113 relations: Anhui, Annam (province), Autonomous regions of China, Ayuka Khan, Beijing, Bouyei people, British Empire, Chamdo, China, Chinese characters, Chinese language, Chinese postal romanization, Chongqing, Colin Mackerras, Dynasty, East Asian cultural sphere, Five Races Under One Union, France, French colonial empire, Fujian, Gansu, Google Books, Great Britain, Great Wall of China, Greater China, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Han Chinese, Harry Harding (political scientist), Heilongjiang, Henan, History of Taiwan, Hubei, Hui people, Hunan, Inner Asia, Jean-Baptiste Du Halde, Jean-Baptiste Grosier, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Jin dynasty (265–420), Kalmyks, Kham, Liaoning, Library of Congress, List of tributaries of China, Mainland China, ..., Manchu people, Manchuria, Metropole, Miao people, Ming dynasty, Mongolia, Mongolian People's Republic, Moscow, Mutual intelligibility, Myanmar, Napoleon, Narrative of the Chinese Embassy to the Khan of the Tourgouth Tartars, Ningxia, North China Plain, Northeast China, Northern and southern China, Outer Manchuria, Outer Mongolia, Physiographic macroregions of China, Pinyin, Political status of Taiwan, Qin dynasty, Qing dynasty, Qing dynasty in Inner Asia, Qinghai, Republic of China (1912–1949), Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanghai, Shanhai Pass, Shanxi, Shenyang, Sichuan, Sinocentrism, Sinology, Song dynasty, Standard Chinese, Succession of states, Taiwan, Tang dynasty, Tannu Uriankhai, Tartary, Tianjin, Tibet, Tibet (1912–1951), Tibet Autonomous Region, Transition from Ming to Qing, Tulišen, Tuva, Wei Yuan, Western world, William Winterbotham, Willow Palisade, Wuchang Uprising, Xinjiang, Yunnan, Zeng Jize, Zhejiang, Zhili, Zhonghua minzu, Zhongyuan, Zhuang people, Zou Rong. Expand index (63 more) » « Shrink index
Anhui is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the eastern region of the country.
Annam was the southernmost province of China after the Tang dynasty.
An autonomous region (AR) is a first-level administrative division of China.
Ayuka or Ayuki Khan (1669–1724) was a Kalmyk leader under whose rule the Kalmyk Khanate reached its zenith in terms of economic, military, and politic power.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
The Bouyei (also spelled Puyi, Buyei and Buyi; self called: Buxqyaix, or "Puzhong", "Burao", "Puman";; Pinyin: Bùyīzú; người Bố Y) are an ethnic group living in southern mainland China.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
Chamdo, officially Qamdo, and known in Chinese as Changdu, is a prefecture-level city in the eastern part of the Tibet Autonomous Region, China.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Postal romanization was a system of transliterating Chinese place names developed by the Imperial Post Office in the early 1900s.
Chongqing, formerly romanized as Chungking, is a major city in southwest China.
Colin Patrick Mackerras (born 26 August 1939 Sydney, Australia) is an Australian sinologist, Emeritus Professor at Griffith University, and specialist in Chinese culture.
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family,Oxford English Dictionary, "dynasty, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1897.
The "Sinosphere", or "East Asian cultural sphere", refers to a grouping of countries and regions in East Asia that were historically influenced by the Chinese culture.
Five Races Under One Union was one of the major principles upon which the Republic of China was founded in 1911 at the time of the Xinhai Revolution.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.
Fujian (pronounced), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China.
Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.
Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its codename Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe with an eye to expansion.
Greater China or the Greater China Region is a term used to refer to Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan.
Guangdong is a province in South China, located on the South China Sea coast.
Guangxi (pronounced; Zhuang: Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is a Chinese autonomous region in South Central China, bordering Vietnam.
Guizhou, formerly romanized as Kweichow, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country.
Hainan is the smallest and southernmost province of the People's Republic of China (PRC), consisting of various islands in the South China Sea.
The Han Chinese,.
Harry Harding (born 1946) is an American political scientist specializing in Chinese politics and foreign affairs.
Heilongjiang (Wade-Giles: Heilungkiang) is a province of the People's Republic of China.
Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country.
The history of Taiwan dates back tens of thousands of years to the earliest known evidence of human habitation on the island.
Hubei is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the Central China region.
The Hui people (Xiao'erjing: خُوِذُو; Dungan: Хуэйзў, Xuejzw) are an East Asian ethnoreligious group predominantly composed of Han Chinese adherents of the Muslim faith found throughout China, mainly in the northwestern provinces of the country and the Zhongyuan region.
Hunan is the 7th most populous province of China and the 10th most extensive by area.
Inner Asia refers to regions within East Asia and North Asia that are today part of western China, Mongolia and eastern Russia.
Jean-Baptiste Du Halde (1 February 1674 Paris – 18 August 1743) was a French Jesuit historian specializing in China.
Jean-Baptiste Gabriel Alexandre Grosier (17 March 1743 – 8 December 1823) was a French abbé and critic of art and literature who published in 1788 his General Description of China.
Jiangsu, formerly romanized as Kiangsu, is an eastern-central coastal province of the People's Republic of China.
Jiangxi, formerly spelled as Kiangsi Gan: Kongsi) is a province in the People's Republic of China, located in the southeast of the country. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze river in the north into hillier areas in the south and east, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to the northwest. The name "Jiangxi" derives from the circuit administrated under the Tang dynasty in 733, Jiangnanxidao (道, Circuit of Western Jiangnan; Gan: Kongnomsitau). The short name for Jiangxi is 赣 (pinyin: Gàn; Gan: Gōm), for the Gan River which runs across from the south to the north and flows into the Yangtze River. Jiangxi is also alternately called Ganpo Dadi (贛鄱大地) which literally means the "Great Land of Gan and Po".
Jilin, formerly romanized as Kirin is one of the three provinces of Northeast China.
The Jin dynasty or the Jin Empire (sometimes distinguished as the or) was a Chinese dynasty traditionally dated from 266 to 420.
The Kalmyks (Kalmyk: Хальмгуд, Xaľmgud, Mongolian: Халимаг, Halimag) are the Oirats in Russia, whose ancestors migrated from Dzungaria in 1607.
Kham is a historical region of Tibet covering a land area largely divided between present-day Tibet Autonomous Region and Sichuan, with smaller portions located within Qinghai, Gansu and Yunnan provinces of China.
Liaoning is a province of China, located in the northeast of the country.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
This list of tributary states of China encompasses suzerain kingdoms from China in Europe, Africa, East Asia, South Asia, Central Asia and Southeast Asia.
Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.
Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
The metropole (from the Greek metropolis for "mother city") is the homeland or central territory of a colonial empire.
The Miao is an ethnic group belonging to South China, and is recognized by the government of China as one of the 55 official minority groups.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
The Mongolian People's Republic (Бүгд Найрамдах Монгол Ард Улс (БНМАУ), Bügd Nairamdakh Mongol Ard Uls (BNMAU)), commonly known as Outer Mongolia, was a unitary sovereign socialist state which existed between 1924 and 1992, coterminous with the present-day country of Mongolia in East Asia.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
Narrative of the Chinese Embassy to the Khan of the Tourgouth Tartars, in the years 1712, 13, 14, and 15 is a record of the travel to Kalmykia, written by Tulišen, a Manchu official who lived in the Qing dynasty.
Ningxia (pronounced), officially the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest part of the country.
The North China Plain is based on the deposits of the Yellow River and is the largest alluvial plain of China.
Northeast China or Dongbei is a geographical region of China.
Northern China and southern China are two approximate regions within China. The exact boundary between these two regions are not precisely defined. Nevertheless, the self-perception of Chinese people, especially regional stereotypes, has often been dominated by these two concepts, given that regional differences in culture and language have historically fostered strong regional identities of the Chinese people.
Outer Manchuria or Outer Northeast China (Chinese: 外满洲 (Wài Mǎnzhōu) or 外东北 (Wài Dōngběi); Russian: Приаму́рье or Priamurye) is an unofficial term for a territory in Northeast Asia that was formerly part of the Chinese Qing dynasty and now belongs to Russia.
Outer Mongolia (Mongolian script: or ， Mongolian Cyrillic: or, romanization: Gadaad Mongol or Alr Mongol)Huhbator Borjigin.
Physiographic macroregions of China is a term suggested by an American anthropologist G. William Skinner as a subdivision of China Proper into nine areas according to the drainage basins of the major rivers and other travel-constraining geomorphological features.
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
The controversy regarding the political status of Taiwan, sometimes referred to as the Taiwan Issue or Taiwan Strait Issue, or from a Taiwanese perspective as the Mainland Issue, is a result of the Chinese Civil War and the subsequent split of China into the two present-day self-governing entities of the People's Republic of China (PRC; commonly known as China) and the Republic of China (ROC; commonly known as Taiwan).
The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
The Qing dynasty in Inner Asia was the expansion of the Qing dynasty's realm in Inner Asia in the 17th and the 18th century AD, including both Inner and Outer Mongolia, Manchuria, Tibet, Qinghai and Xinjiang.
Qinghai, formerly known in English as Kokonur, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest of the country.
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
Shaanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China.
Shandong (formerly romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the East China region.
Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.
Shanhai Pass is one of the major passes in the Great Wall of China.
Shanxi (postal: Shansi) is a province of China, located in the North China region.
Shenyang, formerly known by its Manchu name Mukden or Fengtian, is the provincial capital and the largest city of Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China, as well as the largest city in Northeast China by urban population.
Sichuan, formerly romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south.
Sinocentrism refers to the ideology that China is the cultural center of the world.
Sinology or Chinese studies is the academic study of China primarily through Chinese language, literature, Chinese culture and history, and often refers to Western scholarship.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
Succession of states is a theory and practice in international relations regarding successor states.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Tannu Uriankhai (Таңды Урянхай, Tangdy Uryankhai,; Тагна Урианхай, Tagna Urianhai; Урянхайский край, ' Urjanchajskij kraj) is a historic region of the Mongol Empire and, later, the Qing dynasty.
Tartary (Latin: Tartaria) or Great Tartary (Latin: Tartaria Magna) was a name used from the Middle Ages until the twentieth century to designate the great tract of northern and central Asia stretching from the Caspian Sea and the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, settled mostly by Turko-Mongol peoples after the Mongol invasion and the subsequent Turkic migrations.
Tianjin, formerly romanized as Tientsin, is a coastal metropolis in northern China and one of the four national central cities of the People's Republic of China (PRC), with a total population of 15,469,500, and is also the world's 11th-most populous city proper.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
The historical era of Tibet from 1912 to 1951 followed the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1912, and lasted until the invasion of Tibet by the People's Republic of China.
The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province-level autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
The transition from Ming to Qing or the Ming–Qing transition, also known as the Manchu conquest of China, was a period of conflict between the Qing dynasty, established by Manchu clan Aisin Gioro in Manchuria (contemporary Northeastern China), and the Ming dynasty of China in the south (various other regional or temporary powers were also associated with events, such as the short-lived Shun dynasty).
Tulišen (also spelled Tulishen or Tulixen, Manchu:,; 1667–1741) was a Manchu official and diplomat during the early Qing dynasty.
Tuva (Тува́) or Tyva (Тыва), officially the Tyva Republic (p; Тыва Республика, Tyva Respublika), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic, also defined in the Constitution of the Russian Federation as a state).
Wei Yuan (April23, 1794March26, 1857), born Wei Yuanda, courtesy names Moshen (默深) and Hanshi (漢士), was a Chinese scholar from Shaoyang, Hunan.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
Willow Palisade (ᠪᡳᡵᡝᡤᡝᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᡝ|v.
The Wuchang Uprising was an armed rebellion against the ruling Qing dynasty that took place in Wuchang, Hubei, in China.
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.
Marquis Zeng Jize (s) (1839 – April 12, 1890), one of China's earliest ministers to London, Paris and Saint Petersburg, played an important role in the diplomacy that preceded and accompanied the Sino-French War (August 1884–April 1885).
, formerly romanized as Chekiang, is an eastern coastal province of China.
Zhili, formerly romanized as Chihli, was a northern province of China from the 14th-century Ming Dynasty until the province was dissolved in 1928 during the Warlord Era.
Zhonghua minzu, translated as "Chinese nation" or "Chinese races", is a key political term that is entwined with modern Chinese history of nation-building and race.
Zhongyuan, Chungyuan, or the Central Plain, also known as Zhongtu, Chungtu or Zhongzhou, Chungchou, is the area on the lower reaches of the Yellow River which formed the cradle of Chinese civilization.
The Zhuang people are an ethnic group who mostly live in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China.
Zou Rong (1885 – 1905) was a Chinese nationalist, racialist and revolutionary martyr of the anti-Qing movement.