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Childhood obesity

Index Childhood obesity

Childhood obesity is a condition where excess body fat negatively affects a child's health or well-being. [1]

132 relations: Abdominal surgery, Accelerometer, Adipose tissue, After-school activity, Antidepressant, Anxiety, Appetite, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Australia, Ball, Bardet–Biedl syndrome, BBC, Binge eating, Blount's disease, Body composition, Body fat percentage, Body mass index, Boil, Breastfeeding, Calorie count laws, Cancer, Carbohydrate, Cardiovascular disease, Cell (biology), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Child development, Cholesterol, Circulatory system, Classification of childhood weight, Cohort study, Colac, Victoria, Common carotid artery, Computer, Coronary artery disease, Correlation and dependence, Cortisol, Cortisone, CTV News, Cushing's syndrome, Dairy product, Demographic profile, Depression (mood), Diabetes mellitus, Diet food, Dieting, Discrimination, Dopaminergic pathways, Emotion, Endocrine Reviews, Endocrine system, ..., Environmental factor, EPODE International Network, Exercise, Fast food, Fat, Gallstone, Gastrointestinal tract, Gene, Gravidity and parity, Hormone, Household, Human musculoskeletal system, Hyperandrogenism, Hyperlipidemia, Hypertension, Hypothyroidism, Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, Infant, Insulin, Integument, Intertrigo, Jamie Oliver, Leptin receptor, Liver, Major depressive disorder, Melanocortin receptor, Menarche, Metabolic syndrome, Metabolism, Metformin, Milk, MOMO syndrome, Neurology, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Northwestern University, Obesity, Obesity and walking, Obesity hypoventilation syndrome, Obstructive sleep apnea, Orlistat, Osteoarthritis, Overweight, Pediatric Obesity, Polymorphism (biology), Poverty, Prader–Willi syndrome, Precocious puberty, Protein, Protein isoform, Psychology, Psychosocial, Public health, Randomized experiment, Reductase, Respiratory system, School meal, Scientific control, Self-esteem, Sibutramine, Sleep apnea, Sleep deprivation, Slipped capital femoral epiphysis, Social stigma of obesity, Socioeconomic status, Soft drink, Standard deviation, Stereotype, Stress (biology), Task Force on Childhood Obesity, Teasing, The Guardian, The New York Times, The Obesity Society, Thrifty gene hypothesis, Toy, United Kingdom, United States, United States Preventive Services Task Force, Upper class, Vegetable, Video game, Working class. Expand index (82 more) »

Abdominal surgery

The term abdominal surgery broadly covers surgical procedures that involve opening the abdomen.

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An accelerometer is a device that measures proper acceleration.

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Adipose tissue

In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.

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After-school activity

An after-school activity is any organized program that youth can participate in outside of the traditional school day.

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Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.

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Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.

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Appetite is the desire to eat food, sometimes due to hunger.

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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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A ball is a round object (usually spherical but sometimes ovoid) with various uses.

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Bardet–Biedl syndrome

Bardet–Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a ciliopathic human genetic disorder that produces many effects and affects many body systems.

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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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Binge eating

Binge eating is a pattern of disordered eating which consists of episodes of uncontrollable eating.

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Blount's disease

Blount's disease is a growth disorder of the tibia (shin bone) that causes the lower leg to angle inward, resembling a bowleg.

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Body composition

In physical fitness, body composition is used to describe the percentages of fat, bone, water and muscle in human bodies.

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Body fat percentage

The body fat percentage (BFP) of a human or other living being is the total mass of fat divided by total body mass, times 100; body fat includes essential body fat and storage body fat.

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Body mass index

The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of an individual.

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A boil, also called a furuncle, is a deep folliculitis, infection of the hair follicle.

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Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.

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Calorie count laws

Calorie count laws are a type of law that require restaurants (typically only larger restaurant chains) to post food energy and nutritional information on the food served on menus, in a font equal to or larger than the size of the name of the item.

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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).

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Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.

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Child development

Child development entails the biological, psychological and emotional changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence, as the individual progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy.

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Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.

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Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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Classification of childhood weight

Defining the parameters for childhood obesity has created substantial public awareness over the past decades.

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Cohort study

A cohort study is a particular form of longitudinal study that sample a cohort (a group of people who share a defining characteristic, typically those who experienced a common event in a selected period, such as birth or graduation), performing a cross-section at intervals through time.

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Colac, Victoria

Colac is a small city in the Western District of Victoria, Australia, approximately 150 kilometres south-west of Melbourne on the southern shore of Lake Colac and the surrounding volcanic plains, approximately inland from Bass Strait.

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Common carotid artery

In anatomy, the left and right common carotid arteries (carotids) are arteries that supply the head and neck with oxygenated blood; they divide in the neck to form the external and internal carotid arteries.

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A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.

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Coronary artery disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

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Correlation and dependence

In statistics, dependence or association is any statistical relationship, whether causal or not, between two random variables or bivariate data.

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Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.

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Cortisone, also known as 17α,21-dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,11,20-trione, is a pregnane (21-carbon) steroid hormone.

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CTV News

CTV News is the news division of the CTV Television Network in Canada.

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Cushing's syndrome

Cushing's syndrome is a collection of signs and symptoms due to prolonged exposure to cortisol.

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Dairy product

Dairy products, milk products or lacticinia are a type of food produced from or containing the milk of mammals, primarily cattle, water buffaloes, goats, sheep, camels, and humans.

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Demographic profile

Demographic profiling is a tool utilized by marketers so that they may be as efficient as possible with advertising products or services and identifying any possible gaps in their marketing strategy.

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Depression (mood)

Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Diet food

Diet food (or dietetic food) refers to any food or beverage whose recipe is altered to reduce fat, carbohydrates, and/or sugar in order to make it part of a weight loss program or diet. Such foods are usually intended to assist in weight loss or a change in body type, although bodybuilding supplements are designed to aid in gaining weight or muscle.

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Dieting is the practice of eating food in a regulated and supervised fashion to decrease, maintain, or increase body weight, or to prevent and treat diseases, such as diabetes.

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In human social affairs, discrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person based on the group, class, or category to which the person is perceived to belong.

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Dopaminergic pathways

Dopaminergic pathways, sometimes called dopaminergic projections, are the sets of projection neurons in the brain that synthesize and release the neurotransmitter dopamine.

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Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.

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Endocrine Reviews

Endocrine Reviews is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal for review articles in endocrinology published by the Endocrine Society.

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Endocrine system

The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.

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Environmental factor

Environmental factor or ecological factor or eco factor is any factor, abiotic or biotic, that influences living organisms.

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EPODE International Network

EPODE International Network (EIN) is a not for profit, non-governmental organisation that seeks to support childhood obesity-prevention programmes across the world, via best practice sharing and capacity building.

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Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.

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Fast food

Fast food is a mass-produced food that is typically prepared and served quicker than traditional foods.

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Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.

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A gallstone is a stone formed within the gallbladder out of bile components. The term cholelithiasis may refer to the presence of gallstones or to the diseases caused by gallstones. Most people with gallstones (about 80%) never have symptoms. When a gallstone blocks the bile duct, a crampy pain in the right upper part of the abdomen, known as biliary colic (gallbladder attack) can result. This happens in 1–4% of those with gallstones each year. Complications of gallstones may include inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), jaundice, and infection of a bile duct (cholangitis). Symptoms of these complications may include pain of more than five hours duration, fever, yellowish skin, vomiting, dark urine, and pale stools. Risk factors for gallstones include birth control pills, pregnancy, a family history of gallstones, obesity, diabetes, liver disease, or rapid weight loss. The bile components that form gallstones include cholesterol, bile salts, and bilirubin. Gallstones formed mainly from cholesterol are termed cholesterol stones, and those mainly from bilirubin are termed pigment stones. Gallstones may be suspected based on symptoms. Diagnosis is then typically confirmed by ultrasound. Complications may be detected on blood tests. The risk of gallstones may be decreased by maintaining a healthy weight through sufficient exercise and eating a healthy diet. If there are no symptoms, treatment is usually not needed. In those who are having gallbladder attacks, surgery to remove the gallbladder is typically recommended. This can be carried out either through several small incisions or through a single larger incision, usually under general anesthesia. In rare cases when surgery is not possible medication may be used to try to dissolve the stones or lithotripsy to break down the stones. In developed countries, 10–15% of adults have gallstones. Rates in many parts of Africa, however, are as low as 3%. Gallbladder and biliary related diseases occurred in about 104 million people (1.6%) in 2013 and they resulted in 106,000 deaths. Women more commonly have stones than men and they occur more commonly after the age of 40. Certain ethnic groups have gallstones more often than others. For example, 48% of Native Americans have gallstones. Once the gallbladder is removed, outcomes are generally good.

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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.

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In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Gravidity and parity

In biology and human medicine, gravidity and parity are the number of times a female is or has been pregnant (gravidity) and carried the pregnancies to a viable gestational age (parity).

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A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

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A household consists of one or more people who live in the same dwelling and also share meals or living accommodation, and may consist of a single family or some other grouping of people.

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Human musculoskeletal system

The human musculoskeletal system (also known as the locomotor system, and previously the activity system) is an organ system that gives humans the ability to move using their muscular and skeletal systems.

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Hyperandrogenism, also known as androgen excess, is a medical condition characterized by excessive levels of androgens (male sex hormones such as testosterone) in the female body and the associated effects of the elevated androgen levels.

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Hyperlipidemia is abnormally elevated levels of any or all lipids or lipoproteins in the blood.

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Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

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Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.

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Idiopathic intracranial hypertension

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition characterized by increased intracranial pressure (pressure around the brain) without a detectable cause.

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An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.

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Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.

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In biology, integument is the natural covering of an organism or an organ, such as its skin, husk, shell, or rind.

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Intertrigo refers to a type of inflammatory rash (dermatitis) of the superficial skin that occurs within a person's body folds.

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Jamie Oliver

James Trevor Oliver (born 27 May 1975) is an English chef and restaurateur.

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Leptin receptor

Leptin receptor also known as LEP-R or OB-R is a Type I cytokine receptor, a protein that in humans is encoded by the LEPR gene.

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The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Major depressive disorder

Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.

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Melanocortin receptor

Melanocortin receptors are members of the rhodopsin family of 7-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors.

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Menarche (Greek: μήν mēn "month" + ἀρχή arkhē "beginning") is the first menstrual cycle, or first menstrual bleeding, in female humans.

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Metabolic syndrome

Metabolic syndrome, sometimes known by other names, is a clustering of at least three of the five following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels.

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Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Metformin, marketed under the trade name Glucophage among others, is the first-line medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, particularly in people who are overweight.

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Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.

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MOMO syndrome

MOMO syndrome is an extremely rare genetic disorder which belongs to the overgrowth syndromes and has been diagnosed in only seven cases around the world, and occurs in 1 in 100 million births.

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Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.

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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the types of fatty liver which occurs when fat is deposited (steatosis) in the liver due to causes other than excessive alcohol use.

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Northwestern University

Northwestern University (NU) is a private research university based in Evanston, Illinois, United States, with other campuses located in Chicago and Doha, Qatar, and academic programs and facilities in Miami, Florida, Washington, D.C., and San Francisco, California.

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Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.

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Obesity and walking

Obesity and walking describes how the locomotion of walking differs between an obese individual (BMI >30) and a non-obese individual (BMI According to the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 66% of the American population is either overweight or obese and this number is predicted to increase to 75% by 2015. Obesity is linked to health problems such as decreased insulin sensitivity and diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, sleep apnea, and joint pain such as osteoarthritis. It is thought that a major factor of obesity is that obese individuals are in a positive energy balance, meaning that they are consuming more calories than they are expending. Humans expend energy through their basal metabolic rate, the thermic effect of food, non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT), and exercise. While many treatments for obesity are presented to the public, exercise in the form of walking is an easy, relatively safe activity that has the potential to move a person towards a negative energy balance and if done for a long enough time may reduce weight.

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Obesity hypoventilation syndrome

Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (also known as Pickwickian syndrome) is a condition in which severely overweight people fail to breathe rapidly enough or deeply enough, resulting in low blood oxygen levels and high blood carbon dioxide (CO2) levels.

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Obstructive sleep apnea

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common type of sleep apnea and is caused by complete or partial obstructions of the upper airway.

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Orlistat is a drug designed to treat obesity.

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Osteoarthritis (OA) is a type of joint disease that results from breakdown of joint cartilage and underlying bone.

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Being overweight or fat is having more body fat than is optimally healthy.

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Pediatric Obesity

Pediatric Obesity, formerly known as International Journal of Pediatric Obesity is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering research into all aspects of obesity during childhood and adolescence.

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Polymorphism (biology)

Polymorphism in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.

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Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.

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Prader–Willi syndrome

Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder due to loss of function of specific genes.

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Precocious puberty

In medicine, precocious puberty is puberty occurring at an unusually early age.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein isoform

A protein isoform, or "protein variant" is a member of a set of highly similar proteins that originate from a single gene or gene family and are the result of genetic differences.

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Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.

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The psychosocial approach looks at individuals in the context of the combined influence that psychological factors and the surrounding social environment have on their physical and mental wellness and their ability to function.

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Public health

Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".

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Randomized experiment

In science, randomized experiments are the experiments that allow the greatest reliability and validity of statistical estimates of treatment effects.

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A reductase is an enzyme that catalyzes a reduction reaction.

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Respiratory system

The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.

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School meal

A school meal or school lunch (also known as hot lunch, a school dinner, or school breakfast) is a meal provided to students at school, typically in the middle or beginning of the school day.

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Scientific control

A scientific control is an experiment or observation designed to minimize the effects of variables other than the independent variable.

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Self-esteem reflects an individual's overall subjective emotional evaluation of his or her own worth.

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Sibutramine, formerly sold under the brand name Meridia among others, is an appetite suppressant which has been discontinued in many countries.

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Sleep apnea

Sleep apnea, also spelled sleep apnoea, is a sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing or periods of shallow breathing during sleep.

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Sleep deprivation

Sleep deprivation is the condition of not having enough sleep; it can be either chronic or acute.

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Slipped capital femoral epiphysis

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE or skiffy, slipped upper femoral epiphysis, SUFE or souffy, coxa vara adolescentium) is a medical term referring to a fracture through the growth plate (physis), which results in slippage of the overlying end of the femur (epiphysis).

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Social stigma of obesity

The social stigma of obesity has created negative psychosocial impacts and has caused disadvantages for overweight and obese people.

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Socioeconomic status

Socioeconomic status (SES) is an economic and sociological combined total measure of a person's work experience and of an individual's or family's economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, and occupation.

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Soft drink

A soft drink (see terminology for other names) typically contains carbonated water (although some lemonades are not carbonated), a sweetener, and a natural or artificial flavoring.

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Standard deviation

In statistics, the standard deviation (SD, also represented by the Greek letter sigma σ or the Latin letter s) is a measure that is used to quantify the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of data values.

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In social psychology, a stereotype is an over-generalized belief about a particular category of people.

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Stress (biology)

Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.

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Task Force on Childhood Obesity

The Childhood Obesity Task Force is a United States Government task force charged with reducing childhood obesity in the United States.

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Teasing has multiple meanings and uses.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Obesity Society

The Obesity Society is a scientific society dedicated to the study of obesity and its treatment.

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Thrifty gene hypothesis

The thrifty gene hypothesis, or Gianfranco's hypothesis is an attempt by geneticist James V. Neel to explain why certain populations and subpopulations in the modern day are prone to diabetes mellitus type 2.

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A toy is an item that is used in play, especially one designed for such use.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Preventive Services Task Force

The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) is "an independent panel of experts in primary care and prevention that systematically reviews the evidence of effectiveness and develops recommendations for clinical preventive services".

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Upper class

The upper class in modern societies is the social class composed of people who hold the highest social status, and usuall are also the wealthiest members of society, and also wield the greatest political power.

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Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans as food as part of a meal.

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Video game

A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device such as a TV screen or computer monitor.

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Working class

The working class (also labouring class) are the people employed for wages, especially in manual-labour occupations and industrial work.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Childhood_obesity

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