyville is a village in Lake County, Illinois, United States and an affluent suburb of Chicago.
Lika is a traditional region of Croatia proper, roughly bound by the Velebit mountain from the southwest and the Plješevica mountain from the northeast.
The Lim-Sandžak Chetnik Detachment (Лимско—Санџачки Четнички Одред) was a military unit of Chetniks that was established in northern Montenegro and Sandžak at the end of June 1942, during World War II.
This is list of Chetnik voivodes.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Macedonians or Macedonian Bulgarians (Македонски българи or Mакедонци), sometimes also referred to as Macedono-Bulgarians or Macedo-Bulgarians is a regional, ethnographic group of ethnic Bulgarians, inhabiting or originating from the region of Macedonia.
The Macedonian Front, also known as the Salonica Front (after Thessaloniki), was a military theatre of World War I formed as a result of an attempt by the Allied Powers to aid Serbia, in the fall of 1915, against the combined attack of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Bulgaria.
Mario Roatta (2 February 1887 – 7 January 1968) was an Italian general, best known for his role in Italian Second Army's repression against civilians, that matched the German one in the Slovene- and Croatian-inhabited areas of the Italian-occupied Yugoslavia during World War II.
Maximilian von Weichs (12 November 1881 – 27 September 1954) was a field marshal in the Wehrmacht of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Metković is a civil parish in the Dubrovnik-Neretva County of Croatia, located in the southeast of the country, on the banks of the river Neretva and on the border with Herzegovina.
The Midwestern United States, also referred to as the American Midwest, Middle West, or simply the Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau (also known as "Region 2").
Milan Aćimović (Милан Аћимовић,31 May 1898– 25 May 1945) was a Serbian collaborationist with the Axis in Yugoslavia during World War II.
Milan Gurović (Милан Гуровић; born June 17, 1976) is a Serbian former professional basketball player and current coach.
Milan Lukić (Милан Лукић; born 6 September 1967) is a former head of the Serb paramilitary group known as White Eagles (Beli Orlovi) who was found guilty by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in July 2009 of crimes against humanity and violations of war customs committed in the Višegrad municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina during the Bosnian war and sentenced to life in prison.
Milan Nedić (Милан Недић; 2 September 1878 – 4 February 1946) was a Serbian general and politician who served as the Chief of the General Staff of the Royal Yugoslav Army, Minister of War in the Royal Yugoslav Government.
Milan Stojadinović (Милан Стојадиновић; 4 August 1888 – 26 October 1961) was a Serbian and Yugoslav political figure and a noted economist.
Military intelligence is a military discipline that uses information collection and analysis approaches to provide guidance and direction to assist commanders in their decisions.
Milorad Pupovac (born 5 November 1955) is a Croatian politician and linguist of ethnic Serb descent.
Mirko Jović (Serbian Cyrillic: Мирко Јовић; born 13 August 1959 in Zemun) is a Serbian politician who stood for president of Serbia in the Serbian presidential election, 2004 for the Radical Party of People, Serbia, Diaspora and European Bloc.
Momčilo Đujić (Момчилo Ђујић; 27 February 1907 – 11 September 1999) was a Serbian Orthodox priest and Chetnik commander (vojvoda, војвода) who led a significant proportion of the Chetniks within the northern Dalmatia and western Bosnia regions of the Independent State of Croatia during World War II.
Momčilo Ninčić (– 23 December 1949) was a Yugoslav politician and economist, and president of the League of Nations from 1926 to 1927.
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.
The Morava (March, Morva, Morawa) is a river in Central Europe, a left tributary of the Danube.
The National Assembly (Народна скупштина/Narodna skupština) is the unicameral legislature of Serbia.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Neo-fascism is a post–World War II ideology that includes significant elements of fascism.
The Neretva (Неретва), also known as the Narenta, is the largest river of the eastern part of the Adriatic basin.
Nevesinje (Невесиње) is a town and municipality located in Republika Srpska an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
New Serb Democracy (Nova srpska demokratija, Нова српска демократија / Nova srpska demokratija, NSD), also known as NOVA, is a Serb right-wing political party in Montenegro, formed on 24 January 2009 as a merger between Serb People's Party and the People's Socialist Party of Montenegro.
Nikola Kalabić (Никола Калабић; 20 December 1906 – 20 January 1946) was a Serbian Chetnik commander during World War II.
Nikola Kavaja (Никола Каваја; 3 October 1932 – 10 November 2008), nicknamed Tito's hunter, was a Serbian nationalist and anti-communist known for his 1979 bombing of a Yugoslav consul’s home and the hijacking of American Airlines Flight 293.
Nikola Poplašen (Никола Поплашен) (born 1951 in Sombor) is a former Bosnian Serb politician and Chetnik Voivode.
Sir Noel Robert Malcolm, (born 26 December 1956) is an English political journalist, historian and academic.
Novi Sad (Нови Сад,; Újvidék; Nový Sad; see below for other names) is the second largest city of Serbia, the capital of the autonomous province of Vojvodina and the administrative center of the South Bačka District.
Obraz (Otačastveni pokret Obraz) is a Serbian far-right organization, banned because of its violent activities and anti human rights ideology.
Obrovac (Обровац) is a town located in northern Dalmatia, in the Zadar County of Croatia.
The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was a wartime intelligence agency of the United States during World War II, and a predecessor of the modern Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
Omer Pasha Mosque was built by Ketendji Omer Pasha in 1602.
Operation Alfa (Operazione Alfa; Operacija Alfa, Операција Алфа) was an offensive carried out in early October 1942 by Italian, Croatian and Chetnik forces against the communist-led Partisans in the Prozor region (today in Bosnia and Herzegovina), then a part of the Croatian puppet state, the Independent State of Croatia (NDH).
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Operation Halyard (or Halyard Mission), known in Serbian as Operation Air Bridge (Операција Ваздушни мост), was an Allied airlift operation behind enemy lines during World War II.
Operation Margarethe was the occupation of Hungary by Nazi German forces during World War II, as it was ordered by Hitler on 12 March 1944.
Operation Mihailovic was the codename for the final World War II German anti-guerrilla offensive to suppress the Serbian Chetnik detachments of the Yugoslav Army, headed by Colonel Dragoljub Mihailović.
Operation Panzerfaust (Unternehmen Panzerfaust), was a military operation to keep the Kingdom of Hungary at Germany's side in the war, conducted in October 1944 by the German Wehrmacht.
Operation Uzice was the first major counter-insurgency operation by the German Wehrmacht on the occupied territory of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia during World War II.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.
Oslobođenje (English: Liberation) is a newspaper in Bosnia and Herzegovina based in the capital city Sarajevo.
The Department for People's Protection or OZNA (Odjeljenje za zaštitu naroda or Odeljenje za zaštitu naroda, Одељење за заштиту нaрода; Одделение за заштита на народот; Oddelek za zaščito naroda) was the security agency of Yugoslavia that existed between 1944 and 1946.
Ozren is a mountain in northern Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Pavle Đurišić (Павле Ђуришић,; 9 July 1909 – April 1945) was a Montenegrin Serb regular officer of the Royal Yugoslav Army who became a Chetnik commander (vojvoda) and led a significant proportion of the Chetniks in Montenegro during World War II.
Pavle (Павле, Paul; 11 September 1914 – 15 November 2009) was the 44th Patriarch of the Serbian Orthodox Church, the spiritual leader of Eastern Orthodox Serbs, from 1990 to his death.
The Pećanac Chetniks, also known as the Black Chetniks, were a collaborationist Chetnik irregular military force which operated in the German-occupied territory of Serbia under the leadership of vojvoda (war lord) Kosta Pećanac.
The People's Radical Party (Народна радикална странка; Narodna radikalna stranka, NRS) was a political party in the Kingdom of Serbia and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Yugoslavia) formed on 8 January 1881.
Peter II (Petar/Петар; 6 September 1923 – 3 November 1970) was the last King of Yugoslavia, and the last reigning member of the Karađorđević dynasty which came to prominence in the early 19th century.
Pljevlja (Cyrillic: Пљевља) is a town and the center of Pljevlja Municipality located in the northern part of Montenegro.
Poglavnik was the title used by Ante Pavelić, leader of World War II Croatian movement Ustaše and of the Independent State of Croatia between 1941 and 1945.
The Province of Ljubljana (Provincia di Lubiana, Ljubljanska pokrajina, Provinz Laibach) was the central-southern area of Slovenia.
Prozor-Rama is a town and municipality located in Herzegovina-Neretva Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Puniša Račić (Пуниша Рачић; 12 July 1886 – 16 October 1944) was a Serb leader and People's Radical Party (NRS) politician who assassinated Croatian Peasant Party (HSS) representatives Pavle Radić and Đuro Basariček, and mortally wounded HSS leader Stjepan Radić in a shooting which took place on the floor of the parliament of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes on 20 June 1928.
Quisling is a term originating in Norway, which is used in Scandinavian languages and in English for a person who collaborates with an enemy occupying force – or more generally as a synonym for traitor.
The Rab concentration camp (Campo di concentramento per internati civili di Guerra – Arbe; Koncentracijski logor Rab; Koncentracijsko taborišče Rab) was one of the several Italian concentration camps and it was established during World War II, in July 1942, on the Italian-occupied island of Rab (now in Croatia).
Radovan Karadžić (Радован Караџић,; born 19 June 1945) is a Bosnian Serb former politician and convicted war criminal who served as the President of Republika Srpska during the Bosnian War and sought the direct unification of that entity with Serbia.
The RAM Plan, also known as Operation RAM, Brana Plan, or Rampart-91, was a military plan developed over the course of 1990 and finalized in Belgrade, Serbia during a military strategy meeting in August 1991 by a group of senior Serb officers of the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) and experts from the JNA's Psychological Operations Department.
Ratko Mladić (Ратко Младић,; born 12 March 1943) is a Bosnian Serb former general found guilty of committing war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY).
Ravna Gora (Равна Гора) is a highland in central Serbia, at the mountain of Suvobor.
Fudbalski klub Crvena zvezda (Фудбалски клуб Црвена звезда), commonly known in English as Red Star Belgrade (Црвена звезда Београд / Crvena zvezda Beograd) or simply Red Star, is a Serbian professional football club based in Belgrade, the major part of the Red Star multi-sport club.
A reliquary (also referred to as a shrine or by the French term châsse) is a container for relics.
Lorenzo "Renzo" Dalmazzo was an Italian lieutenant general and corps and army commander during World War II.
The Republic of Serbian Krajina or Serb Republic of Krajina (Република Српска Крајина / Republika Srpska Krajina or РСК/RSK)), known as Serb Krajina (Српска Крајина / Srpska Krajina) or simply Krajina, was a self-proclaimed Serb proto-state, a territory within the newly independent Croatia (formerly part of Yugoslavia), which it defied, active during the Croatian War (1991–95). It was not recognized internationally. The name Krajina ("Frontier") was adopted from the historical Military Frontier of the Habsburg Monarchy and Austria-Hungary, which had a substantial Serb population and existed up to the late 19th century. The RSK government waged a war for ethnic Serb independence from Croatia and unification with FR Yugoslavia and Republika Srpska (in Bosnia). The RSK was armed and funded by Serbia. The government of Krajina had de facto control over central parts of the territory while control of the outskirts changed with the successes and failures of its military activities. The territory was legally protected by the United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR). Its main portion was overrun by Croatian forces in 1995 and the Republic of Serbian Krajina was ultimately disbanded as a result; a rump remained in eastern Slavonia under UNTAES administration until its peaceful reintegration into Croatia in 1998.
The Republic of Užice (Užička republika / Ужичка република) was a short-lived liberated Yugoslav territory and the first liberated territory in World War II Europe, organized as a military mini-state that existed in the autumn of 1941 in occupied Yugoslavia, more specifically the western part of the Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia.
Republika Srpska (Република Српскa,; literally "Serb Republic") is one of two constitutional and legal entities of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the other being the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Resistance movements during World War II occurred in every occupied country by a variety of means, ranging from non-cooperation, disinformation and propaganda, to hiding crashed pilots and even to outright warfare and the recapturing of towns.
Riblja Čorba (Рибља Чорба, pronounced; translation: Fish Stew) is a Serbian and Yugoslav rock band from Belgrade.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
The Royal Yugoslav Army (Jugoslavenska vojska, Југословенска војска) or Army of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was the armed force of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later the Kingdom of Yugoslavia) from the state's formation in December 1918 until its surrender to the Axis powers on 17 April 1941.
The Russian Protective Corps (Russisches Schutzkorps, Русский охранный корпус, Руски заштитни корпус) was an armed force composed of anti-communist White Russian émigrés that was raised in the German occupied territory of Serbia during World War II.
Sabrina Petra Ramet (born June 26, 1949, London) is an American academic, educator, editor and journalist.
Sandžak (Санџак) or Sanjak is a historical geo-political region, now divided by the border between Serbia and Montenegro.
The Memorandum of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, known simply as the SANU Memorandum (Меморандум САНУ), was a draft document produced by a 16-member committee of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts (SANU) from 1985 to 1986.
Sarajevo (see names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a population of 275,524 in its current administrative limits.
The 2nd Army (Italian: 2^ Armata) was a World War I and World War II field army.
The Second Balkan War was a conflict which broke out when Bulgaria, dissatisfied with its share of the spoils of the First Balkan War, attacked its former allies, Serbia and Greece, on 16 (O.S.) / 29 (N.S.) June 1913.
A security agency is a governmental organization which conducts intelligence activities for the internal security of a nation.
The Serb Democratic Party (Српска демократска странка/Srpska demokratska stranka or СДС/SDS) is a Serb political party in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Serb National Alliance or Serbian People's Alliance of Republika Srpska (Српски народни савез РС, Srpski narodni savez RS) is a Serb political party in Bosnia and Herzegovina, active in the Republika Srpska entity (one of two entities comprising the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina, where the majority of Bosnian Serbs live).
The Serb Volunteer Guard (SDG) (Српска добровољачка гарда, Srpska dobrovoljačka garda) also known as Arkan's Tigers (Арканови Тигрови, Arkanovi Tigrovi) was a Serbian volunteer paramilitary unit founded and led by Željko Ražnatović (known as Arkan) that fought in Croatia (1991–93) and Bosnia (1992–95) during the Yugoslav Wars.
The Serbian Campaign of World War I was fought from late July 1914, when Austria-Hungary invaded the Kingdom of Serbia at the outset of World War I, until the war's conclusion in November 1918.
The Serbian Revolutionary Organization (Srpska revolucionarna organizacija/Српска револуционарна организација) or Serbian Chetnik Organization (Српска четничка организација/Srpska četnička organizacija) was a revolutionary organization with the aim of liberation of Old Serbia (Kosovo and Macedonia) from the Ottoman Empire (in the vilayets of Kosovo, Manastir and Salonika).
The Serbian National Defense Council (SND) (Српска Народна Одбрана) is a Serb diaspora community organization whose goal is to protect Serbs, the Serbian Orthodox Church and Serbian interests abroad.
The Serbian National Renewal (Српска народна обнова, СНО / Srpska narodna obnova, SNO) was the first political party founded in Serbia after the collapse of communism.
Serbian nationalism or Serbdom (српство / srpstvo) asserts that Serbs are a nation and promotes the cultural unity of Serbs.
The Serbian Orthodox Church (Српска православна црква / Srpska pravoslavna crkva) is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Christian Churches.
Parliamentary elections were held in Serbia on 28 December 2003 to elect members of the National Assembly.
Parliamentary elections were held in Serbia on 21 January 2007 to elect members of the National Assembly.
The Serbian Progressive Party (Српска напредна странка/Srpska napredna stranka or CHC/SNS) is a populist conservative political party in Serbia.
The Serbian Radical Party (Српска радикална странка, CPC / Srpska radikalna stranka, SRS) is a Serbian nationalist political party in Serbia.
The Serbian Renewal Movement (Српски покрет обнове/Srpski pokret obnove, SPO) is national liberal and monarchist political party in Serbia.
The Serbian State Guard or SDS (Српска државна стража / Srpska državna straža; Serbische Staatsgarde) was a collaborationist paramilitary force used to impose law and order within the German occupied territory of Serbia during World War II.
The Serbian Volunteer Corps or SDK (Српски добровољачки корпус / Srpski dobrovoljački korpus; Serbisches Freiwilligenkorps), also known as Ljotićevci (Љотићевци) after their ideological leader Dimitrije Ljotić, was the party army of Zbor and collaborationist anti-Partisan military formation that was raised in the Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia during World War II.
Serbianisation or Serbianization, also known as Serbification, and Serbisation or Serbization (србизација/srbizacija or посрбљавање/posrbljavanje; сърбизация, sərbizacija or посръбчване, posrəbčvane; serbificarea) is the spread of Serbian culture, people, or politics, either by integration or assimilation.
The Serbs (Срби / Srbi) are a South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans.
The Serbs of Croatia (Srbi u Hrvatskoj, Срби у Хрватској) or Croatian Serbs (Хрватски Срби/Hrvatski Srbi) constitute the largest national minority in Croatia.
Sevastopol (Севастополь; Севасто́поль; Акъяр, Aqyar), traditionally Sebastopol, is the largest city on the Crimean Peninsula and a major Black Sea port.
The Seven Enemy Offensives (Sedam neprijateljskih ofanziva) is a group name used in Yugoslav historiography to refer to seven major Axis military operations undertaken during World War II in Yugoslavia against the Yugoslav Partisans.
Shkodër or Shkodra, historically known as Scutari (in Italian, English and most Western European landuages) or Scodra, is a city in the Republic of Albania.
The Siege of Sarajevo was the siege of the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the longest of a capital city in the history of modern warfare.
Sir Fitzroy Hew Royle Maclean, 1st Baronet, (11 March 1911 – 15 June 1996) was a Scottish soldier, writer and politician.
The Sjeverin massacre was the massacre on 22 October 1992 of 16 Bosniak citizens of Serbia from the village of Sjeverin who had been abducted from a bus in the village of Mioče, in Bosnia.
Slavonia (Slavonija) is, with Dalmatia, Croatia proper and Istria, one of the four historical regions of Croatia.
Slobodan Milošević (Слободан Милошевић; 20 August 1941 – 11 March 2006) was a Yugoslav and Serbian politician and the President of Serbia (originally the Socialist Republic of Serbia, a constituent republic within the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) from 1989 to 1997 and President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1997 to 2000.
The Slovene People's Party (Slovenska ljudska stranka,, Slovene abbreviation SLS) was a Slovenian political party in the 19th and 20th centuries, active in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
The Social Democratic Party of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Socijaldemokratska partija Bosne i Hercegovine or SDP BiH) is a social-democratic political party in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
The Special Operations Executive (SOE) was a British World War II organisation.
Split (see other names) is the second-largest city of Croatia and the largest city of the region of Dalmatia. It lies on the eastern shore of the Adriatic Sea and is spread over a central peninsula and its surroundings. An intraregional transport hub and popular tourist destination, the city is linked to the Adriatic islands and the Apennine peninsula. Home to Diocletian's Palace, built for the Roman emperor in 305 CE, the city was founded as the Greek colony of Aspálathos (Aσπάλαθος) in the 3rd or 2nd century BC. It became a prominent settlement around 650 CE when it succeeded the ancient capital of the Roman province of Dalmatia, Salona. After the Sack of Salona by the Avars and Slavs, the fortified Palace of Diocletian was settled by the Roman refugees. Split became a Byzantine city, to later gradually drift into the sphere of the Republic of Venice and the Kingdom of Croatia, with the Byzantines retaining nominal suzerainty. For much of the High and Late Middle Ages, Split enjoyed autonomy as a free city, caught in the middle of a struggle between Venice and the King of Hungary for control over the Dalmatian cities. Venice eventually prevailed and during the early modern period Split remained a Venetian city, a heavily fortified outpost surrounded by Ottoman territory. Its hinterland was won from the Ottomans in the Morean War of 1699, and in 1797, as Venice fell to Napoleon, the Treaty of Campo Formio rendered the city to the Habsburg Monarchy. In 1805, the Peace of Pressburg added it to the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy and in 1806 it was included in the French Empire, becoming part of the Illyrian Provinces in 1809. After being occupied in 1813, it was eventually granted to the Austrian Empire following the Congress of Vienna, where the city remained a part of the Austrian Kingdom of Dalmatia until the fall of Austria-Hungary in 1918 and the formation of Yugoslavia. In World War II, the city was annexed by Italy, then liberated by the Partisans after the Italian capitulation in 1943. It was then re-occupied by Germany, which granted it to its puppet Independent State of Croatia. The city was liberated again by the Partisans in 1944, and was included in the post-war Socialist Yugoslavia, as part of its republic of Croatia. In 1991, Croatia seceded from Yugoslavia amid the Croatian War of Independence.
Srebrenica is a town and municipality located in the easternmost part of Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Srebrenica massacre, also known as the Srebrenica genocide (Masakr u Srebrenici; Genocid u Srebrenici), was the July 1995 genocide of more than 8,000Potocari Memorial Center Preliminary List of Missing Persons from Srebrenica '95 Muslim Bosniaks, mainly men and boys, in and around the town of Srebrenica during the Bosnian War.
Stalinism is the means of governing and related policies implemented from the 1920s to 1953 by Joseph Stalin (1878–1953).
Stevan Moljević (6 January 1888 – 15 November 1959) was a Serbian and Yugoslav politician, lawyer and publicist, president of the Yugoslav-French Club, president of the Yugoslav-British Club, president of Rotary International Club of Yugoslavia and member of the Central National Committee of Yugoslavia in World War II.
Stevo Rađenović was a Yugoslav Radical Union politician during the interwar period and a Chetnik leader in the Lika region of the Axis puppet state, the Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH) during World War II.
Stjepan "Stipe" Mesić (born 24 December 1934) is a Croatian politician who served as the President of Croatia from 2000 to 2010.
Struganik is a village situated in Mionica municipality in Serbia and the birthplace of Field Marshal Živojin Mišić.
Styria (Štajerska), also Slovenian Styria (Slovenska Štajerska) or Lower Styria (Spodnja Štajerska; Untersteiermark), is a traditional region in northeastern Slovenia, comprising the southern third of the former Duchy of Styria.
Supreme Macedonian-Adrianople Committee (SMAC), (Върховен македоно - одрински комитет, (ВМОК)), also known as Supreme Macedonian Committee was a Bulgarian revolutionary political organization, active in the Macedonia and Thrace regions of the Ottoman Empire, which bases and main structures were in Bulgaria from 1895 to 1905.
Syrmia (Srem/Срем, Srijem) is a fertile region of the Pannonian Plain in Europe, which lies between the Danube and Sava rivers.
The Tehran Conference (codenamed Eureka) was a strategy meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill from 28 November to 1 December 1943, after the Anglo-Soviet Invasion of Iran.
The Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia (Gebiet des Militärbefehlshabers in Serbien) was the area of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia that was placed under a military government of occupation by the Wehrmacht following the invasion, occupation and dismantling of Yugoslavia in April 1941.
Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.
The Tito–Šubašić Agreements (sporazumi Tito-Šubašić) was an attempt by the Western Powers to merge the royal Yugoslav government-in-exile with the Communist-led Partisans who were fighting the Axis occupation of Yugoslavia in the Second World War and were de facto rulers on the liberated territories.
Tomislav Nikolić (Томислав Николић,; born 15 February 1952) is a Serbian politician who served as the President of Serbia from 2012 to 2017.
The Toplica Uprising (Топлички устанак) was a Serb rebellion in 1917 carried out by Serbian guerrillas (Chetniks) in the Toplica District against the Bulgarian occupation force in the eastern part of the Kingdom of Serbia, occupied since October 1915.
Trebinje (Требиње) is a city located in Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Trial in absentia is a criminal proceeding in a court of law in which the person who is subject to it is not physically present at those proceedings.
The Trial of Draža Mihailović et al., or the Belgrade Process, was the 1946 trial of Draža Mihailović and a number of other prominent alleged collaborators for high treason and war crimes committed during WWII.
Trieste (Trst) is a city and a seaport in northeastern Italy.
Trnovo (Трново) is a town and municipality located in Sarajevo Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky.
The Trubar massacre was a civilian massacre committed by Chetniks on 27 July 1941.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
Ultra was the designation adopted by British military intelligence in June 1941 for wartime signals intelligence obtained by breaking high-level encrypted enemy radio and teleprinter communications at the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) at Bletchley Park.
Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will with the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), compulsion, or other forms of extreme hardship to themselves or members of their families.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Zagreb (Sveučilište u Zagrebu,; Universitas Studiorum Zagrabiensis) is the largest Croatian university and the oldest continuously operating university in the area covering Central Europe south of Vienna and all of Southeastern Europe.
The Uprising in Serbia was initiated in July 1941 by the Communist Party of Yugoslavia against the German occupation forces and their Serbian quisling auxiliaries in the Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia.
The Ustasha – Croatian Revolutionary Movement (Ustaša – Hrvatski revolucionarni pokret), commonly known as Ustashe (Ustaše), was a Croatian fascist, racist, ultranationalist and terrorist organization, active, in its original form, between 1929 and 1945.
The Ustashe Militia (Ustaška vojnica) was the party army of the Ustashe (or Ustaše), established by the fascist regime of Ante Pavelić in the Axis puppet state the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) in Yugoslavia during World War II.
The vanguard (also called the advance guard) is the leading part of an advancing military formation.
Velimir Piletić (May 2 1906 – July 23 1972) was a Yugoslav military officer, best known as commander of the Chetnik forces in eastern Serbia (the Krajina and Mlava Chetnik Corps) during World War II.
Višegrad (Вишеград) is a town and municipality located in eastern Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Višegrad massacres were acts of mass murder committed against the Bosniak civilian population of the town and municipality of Višegrad during the ethnic cleansing of eastern Bosnia by Serb police and military forces during the spring and summer of 1992, at the start of the Bosnian War.
Vis (Latin: Issa, Lissa) is a small Croatian island in the Adriatic Sea.
Vittorio Ambrosio (28 July 1879 – 19 November 1958) was an Italian general who served in the Italo-Turkish War, World War I, and World War II.
Vladimir Žerjavić (2 August 1912 – 5 September 2001) was a Croatian economist and demographer who published a series of historical articles and books during the 1980s and 1990s on demographic losses in Yugoslavia during World War II and of Axis forces and civilians in the Bleiburg repatriations shortly after the capitulation of Germany.
The Voćin massacre was the killing of 43 civilians in Voćin, Croatia, by the Serbian White Eagles paramilitary unit on 13 December 1991, during the Croatian War of Independence.
Vojislav Šešelj (Војислав Шешељ,; born 11 October 1954) is a Serbian politician, writer, lawyer and convicted war criminal.
Vojislav Mihailović "Vojo" (born September 3, 1951 in Belgrade, SFR Yugoslavia, present-day Serbia) is a Serbian politician, former Mayor of Belgrade and currently a co-president of the Serbian Democratic Renewal Movement.
Vuk Drašković (Вук Драшковић,; born 29 November 1946) is Serbian writer and politician.
The Vukovar massacre, also known as the Vukovar hospital massacre or the Ovčara massacre, was the killing of Croatian prisoners of war and civilians by Serb paramilitaries, to whom they had been turned over by the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA), at the Ovčara farm southeast of Vukovar on 20 November 1991, during the Croatian War of Independence.
The War in Donbass is an armed conflict in the Donbass region of Ukraine.
Sir Frederick William Dampier Deakin DSO (3 July 1913 – 22 January 2005) was a British historian, World War II veteran, literary assistant to Winston Churchill and the first warden of St Antony's College, Oxford.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The World War II persecution of Serbs, includes the extermination, expulsion and forced religious conversion of large numbers of ethnic Serbs by the Ustashe regime in the Independent State of Croatia (NDH), as well as killings and expulsions of Serbs by the various Axis forces and their local supporters in occupied Yugoslavia.
The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code named the Argonaut Conference, held from 4 to 11 February 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization.
The Young Turk Revolution (July 1908) of the Ottoman Empire was when the Young Turks movement restored the Ottoman constitution of 1876 and ushered in multi-party politics in a two stage electoral system (electoral law) under the Ottoman parliament.
The Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland (Југословенска војска у отаџбини / Jugoslovenska vojska u otadžbini), commonly known as the Chetniks (Четници / Četnici), or the Ravna Gora movement (Равногорски покрет / Ravnogorski pokret), was the military formation under the direct command of Draža Mihailović, one of several formations under the umbrella Chetnik Detachments of the Yugoslav Army, officially established on 10 June 1942.
The colonisation of Kosovo was a programme implemented by the Kingdom of Yugoslavia during the interwar period (1918–1941) with the aim of altering the ethnic population balance in the region where Albanians formed an ethnic majority.
The Government of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in Exile (Владе Краљевине Југославије у егзилу; Vlada Kraljevine Jugoslavije u egzilu) was an official government of Yugoslavia, headed by King Peter II.
Yugoslav irredentism refers to an irredentism that promotes a Yugoslavia that unites all South Slav-populated territories within it, comprising its historically united territories of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia including the disputed territory of Kosovo, Slovenia, and Vardar Macedonia; merged with territories claimed by Yugoslavists that had not been incorporated within the state of Yugoslavia, including Bulgaria, Western Thrace and Greek Macedonia and in some proposals other territories.
The Yugoslav Partisans,Serbo-Croatian, Macedonian, Slovene: Partizani, Партизани or the National Liberation Army,Narodnooslobodilačka vojska (NOV), Народноослободилачка војска (НОВ); Народноослободителна војска (НОВ); Narodnoosvobodilna vojska (NOV) officially the National Liberation Army and Partisan Detachments of Yugoslavia,Narodnooslobodilačka vojska i partizanski odredi Jugoslavije (NOV i POJ), Народноослободилачка војска и партизански одреди Југославије (НОВ и ПОЈ); Народноослободителна војска и партизански одреди на Југославија (НОВ и ПОЈ); Narodnoosvobodilna vojska in partizanski odredi Jugoslavije (NOV in POJ) was the Communist-led resistance to the Axis powers (chiefly Germany) in occupied Yugoslavia during World War II.
The Yugoslav People's Army (Jugoslovenska narodna armija / Југословенска народна армија / Jugoslavenska narodna armija; also Yugoslav National Army), often referred-to simply by the initialism JNA, was the military of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
| The Yugoslav Radical Union (Serbian: Jugoslovenska radikalna zajednica, Југословенска радикална заједница; Jugoslovanska radikalna skupnost, Croatian: Jugoslavenska radikalna zajednica; or JRZ) was a political party founded by Yugoslav Prime Minister Milan Stojadinović in 1935 as the ruling party of Yugoslavia that sponsored authoritarian mass mobilization.
The Yugoslav Wars were a series of ethnic conflicts, wars of independence and insurgencies fought from 1991 to 1999/2001 in the former Yugoslavia.
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
Zaharije Ostojić (Захарије Остојић; 1907 – April 1945) was a Montenegrin Serb military officer who served as the chief of the operational, organisational and intelligence branches of the Chetnik Supreme Command led by Draža Mihailović in Yugoslavia during World War II.
Zvornik is a city located in eastern Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Zvornik massacre refers to acts of mass murder and violence committed against Bosniaks and other non-Serb civilians in Zvornik by Serb paramilitary groups ("Arkanovci", Territorial Defence units, White Eagles, Yellow Wasps) at the beginning of the Bosnian War in 1992.
104th Jäger Division was a German infantry division of World War II.
114th Jäger Division (114.) was a light infantry division of the German Army in World War II.
The 1st Mountain Division (1.) was an elite formation of the German Wehrmacht during World War II, and is remembered for its involvement in multiple large-scale war crimes.
The 2nd Panzer Army (2.) was a German armoured formation during World War II, formed from the 2nd Panzer Group on October 5, 1941.
The 373rd (Croatian) Infantry Division (373., 373.) was a division of the German Army during World War II.
Bradonje, Cetnici, Cetnik, Cetniks, Chetnik, Chetnik Detachments of the Yugoslav Army, Chetnik collaboration, Chetnik movement, Mihailović Chetnik, Mihailović Chetniks, Serbian Chetnik Movement, Serbian Chetniks Movement, Serbian war crimes in World War II, Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland, Yugoslav Army in the Homeland, Yugoslav Royal Army in the Fatherland, Četnici, Četnik, Četniks.