193 relations: Alexander Wylie (missionary), Almanac, Ancient Greek astronomy, Anyang, Apparent retrograde motion, Aristotelian physics, Aristotle, Armillary sphere, Aryabhata, Astrolabe, Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world, Aurel Stein, Āryabhaṭa's sine table, Beijing, Beijing Ancient Observatory, Bhikkhu, Big Dipper, Book of Jin, Book of Sui, British Museum, Bronze Age, Buddhism, Cardinal direction, Celestial cartography, Celestial spheres, Chain drive, Chang'an, Chen Zhuo, China, Chinese calendar, Chinese ceramics, Chinese constellations, Chinese language, Chinese mathematics, Chinese space program, Chongzhen Emperor, Chu Silk Manuscript, Circumpolar star, Clock tower, Compass, Copernican Revolution, Counting rods, Crab Nebula, Crossbow, Cubic Hermite spline, Daozang, Decimal, Degree (angle), Divination, Divination by Astrological and Meteorological Phenomena, ..., Dream Pool Essays, Dunhuang, Dunhuang Star Chart, Dutch people, Earthquake, Ecliptic, Ecliptic coordinate system, Eight-Nation Alliance, Emperor Xuanzong of Tang, Emperor Zhongzong of Tang, Equator, Escapement, Ferdinand Augustin Hallerstein, Ferdinand Verbiest, Fixed stars, France, Fu An, Fu Jen Catholic University, Galileo affair, Galileo Galilei, Gan De, Gansu, Gaocheng Astronomical Observatory, Gautama Siddha, Genghis Khan, Geocentric model, Germany, Giacomo Rho, Globe, Gnomon, Guest star (astronomy), Guo Shoujing, Han Chinese, Han dynasty, Helaine Selin, Heliacal rising, Heliocentrism, Historical comet observations in China, History of India, Hongwu Emperor, Horology, Hubei, Hui people, Hulagu Khan, Hydraulics, Indian astronomy, Indian mathematics, Indian numerals, Intercalation (timekeeping), Islam in China, Jamal ad-Din (astronomer), Japan, Jeong Duwon, Jesuit China missions, Jia Kui (scholar), Jin dynasty (1115–1234), Jin–Song Wars, Jing Fang, João Rodrigues Tçuzu, Johann Adam Schall von Bell, Johann Schreck, Johannes Kepler, Joseon, Joseph Edkins, Joseph Needham, Kaifeng, Kublai Khan, Later Han (Five Dynasties), Latitude, Leuven University Press, London, Lunar eclipse, Lunisolar calendar, Ma Yize, Magnetism, Manuel Dias the Younger, Maragheh observatory, Mathematician, Mathematics in medieval Islam, Matteo Ricci, Michał Boym, Ming dynasty, Mongol Empire, Muslim, Nanjing, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, Navagraha, Navigation, Nicolaus Copernicus, Observatory, Oracle bone, Parmenides, Pole star, Poles, Protestantism, Purple Mountain Observatory, Qing dynasty, Records of the Grand Historian, Second Sino-Japanese War, Seismometer, Shang dynasty, Shen Kuo, Shi Shen, Sima Qian, SN 1054, Society of Jesus, Solar eclipse, Song dynasty, Spherical trigonometry, Springer Science+Business Media, Star catalogue, Su Song, Supernova, Taipei, Tang dynasty, Taoism, Telescope, Three Kingdoms, Timeline of Chinese astronomy, Traditional Chinese star names, Treatise on Astrology of the Kaiyuan Era, Trigonometric functions, True north, Twenty-Eight Mansions, Tycho Brahe, Vajrayana, Vedanga Jyotisha, Wang Chong, Warring States period, Water clock, Wei Pu, Wu Ding, Wu Xian (astronomer), Xu Guangqi, Yang Guangxian, Yelü Chucai, Yi Xing, Yin and yang, Yu Xi, Yuan dynasty, Zhang Heng, Zij, Zodiac. Expand index (143 more) » « Shrink index
Alexander Wylie (Traditional Chinese: 偉烈亞力, Simplified Chinese: 伟烈亚力) (6 April 181510 February 1887), was a British Protestant Christian missionary to China.
An almanac (also spelled almanack and almanach) is an annual publication listing a set of events forthcoming in the next year.
Greek astronomy is astronomy written in the Greek language in classical antiquity.
Anyang is a prefecture-level city in Henan province, China.
Apparent retrograde motion is the apparent motion of a planet in a direction opposite to that of other bodies within its system, as observed from a particular vantage point.
Aristotelian physics is a form of natural science described in the works of the Greek philosopher Aristotle (384–).
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
An armillary sphere (variations are known as spherical astrolabe, armilla, or armil) is a model of objects in the sky (on the celestial sphere), consisting of a spherical framework of rings, centred on Earth or the Sun, that represent lines of celestial longitude and latitude and other astronomically important features, such as the ecliptic.
Aryabhata (IAST) or Aryabhata I (476–550 CE) was the first of the major mathematician-astronomers from the classical age of Indian mathematics and Indian astronomy.
An astrolabe (ἀστρολάβος astrolabos; ٱلأَسْطُرلاب al-Asturlāb; اَختِرِیاب Akhteriab) is an elaborate inclinometer, historically used by astronomers and navigators to measure the inclined position in the sky of a celestial body, day or night.
Islamic astronomy comprises the astronomical developments made in the Islamic world, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age (9th–13th centuries), and mostly written in the Arabic language.
Sir Marc Aurel Stein, KCIE, FRAS, FBA (Stein Márk Aurél; 26 November 1862 – 26 October 1943) was a Hungarian-born British archaeologist, primarily known for his explorations and archaeological discoveries in Central Asia.
Āryabhaṭa's sine table is a set of twenty-four numbers given in the astronomical treatise Āryabhaṭīya composed by the fifth century Indian mathematician and astronomer Āryabhaṭa (476–550 CE), for the computation of the half-chords of certain set of arcs of a circle.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
The Beijing Ancient Observatory is a pretelescopic observatory located in Beijing, China.
A bhikkhu (from Pali, Sanskrit: bhikṣu) is an ordained male monastic ("monk") in Buddhism.
The Big Dipper (US) or the Plough (UK) is an asterism consisting of seven bright stars of the constellation Ursa Major; six of them are of second magnitude and one, Megrez (δ), of third magnitude.
The Book of Jin is an official Chinese historical text covering the history of the Jin dynasty from 265 to 420.
The Book of Sui (Suí Shū) is the official history of the Sui dynasty.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
The four cardinal directions or cardinal points are the directions north, east, south, and west, commonly denoted by their initials N, E, S, and W. East and west are at right angles to north and south, with east being in the clockwise direction of rotation from north and west being directly opposite east.
Celestial cartography, uranography, astrography or star cartography is the fringe of astronomy and branch of cartography concerned with mapping stars, galaxies, and other astronomical objects on the celestial sphere.
The celestial spheres, or celestial orbs, were the fundamental entities of the cosmological models developed by Plato, Eudoxus, Aristotle, Ptolemy, Copernicus, and others.
Chain drive is a way of transmitting mechanical power from one place to another.
Chang'an was an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi'an.
Chen Zhuo (3rd century) was a Chinese astronomer who lived in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280) of China.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The traditional Chinese calendar (official Chinese name: Rural Calendar, alternately Former Calendar, Traditional Calendar, or Lunar Calendar) is a lunisolar calendar which reckons years, months and days according to astronomical phenomena.
Chinese ceramics show a continuous development since pre-dynastic times and are one of the most significant forms of Chinese art and ceramics globally.
Traditional Chinese astronomy has a system of dividing the celestial sphere into asterisms or constellations, known as "officials" (Chinese xīng guān).
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Mathematics in China emerged independently by the 11th century BC.
The space program of the People's Republic of China is directed by the China National Space Administration (CNSA).
The Chongzhen Emperor (6 February 1611 – 25 April 1644), personal name Zhu Youjian, was the 17th and last emperor of the Ming dynasty in China, reigning from 1627–1644.
The Chu Silk Manuscript, also known as the Chu Silk Manuscript from Zidanku in Changsha, is a Chinese astrological and astronomical text.
A circumpolar star is a star, as viewed from a given latitude on Earth, that never sets below the horizon due to its apparent proximity to one of the celestial poles.
Clock towers are a specific type of building which houses a turret clock and has one or more clock faces on the upper exterior walls.
A compass is an instrument used for navigation and orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic cardinal directions (or points).
The Copernican Revolution was the paradigm shift from the Ptolemaic model of the heavens, which described the cosmos as having Earth stationary at the center of the universe, to the heliocentric model with the Sun at the center of the Solar System.
Counting rods are small bars, typically 3–14 cm long, that were used by mathematicians for calculation in ancient East Asia.
The Crab Nebula (catalogue designations M1, NGC 1952, Taurus A) is a supernova remnant in the constellation of Taurus.
A crossbow is a type of ranged weapon based on the bow and consisting of a horizontal bow-like assembly mounted on a frame which is handheld in a similar fashion to the stock of a gun.
In numerical analysis, a cubic Hermite spline or cubic Hermite interpolator is a spline where each piece is a third-degree polynomial specified in Hermite form: that is, by its values and first derivatives at the end points of the corresponding domain interval.
Daozang (Wade-Giles: Tao Tsang), meaning "Taoist Canon", consists of around 1,400 texts that were collected c. 400 (after the Dao De Jing and Zhuang Zi which are the core Taoist texts).
The decimal numeral system (also called base-ten positional numeral system, and occasionally called denary) is the standard system for denoting integer and non-integer numbers.
A degree (in full, a degree of arc, arc degree, or arcdegree), usually denoted by ° (the degree symbol), is a measurement of a plane angle, defined so that a full rotation is 360 degrees.
Divination (from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god", related to divinus, divine) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic, standardized process or ritual.
The Divination by Astrological and Meteorological Phenomena, also known as Book of Silk is an ancient astronomy silk manuscript compiled by Chinese astronomers of the Western Han Dynasty (202 BC – 9 AD) and found in the Mawangdui of Changsha, Hunan, China in 1973.
The Dream Pool Essays or Dream Torrent Essays (Pinyin: Mèng Xī Bǐ Tán; Wade-Giles: Meng⁴ Hsi¹ Pi³-t'an²; Chinese: 夢溪筆談／梦溪笔谈) was an extensive book written by the Han Chinese polymath, genius, scientist and statesman Shen Kuo (1031-1095) by 1088 AD, during the Song dynasty (960-1279) of China.
Dunhuang is a county-level city in northwestern Gansu Province, Western China.
The Dunhuang map or Dunhuang Star map is one of the first known graphical representations of stars from ancient Chinese astronomy, dated to the Tang Dynasty (618–907).
The Dutch (Dutch), occasionally referred to as Netherlanders—a term that is cognate to the Dutch word for Dutch people, "Nederlanders"—are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands.
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.
The ecliptic is the circular path on the celestial sphere that the Sun follows over the course of a year; it is the basis of the ecliptic coordinate system.
The ecliptic coordinate system is a celestial coordinate system commonly used for representing the apparent positions and orbits of Solar System objects.
The Eight-Nation Alliance was an international military coalition set up in response to the Boxer Rebellion in China.
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang (8 September 685 – 3 May 762), also commonly known as Emperor Ming of Tang or Illustrious August, personal name Li Longji, also known as Wu Longji from 690 to 705, was the seventh emperor of the Tang dynasty in China, reigning from 713 to 756 C.E. His reign of 43 years was the longest during the Tang dynasty.
Emperor Zhongzong of Tang (26 November 656 – 3 July 710), personal name Li Xian, and at other times Li Zhe or Wu Xian, was the fourth Emperor of the Tang dynasty of China, ruling briefly in 684 and again from 705 to 710.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
An escapement is a device in mechanical watches and clocks that transfers energy to the timekeeping element (the "impulse action") and allows the number of its oscillations to be counted (the "locking action").
Ferdinand Augustin Haller von Hallerstein (Ferdinand Avguštin Haller von Hallerstein; 27 August 1703 – 29 October 1774), also known as August Allerstein or by his Chinese name Liu Songling, was a Jesuit missionary and astronomer from Carniola (then Habsburg Monarchy, now Slovenia).
Father Ferdinand Verbiest (9 October 1623 – 28 January 1688) was a Flemish Jesuit missionary in China during the Qing dynasty.
The fixed stars (stellae fixae) comprise the background of astronomical objects that appear to not move relative to each other in the night sky compared to the foreground of Solar System objects that do.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Fu An (Chinese:傅安 fl. 1385–1429) was a Ming dynasty diplomat, who was dispatched in 1385 with two other officials and a eunuch named Liu Wei, to open communications with the nations of Central Asia.
Fu Jen Catholic University (FJU, FJCU or Fu Jen) is a top private university in New Taipei, Taiwan.
The Galileo affair (il processo a Galileo Galilei) was a sequence of events, beginning around 1610, culminating with the trial and condemnation of Galileo Galilei by the Roman Catholic Inquisition in 1633 for his support of heliocentrism.
Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.
Gan De (fl. 4th century BC) was a Chinese astronomer/astrologer born in the State of Qi also known as the Lord Gan (Gan Gong).
Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.
Gaocheng Astronomical Observatory, also known as the Dengfeng Observatory, is a World Heritage Site in Duke of Zhou's shrine, Gaocheng Town, near Dengfeng in Henan province, China.
Gautama Siddha, (fl. 8th century) astronomer, astrologer and compiler of Indian descent, known for leading the compilation of the Treatise on Astrology of the Kaiyuan Era during the Tang Dynasty.
Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
In astronomy, the geocentric model (also known as geocentrism, or the Ptolemaic system) is a superseded description of the universe with Earth at the center.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Giacomo Rho (1593, Milan – 27 April 1638, Beijing) was an Italian Jesuit missionary in China.
A globe is a spherical model of Earth, of some other celestial body, or of the celestial sphere.
A gnomon (from Greek γνώμων, gnōmōn, literally: "one that knows or examines") is the part of a sundial that casts a shadow.
In Chinese astronomy, a guest star is a star which has suddenly appeared in a place where no star had previously been observed and becomes invisible again after some time.
Guo Shoujing (1231–1316), courtesy name Ruosi (若思), was a Chinese astronomer, engineer, and mathematician born in Xingtai, Hebei who lived during the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368).
The Han Chinese,.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Helaine Selin (born 1946) is an American librarian, author and the editor of several bestselling books.
The heliacal rising or star rise of a star, star cluster, or galaxy occurs annually when it becomes visible above the eastern horizon for a moment before sunrise, after a period of less than a year when it had not been visible.
Heliocentrism is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System.
Chinese records of comets are the most extensive and accurate in existence from the ancient and medieval periods, and stretch back across three millennia.
The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.
The Hongwu Emperor (21 October 1328 – 24 June 1398), personal name Zhu Yuanzhang (Chu Yuan-chang in Wade-Giles), was the founding emperor of China's Ming dynasty.
Horology ("the study of time", related to Latin horologium from Greek ὡρολόγιον, "instrument for telling the hour", from ὥρα hṓra "hour; time" and -o- interfix and suffix -logy) is the study of the measurement of time.
Hubei is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the Central China region.
The Hui people (Xiao'erjing: خُوِذُو; Dungan: Хуэйзў, Xuejzw) are an East Asian ethnoreligious group predominantly composed of Han Chinese adherents of the Muslim faith found throughout China, mainly in the northwestern provinces of the country and the Zhongyuan region.
Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü or Hulegu (ᠬᠦᠯᠡᠭᠦ|translit.
Hydraulics (from Greek: Υδραυλική) is a technology and applied science using engineering, chemistry, and other sciences involving the mechanical properties and use of liquids.
Indian astronomy has a long history stretching from pre-historic to modern times.
Indian mathematics emerged in the Indian subcontinent from 1200 BC until the end of the 18th century.
Indian numerals are the symbols representing numbers in India.
Intercalation or embolism in timekeeping is the insertion of a leap day, week, or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons or moon phases.
Islam in China has existed through 1,400 years of continuous interaction with Chinese society.
Jamal ad-Din Muḥammad ibn Ṭāhir ibn Muḥammad al‐Zaydī al‐Bukhārī (variously transcribed Jamal ud-Din, Jamal al-Din (Beauty of Faith), etc., Chinese name Zhamaluding) was a 13th-century Persian astronomer.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jeong Duwon (.1581), also known as Chong Tuwon,.
The history of the missions of the Jesuits in China is part of the history of relations between China and the Western world.
Jia Kui (30–101 CE), courtesy name Jingbo, was a Confucian philosopher who lived in the early Eastern Han period.
The Jin dynasty, officially known as the Great Jin, lasted from 1115 to 1234 as one of the last dynasties in Chinese history to predate the Mongol invasion of China.
Map showing the Song-Jurchen Jin wars The Jin–Song Wars were a series of conflicts between the Jurchen Jin dynasty (1115–1234) and Han Chinese Song dynasty (960–1279).
Jing Fang (78–37 BC), born Li Fang (李房), courtesy name Junming (君明), was born in present-day 東郡頓丘 (Puyang, Henan) during the Han Dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD).
João Rodrigues (1561or 1562 1633or 1634), distinguished as Tçuzu and also known by other names in China and Korea, was a Portuguese sailor, warrior, and Jesuit interpreter, missionary, priest, and scholar in Japan and China.
Johann Adam Schall von Bell (1 May 1591 – 15 August 1666) was a German Jesuit and astronomer.
Johann(es) Schreck, also Terrenz or Terrentius Constantiensis, Deng Yuhan Hanpo 鄧玉函, Deng Zhen Lohan, (1576, Bingen, Baden-Württemberg or Constance – 11 May 1630, Beijing) was a German Jesuit, missionary to China and polymath.
Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer.
The Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun, 조선; officially the Kingdom of Great Joseon, 대조선국) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries.
Joseph Edkins (19 December 1823 – 23 April 1905) was a British Protestant missionary who spent 57 years in China, 30 of them in Beijing.
Noel Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham (9 December 1900 – 24 March 1995) was a British biochemist, historian and sinologist known for his scientific research and writing on the history of Chinese science and technology.
Kaifeng, known previously by several names, is a prefecture-level city in east-central Henan province, China.
Kublai (Хубилай, Hubilai; Simplified Chinese: 忽必烈) was the fifth Khagan (Great Khan) of the Mongol Empire (Ikh Mongol Uls), reigning from 1260 to 1294 (although due to the division of the empire this was a nominal position).
The Later Han was founded in 947.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Leuven University Press (Universitaire Pers Leuven) is a university press located in Leuven, Belgium.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
A lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes directly behind Earth and into its shadow.
A lunisolar calendar is a calendar in many cultures whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year.
Ma Yize (traditional: 馬依澤, simplified: 马依泽, ca. 910 - 1005) was a Muslim Hui Chinese astronomer and astronomer who worked as the chief official of the astronomical observatory for the Song dynasty.
Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields.
Manuel Dias the Younger (1574– 4 March 1659) was a Portuguese Jesuit missionary.
Maragheh observatory (رصدخانه مراغه), was an institutionalized astronomical observatory which was established in 1259 CE under the patronage of the Ilkhanid Hulagu and the directorship of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, a Persian scientist and astronomer.
A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems.
Mathematics during the Golden Age of Islam, especially during the 9th and 10th centuries, was built on Greek mathematics (Euclid, Archimedes, Apollonius) and Indian mathematics (Aryabhata, Brahmagupta).
Matteo Ricci, S.J. (Mattheus Riccius Maceratensis; 6 October 1552 – 11 May 1610), was an Italian Jesuit priest and one of the founding figures of the Jesuit China missions.
Michał Piotr BoymHis first name is also often rendered as Michele, Michel, Miguel, Michael Peter (Transliterated also (using Wade-Giles) as Pu Che-yuen Mi-ko c. 1612–1659) was a Polish Jesuit missionary to China, scientist and explorer.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.
Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Tūsī (محمد بن محمد بن حسن طوسی‎ 18 February 1201 – 26 June 1274), better known as Nasir al-Din Tusi (نصیر الدین طوسی; or simply Tusi in the West), was a Persian polymath, architect, philosopher, physician, scientist, and theologian.
Navagraha means "nine planets" in Sanskrit and are nine astronomical bodies as well as mythical deities in Hinduism and Hindu astrology.
Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.
Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.
An observatory is a location used for observing terrestrial or celestial events.
Oracle bones are pieces of ox scapula or turtle plastron, which were used for pyromancy – a form of divination – in ancient China, mainly during the late Shang dynasty.
Parmenides of Elea (Παρμενίδης ὁ Ἐλεάτης) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher from Elea in Magna Graecia (Greater Greece, included Southern Italy).
Pole star or polar star refers to a star, preferably bright, closely aligned to the axis of rotation of an astronomical object.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The Purple Mountain Observatory, also known as Zijinshan Astronomical Observatory is an astronomical observatory located on the Purple Mountain in the west of Nanjing, China.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
The Records of the Grand Historian, also known by its Chinese name Shiji, is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Han dynasty official Sima Qian after having been started by his father, Sima Tan, Grand Astrologer to the imperial court.
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.
A seismometer is an instrument that measures motion of the ground, caused by, for example, an earthquake, a volcanic eruption, or the use of explosives.
The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.
Shen Kuo (1031–1095), courtesy name Cunzhong (存中) and pseudonym Mengqi (now usually given as Mengxi) Weng (夢溪翁),Yao (2003), 544.
Shi Shen (fl. 4th century BC) was a Chinese astronomer and contemporary of Gan De born in the State of Wei, also known as the Shi Shenfu.
Sima Qian was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty (206AD220).
SN 1054 is a supernova that was first observed on 4 July 1054, and remained visible for around two years.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
A solar eclipse (as seen from the planet Earth) is a type of eclipse that occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun and Earth, and when the Moon fully or partially blocks ("occults") the Sun.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
Spherical trigonometry is the branch of spherical geometry that deals with the relationships between trigonometric functions of the sides and angles of the spherical polygons (especially spherical triangles) defined by a number of intersecting great circles on the sphere.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
A star catalogue (Commonwealth English) or star catalog (American English), is an astronomical catalogue that lists stars.
Su Song (courtesy name: Zirong 子容) (1020–1101 AD) was a renowned Hokkien polymath who was described as a scientist, mathematician, statesman, astronomer, cartographer, horologist, medical doctor, pharmacologist, mineralogist, zoologist, botanist, mechanical and architectural engineer, poet, antiquarian, and ambassador of the Song Dynasty (960–1279).
A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.
Taipei, officially known as Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially known as the Republic of China, "ROC").
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).
The Three Kingdoms (220–280) was the tripartite division of China between the states of Wei (魏), Shu (蜀), and Wu (吳).
This is a timeline of Chinese records and investigations in astronomy.
Traditional Chinese star names (Chinese:, xīng míng) are the names of stars used in ancient Chinese astronomy and astrology.
The Treatise on Astrology of the Kaiyuan Era is a Chinese astrology encyclopedia compiled by the lead editor Gautama Siddha and numerous scholars from 714 to 724 AD during the Kaiyuan era of Tang Dynasty.
In mathematics, the trigonometric functions (also called circular functions, angle functions or goniometric functions) are functions of an angle.
True north (also called geodetic north) is the direction along Earth's surface towards the geographic North Pole.
The Twenty-Eight Mansions, hsiu, xiu or sieu are part of the Chinese constellations system.
Tycho Brahe (born Tyge Ottesen Brahe;. He adopted the Latinized form "Tycho Brahe" (sometimes written Tÿcho) at around age fifteen. The name Tycho comes from Tyche (Τύχη, meaning "luck" in Greek, Roman equivalent: Fortuna), a tutelary deity of fortune and prosperity of ancient Greek city cults. He is now generally referred to as "Tycho," as was common in Scandinavia in his time, rather than by his surname "Brahe" (a spurious appellative form of his name, Tycho de Brahe, only appears much later). 14 December 154624 October 1601) was a Danish nobleman, astronomer, and writer known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations.
Vajrayāna, Mantrayāna, Tantrayāna, Tantric Buddhism and Esoteric Buddhism are the various Buddhist traditions of Tantra and "Secret Mantra", which developed in medieval India and spread to Tibet and East Asia.
The, or Jyotiṣavedāṅga (Devanagari: वेदाङ्ग ज्योतिष), is one of earliest known Indian texts on astronomy and astrology (Jyotisha).
Wang Chong (27–c. 100 AD), courtesy name Zhongren (仲任), was a Chinese meteorologist, astronomer, and philosopher active during the Han Dynasty.
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.
A water clock or clepsydra (Greek κλεψύδρα from κλέπτειν kleptein, 'to steal'; ὕδωρ hydor, 'water') is any timepiece in which time is measured by the regulated flow of liquid into (inflow type) or out from (outflow type) a vessel where the amount is then measured.
Wei Pu (Wade-Giles: Wei P'u) was an 11th-century Chinese astronomer of the Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD).
Wu Ding was a king of the Shang dynasty in ancient China, whose reign lasted from approximately 1250–1192 BC.
Wu Xian (Chinese: 巫咸) was a Chinese Shaman.
Xu Guangqi or Hsü Kuang-ch'i (April 24, 1562– November 8, 1633), also known by his baptismal name Paul, was a Chinese scholar-bureaucrat, Catholic convert, agricultural scientist, astronomer, and mathematician under the Ming dynasty.
Yang Guangxian (Xiao'erjing: ﻳْﺎ ﻗُﻮْا ﺷِﯿًﺎ) (1597–1669) was a Chinese Muslim Confucian writer and astronomer who was the head of the Bureau of Astronomy (欽天監) from 1665 to 1669.
Yelü Chucai (Yeh-lu Chu-tsai;; Mongolian: Urtu Saqal, 吾圖撒合里, "long beard"; the components of his name also variously spelt Yeh-Lu, Ye Liu, Yeliu, Chutsai, Ch'u-Ts'ai, etc.) (July 24, 1190 - June 20, 1244) was a statesman of Khitan ethnicity with royal family lineage to the Liao Dynasty, who became a vigorous adviser and administrator of the early Mongol Empire in the Confucian tradition.
Yi Xing (683–727), born Zhang Sui, was a Chinese astronomer, mathematician, mechanical engineer and Buddhist monk of the Tang dynasty (618–907).
In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang (and; 陽 yīnyáng, lit. "dark-bright", "negative-positive") describes how seemingly opposite or contrary forces may actually be complementary, interconnected, and interdependent in the natural world, and how they may give rise to each other as they interrelate to one another.
Yu Xi (虞喜; 307-345 AD), courtesy name Zhongning (仲寧), was a Chinese official, scholar, and astronomer of the Jin dynasty (265-420 AD).
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
Zhang Heng (AD 78–139), formerly romanized as Chang Heng, was a Han Chinese polymath from Nanyang who lived during the Han dynasty.
A zīj (زيج) is an Islamic astronomical book that tabulates parameters used for astronomical calculations of the positions of the Sun, Moon, stars, and planets.
The zodiac is an area of the sky that extends approximately 8° north or south (as measured in celestial latitude) of the ecliptic, the apparent path of the Sun across the celestial sphere over the course of the year.