251 relations: Adolph Joffe, Amphibious warfare, Anhui, Autumn Harvest Uprising, Bai Chongxi, Bandung Conference, Battle of Baitag Bogd, Battle of Guningtou, Battle of Siping, Battle of Yijiangshan Islands, Beijing, Beiyang Army, Beiyang government, Blockhouse, Bo Gu, Central Intelligence Agency, Central Plains War, Changchun, Changsha, Chen Cheng, Chen Geng, Chen Shui-bian, Chen Yi (marshal), Chiang Kai-shek, China, China and the United Nations, Chinese Communist Revolution, Chinese Red Army, Chinese Soviet Republic, Choekyi Gyaltsen, 10th Panchen Lama, Chongqing, Cold War, Communism, Communist International, Communist Party of China, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Communist-controlled China (1927–1949), Constitutional Protection Movement, Containment, Conventional warfare, Cross-Strait high-level talks, Cross-Strait relations, Dabie Mountains, Dachen Islands, Democratic Progressive Party, Deng Xiaoping, Diplomatic recognition, Double Tenth Agreement, Du Yuming, East China, ..., Empire of Japan, Encirclement Campaigns, Feng Yuxiang, Fifth Encirclement Campaign against the Hubei-Henan-Anhui Soviet, First Encirclement Campaign against the Hubei-Henan-Anhui Soviet, First Taiwan Strait Crisis, First United Front, Formosa Resolution of 1955, Fourth Encirclement Campaign against the Hubei-Henan-Anhui Soviet, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Free China (Second Sino-Japanese War), Fu Zuoyi, Fujian, Fujian People's Government, Fujian Province, Republic of China, Gansu, Geography of Taiwan, George Marshall, Government of the Republic of China, Gu Zhutong, Guangzhou, Guangzhou Uprising, Guerrilla warfare, H. H. Kung, Hainan, Harry S. Truman, He Long, He Yingqin, History of Taiwan since 1945, Hu Zongnan, Huaihai Campaign, Huang Baitao, Hui people, Hyperinflation, Ideology, Ili National Army, Ili Rebellion, Imperial Japanese Army, Japan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet, Jinan, Jinzhou, Joseph Stalin, Kham, Kinmen, Korean War, Kuomintang, Kuomintang in Burma, Kuomintang Islamic insurgency, Kwantung Army, Landing Operation on Hainan Island, Lauchlin Currie, Lee Teng-hui, Left-wing politics, Li (unit), Li Mi (Republic of China general), Li Zongren, Liao River, Liaoning, Liaoshen Campaign, Lin Biao, List of islands of Taiwan, List of wars involving the People's Republic of China, Liu Bocheng, Liu Wenhui, Liu Zhi (ROC), Long March, Lucien Bianco, Lung Ying-tai, Luo Ronghuan, Ma clique, Ma Ying-jeou, Mainland China, Manchukuo, Manchuria, Mao Zedong, Marshall Mission, Matsu Islands, Menglianggu Campaign, Mikhail Borodin, Military threat, Min River (Fujian), Moscow, Mukden Incident, Myanmar, Nanchang, Nanchang uprising, Nanjing, National Revolutionary Army, Nationalism, Nationalist government, New 1st Army, New Fourth Army, New Fourth Army incident, Nie Rongzhen, Ningxia, North China, Northeast China, Northern Expedition, Odd Arne Westad, One-China policy, Operation Ichi-Go, Otto Braun (communist), Peasant, Peng Dehuai, Penghu, People's Liberation Army, Pingjin Campaign, Political status of Taiwan, President of the Republic of China, Puppet state, Qing dynasty, Qinghai, Ray Huang, Red Army, Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of China Armed Forces, Republic of China Military Academy, Rodion Malinovsky, Second East Turkestan Republic, Second Encirclement Campaign against the Honghu Soviet, Second Sino-Japanese War, Second Taiwan Strait Crisis, Second United Front, Shaanxi, Shandong Peninsula, Shanghai, Shanghai massacre, Shantou, Shenyang, Siege of Changchun, Sino-Burmese wars, Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance, South China, Soviet invasion of Manchuria, Soviet Union, Su Yu, Sun Chuanfang, Sun Li-jen, Sun Yat-sen, Sun–Joffe Manifesto, T. V. Soong, Taipei, Taiwan, Taiwan independence movement, Taiwan presidential election, 1996, Taiwan Strait, Taku Forts, Tang Enbo, Temporary Provisions against the Communist Rebellion, Third Encirclement Campaign against the Honghu Soviet, Third Taiwan Strait Crisis, Three Principles of the People, Tibet, Tongmenghui, Unconditional surrender, United Nations, United Nations General Assembly, United Nations General Assembly Resolution 505, United States Congress, United States Marine Corps, United States Seventh Fleet, University of Southern California, Wang Jiaxiang, Wang Jingwei, Wang Jingwei regime, Wang Yaowu, Wanshan Archipelago, Wanshan Archipelago Campaign, Warlord Era, Wei Lihuang, World War II, Wuhan, Xi'an Incident, Xiamen, Xinhai Revolution, Xinjiang, Xu Xiangqian, Xue Yue, Yan Xishan, Yan'an, Yang Hucheng, Yangtze River Crossing Campaign, Ye Jianying, Ye Ting, Yijiangshan Islands, Yuan Shikai, Yunnan, Zhang Fakui, Zhang Guotao, Zhang Lingfu, Zhang Xueliang, Zhangjiakou, Zhejiang, Zhongyuan, Zhou Enlai, Zhoushan Island, Zhu De, 2005 Pan–Blue visits to mainland China. Expand index (201 more) » « Shrink index
Adolph Abramovich Joffe (Адо́льф Абра́мович Ио́ффе, alternative transliterations Adolf Ioffe or, rarely, Yoffe) (10 October 1883 in Simferopol – 16 November 1927 in Moscow) was a Communist revolutionary, a Bolshevik politician and a Soviet diplomat of Karaite descent.
Amphibious warfare is a type of offensive military operation that today uses naval ships to project ground and air power onto a hostile or potentially hostile shore at a designated landing beach.
Anhui is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the eastern region of the country.
The Autumn Harvest Uprising was an insurrection that took place in Hunan and Jiangxi provinces, China, on September 7, 1927, led by Mao Zedong, who established a short-lived Hunan Soviet.
Bai Chongxi (18 March 1893 – 1 December 1966;;, Xiao'erjing: ﺑَﻰْ ﭼْﻮ ثِ) was a Chinese general in the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China (ROC) and a prominent Chinese Nationalist leader.
The first large-scale Asian–African or Afro–Asian Conference—also known as the Bandung Conference (Konferensi Asia-Afrika)—was a meeting of Asian and African states, most of which were newly independent, which took place on April 18–24, 1955 in Bandung, Indonesia.
The Beitashan Incident or Battle of Baitag Bogd Mountain (Байтаг богдын тулгарал;; alternatively Baitak Bogdo incident) was a border conflict between China, Mongolia, and the Soviet Union.
The Battle of Guningtou or Battle of Kuningtou, also known as the Battle of Kinmen, was a battle fought over Kinmen in the Taiwan Strait during the Chinese Civil War in 1949.
The Battle of Siping (四平战斗), also called the Battle to Liberate Siping (四平解放战) by the communists was a battle fought between the Communist Forces and the Nationalist Forces in Jilin, China for the control of Siping (city) during the Chinese Civil War.
The Battle of Yijiangshan Islands was a conflict between forces of the National Revolutionary Army (NRA) of the Republic of China and the People's Liberation Army (PLA) of the People's Republic of China, over one of the last strongholds of Nationalist (ROC) forces near mainland China on the Yijiangshan Islands.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
The Beiyang Army (Pei-yang Army) was a powerful, Western-style Imperial Chinese Army established by the Qing Dynasty government in the late 19th century.
The Beiyang government (北洋政府), also sometimes spelled Peiyang Government, refers to the government of the Republic of China, which was in place in the capital city Beijing from 1912 to 1928.
In military science, a blockhouse is a small fortification, usually consisting of one or more rooms with loopholes, allowing its defenders to fire in various directions.
Qin Bangxian, better known as Bo Gu (May 14, 1907 – April 8, 1946) was a senior leader of the Chinese Communist Party and a member of the 28 Bolsheviks.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Central Plains War of 1930 was a civil war between the Nationalist Kuomintang government in Nanjing led by Chiang Kai-shek and several regional military commanders that were former allies of Chiang during the Northern Expedition.
Changchun is the capital and largest city of Jilin Province, and is also the core city of Northeast Asia.
Changsha is the capital and most populous city of Hunan province in the south central part of the People's Republic of China.
Chen Cheng (January 4, 1897 – March 5, 1965) was a Chinese political and military leader, and one of the main National Revolutionary Army commanders during the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War.
Chen Geng (February 27, 1903 – March 16, 1961) was a Chinese Communist military leader, one of the ten grand generals of the People's Liberation Army.
Chen Shui-bian (born October 12, 1950) is a retired Taiwanese politician and lawyer who served as President of the Republic of China (Taiwan) from 2000 to 2008.
Chen Yi (August 26, 1901 – January 6, 1972) was a Chinese communist military commander and politician.
Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih or Jiang Jieshi and known as Chiang Chungcheng, was a political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and then in exile in Taiwan.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
China was one of the charter members of the United Nations and is one of five permanent members of its Security Council.
The Chinese Communist Revolution started from 1946, after the end of Second Sino-Japanese War, and was the second part of the Chinese Civil War.
The Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, renamed Chinese People's Red Army in 1936, commonly known as the Chinese Red Army, or simply the Red Army, was the armed forces of the Communist Party of China from 1928 to 1937.
The Chinese Soviet Republic (CSR), also known as the Soviet Republic of China or the China Soviet Republic, is often referred to in historical sources as the Jiangxi Soviet (after its largest component territory, the Jiangxi-Fujian Soviet).
Lobsang Trinley Lhündrub Chökyi Gyaltsen (19 February 1938 – 28 January 1989) was the tenth Panchen Lama of the Gelug School of Tibetan Buddhism.
Chongqing, formerly romanized as Chungking, is a major city in southwest China.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Communist International (Comintern), known also as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism.
The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
Communist-controlled China, officially called the Soviet Zone, was the part of the territories of China controlled by the Communist Party of China from 1927 to 1949 during the Republican era and the Chinese Civil War with Nationalist China.
The Constitutional Protection Movement was a series of movements led by Sun Yat-sen to resist the Beiyang Government between 1917 and 1922, in which Sun established another government in Guangzhou as a result. It was known as the Third Revolution by the Kuomintang. The constitution that it intended to protect refers to the Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China.
Containment is a geopolitical strategy to stop the expansion of an enemy.
Conventional warfare is a form of warfare conducted by using conventional weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more states in open confrontation.
The Cross-Strait high-level talks are a series of meetings between.
Cross-Strait relations or Taiwan-China relations, Mainland–Taiwan relations are the relations between the following two political entities, which are separated by the Taiwan Strait in the west Pacific Ocean.
The Dabie Mountains are a major mountain range located in central China.
The Dachen Islands, Tachen Islands or Tachens are a group of islands off the coast of Taizhou, Zhejiang, China, in the East China Sea.
The Democratic Progressive Party (DPP), also known as Minjindang (MJD) is a liberal political party in the Taiwan and the dominant party in the Pan-Green Coalition as it is currently the majority ruling party, controlling both the presidency and the unicameral Legislative Yuan.
Deng Xiaoping (22 August 1904 – 19 February 1997), courtesy name Xixian (希贤), was a Chinese politician.
Diplomatic recognition in international law is a unilateral political act with domestic and international legal consequences, whereby a state acknowledges an act or status of another state or government in control of a state (may be also a recognized state).
The Double Tenth Agreement, formally known as the Summary of Conversations Between the Representatives of the Kuomintang and the Communist Party of China, was an agreement between the Kuomintang (KMT) and the Communist Party of China (CPC) that was concluded on 10 October 1945 (the Double Ten Day of the Republic of China) after 43 days of negotiations.
Du Yuming (1904–1981) was a Kuomintang field commander.
East China or Eastern China is a geographical and a loosely defined cultural region that covers the eastern coastal area of China.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
Encirclement Campaigns were the campaigns launched by forces of the Chinese Nationalist Government against forces of the Communist Party of China during the early stage of the Chinese Civil War.
Feng Yuxiang (6 November 1882 – 1 September 1948) was a warlord and leader in Republican China from Chaohu, Anhui.
The Fifth Encirclement Campaign against the Hubei-Henan-Anhui Soviet was an encirclement campaign launched by the Chinese Nationalist Government that was intended to destroy the communist Hubei-Henan-Anhui Soviet and its Chinese Red Army in the local region.
The First Encirclement Campaign against the Hubei-Henan-Anhui Soviet was an encirclement campaign launched by the Chinese Nationalist Government that was intended to destroy communist Hubei-Henan-Anhui Soviet and its Chinese Red Army in the local region.
The First Taiwan Strait Crisis (also called the 1954–1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis, the Formosa Crisis, the Offshore Islands Crisis or the 1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis) was a brief armed conflict that took place between the governments of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC), which by then had fled and was based in Taiwan.
The First United Front, also known as the KMT–CPC Alliance, of the Kuomintang (KMT) and the Communist Party of China (CPC), was formed in 1923 as an alliance to end warlordism in China.
The Formosa Resolution was a bill enacted by the U.S. Congress on 29 January 1955 that established an American commitment to defend Formosa (now called Taiwan).
The Fourth Encirclement Campaign against the Hubei-Henan-Anhui Soviet was an encirclement campaign launched by the Chinese Nationalist Government that was intended to destroy the communist Hubei-Henan-Anhui Soviet and its Chinese Red Army in the local region.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
The term Free China, in the context of the Second Sino-Japanese War, refers to those areas of China not under the control of the Imperial Japanese Army or any of its puppet governments, such as Manchukuo, the Mengjiang government in Suiyuan and Chahar, or the Provisional Government of the Republic of China in Peiping (now Beijing).
Fu Zuoyi (June 2, 1895 − April 19, 1974) was a Chinese military leader.
Fujian (pronounced), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China.
The Fujian People's Government (or spelt as the Fukien People's Government) is the common name for the People's Revolutionary Government of the Republic of China (1933–1934), also known as the Fujian People's Government (Chinese: 福建人民革命政府; pinyin: Fújiàn Rénmín Zhèngfǔ) as a short-lived anti-Kuomintang government in the Republic of China's Fujian Province.
Fujian, formerly romanized as Fukien or Fuchien (see other names below), is a streamlined province of the Republic of China (ROC).
Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.
Taiwan, formerly known as Formosa, is an island in East Asia; located some off the southeastern coast of mainland China across the Taiwan Strait.
George Catlett Marshall Jr. (December 31, 1880 – October 16, 1959) was an American statesman and soldier.
The Government of the Republic of China was formally established in 1912 in Nanking, with Sun Yat-sen as President of the Provisional Government of the Republic of China under the Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China.
Gu Zhutong (1893 – January 17, 1987), courtesy name Moshan (墨山), was a military general and administrator of the Republic of China.
Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.
The Guangzhou Uprising or Canton Riots of 1927 was a failed Communist uprising in the city of Guangzhou in southern China.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
Kung Hsiang-hsi (September 11, 1881 – August 16, 1967), often known as Dr.
Hainan is the smallest and southernmost province of the People's Republic of China (PRC), consisting of various islands in the South China Sea.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
He Long (March 22, 1896 – June 9, 1969) was a Chinese Communist revolutionary and one of the ten marshals of the People's Liberation Army.
He Yingqin (April 2, 1890 – October 21, 1987) was one of the most senior generals of the Kuomintang (KMT) during Republican China, and a close ally of Chiang Kai-shek.
As a result of the Surrender of Japan at the end of World War II, the island of Taiwan was placed under the governance of the Republic of China ruled by the Kuomintang (KMT) since 25 October 1945.
Hu Zongnan (16 May 1896 – 14 February 1962), courtesy name Shoushan (壽山), native of Zhenhai, Ningbo.
Huaihai Campaign or Battle of Hsupeng was one of the military conflicts in the late stage of the Chinese Civil War between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party of China.
Huang Baitao (9 September 1900 – 22 November 1948) was a Chinese Nationalist general active in the Second Sino-Japanese War and Chinese Civil War, for which he was twice awarded the Order of Blue Sky and White Sun, the highest honor a Chinese commander can achieve.
The Hui people (Xiao'erjing: خُوِذُو; Dungan: Хуэйзў, Xuejzw) are an East Asian ethnoreligious group predominantly composed of Han Chinese adherents of the Muslim faith found throughout China, mainly in the northwestern provinces of the country and the Zhongyuan region.
In economics, hyperinflation is very high and typically accelerating inflation.
An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.
The Ili National Army was the army of the East Turkestan Republic (ETR) that originally consisted of six regiments: the Suidun Infantry Regiment, the Ghulja Regiment, the Kensai Regiment, the Ghulja Reserve Regiment, the Kazakh Cavalry Regiment, the Dungan Regiment, the Artillery Subdivision, the Sibo Subdivision, and the Mongol Subdivision.
The Ili Rebellion (Üch Wiläyt inqilawi) was a Soviet-backed revolt against the Kuomintang government of the Republic of China in 1944.
The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA; Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun; "Army of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jiangsu, formerly romanized as Kiangsu, is an eastern-central coastal province of the People's Republic of China.
Jiangxi, formerly spelled as Kiangsi Gan: Kongsi) is a province in the People's Republic of China, located in the southeast of the country. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze river in the north into hillier areas in the south and east, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to the northwest. The name "Jiangxi" derives from the circuit administrated under the Tang dynasty in 733, Jiangnanxidao (道, Circuit of Western Jiangnan; Gan: Kongnomsitau). The short name for Jiangxi is 赣 (pinyin: Gàn; Gan: Gōm), for the Gan River which runs across from the south to the north and flows into the Yangtze River. Jiangxi is also alternately called Ganpo Dadi (贛鄱大地) which literally means the "Great Land of Gan and Po".
The Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet (commonly called the Jiangxi Soviet) was the largest component territory of the Chinese Soviet Republic, an unrecognized state established in November 1931 by Mao Zedong and Zhu De during the Chinese civil war.
Jinan, formerly romanized as Tsinan, is the capital of Shandong province in Eastern China.
Jinzhou is a prefecture-level city of Liaoning province, People's Republic of China.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Kham is a historical region of Tibet covering a land area largely divided between present-day Tibet Autonomous Region and Sichuan, with smaller portions located within Qinghai, Gansu and Yunnan provinces of China.
Kinmen or Quemoy (see also "Names" section below), officially Kinmen County, is a group of islands, governed by the Republic of China (ROC), which is located just off the southeastern coast of mainland China, including Great Kinmen, Lesser Kinmen, Wuqiu and several surrounding islets.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
The Kuomintang in Burma (KMT) were Chinese Nationalist troops that fled to the Burmese border region in 1950 after their defeat to the Communists in the Chinese Civil War.
The Kuomintang Islamic insurgency refers to a continuation of the Chinese Civil War by Muslim Kuomintang Republic of China Army forces in Northwest China, in the provinces of Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, Xinjiang, and another insurgency in Yunnan.
The Kwantung Army was an army group of the Imperial Japanese Army in the first half of the 20th century.
The Landing Operation on Hainan Island, also known as the Hainan Island Campaign or the Hainan Campaign for short, was a series of battles fought between the Kuomintang (Nationalists) (National Revolutionary Army, NRA) and the People's Liberation Army (PLA) for the island of Hainan during the resumption of the Chinese Civil War in the post-World War II period, and resulted in a Communist victory.
Lauchlin Bernard Currie (October 8, 1902 – December 23, 1993) was a Canadian-born economist.
Lee Teng-hui (born 15 January 1923) is a Taiwanese politician.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
The li (lǐ, or 市里, shìlǐ), also known as the Chinese mile, is a traditional Chinese unit of distance.
Li Mi (1902–1973) was a high-ranking Nationalist general who participated in the anti-Communist Encirclement Campaigns, Second Sino-Japanese War and Chinese Civil War.
Li Zongren or Li Tsung-jen (13 August 1890 – 30 January 1969), courtesy name Delin (Te-lin; 德鄰), was a prominent Guangxi warlord and Kuomintang (KMT) military commander during the Northern Expedition, Second Sino-Japanese War and Chinese Civil War.
The Liao River is the principal river in southern Northeast China, and one of the seven main river systems in mainland China.
Liaoning is a province of China, located in the northeast of the country.
The Liaoshen Campaign, abbreviation of Liaoning-Shenyang Campaign, was the first of the three major campaigns (along with Huaihai Campaign and Pingjin Campaign) launched by the Communist People's Liberation Army (PLA) against the Nationalist Kuomintang government during the late stage of the Chinese Civil War.
Lin Biao (December 5, 1907 – September 13, 1971) was a Marshal of the People's Republic of China who was pivotal in the Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War, especially in Northeast China.
This is a list of islands of Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), classified into various island groups.
This is a list of wars involving the People's Republic of China.
Liu Bocheng (December 4, 1892 – October 7, 1986) was a Chinese Communist military commander and Marshal of the People's Liberation Army.
Liu Wenhui (1895–24 June 1976) was one of the warlords of Sichuan province during China's Warlord era.
Liu Chih (Chinese: 劉峙; pinyin: Liu Zhi; 1892–1971) was a prominent Kuomintang military and political leader in the Republic of China.
The Long March (October 1934 – October 1935) was a military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Communist Party of China, the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang (KMT or Chinese Nationalist Party) army.
Lucien André Bianco (born 19 April 1930) is a French historian and sinologist specializing in the history of the Chinese peasantry in the twentieth century.
Lung Ying-tai (born 13 February 1952 in Kaohsiung) is a Taiwanese essayist and cultural critic.
Luo Ronghuan (November 26, 1902 – December 16, 1963) was a Chinese communist military leader.
The Ma clique or Ma family warlords is a collective name for a group of Hui (Muslim Chinese) warlords in Northwestern China who ruled the Chinese provinces of Qinghai, Gansu and Ningxia for 10 years from 1919 until 1928.
Ma Ying-jeou (born 13 July 1950), also spelled as Ma Yingjiu, is a Hong Kong-born Taipei-based politician who served as the eighteenth President of the Republic of China from 2008 to 2016 as well as sixth under the 1947 Constitution.
Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Manchukuo was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945.
Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
The Marshall Mission (20 December 1945 – January 1947) was a failed diplomatic mission undertaken by United States Army General of the Army George C. Marshall to China in an attempt to negotiate the Communist Party of China and the Nationalists (Kuomintang) into a unified government.
The Matsu Islands (Fuzhou dialect: Mā-cū liĕk-dō̤ or less frequently,; Fuzhou dialect: 馬祖島 Mā-cū-dō̤) are a minor archipelago of 36 islands and islets in the East China Sea administered as Lienchiang County (連江縣;; Lièng-gŏng-gâing) under streamlined Fujian Province, Republic of China (ROC).
The Menglianggu Campaign was a campaign fought between the nationalists and the communists during the Chinese Civil War in the post-World War II era and resulted in communist victory.
Mikhail Markovich Borodin (Михаи́л Ма́ркович Бороди́н; July 9, 1884 – May 29, 1951) was the alias of Mikhail Gruzenberg, a prominent Comintern agent, associate of Lenin and Chinese Government advisor to its leader Mao Zedong.
A military threat, sometimes expressed as danger of military action, a military challenge, or a military risk, is a concept in military intelligence that identifies an imminent capability for use of military force in resolving diplomatic or economic disputes.
The Min River is a -long river in Fujian province, People's Republic of China.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
The Mukden Incident, or Manchurian Incident, was a staged event engineered by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the Japanese invasion in 1931 of northeastern China, known as Manchuria.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Nanchang is the capital of Jiangxi Province in southeastern China.
The Nanchang Uprising was the first major Kuomintang–Communist engagement of the Chinese Civil War, begun by the Communists to counter the anti-communist purges by the Nationalist Party of China.
Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.
The National Revolutionary Army (NRA), sometimes shortened to Revolutionary Army (革命軍) before 1928, and as National Army (國軍) after 1928, was the military arm of the Kuomintang (KMT, or the Chinese Nationalist Party) from 1925 until 1947 in the Republic of China.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
The Nationalist government, officially the National Government of the Republic of China, refers to the government of the Republic of China between 1 July 1925 to 20 May 1948, led by the Kuomintang (KMT, Chinese Nationalist Party).
New 1st Army was reputed as the most elite Chinese military unit of the Kuomintang.
The New Fourth Army was a unit of the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China established in 1937.
The New Fourth Army Incident (新四軍事件), also known as the South Anhui Incident (皖南事变), occurred in China in January 1941 during the Second Sino-Japanese War, during which the Chinese Civil War was in theory suspended, uniting the Communists and Nationalists against the Japanese.
Nie Rongzhen (December 29, 1899 – May 14, 1992) was a prominent Chinese Communist military leader, and one of ten Marshals in the People's Liberation Army of China.
Ningxia (pronounced), officially the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region (NHAR), is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest part of the country.
North China (literally "China's north") is a geographical region of China, lying North of the Qinling Huaihe Line.
Northeast China or Dongbei is a geographical region of China.
The Northern Expedition was a military campaign launched by the National Revolutionary Army of the Kuomintang (KMT), also known as the Nationalists, against the Beiyang government and other regional warlords in 1926.
Odd Arne Westad FBA (born 5 January 1960) is a Norwegian historian specializing in the Cold War and contemporary East Asian history.
"One China policy" is a policy saying that there is only one country of China, despite the fact that there are two governments, China (officially the People's Republic of China) and Taiwan (officially the Republic of China), with the official name of China.
Operation Ichi-Go (一号作戦 Ichi-gō Sakusen, lit. "Operation Number One") was a campaign of a series of major battles between the Imperial Japanese Army forces and the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China, fought from April to December 1944.
Otto Braun (28 September 1900 – 15 August 1974) was a German Communist with a long and varied career.
A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees or services to a landlord.
Peng Dehuai (October 24, 1898November 29, 1974) was a prominent Chinese Communist military leader, who served as China's Defense Minister from 1954 to 1959.
The Penghu or Pescadores Islands are an archipelago of 90 islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait.
The Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Communist Party of China (CPC).
Pingjin Campaign, also known as the Battle of Pingjin, was part of the three major campaigns launched by the People's Liberation Army during the late stage of the Chinese Civil War against the Nationalist government.
The controversy regarding the political status of Taiwan, sometimes referred to as the Taiwan Issue or Taiwan Strait Issue, or from a Taiwanese perspective as the Mainland Issue, is a result of the Chinese Civil War and the subsequent split of China into the two present-day self-governing entities of the People's Republic of China (PRC; commonly known as China) and the Republic of China (ROC; commonly known as Taiwan).
The President of Taiwan, officially the President of the Republic of China, is the head of state and the head of government of Taiwan.
A puppet state is a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Qinghai, formerly known in English as Kokonur, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest of the country.
Ray Huang (25 June 19188 January 2000) was a Chinese historian and philosopher.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
The Republic of China Armed Forces, also known as the Chinese National Armed Forces (CNAF) or Armed Forces of Taiwan are the armed forces of the Republic of China now on Taiwan, encompassing the Army, Navy (including the Republic of China Marine Corps), Air Force and Military Police Force.
The Republic of China Military Academy is the military academy for the army of the Republic of China, located in Fengshan District, Kaohsiung.
Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky (Родио́н Я́ковлевич Малино́вский; – 31 March 1967) was a Soviet military commander in World War II, Marshal of the Soviet Union, and Defense Minister of the Soviet Union in the late 1950s and 1960s.
The Second East Turkestan Republic, commonly referred to simply as the East Turkestan Republic (ETR), was a short-lived Soviet-backed Turkic socialist people's republic.
The Second Encirclement Campaign against the Honghu Soviet was a series of battles launched by the Chinese Nationalist Government that was intended to destroy communist Honghu Soviet and its Chinese Red Army in the local region.
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.
The Second Taiwan Strait Crisis, also called the 1958 Taiwan Strait Crisis, was a conflict that took place between the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) in which the PRC shelled the islands of Kinmen and the nearby Matsu Islands along the east coast of the PRC (in the Taiwan Strait) to "liberate" Taiwan from the Chinese Nationalist Party, also called Kuomintang (KMT), and probe the extent of the United States defense of Taiwan's territory.
The Second United Front was the alliance between the Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang, or KMT) and Communist Party of China (CPC) to resist the Japanese invasion during the Second Sino-Japanese War, which suspended the Chinese Civil War from 1937 to 1941.
Shaanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China.
The Shandong Peninsula is a peninsula in Shandong province in eastern China, between the Bohai Sea to the north and the Yellow Sea to the south.
Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.
The Shanghai massacre of April 12, 1927, known commonly as the April 12 Incident, was the violent suppression of Communist Party of China (CPC) organizations in Shanghai by the military forces of Chiang Kai-shek and conservative factions in the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party, or KMT).
Shantou, formerly romanized as Swatow and sometimes known as Santow, is a prefecture-level city on the eastern coast of Guangdong, China, with a total population of 5,391,028 as of 2010 and an administrative area of.
Shenyang, formerly known by its Manchu name Mukden or Fengtian, is the provincial capital and the largest city of Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China, as well as the largest city in Northeast China by urban population.
The Siege of Changchun was a military blockade undertaken by the People's Liberation Army against Changchun between May and October 1948, the largest city in Manchuria at the time, and one of the headquarters of the Republic of China Army in Northeast China.
There have been several Sino-Burmese wars—wars between China and Burma (Myanmar)—in history.
The Treaty of Friendship and Alliance (Traditional Chinese:中蘇友好同盟條約) is a 1945 treaty signed by the Nationalist Government of the Republic of China and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics at 14 August 1945.
South China or Southern China is a geographical and cultural region that covers the southernmost part of China.
The Soviet invasion of Manchuria, formally known as the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation (Манчжурская стратегическая наступательная операция, lit. Manchzhurskaya Strategicheskaya Nastupatelnaya Operatsiya) or simply the Manchurian Operation (Маньчжурская операция), began on 9 August 1945 with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Su Yu (August 10, 1907 – February 5, 1984) was a Chinese Communist military leader.
Sun Chuanfang (April 17, 1885 – November 13, 1935) a.k.a. the "Nanking Warlord" or leader of the "League of Five Provinces" was a Zhili clique warlord and protégé of the "Jade Marshal" Wu Peifu (1874–1939).
Sun Li-jen (December 8, 1900 – November 19, 1990) KBE was a Chinese Nationalist (KMT) general, a graduate of Virginia Military Institute, best known for his leadership in the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War.
Sun Yat-sen (12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925)Singtao daily.
Sun–Joffe Manifesto or the Joint Manifesto of Sun and Joffe (孫文越飛宣言) was an agreement signed between Sun Yat-sen and Adolph Joffe on January 26, 1923 for the cooperation of Republic of China Kuomintang and Soviet Union.
Soong Tse-ven or Soong Tzu-wen (December 4, 1894 – April 26, 1971) was a prominent businessman and politician in the early-20th-century Republic of China.
Taipei, officially known as Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially known as the Republic of China, "ROC").
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
The Taiwan independence movement is a political movement to pursue formal independence of Taiwan, Goals for independence have arisen from international law in relation to the 1952 Treaty of San Francisco.
The election of the ninth-term President and Vice-President of the Republic of China (第九任中華民國總統 、副總統選舉) was the first direct presidential election in the history of the Republic of China.
The Taiwan Strait, or Formosa Strait, is a -wide strait separating the island of Taiwan from mainland China.
The Taku Forts or Dagu Forts, also called the Peiho Forts are forts located by the Hai River (Peiho River) estuary in the Binhai New Area, Tianjin, in northeastern China.
Tang Enbo (birth name was, |)(1898–1954) was a Nationalist general in the Republic of China.
The Temporary Provisions Effective During the Period of National Mobilization for Suppression of the Communist Rebellion were provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of China effective from 1948 to 1991 and amended four times.
The Third Encirclement Campaign against the Honghu Soviet was an encirclement campaign launched by the Chinese Nationalist Government that was intended to destroy the communist Honghu Soviet and its Chinese Red Army in the local region.
The Third Taiwan Strait Crisis, also called the 1995–1996 Taiwan Strait Crisis or the 1996 Taiwan Strait Crisis, was the effect of a series of missile tests conducted by the People's Republic of China (PRC) in the waters surrounding Taiwan including the Taiwan Strait from 21 July 1995, to 23 March 1996.
The Three Principles of the People, also translated as Three People's Principles, San-min Doctrine, or Tridemism is a political philosophy developed by Sun Yat-sen as part of a philosophy to make China a free, prosperous, and powerful nation.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
The Tongmenghui (or T'ung-meng Hui, variously translated Chinese United League, United League, Chinese Revolutionary Alliance, Chinese Alliance, United Allegiance Society) was a secret society and underground resistance movement founded by Sun Yat-sen, Song Jiaoren, and others in Tokyo, Japan, on 20 August 1905.
An unconditional surrender is a surrender in which no guarantees are given to the surrendering party.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
The United Nations General Assembly Resolution 505 is titled Threats to the political independence and territorial integrity of China and to the peace of the Far East, resulting from Soviet violations of the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Alliance of August 14, 1945 and from Soviet violations of the Charter of the United Nations.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.
The Seventh Fleet is a numbered fleet (a military formation) of the United States Navy.
The University of Southern California (USC or SC) is a private research university in Los Angeles, California.
Wang Jiaxiang (also known as Wang Jiaqiang) (August 15, 1906 – January 25, 1974), one of the senior leaders of the Communist Party of China in its early stage and a member of the 28 Bolsheviks.
Wang Jingwei (Wang Ching-wei; 4 May 1883 – 10 November 1944); born as Wang Zhaoming (Wang Chao-ming), but widely known by his pen name "Jingwei", was a Chinese politician.
The Wang Jingwei regime is the common name of the Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China (p), a puppet state of the Empire of Japan, located in eastern China.
Wang Yaowu (1904–1968) was a high-ranking KMT general and the Governor of Shandong Province who successfully fought against both the Imperial Japanese Army and the Chinese Communists.
The Wanshan Archipelago, formerly known as the Ladrones Islands, is a 104-island archipelago that is part of the Xiangzhou District of Zhuhai in Guangdong Province, China.
The Wanshan Archipelago Campaign (万山群岛战役) was a campaign fought between the communist and the nationalist forces during the Chinese Civil War for the control of Wanshan Archipelago (Wanshan Qundao, 万山群岛), and resulted in communist victory.
The Warlord Era (19161928) was a period in the history of the Republic of China when the control of the country was divided among former military cliques of the Beiyang Army and other regional factions, which was spread across in the mainland regions of Sichuan, Shanxi, Qinghai, Ningxia, Guangdong, Guangxi, Gansu, Yunnan, and Xinjiang.
Wei Lihuang (16 February 1897 – 17 January 1960) was a Chinese general who served the Nationalist government throughout the Chinese Civil War and Second Sino-Japanese War as one of China's most successful military commanders.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China.
The Xi'an Incident of 1936 was a political crisis that took place in Xi'an, China prior to the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Xiamen, formerly romanized as Amoy, is a sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian province, People's Republic of China, beside the Taiwan Strait.
The Xinhai Revolution, also known as the Chinese Revolution or the Revolution of 1911, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty (the Qing dynasty) and established the Republic of China (ROC).
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.
Xu Xiangqian (November 8, 1901 – September 21, 1990) was a Chinese Communist military leader and one of the Ten Marshals of the People's Liberation Army.
Xue Yue (December 26, 1896 – May 3, 1998) was a Chinese Nationalist military general, nicknamed by Claire Lee Chennault of the Flying Tigers as the "Patton of Asia" and called the "God of War" (戰神) by the Chinese.
Yan Xishan; 8 October 1883 – 22 July 1960) was a Chinese warlord who served in the government of the Republic of China. He effectively controlled the province of Shanxi from the 1911 Xinhai Revolution to the 1949 Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War. As the leader of a relatively small, poor, remote province, he survived the machinations of Yuan Shikai, the Warlord Era, the Nationalist Era, the Japanese invasion of China and the subsequent civil war, being forced from office only when the Nationalist armies with which he was aligned had completely lost control of the Chinese mainland, isolating Shanxi from any source of economic or military supply. He has been viewed by Western biographers as a transitional figure who advocated using Western technology to protect Chinese traditions, while at the same time reforming older political, social and economic conditions in a way that paved the way for the radical changes that would occur after his rule.Gillin The Journal of Asian Studies 289.
Yan'an is a prefecture-level city in the Shanbei region of Shaanxi province, China, bordering Shanxi to the east and Gansu to the west.
Yang Hucheng (26 November 1893 – 6 September 1949) was a Chinese general during the Warlord Era of Republican China and Kuomintang general during the Chinese Civil War.
The Yangtze River Crossing Campaign was a military campaign launched by the People's Liberation Army to cross the Yangtze River and capture Nanjing, the capital of the Nationalist government, in the final stage of the Chinese Civil War.
Ye Jianying (28 April 1897 – 22 October 1986) was a Chinese communist general, Marshal of the People's Liberation Army.
Ye Ting (September 10, 1896 – April 8, 1946), born in Huiyang, Guangdong, was a Chinese military leader.
The Yijiangshan Islands are two small islands eight miles from the Dachen Islands, located off the coast of Taizhou, Zhejiang in the East China Sea.
Yuan Shikai (16 September 1859 – 6 June 1916) was a Chinese warlord, famous for his influence during the late Qing dynasty, his role in the events leading up to the abdication of the last Qing Emperor, his autocratic rule as the first formal President of the Republic of China, and his short-lived attempt to restore monarchy in China, with himself as the Hongxian Emperor.
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.
Zhang Fakui (25 July 1896 – 10 March 1980) was a Chinese Nationalist general who fought against northern warlords, the Imperial Japanese Army and Chinese Communist forces in his military career.
Zhang Guotao (November 26, 1897 – December 3, 1979) was a founding member and important leader of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and bitter rival to Mao Zedong.
Zhang Lingfu (August 20, 1903 – May 16, 1947) was a high-ranking general of the Chinese National Revolutionary Army.
Zhang Xueliang or Chang Hsueh-liang or Chang Hsiao-liang (3 June 1901 – 15 October 2001), occasionally called Peter Hsueh Liang Chang and nicknamed the "Young Marshal" (少帥), was the effective ruler of northeast China and much of northern China after the assassination of his father, Zhang Zuolin, by the Japanese on 4 June 1928.
Zhangjiakou also known by several other names, is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Hebei province in Northern China, bordering Beijing to the southeast, Inner Mongolia to the north and west, and Shanxi to the southwest.
, formerly romanized as Chekiang, is an eastern coastal province of China.
Zhongyuan, Chungyuan, or the Central Plain, also known as Zhongtu, Chungtu or Zhongzhou, Chungchou, is the area on the lower reaches of the Yellow River which formed the cradle of Chinese civilization.
Zhou Enlai (5 March 1898 – 8 January 1976) was the first Premier of the People's Republic of China, serving from October 1949 until his death in January 1976.
Zhoushan Island is the principal and namesake island in the Zhoushan Islands, formerly romanized as the ChusanIslands, an archipelago administered by Zhoushan Prefecture in Zhejiang Province in the People's Republic of China.
Zhu De ((also Chu Teh; 1 December 1886 – 6 July 1976) was a Chinese general, warlord, politician, revolutionary and one of the pioneers of the Communist Party of China. Born poor in 1886 in Sichuan, he was adopted by a wealthy uncle at age nine; this prosperity provided him a superior early education that led to his admission into a military academy. After his time at the academy, he joined a rebel army and soon became a warlord. It was after this period that he adopted communism. He ascended through the ranks of the Chinese Red Army as it closed in on securing the nation. By the time China was under Mao's control, Zhu was a high-ranking official within the Communist Party of China. He served as Commander-in-Chief of the Eighth Route Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War. In 1955 he became one of the Ten Marshals of the People's Liberation Army, of which he is regarded as the principal founder. Zhu remained a prominent political figure until his death in 1976. As the chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress from 1975-76, Zhu was the head of state of the People's Republic of China.
The 2005 Pan–Blue visits to mainland China were a series of groundbreaking visits by delegations of the Kuomintang (KMT) to mainland China.
1949 Revolution, China Civil War, China's civil war, Chinese Civil War of 1945-1949, Chinese Civil war, Chinese cival war, Chinese civil war, Chinese civl war, Civil War of China, Civil war between Nationalists and Communists, First Chinese Civil War, Guogong Neizhan, Guógòng Nèizhàn, KMT-CPC United Fronts, Kuo Kung Nei Chan, Nationalist-Communist Civil War, Political division of China, Revolution of 1949, Ten Year's Civil War, Ten Years' Civil War, Ten-Year Civil War, The Chinese Civil War, War of Liberation of the People's Republic of China, 国共内战, 國共內戰, 國共内戰, 解放战争, 解放戰爭.