412 relations: Al-Azhar University, Allies of World War II, Amdo, Ancestral home (Chinese), Anti-communism, Arbitrary arrest and detention, Arranged marriage, Attack on Pearl Harbor, Australian federal election, 1972, Authoritarianism, Autocracy, Bai Chongxi, Baoding Military Academy, Battle of Baitag Bogd, Battle of Kashgar (1934), Battle of Shanghai, Beiyang government, Blood brother, Blue Shirts Society, Book of Burial, British Hong Kong, British rule in Burma, Bureau of Investigation and Statistics, Cairo Conference, Canton Coup, Cantonese, Capitalism, Central Intelligence Agency, Central Plains War, Chang Ya-juo, Changzhou Island, Chekiang Province, Republic of China, Chen Cheng, Chen Guofu, Chen Jieru, Chen Jiongming, Chen Mingshu, Chen Qimei, Chengdu, Chiang Ching-kuo, Chiang Fang-liang, Chiang Hsiao-chang, Chiang Hsiao-wen, Chiang Hsiao-wu, Chiang Hsiao-yen, Chiang Hsiao-yung, Chiang Kai Shek College, Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall, Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Song, Chiang Kai-shek statues, ..., Chiang Si-qian, Chiang Wei-kuo, China, China and the United Nations, China Lobby, Chinese calligraphy, Chinese Civil War, Chinese famine of 1942–43, Chinese Filipino, Chinese kin, Chinese language, Chinese name, Chinese nationalism, Chinese Red Army, Chinese reunification (1928), Chinese Soviet Republic, Chongqing, Christianity, Chung Cheng High School (Main), Chungcheng, Cihu Mausoleum, Claire Lee Chennault, Cold War, Columbia University, Commandant, Commander-in-chief, Communist International, Communist Party of China, Concubinage, Confucianism, Constitution of the Republic of China, Control Yuan, Coup d'état, Courtesy name, Dai Li, Daxi District, Democratic Progressive Party, Dictator, Directorate of Operations (CIA), Discovery Channel, Distinguished Service Medal (U.S. Army), Du Yuesheng, Duke of Zhou, Duodenum, Dwight D. 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Al-Azhar University (1,, "the (honorable) Azhar University") is a university in Cairo, Egypt.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Amdo (ʔam˥˥.to˥˥) is one of the three traditional regions of Tibet, the other two being Ü-Tsang and Kham; it is also the birthplace of the 14th Dalai Lama.
In Chinese culture, hometown or ancestral home is the place of origin of one's extended family.
Anti-communism is opposition to communism.
Arbitrary arrest and arbitrary detention are the arrest or detention of an individual in a case in which there is no likelihood or evidence that they committed a crime against legal statute, or in which there has been no proper due process of law.
Arranged marriage is a type of marital union where the bride and groom are selected by individuals other than the couple themselves, particularly family members, such as the parents.
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, on the morning of December 7, 1941.
Federal elections were held in Australia on 2 December 1972.
Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.
An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).
Bai Chongxi (18 March 1893 – 1 December 1966;;, Xiao'erjing: ﺑَﻰْ ﭼْﻮ ثِ) was a Chinese general in the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China (ROC) and a prominent Chinese Nationalist leader.
Baoding Military Academy was a military academy based in Baoding, Republican China, in the first two decades of the 20th century.
The Beitashan Incident or Battle of Baitag Bogd Mountain (Байтаг богдын тулгарал;; alternatively Baitak Bogdo incident) was a border conflict between China, Mongolia, and the Soviet Union.
The Battle of Kashgar was a military confrontation that took place in 1934 during the Xinjiang Wars.
The Battle of Shanghai was the first of the twenty-two major engagements fought between the National Revolutionary Army (NRA) of the Republic of China (ROC) and the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) of the Empire of Japan during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Beiyang government (北洋政府), also sometimes spelled Peiyang Government, refers to the government of the Republic of China, which was in place in the capital city Beijing from 1912 to 1928.
Blood brother can refer to one of two things: a male related by birth, or two or more men not related by birth who have sworn loyalty to each other.
The Blue Shirts Society, also known as the Society of Practice of the Three Principles of the People (commonly abbreviated as SPTPP), the Spirit Encouragement Society (勵志社, SES) and the China Reconstruction Society (中華復興社, CRS), was a secret fascist clique in the Kuomintang (KMT, or the Chinese Nationalist Party).
The Book of Burial (Chinese: t 書, s 书, p Zàngshū) was an AD 4th- or 5th-century work by the Taoist mystic Guo Pu.
British Hong Kong was the period during which Hong Kong was under British Crown rule, from 1841 to 1997 (excluding the Japanese occupation from 1941 to 1945).
British rule in Burma, also known as British Burma, lasted from 1824 to 1948, from the Anglo-Burmese wars through the creation of Burma as a Province of British India to the establishment of an independently administered colony, and finally independence.
The National Bureau of Investigation and Statistics (Military Commission), (NBIS or BIS), commonly known as Juntong, was the military intelligence agency of the Republic of China before 1946.
The Cairo Conference (codenamed Sextant) of November 22–26, 1943, held in Cairo, Egypt, outlined the Allied position against Japan during World War II and made decisions about postwar Asia.
The Canton Coup of 20 March 1926, also known as the or the was a purge of Communist elements of the Nationalist army in Guangzhou (then romanized as "Canton") undertaken by Chiang Kai-shek.
The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Central Plains War of 1930 was a civil war between the Nationalist Kuomintang government in Nanjing led by Chiang Kai-shek and several regional military commanders that were former allies of Chiang during the Northern Expedition.
Chang Ya-jo (1913–1942; sometimes romanized as Chang Ya-juo or Chang Yaruo) was the mistress of Chiang Ching-kuo and bore twin sons for him, John Chiang and Winston Chang in 1942.
Changzhou Island, formerly known in English as Dane or, is an island in the Pearl River Delta of China's Guangdong Province.
Chekiang Province, Republic of China (1912–1955) was abolished after the ROC Forces, ROC government officials and local residents were evacuated from Tachen to Taiwan in 1955 following the military defeat of ROC by People's Republic of China's People's Liberation Army forces during the Battle of Tachen Archipelago.
Chen Cheng (January 4, 1897 – March 5, 1965) was a Chinese political and military leader, and one of the main National Revolutionary Army commanders during the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War.
Chen Guofu or Chen Kuo-fu (5 October 1892 – 25 August 1951), was a Chinese politician in the Republic of China.
Chen Jieru (Chinese: 陳潔如; Wade-Giles: Ch'en Chieh-ju; Pinyin: Chén Jiérú; August 26, 1906 – January 21, 1971) was the second wife of Chiang Kai-shek.
Chen Jiongming (13 January 187822 September 1933), also romanized as Chan Kwing Ming in Cantonese, was a revolutionary figure in the early period of the Republic of China.
Chen Mingshu (October 15, 1889 – May 15, 1965) was a Chinese general and politician.
Chen Qimei (January 17, 1878 – May 18, 1916) was a Chinese revolutionary activist, close political ally of Sun Yat-sen, and early mentor of Chiang Kai-shek.
Chengdu, formerly romanized as Chengtu, is a sub-provincial city which serves as the capital of China's Sichuan province.
Chiang Ching-kuo (Ningbo dialect) (27 April 1910 – 13 January 1988) was a politician in Taiwan.
Faina Chiang Fang-liang (15 May 1916 – 15 December 2004) was the wife of President Chiang Ching-kuo and served as First Lady of the Republic of China on Taiwan from 1978 to 1988.
Chiang Hsiao-chang (born 1938) is the only daughter of Chiang Ching-kuo, the President of the Republic of China in Taiwan from 1978 to 1988.
Chiang Hsiao-wen (also known as Alan Chiang; December 1935 – 14 April 1989) was the eldest son of Chiang Ching-kuo, the President of the Republic of China in Taiwan from 1978 to 1988.
Chiang Hsiao-wu (also known as Alex Chiang; April 25, 1945 - July 1, 1991) was the second son of Chiang Ching-kuo, the President of the Republic of China in Taiwan from 1978 to 1988.
Chiang Hsiao-yen (born 1 March 1942) or John Chiang, formerly surnamed Chang, is a Kuomintang politician in Taiwan.
Chiang Hsiao-yung (also known as Eddie Chiang; October, 1948 – December 22, 1996) was a politician of the Republic of China.
Chiang Kai-shek College is a Chinese Filipino institution of higher learning founded by Chinese Filipinos, recognized by the government of Republic of the Philippines and the Republic of China (Taiwan).
The National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall is a national monument, landmark and tourist attraction erected in memory of Chiang Kai-shek, former President of the Republic of China.
The Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Song was written to commemorate the late President Chiang Kai-shek of the Republic of China.
Chiang Kai-shek statues are statues of the late Republic of China (ROC) President Chiang Kai-shek.
Chiang Si-qian (1814–1894) is the grandfather of former Republic of China President Chiang Kai-shek.
Chiang Wei-kuo (or Wego Chiang; October 6, 1916 – September 22, 1997) was an adopted son of Republic of China (Taiwan) President Chiang Kai-shek and adoptive brother of the later President Chiang Ching-kuo.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
China was one of the charter members of the United Nations and is one of five permanent members of its Security Council.
In United States politics, the China lobby is a phrase to describe special interest groups acting on behalf of the governments of either the People's Republic of China; or groups acting on the behalf of Republic of China (Taiwan) to influence Sino-American relations; or those in the U.S. who lobby for what they deem as pro Chinese American policies and closer Sino-American relations.
Chinese calligraphy is a form of aesthetically pleasing writing (calligraphy), or, the artistic expression of human language in a tangible form.
The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC).
The Chinese famine of 1942–43 occurred mainly in Henan, most particularly within the western part of the province.
Chinese Filipinos (Filipino: Pilipinong Tsino, Tsinoy or Intsik) are Filipinos of Chinese descent, mostly born and raised in the Philippines.
A Chinese kin, lineage or sometimes rendered as clan, is a patrilineal and patrilocal group of related Chinese people with a common surname sharing a common ancestor and, in many cases, an ancestral home.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Chinese personal names are names used by those from mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, and the Chinese diaspora overseas.
Chinese nationalism is the form of nationalism in China which asserts that the Chinese people are a nation and promotes the cultural and national unity of the Chinese.
The Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, renamed Chinese People's Red Army in 1936, commonly known as the Chinese Red Army, or simply the Red Army, was the armed forces of the Communist Party of China from 1928 to 1937.
Chinese reunification (1928), better known in Chinese history as the Northeast Flag Replacement, is Zhang Xueliang's announcement on 29 December 1928 on replacing all banners of the Beiyang government in Manchuria with the flag of the Nationalist government, thus nominally uniting China under one state.
The Chinese Soviet Republic (CSR), also known as the Soviet Republic of China or the China Soviet Republic, is often referred to in historical sources as the Jiangxi Soviet (after its largest component territory, the Jiangxi-Fujian Soviet).
Chongqing, formerly romanized as Chungking, is a major city in southwest China.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Chung Cheng High School (Main) is a co-educational secondary school in Singapore.
Zhongzheng or Chungcheng is a common name for places, roads, schools or organizations in Chinese-speaking areas, though today predominantly in Taiwan.
Cihu Mausoleum, officially known as the Mausoleum of Late President Chiang or President Chiang Kai-shek Mausoleum is the temporary resting place of President Chiang Kai-shek.
Claire Lee Chennault (September 6, 1890 – July 27, 1958) was an American military aviator best known for his leadership of the "Flying Tigers" and the Republic of China Air Force in World War II.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
Commandant is a title often given to the officer in charge of a military (or other uniformed service) training establishment or academy.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
The Communist International (Comintern), known also as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism.
The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.
Concubinage is an interpersonal and sexual relationship in which the couple are not or cannot be married.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
During the National Constituent Assembly session on 25 December 1946 in Nanking, the fifth and current Chinese constitution was officially adopted on 25 December 1947, at a time when the ROC still had nominal control of Mainland China and to which this constitution applied.
The Control Yuan (CY) one of the five branches of the Government of the Republic of China, is an investigatory agency that monitors the other branches of government.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
A courtesy name (zi), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name.
Lieutenant General Dai Li (Tai Li;; May 28, 1897 - March 17, 1946) was born Dai Chunfeng (Tai Chun-feng; 戴春風) with the courtesy name of Yunong (Yu-nung; 雨農) in Bao'an, Jiangshan of Qing Dynasty China's Zhejiang province.
Dasi District, formerly known as Dasi Township (also seen as "Tahsi"), is a district in eastern Taoyuan City, Taiwan.
The Democratic Progressive Party (DPP), also known as Minjindang (MJD) is a liberal political party in the Taiwan and the dominant party in the Pan-Green Coalition as it is currently the majority ruling party, controlling both the presidency and the unicameral Legislative Yuan.
A dictator is a political leader who possesses absolute power.
The Directorate of Operations (DO), less formally called the Clandestine Service,Central Intelligence Agency,, Retrieved:9 July 2015 is one of the smallest components of the US Central Intelligence Agency.
Discovery Channel (known as The Discovery Channel from 1985 to 1995, and often referred to as simply Discovery) is an American pay television channel that is the flagship television property of Discovery Inc., a publicly traded company run by CEO David Zaslav.
The Distinguished Service Medal (DSM) is a military award of the United States Army that is presented to any person who, while serving in any capacity with the United States military, has distinguished himself by exceptionally meritorious service to the Government in a duty of great responsibility.
Du Yuesheng (22 August 188816 August 1951), nicknamed "Big-Eared Du",Lintner, Bertil.
Dan, Duke Wen of Zhou (11th Century BC), commonly known as the Duke of Zhou, was a member of the royal family of the Zhou dynasty who played a major role in consolidating the kingdom established by his elder brother King Wu.
The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
was a Japanese politician and the 39th Prime Minister of Japan, elected on 9 November 1964, and re-elected on 17 February 1967, and 14 January 1970, serving until 7 July 1972.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
Empress Dowager Cixi1 (Manchu: Tsysi taiheo; 29 November 1835 – 15 November 1908), of the Manchu Yehenara clan, was a Chinese empress dowager and regent who effectively controlled the Chinese government in the late Qing dynasty for 47 years from 1861 until her death in 1908.
The February 28 Incident or the February 28 Massacre, also known as the 2.28 Incident (from), was an anti-government uprising in Taiwan that was violently suppressed by the Kuomintang-led Republic of China government, which killed thousands of civilians beginning on 28 February 1947.
The term federalist describes several political beliefs around the world.
Feng Yuxiang (6 November 1882 – 1 September 1948) was a warlord and leader in Republican China from Chaohu, Anhui.
() is a district of the city of Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
The First Opium War (第一次鴉片戰爭), also known as the Opium War or the Anglo-Chinese War, was a series of military engagements fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing dynasty of China over their conflicting viewpoints on diplomatic relations, trade, and the administration of justice in China.
The First United Front, also known as the KMT–CPC Alliance, of the Kuomintang (KMT) and the Communist Party of China (CPC), was formed in 1923 as an alliance to end warlordism in China.
Five Races Under One Union was one of the major principles upon which the Republic of China was founded in 1911 at the time of the Xinhai Revolution.
The First American Volunteer Group (AVG) of the Chinese Air Force in 1941–1942, nicknamed the Flying Tigers, was composed of pilots from the United States Army Air Corps (USAAC), Navy (USN), and Marine Corps (USMC), recruited under presidential authority and commanded by Claire Lee Chennault.
Formosa Betrayed is a 2009 American political thriller film directed by Adam Kane, written by Charlie Stratton, Yann Samuell, Brian Askew, and Nathaniel Goodman, with a story by Will Tiao and Katie Swain, and starring James Van Der Beek.
The Four Asian Tigers, Four Asian Dragons or Four Little Dragons, are the economies of Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan, which underwent rapid industrialization and maintained exceptionally high growth rates (in excess of 7 percent a year) between the early 1960s (mid-1950s for Hong Kong) and 1990s.
The Four big families of the Republic of ChinaChinanews.com.cn.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
The Free area of the Republic of China is a term used by the government of the Republic of China (ROC) to refer to the territories under its actual control.
French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China) (French: Indochine française; Lao: ສະຫະພັນອິນດູຈີນ; Khmer: សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន; Vietnamese: Đông Dương thuộc Pháp/東洋屬法,, frequently abbreviated to Đông Pháp; Chinese: 法属印度支那), officially known as the Indochinese Union (French: Union indochinoise) after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation (French: Fédération indochinoise) after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia.
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
Gedimu or Qadim (قديم) is the earliest school of Islam in China.
Generalissimo is a military rank of the highest degree, superior to field marshal and other five-star ranks in the countries where they are used.
Taiwan, formerly known as Formosa, is an island in East Asia; located some off the southeastern coast of mainland China across the Taiwan Strait.
George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death in 1952.
Gonorrhea, also spelled gonorrhoea, is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
Edward Gough Whitlam (11 July 191621 October 2014) was the 21st Prime Minister of Australia, serving from 1972 to 1975.
Grand Cross is the highest class in many orders, and manifested in its insignia.
The Green Gang was a Chinese secret society and criminal organization, which was prominent in criminal, social and political activity in Shanghai during the early to mid 20th century.
Guan Linzheng (1905–1980) was a highly successful Chinese general in the Kuomintang who fought against both the Communists and the Imperial Japanese Army, and was a recipient of Order of Blue Sky and White Sun, the highest honor for a Chinese Nationalist commander.
Guangdong is a province in South China, located on the South China Sea coast.
Guangxi (pronounced; Zhuang: Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is a Chinese autonomous region in South Central China, bordering Vietnam.
Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.
The Guangzhou Uprising or Canton Riots of 1927 was a failed Communist uprising in the city of Guangzhou in southern China.
The Guesthouses of Chiang Kai-shek were built in order for former the President of the Republic of China, Chiang Kai-shek, to have places to stay while travelling on inspection tours and holidays around Taiwan.
Kung Hsiang-hsi (September 11, 1881 – August 16, 1967), often known as Dr.
Ḥadīth (or; حديث, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث,, also "Traditions") in Islam refers to the record of the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
The Han Chinese,.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
The History of the Republic of China begins after the Qing dynasty in 1912, when the formation of the Republic of China as a constitutional republic put an end to 4,000 years of Imperial rule.
Hồ Chí Minh (Chữ nôm: 胡志明; 19 May 1890 – 2 September 1969), born Nguyễn Sinh Cung, also known as Nguyễn Tất Thành and Nguyễn Ái Quốc, was a Vietnamese Communist revolutionary leader who was Chairman and First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Vietnam.
Honour Sabre of the Awakened Lion is an honour sabre from the Republic of China.
Many East Asian scripts can be written horizontally or vertically.
In justice and law, house arrest (also called home confinement, home detention, or, in modern times, electronic monitoring) is a measure by which a person is confined by the authorities to a residence.
Hu Hanmin (born in Panyu, Guangdong, Qing dynasty, China, December 9, 1879 – Guangdong, Republic of China, May 12, 1936) was one of the early conservative right factional leaders in the Kuomintang (KMT) during revolutionary China.
Hu Songshan (1880–1955), a Hui, was born in 1880, in Tongxin County, Ningxia, China.
The Hui people (Xiao'erjing: خُوِذُو; Dungan: Хуэйзў, Xuejzw) are an East Asian ethnoreligious group predominantly composed of Han Chinese adherents of the Muslim faith found throughout China, mainly in the northwestern provinces of the country and the Zhongyuan region.
Hwang Yau-tai or Huang Yau-tai (January 12, 1912 – July 4, 2010) was a Chinese musician, writer and composer.
The I Ching,.
The Ili Rebellion (Üch Wiläyt inqilawi) was a Soviet-backed revolt against the Kuomintang government of the Republic of China in 1944.
The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA; Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun; "Army of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945.
The was the principal officer's training school for the Imperial Japanese Army.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
was a Japanese politician, cabinet minister, and Prime Minister of Japan from 13 December 1931 to 15 May 1932.
Isa Yusuf Alptekin or ʿĪsa Yūsuf Alptekin (ئەيسا يۈسۈپ ئالپتېكىن. (عيسى يوسف الپتگین) or (عيسى يوسف الپتكین) (Turkish:İsa Yusuf Alptekin)Айсабек; 1901 – 17 December 1995), known in China as Ai Sha, was a Uyghur political leader.
In 1937 an Islamic rebellion broke out in southern Xinjiang.
The January 28 Incident or Shanghai Incident (January 28 – March 3, 1932) was a conflict between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan, before official hostilities of the Second Sino-Japanese War commenced in 1937.
The Japanese Instrument of Surrender was the written agreement that formalized the surrender of the Empire of Japan, marking the end of World War II.
The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on 18 September 1931, when the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan invaded Manchuria immediately following the Mukden Incident.
The is the official currency of Japan.
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
Jiang can be a pinyin transliteration of one of several Chinese surnames.
Jiangsu, formerly romanized as Kiangsu, is an eastern-central coastal province of the People's Republic of China.
Jiangxi, formerly spelled as Kiangsi Gan: Kongsi) is a province in the People's Republic of China, located in the southeast of the country. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze river in the north into hillier areas in the south and east, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to the northwest. The name "Jiangxi" derives from the circuit administrated under the Tang dynasty in 733, Jiangnanxidao (道, Circuit of Western Jiangnan; Gan: Kongnomsitau). The short name for Jiangxi is 赣 (pinyin: Gàn; Gan: Gōm), for the Gan River which runs across from the south to the north and flows into the Yangtze River. Jiangxi is also alternately called Ganpo Dadi (贛鄱大地) which literally means the "Great Land of Gan and Po".
Jihad (جهاد) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.
Jin Shuren (1879–1941) was a Han Chinese born in Gansu, was the warlord governor of Xinjiang, succeeding Yang Zengxin when Yang was assassinated in 1928.
Jonathan Fenby, CBE (born 11 November 1942) is China Chairman and Managing Director, European Politics at the research service TSLombard.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Joseph Warren Stilwell (March 19, 1883 – October 12, 1946) was a United States Army general who served in the China Burma India Theater during World War II.
Ju is an ancient Chinese city that existed during the Warring States period, and was located in what is today Ju County, Rizhao Prefecture, Shandong.
was a Japanese politician who served in the House of Representatives from 26 April 1947 to 24 January 1990, and as the 40th Prime Minister of Japan from 7 July 1972 to 9 December 1974 (his two terms being divided by the 1972 general election).
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
Kinmen or Quemoy (see also "Names" section below), officially Kinmen County, is a group of islands, governed by the Republic of China (ROC), which is located just off the southeastern coast of mainland China, including Great Kinmen, Lesser Kinmen, Wuqiu and several surrounding islets.
The Kumul Rebellion (Hāmì bàodòng, "Hami Uprising") was a rebellion of Kumulik Uyghurs who conspired with Hui Chinese Muslim Gen.
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
The Kuomintang Islamic insurgency refers to a continuation of the Chinese Civil War by Muslim Kuomintang Republic of China Army forces in Northwest China, in the provinces of Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, Xinjiang, and another insurgency in Yunnan.
Lake Tai or Lake Taihu is a large freshwater lake in the Yangtze Delta plain.
Lee Teng-hui (born 15 January 1923) is a Taiwanese politician.
The Legion of Honour, with its full name National Order of the Legion of Honour (Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte and retained by all the divergent governments and regimes later holding power in France, up to the present.
The Legion of Merit (LOM) is a military award of the United States Armed Forces that is given for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services and achievements.
The Legislative Yuan is the unicameral legislature of the Republic of China now based in Taiwan.
Leon Trotsky (born Lev Davidovich Bronstein; – 21 August 1940) was a Russian revolutionary, theorist, and Soviet politician.
Li Mi (1902–1973) was a high-ranking Nationalist general who participated in the anti-Communist Encirclement Campaigns, Second Sino-Japanese War and Chinese Civil War.
Li Shizeng (29 May 1881 – 30 September 1973) was an educator, promoter of anarchist doctrines, political activist, and member of the Chinese Nationalist Party in early Republican China.
Li Zongren or Li Tsung-jen (13 August 1890 – 30 January 1969), courtesy name Delin (Te-lin; 德鄰), was a prominent Guangxi warlord and Kuomintang (KMT) military commander during the Northern Expedition, Second Sino-Japanese War and Chinese Civil War.
Liang Shuming (Wade-Giles Liang Shu-ming; sometimes Liang Sou-ming), October 18, 1893 – June 23, 1988), born Liang Huanding (梁焕鼎), courtesy name Shouming (壽銘), was a philosopher, teacher, and leader in the Rural Reconstruction Movement in the late Qing dynasty and early Republican eras of Chinese history.
Liao Zhongkai (April 23, 1877 – August 20, 1925) was a Kuomintang leader and financier.
Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.
Lin Sen (16 March 1868 – 1 August 1943), courtesy name Zichao (子超), sobriquet Changren (長仁), was Chairman of the National Government of the Republic of China from 1931 until his death.
This is a list of the 64 hexagrams of the I Ching, or Book of Changes, and their Unicode character codes.
The following is a list of people who held leadership office of the Kuomintang.
Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book publisher in the world.
The Long March (October 1934 – October 1935) was a military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Communist Party of China, the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang (KMT or Chinese Nationalist Party) army.
Lu Han (1895–1974) was a KMT general of Yi ethnicity.
Ma Bufang (1903 – 31 July 1975) (Xiao'erjing: ما بوفنگ) was a prominent Muslim Ma clique warlord in China during the Republic of China era, ruling the province of Qinghai.
Ma Buqing (1901–1977) (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ﺑُﻮْ شٍ) was a prominent Ma clique warlord in China during the Republic of China era, controlling armies in the province of Qinghai.
Ma Ching-chiang (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ دٍ ﺛِﯿْﺎ) was a Chinese Muslim general of the Republic of China Army, who served in the 1970s.
The Ma clique or Ma family warlords is a collective name for a group of Hui (Muslim Chinese) warlords in Northwestern China who ruled the Chinese provinces of Qinghai, Gansu and Ningxia for 10 years from 1919 until 1928.
Ma Fushou (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ﻓُﻮْ ﺷِﻮْ), a Hui, was the son of General Ma Qianling, and the brother of Ma Fucai, Ma Fulu, and Ma Fuxiang.
Ma Fuxiang (French romanization: Ma-Fou-hiang or Ma Fou-siang; 4 February 1876 – 19 August 1932) was a Chinese military and political leader spanning the Qing Dynasty through the early Republic of China and illustrated the power of family, the role of religious affiliations, and the interaction of Inner Asian China and the national government of China.
Ma Hongbin (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ﺡْﻮ بٍ, September 14, 1884 – October 21, 1960), was a prominent Chinese Muslim warlord active mainly during the Republican era, and was part of the Ma clique.
Ma Hongkui (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ﺡْﻮ ﻛُﻮِ; March 14, 1892 – January 14, 1970) was a prominent warlord in China during the Republic of China era, ruling the province of Ningxia.
Ma Lin (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ لٍ,; 1873 – 26 January 1945) was the governor of Qinghai from 1931–38 and the brother of Ma Qi.
Ma Qi (23 September 1869 – 5 August 1931) (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ چِ) was a Chinese Muslim warlord in early 20th-century China.
Ma Shaowu (1874–1937, Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ﺷَﻮْ ءُ) was a Hui born in Yunnan, in Qing Dynasty China.
Madame Chiang Kai-shek: China's Eternal First Lady is a book written by Laura Tyson Li, a correspondent at Financial Times, also a reporter a South China Morning Post, a biography of Soong Mei-ling, wife of modern China wartime leader Chiang Kai-shek.
Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Mainland Chinese or Mainlanders are Chinese people who live in a region considered a "mainland".
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.
Manchukuo was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945.
Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
Mao Fumei (c, 9 November 1882 – 12 December 1939) was the first wife of Chiang Kai-shek, and the biological mother of Chiang Ching-Kuo.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
The Marshall Mission (20 December 1945 – January 1947) was a failed diplomatic mission undertaken by United States Army General of the Army George C. Marshall to China in an attempt to negotiate the Communist Party of China and the Nationalists (Kuomintang) into a unified government.
Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public.
The concept of martyrdom in China was largely developed by the Tongmenghui and the Kuomintang party during the Xinhai Revolution, Northern Expedition, and Second Sino-Japanese War.
Maurice Jerome Meisner (November 17, 1931 – January 23, 2012) was an historian of 20th century China and professor at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.
The May Fourth Movement was an anti-imperialist, cultural, and political movement growing out of student participants in Beijing on 4 May 1919, protesting against the Chinese government's weak response to the Treaty of Versailles, especially allowing Japan to receive territories in Shandong which had been surrendered by Germany after the Siege of Tsingtao.
Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England.
Mikhail Markovich Borodin (Михаи́л Ма́ркович Бороди́н; July 9, 1884 – May 29, 1951) was the alias of Mikhail Gruzenberg, a prominent Comintern agent, associate of Lenin and Chinese Government advisor to its leader Mao Zedong.
Russia has a number of military academies of different specialties.
The command of the Chinese National Revolutionary Army was directed by the Military Affairs Commission, chaired by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II.
A mortar is usually a simple, lightweight, man portable, muzzle-loaded weapon, consisting of a smooth-bore metal tube fixed to a base plate (to absorb recoil) with a lightweight bipod mount.
Mount Tai is a mountain of historical and cultural significance located north of the city of Tai'an, in Shandong province, China.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.
The Nanking Massacre was an episode of mass murder and mass rape committed by Japanese troops against the residents of Nanjing (Nanking), then the capital of the Republic of China, during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The term narcotic (from ancient Greek ναρκῶ narkō, "to make numb") originally referred medically to any psychoactive compound with sleep-inducing properties.
The National Assembly refers to several national parliamentary government organizations of the Republic of China.
The National Day of the Republic of China, also referred to as Double Ten Day or Double Tenth Day, is the national day of the Republic of China (ROC). It commemorates the start of the Wuchang Uprising of 10 October 1911 (10-10 or double ten), which led to the collapse of the Qing Dynasty in China and establishment of the ROC on 1 January 1912. During the course of the Chinese Civil War, the government of the Republic of China lost control of mainland China, fleeing to Taiwan Island in December 1949. The National Day is now mainly celebrated in ROC-controlled Taiwan, but is also celebrated by some overseas Chinese.
The National Revolutionary Army (NRA), sometimes shortened to Revolutionary Army (革命軍) before 1928, and as National Army (國軍) after 1928, was the military arm of the Kuomintang (KMT, or the Chinese Nationalist Party) from 1925 until 1947 in the Republic of China.
The Nationalist government, officially the National Government of the Republic of China, refers to the government of the Republic of China between 1 July 1925 to 20 May 1948, led by the Kuomintang (KMT, Chinese Nationalist Party).
The New Life Movement was a government-led civic movement in 1930s China to promote cultural reform and Neo-Confucian social morality and to ultimately unite China under a centralised ideology following the emergence of ideological challenges to the status quo.
New Taipei City is a special municipality and the most populous city in Taiwan.
Ningbo, formerly written Ningpo, is a sub-provincial city in northeast Zhejiang province in China. It comprises the urban districts of Ningbo proper, three satellite cities, and a number of rural counties including islands in Hangzhou Bay and the East China Sea. Its port, spread across several locations, is among the busiest in the world and the municipality possesses a separate state-planning status. As of the 2010 census, the entire administrated area had a population of 7.6 million, with 3.5 million in the six urban districts of Ningbo proper. To the north, Hangzhou Bay separates Ningbo from Shanghai; to the east lies Zhoushan in the East China Sea; on the west and south, Ningbo borders Shaoxing and Taizhou respectively.
Ningxia (pronounced), officially the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest part of the country.
The Ningxia Campaign was a series of battles fought between the nationalists and the communists during Chinese Civil War in the post World War II era, and resulted in the communist victory.
The Northern Expedition was a military campaign launched by the National Revolutionary Army of the Kuomintang (KMT), also known as the Nationalists, against the Beiyang government and other regional warlords in 1926.
Northwestern China includes the autonomous regions of Xinjiang and Ningxia and the provinces of Shaanxi, Gansu, and Qinghai.
Odd Arne Westad FBA (born 5 January 1960) is a Norwegian historian specializing in the Cold War and contemporary East Asian history.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
Operation Matterhorn was a military operation of the United States Army Air Forces in World War II for the strategic bombing of Japanese forces by B-29 Superfortresses based in India and China.
The Order of Blue Sky and White Sun with Grand Cordon (Chinese:青天白日勳章or青天白日勛章) is the Republic of China's second highest military award.
The Order of Boyacá (Orden de Boyacá) is the highest peacetime decoration of Colombia.
The Order of Brilliant Jade is a civilian order of the Republic of China that can be worn only by the head of a nation.
Order of Brilliant Star is a civilian order of the Republic of China recognizing outstanding contributions to the development of the nation.
The Order of Christopher Columbus (Orden Heráldica de Cristóbal Colón) is an order of the Dominican Republic.
The Order of Isabella the Catholic (Orden de Isabel la Católica) is a Spanish civil order in which membership is granted in recognition of services that benefit the country.
The Order of Leopold (Leopoldsorde, Ordre de Léopold) is one of the three current Belgian national honorary orders of knighthood.
The Order of Merit (Orden del Mérito) is a Chilean military order and was created in 1929.
The Order of Merit for National Foundation (Hangul: 건국훈장) is one of South Korea's orders of merit.
The Order of Merit of Duarte, Sánchez and Mella (Orden al Mérito de Duarte, Sánchez y Mella) is the principal order of the Dominican Republic.
The Order of National Glory(國光勳章) is the highest military award of the Republic of China Armed Forces, the army of the Republic of China (Taiwan).
The Order of Propitious Clouds is a civilian order of the Republic of China.
The Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus (Ordine dei Santi Maurizio e Lazzaro) is a Roman Catholic dynastic order of knighthood bestowed by the House of Savoy, founded in 1572 by Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, through amalgamation approved by Pope Gregory XIII of the Order of Saint Maurice, founded in 1434, with the medieval Order of Saint Lazarus, founded circa 1119, considered its sole legitimate successor.
The Order of Sikatuna (Orden ni Sikatuna) is the national order of diplomatic merit of the Republic of the Philippines.
The Order of the Aztec Eagle (Orden Mexicana del Águila Azteca) forms part of the Mexican Honours System and is the highest Mexican order awarded to foreigners in the country.
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly the Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath) is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725.
The Order of the Cloud and Banner also known as the Order of the Resplendent Banner is a military award of the Republic of China.
The Order of the Condor of the Andes (La Orden del Cóndor de los Andes) is a state decoration of the Plurinational State of Bolivia instituted on 12 April 1925.
The Order of the Liberator was the highest distinction of Venezuela and was appointed for services to the country, outstanding merit and benefits made to the community.
The Order of the Liberator General San Martin (Orden del Libertador General San Martín) is the highest decoration in Argentina.
The Order of the Lion was, at one point, the highest state order, and the second-highest honor bestowed by the government of Malawi.
The Order of the Quetzal (Spanish: Orden del Quetzal) is Guatemala’s highest honor.
The Most Auspicious Order of the Rajamitrabhorn (เครื่องราชอิสริยาภรณ์อันเป็นมงคลยิ่งราชมิตราภรณ์) is the highest royal order of Thailand.
The Order of the Redeemer (translit), also known as the Order of the Saviour, is an order of merit of Greece.
The Order of the Sacred Tripod (寶鼎勳章), also referred to as the Order of the Precious Tripod or Pao Ting, is a military award of the Republic of China.
The National Order of the Southern Cross (Ordem Nacional do Cruzeiro do Sul) is a Brazilian order of chivalry founded by Emperor Pedro I on 1 December 1822.
The Order of the Sun of Peru (Spanish: Orden El Sol del Perú), formerly known as the Order of the Sun, is the highest award bestowed by the nation of Peru to commend notable civil and military merit.
The Order of the White Lion (Řád Bílého lva) is the highest order of the Czech Republic.
The Order of Vasco Núñez de Balboa is an order of Panama, instituted on 1 July 1941 (Ley No. 94 de 1 de julio de 1941).
Outer Mongolia (Mongolian script: or ， Mongolian Cyrillic: or, romanization: Gadaad Mongol or Alr Mongol)Huhbator Borjigin.
The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia-Pacific War, was the theater of World War II that was fought in the Pacific and Asia. It was fought over a vast area that included the Pacific Ocean and islands, the South West Pacific, South-East Asia, and in China (including the 1945 Soviet–Japanese conflict). The Second Sino-Japanese War between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China had been in progress since 7 July 1937, with hostilities dating back as far as 19 September 1931 with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. However, it is more widely accepted that the Pacific War itself began on 7/8 December 1941, when Japan invaded Thailand and attacked the British possessions of Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong as well as the United States military and naval bases in Hawaii, Wake Island, Guam and the Philippines. The Pacific War saw the Allies pitted against Japan, the latter briefly aided by Thailand and to a much lesser extent by the Axis allied Germany and Italy. The war culminated in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and other large aerial bomb attacks by the Allies, accompanied by the Soviet declaration of war and invasion of Manchuria on 9 August 1945, resulting in the Japanese announcement of intent to surrender on 15 August 1945. The formal surrender of Japan ceremony took place aboard the battleship in Tokyo Bay on 2 September 1945. Japan's Shinto Emperor was forced to relinquish much of his authority and his divine status through the Shinto Directive in order to pave the way for extensive cultural and political reforms. After the war, Japan lost all rights and titles to its former possessions in Asia and the Pacific, and its sovereignty was limited to the four main home islands.
Pan-Asianism (also known as Asianism or Greater Asianism) is an ideology that promotes the unity of Asian peoples.
The Penghu or Pescadores Islands are an archipelago of 90 islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait.
The Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Communist Party of China (CPC).
The Philippine Legion of Honor (Lehiyong Pandangal ng Pilipinas) was established by President Manuel Roxas, through Philippine Army Circular No.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
In the military, a political commissar or political officer (or politruk, from политический руководитель, "political leader"), is a supervisory officer responsible for the political education (ideology) and organization of the unit they are assigned to, and intended to ensure civilian control of the military.
The politics of the Republic of China take place in a framework of a representative democratic republic, whereby the President is head of state and the Premier (Chef of the Executive Yuan) is head of government, and of a multi-party system.
A posthumous name is an honorary name given to royalty, nobles, and sometimes others, in East Asia after the person's death, and is used almost exclusively instead of one's personal name or other official titles during his life.
The President of the Executive Yuan, commonly known as the Premier of Republic of China (sometimes as Prime Minister), is the head of the Executive Yuan, the executive branch of the Republic of China on Taiwan.
The President of Taiwan, officially the President of the Republic of China, is the head of state and the head of government of Taiwan.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
Project National Glory or Project Guoguang was a military attempt by the Kuomintang-led Republic of China located on Taiwan to try to recapture mainland China held by the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Qi was a state of the Zhou dynasty-era in ancient China, variously reckoned as a march, duchy, and independent kingdom.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Qinghai, formerly known in English as Kokonur, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest of the country.
Quisling is a term originating in Norway, which is used in Scandinavian languages and in English for a person who collaborates with an enemy occupying force – or more generally as a synonym for traitor.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Rana Shantashil Rajyeswar Mitter FBA (born 1969) is a British historian and political scientist of Indian origin who specialises in the history of republican China.
Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
The Republic of China Armed Forces, also known as the Chinese National Armed Forces (CNAF) or Armed Forces of Taiwan are the armed forces of the Republic of China now on Taiwan, encompassing the Army, Navy (including the Republic of China Marine Corps), Air Force and Military Police Force.
The Republic of China Army (ROCA) is the largest branch of the Republic of China Armed Forces.
The Republic of China Military Academy is the military academy for the army of the Republic of China, located in Fengshan District, Kaohsiung.
The Romanization of Chinese is the use of the Latin alphabet to write Chinese.
The Royal Order of the Seraphim (Swedish: Kungliga Serafimerorden; Seraphim being a category of Angels) is a Swedish order of chivalry created by King Frederick I on 23 February 1748, together with the Order of the Sword and the Order of the Polar Star.
Rudolph Joseph Rummel (October 21, 1932 – March 2, 2014) was professor of political science who taught at the Indiana University, Yale University, and University of Hawaii.
The, also known as the or the, are a chain of islands annexed by Japan that stretch southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan: the Ōsumi, Tokara, Amami, Okinawa, and Sakishima Islands (further divided into the Miyako and Yaeyama Islands), with Yonaguni the southernmost.
The Salafi movement or Salafist movement or Salafism is a reform branch or revivalist movement within Sunni Islam that developed in Egypt in the late 19th century as a response to European imperialism.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.
The Second United Front was the alliance between the Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang, or KMT) and Communist Party of China (CPC) to resist the Japanese invasion during the Second Sino-Japanese War, which suspended the Chinese Civil War from 1937 to 1941.
The term secret police (or political police)Ilan Berman & J. Michael Waller, "Introduction: The Centrality of the Secret Police" in Dismantling Tyranny: Transitioning Beyond Totalitarian Regimes (Rowman & Littlefield, 2006), p. xv.
The Shanghai International Settlement originated from the 1863 merger of the British and American enclaves in Shanghai, parts of the Qing Empire held extraterritorially under the terms of a series of Unequal Treaties.
The Shanghai massacre of April 12, 1927, known commonly as the April 12 Incident, was the violent suppression of Communist Party of China (CPC) organizations in Shanghai by the military forces of Chiang Kai-shek and conservative factions in the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party, or KMT).
Sheng Shicai (3 December 1895 – 13 July 1970) was a Chinese warlord who ruled Xinjiang from 1933 to 1944.
The Shilin Official Residence is the former residence of late Republic of China President Chiang Kai-shek located on Zhongshan North Road in Shilin District, Taipei, Taiwan.
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China.
Cooperation between China and Germany was instrumental in modernizing the industry and the armed forces of the Republic of China between 1926 and 1941.
The Sino-Tibetan War was a war that began in 1930 when the Tibetan Army under the 13th Dalai Lama invaded Xikang and Yushu in Qinghai in a dispute over monasteries.
The former socialist ideology of the Kuomintang is a unique form of socialism and socialist thought developed in mainland China during the early Republic of China.
Soong Ching-ling (27 January 189329 May 1981) was a Chinese political figure.
Soong Mei-ling or Soong May-ling (March 5, 1898 – October 23, 2003), also known as Madame Chiang Kai-shek or Madame Chiang, was a Chinese political figure who was First Lady of the Republic of China, the wife of Generalissimo and President Chiang Kai-shek.
The Soviet invasion of Xinjiang was a military campaign of the Soviet Union in the Chinese northwestern region of Xinjiang in 1934.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Sovietization is the adoption of a political system based on the model of soviets (workers' councils) or the adoption of a way of life and mentality modelled after the Soviet Union.
The SS Zhongshan, formerly romanized as, was a Chinese coastal defense ship of 780 tons.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is a business enterprise where the state has significant control through full, majority, or significant minority ownership.
Sun Fo or Sun Ke (October 21, 1891 – September 13, 1973), courtesy name Zhesheng (哲生), was a high-ranking official in the government of the Republic of China.
Sun Li-jen (December 8, 1900 – November 19, 1990) KBE was a Chinese Nationalist (KMT) general, a graduate of Virginia Military Institute, best known for his leadership in the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War.
Sun Yat-sen (12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925)Singtao daily.
The Sun Yat-sen or Zhongshan Memorial Hall is an octagon-shaped building in Guangzhou, capital of China's Guangdong Province.
The Supreme Order of the Renaissance is the second knighthood order of the Kingdom of Jordan.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Soong Tse-ven or Soong Tzu-wen (December 4, 1894 – April 26, 1971) was a prominent businessman and politician in the early-20th-century Republic of China.
Tael (at the OED Online.) or tahil can refer to any one of several weight measures of the Far East.
Tai tou (literally "shift head") is a typographical East Asian expression of honor that can be divided into two forms, Nuo tai and Ping tai.
Taipei, officially known as Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially known as the Republic of China, "ROC").
The Taipei Grand Mosque is the largest and most famous mosque in Taiwan with a total area of 2,747 square meters.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Taiwanese people (Mandarin: 臺灣人 (traditional), 台湾人 (simplified); Minnan: 臺灣儂; Hakka 臺灣人 (Romanization: Thòi-vàn ngìn)) are people from Taiwan who share a common Taiwanese culture and speak Mandarin Chinese, Hokkien, Hakka, or Aboriginal languages as a mother tongue.
Taixu, (8 January 1890 – 17 March 1947) was a Buddhist modernist, activist and thinker who advocated the reform and renewal of Chinese Buddhism.
was a Japanese politician and the 42nd Prime Minister of Japan (67th administration) from 24 December 1976 to 7 December 1978.
Tan Yankai (January 25, 1880 – September 22, 1930) was a Chinese politician.
Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport is an international airport serving Taipei and northern Taiwan.
Taoyuan City (Hokkien) is a special municipality in northwestern Taiwan, neighboring New Taipei City, Hsinchu County, and Yilan County.
was a nationalist political leader in early 20th century Japan and founder of the Genyosha nationalist secret society.
The Temporary Provisions Effective During the Period of National Mobilization for Suppression of the Communist Rebellion were provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of China effective from 1948 to 1991 and amended four times.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Young Companion, known as Liángyǒu in Chinese, was a pictorial with captions in both Chinese and English, published in Shanghai beginning February 1926.
The Tiananmen, or the Gate of Heavenly Peace, is a monumental gate in the centre of Beijing, widely used as a national symbol of China.
The Tiandihui, literally the Society of the Heaven and the Earth, also called Hongmen 洪門 (the Vast Family), is a Chinese fraternal organisation and secretive folk religious sect.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
The Tibetan independence movement is a movement for the independence of Tibet and the political separation of Tibet from China.
The Tibetan people are an ethnic group native to Tibet.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
The was a military preparatory school located in Tokyo, Japan.
The Tongmenghui (or T'ung-meng Hui, variously translated Chinese United League, United League, Chinese Revolutionary Alliance, Chinese Alliance, United Allegiance Society) was a secret society and underground resistance movement founded by Sun Yat-sen, Song Jiaoren, and others in Tokyo, Japan, on 20 August 1905.
Touliao Mausoleum or Daxi Mausoleum is the temporary resting place for Republic of China President Chiang Ching-Kuo located in Daxi District, Taoyuan City, Taiwan.
Traditional Chinese characters (Pinyin) are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946.
Tsou Tang (18 December 1918 – 7 August 1999) was a Chinese-American political scientist.
Tuva (Тува́) or Tyva (Тыва), officially the Tyva Republic (p; Тыва Республика, Tyva Respublika), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic, also defined in the Constitution of the Russian Federation as a state).
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The Uyghurs or Uygurs (as the standard romanisation in Chinese GB 3304-1991) are a Turkic ethnic group who live in East and Central Asia.
Vasily Konstantinovich Blyukher (also spelled Bliukher, Blücher, etc., (December 1 1889– November 9, 1938) was a Soviet military commander.
The Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng (越南國民黨; Vietnamese Nationalist Party), abbreviated VNQDĐ or Việt Quốc, was a nationalist and moderate socialist political party that sought independence from French colonial rule in Vietnam during the early 20th century.
The Vice President of the Republic of China is the second-highest executive official of the Republic of China.
The Virginia Military Institute (VMI) is a state-supported military college in Lexington, Virginia, the oldest such institution in the United States.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Wade–Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese.
Wang Jingwei (Wang Ching-wei; 4 May 1883 – 10 November 1944); born as Wang Zhaoming (Wang Chao-ming), but widely known by his pen name "Jingwei", was a Chinese politician.
The Warlord Era (19161928) was a period in the history of the Republic of China when the control of the country was divided among former military cliques of the Beiyang Army and other regional factions, which was spread across in the mainland regions of Sichuan, Shanxi, Qinghai, Ningxia, Guangdong, Guangxi, Gansu, Yunnan, and Xinjiang.
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.
Weng Wenhao (26 July 1889 – 27 January 1971) was a Chinese geologist, educator, and paramount politician.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
In Taiwan, the White Terror was the suppression of political dissidents following the February 28 Incident.
Winston Hsiao-tzu Chang (1 March 1942 - 24 February 1996) was a president of Soochow University in Taipei.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
The World League for Freedom and Democracy (WLFD), founded in 1966 as the World Anti-Communist League (WACL), is an international non-governmental organization and a member of the United Nations Department of Public Information NGO branch.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wu Zhihui (Woo Chih-hui,; 25 March 1865 – 30 October 1953), also known as Woo Tsin-hang or Wu Shi-Fee, was a Chinese linguist and philosopher who was the chairman of the 1912–13 Commission on the Unification of Pronunciation that created Zhuyin (based on Zhang Binglin's work) and standardized Guoyu pronunciation.
The Wuchang Uprising was an armed rebellion against the ruling Qing dynasty that took place in Wuchang, Hubei, in China.
Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China.
Wuxi is a city in southern Jiangsu province, China.
The Wuzhi Mountain Military Cemetery (sometimes romanized as Wuchih) is Taiwan's most prominent military cemetery.
Xi'an is the capital of Shaanxi Province, China.
The Xi'an Incident of 1936 was a political crisis that took place in Xi'an, China prior to the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Xidaotang ("Hall of the Western Dao," i.e. Islam)--originally called Jinxingtang 金星堂, the "Gold Star Hall"; also called the Hanxue pai 汉学派, the "Han Studies Sect" --is a Sino-Islamic religious body / special economic community centered in Gansu province.
Xikou, is a town of 84,000 in northeastern Zhejiang province, People's Republic of China, located west of Ningbo.
The Xinhai Revolution, also known as the Chinese Revolution or the Revolution of 1911, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty (the Qing dynasty) and established the Republic of China (ROC).
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.
Xizhi is an inner city district in New Taipei City in northern Taiwan.
Yan (Old Chinese pronunciation: *) was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty.
Yan Xishan; 8 October 1883 – 22 July 1960) was a Chinese warlord who served in the government of the Republic of China. He effectively controlled the province of Shanxi from the 1911 Xinhai Revolution to the 1949 Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War. As the leader of a relatively small, poor, remote province, he survived the machinations of Yuan Shikai, the Warlord Era, the Nationalist Era, the Japanese invasion of China and the subsequent civil war, being forced from office only when the Nationalist armies with which he was aligned had completely lost control of the Chinese mainland, isolating Shanxi from any source of economic or military supply. He has been viewed by Western biographers as a transitional figure who advocated using Western technology to protect Chinese traditions, while at the same time reforming older political, social and economic conditions in a way that paved the way for the radical changes that would occur after his rule.Gillin The Journal of Asian Studies 289.
Yan'an is a prefecture-level city in the Shanbei region of Shaanxi province, China, bordering Shanxi to the east and Gansu to the west.
Yao Yecheng (姚冶誠, 26 August 1887 – 1966), along with Chen Jieru (陳潔如, "Jennie", 1906–1971) was among the two concubines of Nationalist Chinese leading figure Chiang Kai-shek (蔣介石, 1887–1975) during the time when Chiang was also in an arranged marriage to Mao Fumei (毛福梅, 1882–1939).
was a general of the Imperial Japanese Army, and commander-in-chief of the China Expeditionary Army from November 1944 to the end of World War II.
Ye Ju (1881–1925), formerly romanized as was a Chinese Nationalist general and governor of Guangdong Province.
The Yellow Emperor, also known as the Yellow Thearch, the Yellow God or the Yellow Lord, or simply by his Chinese name Huangdi, is a deity in Chinese religion, one of the legendary Chinese sovereigns and culture heroes included among the mytho-historical Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors and cosmological Five Forms of the Highest Deity (五方上帝 Wǔfāng Shàngdì).
Yen Chia-kan (23 October 1905 – 24 December 1993), also known as C. K. Yen, was a Taiwanese politician.
Yeung Ku-wan (19 December 1861 – 11 January 1901) was a Chinese revolutionary of the late Qing dynasty.
Yihewani, or Ikhwan (d), (also known as Al Ikhwan al Muslimun, which means Muslim Brotherhood, not to be confused with the Middle Eastern Muslim Brotherhood) is an Islamic sect in China.
Yixing is a county-level city with a population of 1.24 million administrated under the prefecture-level city of Wuxi in southern Jiangsu province, People's Republic of China, and is part of the Yangtze River Delta.
Yu Hung-chun (4 January 1898 – 1 June 1960), widely known as O. K. Yui, was a Chinese political figure who served as mayor of Shanghai, chairman of the Taiwan Provincial Government and Premier of the Republic of China.
Yuan Shikai (16 September 1859 – 6 June 1916) was a Chinese warlord, famous for his influence during the late Qing dynasty, his role in the events leading up to the abdication of the last Qing Emperor, his autocratic rule as the first formal President of the Republic of China, and his short-lived attempt to restore monarchy in China, with himself as the Hongxian Emperor.
Yulbars Khan (يۇلبارس خان يۇلۋاس خان (يولبارس خان) 'Tiger'; or; 1888-1971), courtesy name Jingfu (景福), was a Uighur warlord and Kuomintang general during the Chinese Civil War.
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.
Zhang Qun or Chang Chun (May 9, 1889 – December 14, 1990) also known as Zhang Yuejun (張岳軍), was premier of the Republic of China and a prominent member of the Kuomintang.
Zhang Renjie (19 September 1877 − 3 September 1950), born Zhang Jingjiang, was a political figure and financial entrepreneur in the Republic of China.
Zhang Xueliang or Chang Hsueh-liang or Chang Hsiao-liang (3 June 1901 – 15 October 2001), occasionally called Peter Hsueh Liang Chang and nicknamed the "Young Marshal" (少帥), was the effective ruler of northeast China and much of northern China after the assassination of his father, Zhang Zuolin, by the Japanese on 4 June 1928.
, formerly romanized as Chekiang, is an eastern coastal province of China.
Zhengzhou is the capital of Henan Province in the central part of the People's Republic of China.
Zhonghua minzu, translated as "Chinese nation" or "Chinese races", is a key political term that is entwined with modern Chinese history of nation-building and race.
The Changsha fire of 1938, also known as Wenxi fire, was the greatest human-caused citywide fire in Chinese history.
The 1938 Yellow River flood (literally "Huayuankou embankment breach incident") was a flood created by the Nationalist Government in central China during the early stage of the Second Sino-Japanese War in an attempt to halt the rapid advance of Japanese forces.
19th Route Army was an army in the Republic of China led by General Cai Tingkai.
The 36th Division was a cavalry division in the National Revolutionary Army.
Chan Kai Sheck, Chan Kai Shek, Chan kai sheck, Chang Kai Sheck, Chang Kai-shek, Chang Kaishen, Chang kai shek, Chang kei-shek, Chiang Chieh-shih, Chiang Chou-tai, Chiang Chung Cheng, Chiang Chung-cheng, Chiang Jieshi, Chiang K'ai-shek, Chiang Kai Sheck, Chiang Kai Shek, Chiang Kai shek, Chiang Kai-Sheck, Chiang Kai-Shek, Chiang Kai-sheck, Chiang Kai-shek Death Toll, Chiang Kai-shek Genocide, Chiang Kai-shek death toll, Chiang Kai-shek genocide, Chiang Kaishek, Chiang Zhao-cong, Chiang Zhaocong, Chiang kai sheck, Chiang kai shek, Chiang-Kaishek, Chieh-Shih, Chung Gia Shek, Chung Kai-Shek, Generalissimo Chiang, Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Jiang Gong, Jiang Jeishi, Jiang Jianshi, Jiang Jieshi, Jiang Jièshí, Jiang Zhong Zheng, Jiang Zhongzhen, Jiang Zhongzheng, Jiang Zhoutai, Jiang jie shi, Jiang kaiShek, Jièshí, Jiǎng Jièshí, Jiǎng Zhōngzhèng, Kai Shek Chiang, Kai-Shek, Kai-shek, Kai-shek Chiang, Kaishek, Shan Kai Sheck, Tchang Kai Check, Tchang Kaï Check, 蒋中正, 蒋介石, 蔣中正, 蔣介石.