278 relations: Academia Sinica, Adoption of Chinese literary culture, Affix, Allography, Anyang, Arabic alphabet, Arial, Ateji, Bai language, Bamboo, Banpo, Baxter's transcription for Middle Chinese, BBC News, Biangbiang noodles, Big5, Bird-worm seal script, Body text, Bopomofo, Bronze Age, Calligraphy, Cangjie, Cao Wei, Character amnesia, Chữ Nôm, Chemical elements in East Asian languages, China, Chinese bronze inscriptions, Chinese calligraphy, Chinese character encoding, Chinese dictionary, Chinese domination of Vietnam, Chinese family of scripts, Chinese input methods for computers, Chinese language, Chinese name, Chinese numerals, Chinese punctuation, CJK characters, Classical Chinese, Clerical script, CNS 11643, Cognate, Collation, Colony, Communist Party of China, Compound (linguistics), Counting rods, Cursive script (East Asia), Dadiwan culture, Dai Kan-Wa Jiten, ..., Damaidi, Double Happiness (calligraphy), East Asia, East Asian Gothic typeface, Eastern Zhou, Edomoji, Education in Singapore, Eight Principles of Yong, Emperor of China, Emperor Wu of Han, Four arts, Four-Corner Method, Functional illiteracy, GB 18030, GB 2312, Geba syllabary, Georges Ifrah, Government of Japan, Grammatical particle, Guangxi, Guangyun, Gwoyeu Romatzyh, Hakka Chinese, Han Chinese, Han dynasty, Han unification, Han-Han Dae Sajeon, Hangul, Hani language, Hanja, Hanyu Da Cidian, Hanyu Da Zidian, Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi, Helvetica, Henan, Hiragana, Hmongic languages, Hokkien, Homograph, Homonym, Homophone, Hong Kong, Horizontal and vertical writing in East Asian scripts, Iconicity, Ideogram, Inariyama Sword, Ink brush, International System of Units, Japan, Japanese dialects, Japanese language, Japanese name, Japanese writing system, Jōyō kanji, Jiahu, Jin dynasty (265–420), Jinmeiyō kanji, Jiyun, Joël Bellassen, Jurchen script, Kam language, Kana, Kanbun, Kangxi Dictionary, Kangxi radical, Kanji, Kanji Kentei, Katakana, Khitan large script, Khitan small script, Kim Il-sung, Kim Jong-il, Kim Jong-un, Korea, Korean Buddhism, Korean language, Korean name, Kowtow, Kuomintang, Kyūjitai, Latin script, Led Zeppelin IV, Leipian, Linguistic reconstruction, List of Commonly Used Characters in Modern Chinese, List of Graphemes of Commonly-Used Chinese Characters, List of writing systems, Liu Gongquan, Loanword, Logogram, Longkan Shoujian, Loquat, Love Symbol Album, Lufei Kui, Macau, Mainland China, Malaysia, Manchu language, Mandarin Chinese, May Fourth Movement, Meiji period, Middle Chinese, Mienic languages, Ming (typefaces), Ming dynasty, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Mongolian language, Morpheme, Mulam language, Neolithic, New Korean Orthography, North Korea, Northern and Southern dynasties, Okinawan language, Old Chinese, Oracle bone, Oracle bone script, Organic nomenclature in Chinese, Ouyang Xun, Persian alphabet, Peter A. Boodberg, Philippines, Phonetics, Pictogram, Pinyin, Pipa, Plutonium, Qieyun, Qin (state), Qin dynasty, Qin Shi Huang, Qing dynasty, Qiu Xigui, Radical (Chinese characters), Rebus, Reduplication, Regular script, Romanization of Chinese, Ryukyu Islands, Ryukyu Kingdom, Sans-serif, Satsuma Domain, Sawndip, Scapulimancy, Scribal abbreviation, Seal (emblem), Seal script, Second round of simplified Chinese characters, Secondary school, Semantics, Semi-cursive script, Serif, Shaanxi, Shang dynasty, Shenglei, Shinjitai, Shuowen Jiezi, Sichuanese dialects, Simplified Chinese characters, Singapore, Sino-Korean vocabulary, Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary, Sino-Xenic pronunciations, Small seal script, Song dynasty, Sound change, South Korea, Spelling reform, Spring and Autumn period, Standard Chinese, Standard Form of National Characters, Stele, Stroke (CJKV character), Stroke order, Sui language, Syllabary, Syllable, Table of General Standard Chinese Characters, Taito (kanji), Taiwan, Taiwanese Hokkien, Tang dynasty, Tangut script, Tangyun, Tōyō kanji, The Chosun Ilbo, The Secret History of the Mongols, Traditional Chinese characters, Transcription into Chinese characters, Typographic ligature, Unicode, Variant Chinese character, Varieties of Chinese, Vietnam, Vietnamese alphabet, Vietnamese language, Vietnamese name, Walter Henry Medhurst, Wang Xianzhi (calligrapher), Wang Xizhi, Warring States period, Western Zhou, Wiktionary, Woodblock printing, Word stem, World War II, Writing system, Written Cantonese, Written Chinese, X-height, Xinhua News Agency, Xu Shen, Yan Zhenqing, Yellow Emperor, Yellow River, Yi script, Yu Shyi-kun, Yunhai jingyuan, Yupian, Zhengzitong, Zhong Yao, Zhonghua Da Zidian, Zhonghua Zihai, Zhou dynasty, Zhuang languages, Zihui, Zilin, 0. Expand index (228 more) » « Shrink index
Academia Sinica (Han characters: 中央研究院, literally "central research academy"; abbreviated AS), headquartered in Nangang District, Taipei, is the national academy of Taiwan.
Chinese writing, culture and institutions were imported as a whole by Vietnam, Korea, Japan and the Ryukyus over an extended period.
In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form.
Allography, from the Greek for "other writing", has several meanings which all relate to how words and sounds are written down.
Anyang is a prefecture-level city in Henan province, China.
The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.
Arial, sometimes marketed or displayed in software as Arial MT, is a sans-serif typeface and set of computer fonts.
In modern Japanese, principally refer to kanji used to phonetically represent native or borrowed words with less regard to the underlying meaning of the characters.
The Bai language (Bai: Baip‧ngvp‧zix) is a language spoken in China, primarily in Yunnan province, by the Bai people.
The bamboos are evergreen perennial flowering plants in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family Poaceae.
Banpo (Bànpō) is an archaeological site discovered in 1953 and located in the Yellow River Valley just east of Xi'an, China.
William H. Baxter's transcription for Middle Chinese is an alphabetic notation recording phonological information from medieval sources, rather than a reconstruction.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Biangbiang noodles, alternatively known as you po che mian in Chinese, are a type of noodles popular in the cuisine of China's Shaanxi Province.
Big-5 or Big5 is a Chinese character encoding method used in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau for Traditional Chinese characters.
Bird-worm seal script is a type of ancient seal script originating in China.
Body text is the text forming the main content of a book, magazine, web page or other printed matter.
Zhuyin fuhao, Zhuyin, Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) or Mandarin Phonetic Symbols is the major Chinese transliteration system for Taiwanese Mandarin.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Calligraphy (from Greek: καλλιγραφία) is a visual art related to writing.
Cangjie is a legendary figure in ancient China (c. 2650 BCE), claimed to be an official historian of the Yellow Emperor and the inventor of Chinese characters.
Wei (220–266), also known as Cao Wei, was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280).
Character amnesia is a phenomenon whereby experienced speakers of some East Asian languages forget how to write Chinese characters previously well known to them.
Chữ Nôm (literally "Southern characters"), in earlier times also called quốc âm or chữ nam, is a logographic writing system formerly used to write the Vietnamese language.
The names for chemical elements in East Asian languages, along with those for some chemical compounds (mostly organic), are among the newest words to enter the local vocabularies.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese bronze inscriptions, also commonly referred to as Bronze script or Bronzeware script, are writing in a variety of Chinese scripts on Chinese ritual bronzes such as zhōng bells and dǐng tripodal cauldrons from the Shang dynasty to the Zhou dynasty and even later.
Chinese calligraphy is a form of aesthetically pleasing writing (calligraphy), or, the artistic expression of human language in a tangible form.
In computing, Chinese character encodings can be used to represent text written in the CJK languages — Chinese, Japanese, Korean — and (rarely) obsolete Vietnamese, all of which use Chinese characters.
Chinese dictionaries date back over two millennia to the Han Dynasty, which is a significantly longer lexicographical history than any other language.
The Chinese domination of Vietnam (Bắc thuộc, 北屬, "Belonging to the North (China)") began in 111 BC, and is usually considered to have ended in 938 AD.
The Chinese family of scripts are writing systems descended from the Chinese Oracle Bone Script and used for a variety of languages in East Asia.
Chinese input methods are methods that allow a computer user to input Chinese characters.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Chinese personal names are names used by those from mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, and the Chinese diaspora overseas.
Chinese numerals are words and characters used to denote numbers in Chinese.
Chinese punctuation uses a different set of punctuation marks from European languages, although the concept of modern standard punctuation was adapted in the written language during the 20th century from Western punctuation marks.
In internationalization, CJK is a collective term for the Chinese, Japanese, and Korean languages, all of which include Chinese characters and derivatives (collectively, CJK characters) in their writing systems.
Classical Chinese, also known as Literary Chinese, is the language of the classic literature from the end of the Spring and Autumn period through to the end of the Han Dynasty, a written form of Old Chinese.
The clerical script (Japanese: 隷書体, reishotai; Vietnamese: lệ thư), also formerly chancery script, is an archaic style of Chinese calligraphy which evolved from the Warring States period to the Qin dynasty, was dominant in the Han dynasty, and remained in use through the Wei-Jin periods.
The CNS 11643 character set (Chinese National Standard 11643), also officially known as the "Chinese Standard Interchange Code" (中文標準交換碼), is officially the standard character set of the Republic of China.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
Collation is the assembly of written information into a standard order.
In history, a colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign.
The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.
In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem.
Counting rods are small bars, typically 3–14 cm long, that were used by mathematicians for calculation in ancient East Asia.
Cursive script, often mistranslated as grass script, is a style of Chinese calligraphy.
The Dadiwan culture (ca. 7900–7200 BP) was a Neolithic culture located primarily in the eastern portion of Gansu and Shaanxi provinces in modern China.
The is a Japanese dictionary of kanji (Chinese characters) compiled by Tetsuji Morohashi.
Damaidi (literally: Big wheat field), is the location of 3,172 sets of early Chinese petroglyphs, carved into the cliffs which feature 8,453 individual figures.
Double Happiness sometimes translated as Double Happy, is a Chinese traditional ornament design, commonly used as a decoration and symbol of marriage.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
Gothic typefaces (Japanese: ゴシック体 goshikku-tai; Korean: 돋움 dotum, 고딕체 godik-che) are a type style characterised by strokes of even thickness and lack of decorations akin to sans serif styles in Western typography.
The Eastern Zhou (東周; 770–255 BC) was the second half of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China.
are Japanese lettering styles, which were invented for advertising in the Edo period.
Education in Singapore is managed by the Ministry of Education (MOE), which controls the development and administration of state schools receiving taxpayers' funding, but also has an advisory and supervisory role in respect of private schools.
The Eight Principles of Yong (永字八法/えいじはっぽう, eiji happō; 영자팔법/永字八法, Yeongjapalbeop; Vietnamese: vĩnh tự bát pháp 永字八法) explain how to write eight common strokes in regular script which are found all in the one character, 永 ("forever", "permanence").
The Emperor or Huangdi was the secular imperial title of the Chinese sovereign reigning between the founding of the Qin dynasty that unified China in 221 BC, until the abdication of Puyi in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution and the establishment of the Republic of China, although it was later restored twice in two failed revolutions in 1916 and 1917.
Emperor Wu of Han (30 July 157BC29 March 87BC), born Liu Che, courtesy name Tong, was the seventh emperor of the Han dynasty of China, ruling from 141–87 BC.
The four arts (四藝, siyi), or the four arts of the Chinese scholar, were the four main academic and artistic accomplishments required of the aristocratic ancient Chinese scholar-gentleman.
The Four-Corner Method is a character-input method used for encoding Chinese characters into either a computer or a manual typewriter, using four or five numerical digits per character.
Functional illiteracy is reading and writing skills that are inadequate "to manage daily living and employment tasks that require reading skills beyond a basic level".
GB 18030 is a Chinese government standard, described as Information technology — Chinese coded character set and defines the required language and character support necessary for software in China.
GB2312 is the registered internet name for a key official character set of the People's Republic of China, used for simplified Chinese characters.
Geba is a syllabic script for the Naxi language.
Georges Ifrah (born 1947, Marrakech, French Morocco) is a French author and historian of mathematics, especially numerals.
The government of Japan is a constitutional monarchy in which the power of the Emperor is limited and is relegated primarily to ceremonial duties.
In grammar the term particle (abbreviated) has a traditional meaning, as a part of speech that cannot be inflected, and a modern meaning, as a function word associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning.
Guangxi (pronounced; Zhuang: Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is a Chinese autonomous region in South Central China, bordering Vietnam.
The Guangyun (Kuang-yun) is a Chinese rime dictionary that was compiled from 1007 to 1008 under the auspices of Emperor Zhenzong of Song.
Gwoyeu Romatzyh (pinyin: Guóyǔ luómǎzì, literally "National Language Romanization"), abbreviated GR, is a system for writing Mandarin Chinese in the Latin alphabet.
Hakka, also rendered Kejia, is one of the major groups of varieties of Chinese, spoken natively by the Hakka people throughout southern China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and throughout the diaspora areas of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and in overseas Chinese communities around the world.
The Han Chinese,.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Han unification is an effort by the authors of Unicode and the Universal Character Set to map multiple character sets of the so-called CJK languages into a single set of unified characters.
Han-Han Dae Sajeon is the generic term for Korean hanja-to-hangul dictionaries.
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul (from Korean hangeul 한글), has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by Sejong the Great.
The Hani language (Hani: Haqniqdoq or;; Tiếng Hà Nhì) is a language of the Loloish (Yi) branch of the Tibeto-Burman linguistic group spoken in China, Laos, and Vietnam by the Hani people.
Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters.
The Hanyu Da Cidian is the most inclusive available Chinese dictionary.
The Hanyu dazidian is a reference work on Chinese characters.
The Hànyǔ Shuǐpíng Kǎoshì (HSK), translated as the Chinese Proficiency Test or the Chinese Standard Exam, is China's only standardized test of Standard Chinese language proficiency for non-native speakers such as foreign students and overseas Chinese.
Helvetica or Neue Haas Grotesk is a widely used sans-serif typeface developed in 1957 by Swiss typeface designer Max Miedinger with input from Eduard Hoffmann.
Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country.
is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana, kanji, and in some cases rōmaji (Latin script).
The Hmongic also known as Miao languages include the various languages spoken by the Miao people (such as Hmong, Hmu, and Xong), Pa-Hng, and the "Bunu" languages used by non-Mien-speaking Yao people.
Hokkien (from) or (閩南語/閩南話), is a Southern Min Chinese dialect group originating from the Minnan region in the south-eastern part of Fujian Province in Southeastern China and Taiwan, and spoken widely there and by the Chinese diaspora in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines and other parts of Southeast Asia, and by other overseas Chinese all over the world.
A homograph (from the ὁμός, homós, "same" and γράφω, gráphō, "write") is a word that shares the same written form as another word but has a different meaning.
In linguistics, homonyms, broadly defined, are words which sound alike or are spelled alike, but have different meanings.
A homophone is a word that is pronounced the same (to varying extent) as another word but differs in meaning.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Many East Asian scripts can be written horizontally or vertically.
In functional-cognitive linguistics, as well as in semiotics, iconicity is the conceived similarity or analogy between the form of a sign (linguistic or otherwise) and its meaning, as opposed to arbitrariness.
An ideogram or ideograph (from Greek ἰδέα idéa "idea" and γράφω gráphō "to write") is a graphic symbol that represents an idea or concept, independent of any particular language, and specific words or phrases.
The iron or was excavated at the Inariyama Kofun in 1968.
Ink brushes are used in Chinese calligraphy.
The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
The dialects of the Japanese language fall into two primary clades, Eastern (including Tokyo) and Western (including Kyoto), with the dialects of Kyushu and Hachijō Island often distinguished as additional branches, the latter perhaps the most divergent of all.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
in modern times usually consist of a family name (surname), followed by a given name.
The modern Japanese writing system uses a combination of logographic kanji, which are adopted Chinese characters, and syllabic kana.
The is the guide to kanji characters and their readings, announced officially by the Japanese Ministry of Education.
Jiahu was the site of a Neolithic settlement based in the central plain of ancient China, near the Yellow River.
The Jin dynasty or the Jin Empire (sometimes distinguished as the or) was a Chinese dynasty traditionally dated from 266 to 420.
The are a set of 863 Chinese characters known as "name kanji" in English.
The Jiyun (Chi-yun) is a Chinese rime dictionary published in 1037 during the Song Dynasty.
Joël (Marc) Bellassen or Bel Lassen (born Sidi-bel-Abbès, French Algeria in 1950) is a former professor (Professeur des universités) of Chinese at Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales and the first Inspector General in the field of Chinese Language Teaching at the Ministry of Education (France).
Jurchen script (Jurchen) was the writing system used to write the Jurchen language, the language of the Jurchen people who created the Jin Empire in northeastern China in the 12th–13th centuries.
The Kam language, also known as Gam (autonym: lix Gaeml), or in Chinese, Dong or Tung-Chia, is a Kam–Sui language spoken by the Dong people.
are syllabic Japanese scripts, a part of the Japanese writing system contrasted with the logographic Chinese characters known in Japan as kanji (漢字).
, a method of annotating Classical Chinese so that it can be read in Japanese, was used from the Heian period to the mid-20th century.
The Kangxi Dictionary was the standard Chinese dictionary during the 18th and 19th centuries.
The 214 Kangxi radicals form a system of radicals (部首) of Chinese characters.
Kanji (漢字) are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system.
The evaluates one's knowledge of kanji.
is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system along with hiragana, kanji, and in some cases the Latin script (known as rōmaji).
The Khitan large script was one of two Khitan writing systems used for the now-extinct Khitan language.
The Khitan small script was one of two Khitan writing systems used for the now-extinct Khitan language.
Kim Il-sung (or Kim Il Sung) (born Kim Sŏng-ju; 15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was the first leader of North Korea, from its establishment in 1948 until his death in 1994.
Kim Jong-il (or Kim Jong Il) (16 February 1941 – 17 December 2011) was the second Supreme Leader of North Korea, from the death of his father Kim Il-sung, the first Supreme Leader of North Korea, in 1994 until his own death in 2011.
Kim Jong-un (born 8 January 1983) is a North Korean politician serving as leader of North Korea since 2011 and Leader of the Workers' Party of Korea since 2012.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
Korean Buddhism is distinguished from other forms of Buddhism by its attempt to resolve what it sees as inconsistencies in Mahayana Buddhism.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
A Korean name consists of a family name followed by a given name, as used by the Korean people in both South Korea and North Korea.
Kowtow, which is borrowed from kau tau in Cantonese (koutou in Mandarin Chinese), is the act of deep respect shown by prostration, that is, kneeling and bowing so low as to have one's head touching the ground.
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
, are the traditional forms of kanji, Chinese written characters used in Japanese.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
English rock band Led Zeppelin's untitled fourth album, commonly known as Led Zeppelin IV, was released on 8 November 1971 by Atlantic Records.
The (1066) Leipian 類篇 is a Chinese dictionary compiled by Song dynasty (960-1279) lexicographers under the supervision of chancellor Sima Guang.
Linguistic reconstruction is the practice of establishing the features of an unattested ancestor language of one or more given languages.
The List of Commonly Used Characters in Modern Chinese is a list of 7,000 commonly used Chinese characters in Chinese.
The List of Graphemes of Commonly-used Chinese Characters is a list of 4762 commonly used Chinese characters and their standardized forms prescribed by the Hong Kong Education Bureau to be taught in primary and Middle schools in Hong Kong.
This is a list of writing systems (or scripts), classified according to some common distinguishing features.
Liu Gongquan (778–865), courtesy name Chengxuan (诚悬), was a Chinese calligrapher who stood with Yan Zhenqing as the two great masters of late Tang calligraphy.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase.
Longkan Shoujian ("The Handy Mirror in the Dragon Shrine") is a Chinese dictionary compiled during the Liao Dynasty by the Khitan monk Xingjun (行均).
The loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) (from Taishanese j, nowadays called j) is a species of flowering plant in the family Rosaceae, a native to the cooler hill regions of China to south-central China.
Love Symbol is the fourteenth studio album by American recording artist Prince, and the second of two that featured his backing band the New Power Generation.
Lufei Kui (17 September 1886 – 9 July 1941) was a Chinese educationist and publisher.
Macau, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Manchu (Manchu: manju gisun) is a critically endangered Tungusic language spoken in Manchuria; it was the native language of the Manchus and one of the official languages of the Qing dynasty (1636–1911) of China.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
The May Fourth Movement was an anti-imperialist, cultural, and political movement growing out of student participants in Beijing on 4 May 1919, protesting against the Chinese government's weak response to the Treaty of Versailles, especially allowing Japan to receive territories in Shandong which had been surrendered by Germany after the Siege of Tsingtao.
The, also known as the Meiji era, is a Japanese era which extended from October 23, 1868, to July 30, 1912.
Middle Chinese (formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese recorded in the Qieyun, a rime dictionary first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions.
The Mienic or Yao languages are spoken by the Yao people of China, Vietnam, Laos, and Thailand.
Ming or Song is a category of typefaces used to display Chinese characters, which are used in the Chinese, Japanese and Korean languages.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
The, also known as MEXT, Monka-shō, and formerly the, is one of the ministries of the Japanese government.
The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script: Moŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel.) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family.
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
The New Korean Orthography was a spelling reform used in North Korea from 1948 to 1954.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
The Northern and Southern dynasties was a period in the history of China that lasted from 420 to 589, following the tumultuous era of the Sixteen Kingdoms and the Wu Hu states.
Central Okinawan, or simply the Okinawan language (沖縄口/ウチナーグチ Uchinaaguchi), is a Northern Ryukyuan language spoken primarily in the southern half of the island of Okinawa, as well as in the surrounding islands of Kerama, Kumejima, Tonaki, Aguni, and a number of smaller peripheral islands.
Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese.
Oracle bones are pieces of ox scapula or turtle plastron, which were used for pyromancy – a form of divination – in ancient China, mainly during the late Shang dynasty.
Oracle bone script was the form of Chinese characters used on oracle bonesanimal bones or turtle plastrons used in pyromantic divinationin the late 2nd millennium BCE, and is the earliest known form of Chinese writing.
The Chinese Chemical Society (CCS) lays out a set of rules based on those given by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) for the purpose of systematic organic nomenclature in Chinese.
Ouyang Xun (557–641), courtesy name Xinben (信本), was a Confucian scholar and calligrapher of the early Tang Dynasty.
The Persian alphabet (الفبای فارسی), or Perso-Arabic alphabet, is a writing system used for the Persian language.
Peter Alexis Boodberg (born Pyotr Alekseyevich von Budberg; 8 April 1903 – 29 June 1972) was a Russian-American scholar, linguist, and sinologist who taught at the University of California, Berkeley for 40 years.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
A pictogram, also called a pictogramme, pictograph, or simply picto, and in computer usage an icon, is an ideogram that conveys its meaning through its pictorial resemblance to a physical object.
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
The pipa is a four-stringed Chinese musical instrument, belonging to the plucked category of instruments.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
The Qieyun is a Chinese rime dictionary, published in 601 CE during the Sui dynasty.
Qin (Old Chinese: *) was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty.
The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.
Qin Shi Huang (18 February 25910 September 210) was the founder of the Qin dynasty and was the first emperor of a unified China.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Qiu Xigui (born 13July 1935) is a Chinese historian, palaeographer, and professor of Fudan University.
A Chinese radical is a graphical component of a Chinese character under which the character is traditionally listed in a Chinese dictionary.
A rebus is a puzzle device which combines the use of illustrated pictures with individual letters to depict words and/or phrases.
Reduplication in linguistics is a morphological process in which the root or stem of a word (or part of it) or even the whole word is repeated exactly or with a slight change.
Regular script (Hepburn: kaisho), also called 正楷, 真書 (zhēnshū), 楷體 (kǎitǐ) and 正書 (zhèngshū), is the newest of the Chinese script styles (appearing by the Cao Wei dynasty ca. 200 CE and maturing stylistically around the 7th century), hence most common in modern writings and publications (after the Ming and gothic styles, used exclusively in print).
The Romanization of Chinese is the use of the Latin alphabet to write Chinese.
The, also known as the or the, are a chain of islands annexed by Japan that stretch southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan: the Ōsumi, Tokara, Amami, Okinawa, and Sakishima Islands (further divided into the Miyako and Yaeyama Islands), with Yonaguni the southernmost.
The Ryukyu Kingdom (Okinawan: Ruuchuu-kuku; 琉球王国 Ryūkyū Ōkoku; Middle Chinese: Ljuw-gjuw kwok; historical English name: Lewchew, Luchu, and Loochoo) was an independent kingdom that ruled most of the Ryukyu Islands from the 15th to the 19th century.
In typography and lettering, a sans-serif, sans serif, gothic, or simply sans letterform is one that does not have extending features called "serifs" at the end of strokes.
, also known as Kagoshima Domain, was a Japanese domain of the Edo period.
Zhuang characters, or Sawndip, are logograms derived from Han characters and used by the Zhuang people of Guangxi and Yunnan, China to write the Zhuang languages for more than one thousand years.
Scapulimancy (also spelled scapulomancy and scapulamancy, also termed omoplatoscopy) is the practice of divination by use of scapulae (shoulder blades).
Scribal abbreviations or sigla (singular: siglum or sigil) are the abbreviations used by ancient and medieval scribes writing in Latin, and later in Greek and Old Norse.
A seal is a device for making an impression in wax, clay, paper, or some other medium, including an embossment on paper, and is also the impression thus made.
Seal script is an ancient style of writing Chinese characters that was common throughout the latter half of the 1st millennium BC.
The second round of Chinese character simplification, according to the official document, Second Chinese Character Simplification Scheme (Draft) ("Second Scheme" or "Second Round" for short) to introduce a second round of simplified Chinese characters, was an aborted orthography reform promulgated on 20 December 1977 by the People's Republic of China (PRC).
A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place.
Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
Semi-cursive script is a cursive style of Chinese characters.
In typography, a serif is a small line attached to the end of a stroke in a letter or symbol.
Shaanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China.
The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.
The (c. 230 CE) Shenglei 聲類, compiled by the Cao Wei dynasty lexicographer Li Deng 李登, was the first Chinese rime dictionary.
are the simplified forms of kanji used in Japan since the promulgation of the Tōyō Kanji List in 1946.
Shuowen Jiezi, often shortened to Shuowen, was an early 2nd-century Chinese dictionary from the Han Dynasty.
Sichuanese (Sichuanese Pinyin: Si4cuan1hua4), or Sichuanese/Szechwanese Mandarin, commonly known as Sichuanese, or Szechwanese is a branch of Southwestern Mandarin, spoken mainly in Sichuan and Chongqing, which was part of Sichuan Province until 1997, and the adjacent regions of their neighboring provinces, such as Hubei, Guizhou, Yunnan, Hunan and Shaanxi.
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Sino-Korean vocabulary or Hanja-eo refers to Korean words of Chinese origin.
Sino-Vietnamese vocabulary (Từ Hán Việt, Chữ Nôm:, literally "Sino-Vietnamese words") are words and morphemes of the Vietnamese language borrowed from Chinese.
Sino-Xenic or Sinoxenic pronunciations are regular systems for reading Chinese characters in Japan, Korea and Vietnam, originating in medieval times and the source of large-scale borrowings of Chinese words into the Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese languages, none of which are genetically related to Chinese.
Small Seal Script (Chinese: 小篆, xiǎozhuàn), formerly romanized as Hsiao-chuan and also known as Seal Script, Lesser Seal Script and Qin Script (秦篆, Qínzhuàn), is an archaic form of Chinese calligraphy.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
Sound change includes any processes of language change that affect pronunciation (phonetic change) or sound system structures (phonological change).
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
A spelling reform is a deliberate, often officially sanctioned or mandated change to spelling rules of a language.
The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BC (or according to some authorities until 403 BC) which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou Period.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
The Standard Form of National Characters or the Standard Typefaces for Chinese Characters is the standardized form of Chinese characters set by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of China (Taiwan).
A steleAnglicized plural steles; Greek plural stelai, from Greek στήλη, stēlē.
CJKV strokes are the calligraphic strokes needed to write the Chinese characters in regular script used in East Asia.
Stroke order (Yale: bāt seuhn; 筆順 hitsujun or 書き順 kaki-jun; 필순 筆順 pilsun or 획순 劃順 hoeksun; Vietnamese: bút thuận 筆順) refers to the order in which the strokes of a Chinese character (or Chinese derivative character) are written.
The Sui language is a Kam–Sui language spoken by the Sui people of Guizhou province in China.
A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent the syllables or (more frequently) moras which make up words.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
The Table of General Standard Chinese Characters is a standard list of 8,105 Chinese characters.
Taito, daito, or otodo is a kokuji ("kanji character invented in Japan") written with 84 strokes, and thus the most graphically difficult CJK character—collectively referring to Chinese characters and derivatives used in the written Chinese, Japanese, and Korean languages.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Taiwanese Hokkien (translated as Taiwanese Min Nan), also known as Taiwanese/Taiwanese language in Taiwan (/), is a branched-off variant of Hokkien spoken natively by about 70% of the population of Taiwan.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
The Tangut script (Chinese: 西夏文 xī xià wén) was a logographic writing system, used for writing the extinct Tangut language of the Western Xia Dynasty.
The Tangyun is a Chinese rime dictionary, published in 732 CE during the Tang dynasty, by Sun Mian (孫愐), which is a revised version of Qieyun, a guide for Chinese pronunciation by using the fanqie method.
The tōyō kanji, also known as the Tōyō kanjihyō (当用漢字表, "list of kanji for general use") are the result of a reform of the Kanji characters of Chinese origin in the Japanese written language.
The Chosun Ilbo is one of the major newspapers in South Korea.
The Secret History of the Mongols (Traditional Mongolian: Mongγol-un niγuča tobčiyan, Khalkha Mongolian: Монголын нууц товчоо, Mongolyn nuuts tovchoo) is the oldest surviving literary work in the Mongolian language.
Traditional Chinese characters (Pinyin) are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946.
Transcription into Chinese is the use of traditional or simplified characters to transcribe phonetically the sound of terms and names foreign to the Chinese language.
In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
Variant Chinese characters (Kanji: 異体字; Hepburn: itaiji; Hanja: 異體字; Hangul: 이체자; Revised Romanization: icheja) are Chinese characters that are homophones and synonyms.
Chinese, also known as Sinitic, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Vietnamese alphabet (chữ Quốc ngữ; literally "national language script") is the modern writing system for the Vietnamese language.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
Vietnamese personal names generally consist of three parts: one family name, one or more middle name(s), and one given name, used in that order.
Walter Henry Medhurst (29 April 1796 – 24 January 1857), was an English Congregationalist missionary to China, born in London and educated at St Paul's School.
Wang Xianzhi (344–386), courtesy name Zijing (子敬), was a famous Chinese calligrapher of the Eastern Jin dynasty.
Wang Xizhi (303361) was a Chinese writer and official who lived during the Jin Dynasty (265–420), best known for his mastery of Chinese calligraphy.
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.
The Western Zhou (西周; c. 1046 – 771 BC) was the first half of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China.
Wiktionary is a multilingual, web-based project to create a free content dictionary of all words in all languages.
Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns used widely throughout East Asia and originating in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and later paper.
In linguistics, a stem is a part of a word.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.
Written Cantonese is the written form of Cantonese, the most complete written form of Chinese after that for Mandarin Chinese and Classical Chinese.
Written Chinese comprises Chinese characters (汉字/漢字; pinyin: Hànzì, literally "Han characters") used to represent the Chinese language.
In typography, the x-height or corpus size is the distance between the baseline and the mean line of lower-case letters in a typeface.
Xinhua News Agency (English pronunciation: J. C. Wells: Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 3rd ed., for both British and American English) or New China News Agency is the official state-run press agency of the People's Republic of China.
Xu Shen (CE) was a Chinese scholar-official and philologist of the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-189).
Yan Zhenqing (709–785) was a leading Chinese calligrapher and a loyal governor of the Tang Dynasty.
The Yellow Emperor, also known as the Yellow Thearch, the Yellow God or the Yellow Lord, or simply by his Chinese name Huangdi, is a deity in Chinese religion, one of the legendary Chinese sovereigns and culture heroes included among the mytho-historical Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors and cosmological Five Forms of the Highest Deity (五方上帝 Wǔfāng Shàngdì).
The Yellow River or Huang He is the second longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of.
The Yi script (Yi: ꆈꌠꁱꂷ nuosu bburma) is an umbrella term for two scripts used to write the Yi languages; Classical Yi (an ideogram script), and the later Yi Syllabary.
Yu Shyi-kun (born April 25, 1948) is a Taiwanese politician.
The (c. 780) Yunhai jingyuan 韻海鏡源 Ocean of Rhymes, Mirror of Sources Chinese dictionary, which was compiled by the Tang dynasty official and calligrapher Yan Zhengqing (709–785), was the first phonologically-arranged rime dictionary of words rather than characters.
The Yupian ("Jade Chapters") is a c. 543 Chinese dictionary edited by Gu Yewang (顧野王; Ku Yeh-wang; 519-581) during the Liang dynasty.
The Zhengzitong was a 17th-century Chinese dictionary.
Zhong Yao (151 – April or May 230), also referred to as Zhong You, courtesy name Yuanchang, was a government official and calligrapher who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty and Three Kingdoms period of China.
The Zhonghua Da Zidian is an unabridged Chinese dictionary of characters, originally published in 1915.
Zhonghua Zihai is the largest Chinese character dictionary available for print, compiled in 1994 and consisting of 85,568 different characters.
The Zhou dynasty or the Zhou Kingdom was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty.
The Zhuang languages (autonym:, pre-1982:, Sawndip: 話僮, from vah 'language' and Cuengh 'Zhuang') are any of more than a dozen Tai languages spoken by the Zhuang people of southern China in the province of Guangxi and adjacent parts of Yunnan and Guangdong.
The Zìhuì is a Chinese dictionary, edited by Mei Yingzuo (梅膺祚) during the late Ming Dynasty and published in 1615, the forty-third year of the Ming Wanli Emperor.
The Zilin (c. 350) or Forest of Characters was a Chinese dictionary compiled by the Jin dynasty (265–420) lexicographer Lü Chen (呂忱).
0 (zero) is both a number and the numerical digit used to represent that number in numerals.
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