220 relations: A New Account of the Tales of the World, Academia Sinica, Analects, Annals, Anthology, Autobiography, Bagua, Bamboo Annals, Ban Gu, Bianji, Book of Chen, Book of Documents, Book of Han, Book of Jin, Book of Liang, Book of Northern Qi, Book of Qi, Book of Rites, Book of Song, Book of Sui, Book of the Later Han, Book of Wei, Book of Zhou, Burning of books and burying of scholars, Canon of Laws, Cefu Yuangui, Chang Qu, Chen Shou, Chinese astronomy, Chinese characters, Chinese historiography, Chinese literature, Chinese philosophy, Chronicles of Huayang, Chu (state), Chu Ci, Classic of Filial Piety, Classic of Mountains and Seas, Classic of Poetry, Classical Chinese, Commentary on the Water Classic, Compendium of Materia Medica, Confucianism, Decree, Doctrine of the Mean, Draft History of Qing, Dream Pool Essays, Du You, Duan Chengshi, Emperor Taizong of Tang, ..., Encyclopedia, Endymion Wilkinson, Erya, Etiquette and Ceremonial, Fan Ye (historian), Fang Xuanling, Filial piety, Folk religion, Four Books and Five Classics, Four Great Books of Song, Frederic H. Balfour, Fuxi, Gautama Siddha, Gongyang Zhuan, Great Learning, Great Tang Records on the Western Regions, Guan Zhong, Guanzi (text), Guiguzi, Guliang Zhuan, Guoyu (book), Han dynasty, Han Fei, Han Feizi, Herbert Giles, Hexagram (I Ching), Historical Records of the Five Dynasties, History of Jin, History of Liao, History of Ming, History of Song, History of the Northern Dynasties, History of the Southern Dynasties, History of Yuan, Huangdi Neijing, Hundred Family Surnames, I Ching, Imperial examination, Jiang Ziya, Jiaoshi Yilin, Jin dynasty (265–420), Jing (Chinese medicine), Kaicheng Stone Classics, Kong Yingda, Kongzi Jiayu, Laozi, Lü Buwei, Lüshi Chunqiu, Leishu, Li Baiyao, Li Daoyuan, Li Jing (Tang dynasty), Li Kui (legalist), Li Shizhen, Lie Yukou, Liezi, Linghu Defen, Lionel Giles, List of early Chinese texts, Liu Xiang (scholar), Liu Xu, Liu Zhiji, Lu (state), Mandarin (bureaucrat), Memorial, Mencius, Mencius (book), Ming dynasty, Miscellaneous Morsels from Youyang, Mozi, Nan Jing (Chinese medicine), Neo-Confucianism, New Book of Tang, New Songs from the Jade Terrace, Old Book of Tang, Old History of the Five Dynasties, Old Texts, Ouyang Xiu, Qin dynasty, Qing dynasty, Qu Yuan, Quan Tangshi, Questions and Replies between Tang Taizong and Li Weigong, Records of the Grand Historian, Records of the Three Kingdoms, Rites of Zhou, Scholar-official, Seven Military Classics, Shang dynasty, Shang Yang, Shen Buhai, Shen Dao, Shen Kuo, Shen Yue, Shiming, Shitong, Shizi (book), Siku Quanshu, Sima Guang, Sima Qian, Sima Rangju, Simplified Chinese characters, Sinology, Six Dynasties, Six Secret Teachings, Sixteen Kingdoms, Song dynasty, Song Lian, Song Yingxing, Spring and Autumn Annals, Spring and Autumn Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms, Spring and Autumn period, Sun Tzu, Taiping Guangji, Taiping Yulan, Tale of King Mu, Son of Heaven, Tan Daoji, Tang dynasty, Tang Huiyao, Tao Te Ching, The Art of War, The Book of Lord Shang, The Methods of the Sima, The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art, Theology, Thirteen Classics, Thirty-Six Stratagems, Thomas Francis Wade, Thousand Character Classic, Three Character Classic, Three Strategies of Huang Shigong, Tiangong Kaiwu, Tongdian, Toqto'a (Yuan dynasty), Traditional Chinese characters, Traditional Chinese medicine, Treatise on Astrology of the Kaiyuan Era, Twenty-Four Histories, Wang Pu (Song dynasty), Warp and weft, Wei Liaozi, Wei Shou, Wei Zheng, Wenyuan Yinghua, Wenzi, Western Zhou, Written vernacular Chinese, Wu (state), Wu Qi, Wuzi, Xia dynasty, Xiao Zixian, Xuanzang, Xue Juzheng, Xun Kuang, Xunzi (book), Yan Ying, Yanzi chunqiu, Yao Silian, Yi Zhou Shu, Yue (state), Zhan Guo Ce, Zhang Tingyu, Zhao Erxun, Zhao Yanshou, Zhu Xi, Zhuang Zhou, Zhuangzi (book), Zizhi Tongjian, Zuo zhuan. Expand index (170 more) » « Shrink index
A New Account of the Tales of the World, also known as Shishuo Xinyu or Shih-shuo Hsin-yu, was compiled and edited by Liu Yiqing (Liu I-ching; 劉義慶; 403–444) during the Liu Song dynasty (420–479) of the Southern and Northern Dynasties (420–589).
Academia Sinica (Han characters: 中央研究院, literally "central research academy"; abbreviated AS), headquartered in Nangang District, Taipei, is the national academy of Taiwan.
The Analects (Old Chinese: *run ŋ(r)aʔ), also known as the Analects of Confucius, is a collection of sayings and ideas attributed to the Chinese philosopher Confucius and his contemporaries, traditionally believed to have been compiled and written by Confucius's followers.
Annals (annāles, from annus, "year") are a concise historical record in which events are arranged chronologically, year by year, although the term is also used loosely for any historical record.
In book publishing, an anthology is a collection of literary works chosen by the compiler.
An autobiography (from the Greek, αὐτός-autos self + βίος-bios life + γράφειν-graphein to write) is a self-written account of the life of oneself.
The Bagua or Pa Kua are eight symbols used in Taoist cosmology to represent the fundamental principles of reality, seen as a range of eight interrelated concepts.
The Bamboo Annals, also known as the Ji Tomb Annals, is a chronicle of ancient China.
Ban Gu 班固 (32–92) was a Chinese historian, politician, and poet best known for his part in compiling the Book of Han, the second of China's 24 dynastic histories.
Bianji (fl. 7th century) was a Buddhist monk who lived in the Tang Dynasty.
The Book of Chen or Chen Shu (Chén Shū) was the official history of the Chen dynasty, one of the Southern Dynasties of China.
The Book of Documents (Shujing, earlier Shu-king) or Classic of History, also known as the Shangshu ("Esteemed Documents"), is one of the Five Classics of ancient Chinese literature.
The Book of Han or History of the Former Han is a history of China finished in 111, covering the Western, or Former Han dynasty from the first emperor in 206 BCE to the fall of Wang Mang in 23 CE.
The Book of Jin is an official Chinese historical text covering the history of the Jin dynasty from 265 to 420.
The Book of Liang (Liáng Shū), was compiled under Yao Silian, completed in 635.
The Book of Northern Qi (Chinese: 北齊書, pinyin Běi Qí Shū), was the official history of the Chinese dynasty Northern Qi.
The Book of Qi (Qí Shū) or Book of Southern Qi (Nán Qí Shū) is a history of the Chinese dynasty Southern Qi covering the period from 479 to 502, and is one of the Twenty-Four Histories of Chinese history.
The Book of Rites or Liji is a collection of texts describing the social forms, administration, and ceremonial rites of the Zhou dynasty as they were understood in the Warring States and the early Han periods.
The Book of Song (Sòng Shū) is a historical text of the Liu Song Dynasty of the Southern Dynasties of China.
The Book of Sui (Suí Shū) is the official history of the Sui dynasty.
The Book of the Later Han, also known as the History of the Later Han and by its Chinese name Hou Hanshu, is one of the Twenty-Four Histories and covers the history of the Han dynasty from 6 to 189 CE, a period known as the Later or Eastern Han.
The Book of Wei, also known by its Chinese name as the Wei Shu, is a classic Chinese historical text compiled by Wei Shou from 551 to 554, and is an important text describing the history of the Northern Wei and Eastern Wei from 386 to 550.
The Book of Zhou (Zhōu Shū) records the official history of the Chinese/Xianbei ruled Western Wei and Northern Zhou dynasties, and ranks among the official Twenty-Four Histories of imperial China.
The burning of books and burying of scholars refers to the supposed burning of texts in 213 BCE and live burial of 460 Confucian scholars in 212 BCE by the First Emperor of the Qin dynasty of ancient China.
The Canon of Laws or Classic of Law is a lost legal code that has been attributed to Lǐ Kuǐ, a Legalist scholar and minister who lived in the State of Wei during the Warring States Period of Chinese history (475-220 BCE).
Cefu Yuangui is the largest leishu (encyclopedia) compiled during the Chinese Song Dynasty (960–1279).
Chang Qu (常璩) (c. 291 – c. 361 CE) was a 4th-century Chinese historian of Cheng Han (Jin dynasty (265–420) era), who wrote the Chronicles of Huayang or Records of the States South of Mount Hua, the oldest extant regional history of China.
Chen Shou (233–297), courtesy name Chengzuo, was an official and writer who lived during the Three Kingdoms period and Jin dynasty of China.
Astronomy in China has a long history, beginning from the Shang Dynasty (Chinese Bronze Age).
Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
Chinese historiography is the study of the techniques and sources used by historians to develop the recorded history of China.
The history of Chinese literature extends thousands of years, from the earliest recorded dynastic court archives to the mature vernacular fiction novels that arose during the Ming Dynasty to entertain the masses of literate Chinese.
Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, during a period known as the "Hundred Schools of Thought", which was characterized by significant intellectual and cultural developments.
The Chronicles of Huayang or Huayang Guo Zhi is the oldest extant gazetteer of a region of China.
Chu (Old Chinese: *s-r̥aʔ) was a hegemonic, Zhou dynasty era state.
The Chu Ci, variously translated as Verses of Chu or Songs of Chu, is an anthology of Chinese poetry traditionally attributed mainly to Qu Yuan and Song Yu from the Warring States period (ended 221 BC), though about half of the poems seem to have been composed several centuries later, during the Han dynasty.
The Classic of Filial Piety, also known by its Chinese name as the Xiaojing, is a Confucian classic treatise giving advice on filial piety: that is, how to behave towards a senior such as a father, an elder brother, or ruler.
The Classic of Mountains and Seas or Shan Hai Jing, formerly romanized as the Shan-hai Ching, is a Chinese classic text and a compilation of mythic geography and myth.
The Classic of Poetry, also Shijing or Shih-ching, translated variously as the Book of Songs, Book of Odes, or simply known as the Odes or Poetry is the oldest existing collection of Chinese poetry, comprising 305 works dating from the 11th to 7th centuries BC.
Classical Chinese, also known as Literary Chinese, is the language of the classic literature from the end of the Spring and Autumn period through to the end of the Han Dynasty, a written form of Old Chinese.
The Commentary on the Water Classic is a work on the ancient geography of China, describing the traditional understanding of its waterways and ancient canals, compiled by Li Daoyuan during the Northern Wei Dynasty (386-534 AD).
The Compendium of Materia Medica (also known by the romanizations Bencao Gangmu or Pen-tsao Kang-mu) is a Chinese herbology volume written by Li Shizhen during the Ming dynasty; its first draft was completed in 1578.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
A decree is a rule of law usually issued by a head of state (such as the president of a republic or a monarch), according to certain procedures (usually established in a constitution).
The Doctrine of the Mean or Zhongyong is both a doctrine of Confucianism and also the title of one of the Four Books of Confucian philosophy.
The Draft History of Qing is a draft of the official history of the Qing dynasty compiled and written by a team of over 100 historians led by Zhao Erxun who were hired by the Beiyang government of the Republic of China.
The Dream Pool Essays or Dream Torrent Essays (Pinyin: Mèng Xī Bǐ Tán; Wade-Giles: Meng⁴ Hsi¹ Pi³-t'an²; Chinese: 夢溪筆談／梦溪笔谈) was an extensive book written by the Han Chinese polymath, genius, scientist and statesman Shen Kuo (1031-1095) by 1088 AD, during the Song dynasty (960-1279) of China.
Du You (735 – December 23, 812), courtesy name Junqing (君卿), formally Duke Anjian of Qi (岐安簡公), was a Chinese scholar, historian and chancellor of the Tang Dynasty.
Duan Chengshi (died 863) was a Chinese poet and writer of the Tang Dynasty.
Emperor Taizong of Tang (28January 598 10July 649), previously Prince of Qin, personal name Li Shimin, was the second emperor of the Tang dynasty of China, ruling from 626 to 649.
An encyclopedia or encyclopaedia is a reference work or compendium providing summaries of information from either all branches of knowledge or from a particular field or discipline.
Endymion Porter Wilkinson (born May 15, 1941) is an English diplomat, Sinologist, historian of China, and authority on East Asian affairs.
The Erya or Erh-ya is the oldest surviving Chinese dictionary or Chinese encyclopedia known.
The Book of Etiquette and Ceremonial is a Chinese classic text about Zhou dynasty social behavior and ceremonial ritual as it was practiced and understood during the Spring and Autumn period.
Fan Ye (398–445 or 446), courtesy name Weizong (蔚宗), was a Chinese historian and politician of the Liu Song dynasty during the Southern and Northern dynasties period.
Fang Qiao (579–648), courtesy name Xuanling, better known as Fang Xuanling, posthumously known as Duke Wenzhao of Liang, was a Chinese statesman and writer who served as a chancellor under Emperor Taizong in the early Tang dynasty.
In Confucian philosophy, filial piety (xiào) is a virtue of respect for one's parents, elders, and ancestors.
In religious studies and folkloristics, folk religion, popular religion, or vernacular religion comprises various forms and expressions of religion that are distinct from the official doctrines and practices of organized religion.
The Four Books and Five Classics are the authoritative books of Confucianism in China written before 300 BC.
The Four Great Books of Song was compiled by Li Fang (925–996) and others during the Song dynasty (960–1279).
Frederic Henry Balfour (1846—27 May 1909) was a British expatriate editor, essayist, author, and sinologist, living in Shanghai during the Victorian era.
Fuxi (Chinese: 伏羲), also romanized as Fu-hsi, is a culture hero in Chinese legend and mythology, credited (along with his sister Nüwa 女娲) with creating humanity and the invention of hunting, fishing and cooking as well as the Cangjie system of writing Chinese characters c. 2,000 BCE.
Gautama Siddha, (fl. 8th century) astronomer, astrologer and compiler of Indian descent, known for leading the compilation of the Treatise on Astrology of the Kaiyuan Era during the Tang Dynasty.
The Gōngyáng Zhuàn (pronounced) is a commentary on Chunqiu, or the Spring and Autumn Annals, and is thus one of the classic books of ancient Chinese.
The Great Learning or Daxue was one of the "Four Books" in Confucianism.
The Great Tang Records on the Western Regions is a narrative of Xuanzang's nineteen-year journey from Chang'an in central China to the Western Regions of Chinese historiography.
Guan Zhong (c. 720–645 BC) was a chancellor and reformer of the State of Qi during the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.
The Guanzi is an ancient Chinese political and philosophical text that is named for and traditionally attributed to the 7th century BCE statesman Guan Zhong, who served as Prime Minister to Duke Huan of Qi.
Guiguzi (鬼谷子) is the Chinese title given to a group of writings thought to have been compiled between the late Warring States period and the end of the Han Dynasty.
The Gǔliáng Zhuàn is considered one of the classic books of ancient Chinese history.
The Guoyu, usually translated Discourses of the States, is an ancient Chinese text that consists of a collection of speeches attributed to rulers and other men from the Spring and Autumn period (771–476).
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Han Fei (233 BC), also known as Han Fei Zi, was a Chinese philosopher of the Warring States period "Chinese Legalist" school.
The Han Feizi is an ancient Chinese text attributed to foundational political philosopher, "Master" Han Fei.
Herbert Allen Giles (8 December 184513 February 1935) was a British diplomat and sinologist who was the professor of Chinese at Cambridge University for 35 years.
The I Ching book consists of 64 hexagrams.
The Historical Records of the Five Dynasties (Wudai Shiji) is a Chinese history book on the Five Dynasties period (907–960), written by the Song dynasty official Ouyang Xiu in private.
The History of Jin (Jin Shi) is a Chinese historical text, one of the Twenty Four Histories, which details the history of the Jin dynasty founded by the Jurchens in northern China.
The History of Liao, or Liao Shi (Liáo Shǐ), is a Chinese historical book compiled officially by the Mongol Yuan dynasty (1271–1368), under the direction of the historian Toqto'a (Tuotuo), and finalized in 1344.
The History of Ming or the Ming History (Míng Shǐ) is one of the official Chinese historical works known as the Twenty-Four Histories.
The History of Song or Song Shi (Sòng Shǐ) is one of the official Chinese historical works known as the Twenty-Four Histories of China that records the history of the Song dynasty (960–1279).
The History of the Northern Dynasties (Běishǐ) is one of the official Chinese historical works in the Twenty-Four Histories canon.
The History of the Southern Dynasties (Nánshǐ) is one of the official Chinese historical works in the Twenty-Four Histories canon.
The History of Yuan (Yuán Shǐ), also known as the Yuanshi, is one of the official Chinese historical works known as the Twenty-Four Histories of China.
Huangdi Neijing, literally the Inner Canon of the Yellow Emperor or Esoteric Scripture of the Yellow Emperor, is an ancient Chinese medical text that has been treated as the fundamental doctrinal source for Chinese medicine for more than two millennia.
The Hundred Family Surnames is a classic Chinese text composed of common Chinese surnames.
The I Ching,.
The Chinese imperial examinations were a civil service examination system in Imperial China to select candidates for the state bureaucracy.
Jiang Ziya (century), also known by several other names, was a Chinese noble who helped kings Wen and Wu of Zhou overthrow the Shang in ancient China.
Jiaoshi Yilin ((or just "Mr. Jiao's Many Thoughts on the Book of Changes") is a Chinese book of divination composed during the Western Han Dynasty. Modeled on the I Ching, the work was attributed to Jiao Yanshou (焦延壽, see:zh:焦贛), courtesy name Jiao Gan焦贛, who came from Liang 梁 (modern Shang Qiu 商丘, Henan) and was a tutor in the household of the Prince of Liang (early 1st century BCE). He was a scholar and official, reaching the rank of district magistrate in Xiao Huang 小黃 (near modern Kaifeng 开封, Henan). He was a student of the great Yi Jing scholar Meng Xi 孟喜 and passed on the traditions of his school to Jing Fang 京房. However, some scholars suspect that the book was composed later, perhaps in the late Western Han, perhaps even somewhat later. I am inclined to agree with those who attribute the book to Cui Zhuan (崔篆), a scholar and official who was active in the time of the Wang Mang interregnum (9 - 23 CE). Many of the verses seem oriented to the use of traveling merchants. Yi Lin literally means a forest or grove of changes. The book consists of 4096 verses. The verses represent all the possible combinations of the sixty-four hexagrams of the Book of Changes (Yi Jing/I Ching), thus 64 X 64.
The Jin dynasty or the Jin Empire (sometimes distinguished as the or) was a Chinese dynasty traditionally dated from 266 to 420.
Jīng (Wade-Giles: ching1) is the Chinese word for "essence", specifically kidney essence.
The Kaicheng Stone Classics (開成石經) or Tang Stone Classics are a group of twelve early Chinese classic works carved on the orders of Emperor Wenzong of the Tang dynasty in 833–837 (Kaicheng era) as a reference document for scholars.
Kong Yingda (574 – 648), courtesy names Chongyuan (冲遠) and Zhongda (仲達), was a Sui and Tang dynasty Confucianist, who is considered one of the most influential Confucian scholars in Chinese history.
The Kongzi Jiayu, translated as The School Sayings of Confucius or Family Sayings of Confucius, is a collection of sayings of Confucius (Kongzi), written as a supplement to the Analects (Lunyu).
Laozi (. Collins English Dictionary.; also Lao-Tzu,. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2016. or Lao-Tze;, literally "Old Master") was an ancient Chinese philosopher and writer.
Lü Buwei (291–235 BC) was a politician of the Qin state in the Warring States period of ancient China.
The Lüshi Chunqiu, also known in English as Master Lü's Spring and Autumn Annals, is an encyclopedic Chinese classic text compiled around 239 BC under the patronage of the Qin Dynasty Chancellor Lü Buwei.
The leishu is a genre of reference books historically compiled in China and other countries of the Sinosphere.
Li Baiyao (564–647), courtesy name Zhonggui (重規), formally Viscount Kang of Anping (安平康子), was a Chinese historian and an official during the Chinese dynasties Sui Dynasty and Tang Dynasty.
Li Daoyuan (466 or 472 in Zhuo County, Hebei – 527) was a Chinese geographer, writer, and politician during the Northern Wei Dynasty.
Li Jing (571 – July 2, 649), courtesy name Yaoshi, posthumously known as Duke Jingwu of Wei (also spelled as Duke of Wey), was a Chinese general who lived in the early Tang dynasty and was most active during the reign of Emperor Taizong.
Li Kui (455–395 BC) was an ancient Chinese government minister and court advisor to Marquis Wen (r. 403–387 BC) in the state of Wei.
Li Shizhen (July 3, 1518 – 1593), courtesy name Dongbi, was a Chinese polymath, physician, scientist, pharmacologist, herbalist and acupuncturist of the Ming dynasty.
Lie Yukou (fl. ca. 400 BCE) is considered the author of the Daoist book Liezi, which uses his honorific name Liezi.
The Liezi is a Daoist text attributed to Lie Yukou, a c. 5th century BCE Hundred Schools of Thought philosopher, but Chinese and Western scholars believe it was compiled around the 4th century CE.
Linghu Defen (582–666), formally Duke Xian of Pengyang (彭陽憲公), was an official of the Chinese dynasties Sui Dynasty and Tang Dynasty.
Lionel Giles (29 December 1875 – 22 January 1958) was a British sinologist, writer, and philosopher.
This is an alphabetical list of early Chinese texts before end of the Han dynasty (in Pinyin-transcription).
Liu Xiang (77–6BCE), born Liu Gengsheng and bearing the courtesy name Zizheng, was a Chinese politician, historian, and writer of the Western Han Dynasty.
Liu Xu (劉昫) (888–947),History of the Five Dynasties, vol. 89.
Liu Zhiji (661–721), courtesy name Zixuan (子玄), was a Chinese historian and author of the Shitong born in present-day Xuzhou, Jiangsu during the Tang Dynasty.
Lu (c. 1042–249 BC) was a vassal state during the Zhou dynasty of ancient China.
A mandarin (Chinese: 官 guān) was a bureaucrat scholar in the government of imperial China and Vietnam.
A memorial is an object which serves as a focus for memory of something, usually a person (who has died) or an event.
Mencius or Mengzi (372–289 BC or 385–303 or 302BC) was a Chinese philosopher who has often been described as the "second Sage", that is after only Confucius himself.
The Mencius (Old Chinese: *mˤraŋ-s tsəʔ) is a collection of anecdotes and conversations of the Confucian thinker and philosopher Mencius on topics in moral and political philosophy, often between Mencius and the rulers of the various Warring States.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
The Miscellaneous Morsels from Youyang is a miscellany of Chinese and foreign legends and hearsay, reports on natural phenomena, short anecdotes, and tales of the wondrous and mundane, as well as notes on such topics as medicinal herbs and tattoos.
Mozi (Latinized as Micius; c. 470 – c. 391 BC), original name Mo Di (墨翟), was a Chinese philosopher during the Hundred Schools of Thought period (early Warring States period).
The Huangdi Bashiyi Nanjing (黃帝八十一難經 English: "The Huang Emperor's Canon of Eighty-One Difficult Issues"), often referred to simply as the Nan Jing, is one of the classics of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).
Neo-Confucianism (often shortened to lixue 理學) is a moral, ethical, and metaphysical Chinese philosophy influenced by Confucianism, and originated with Han Yu and Li Ao (772–841) in the Tang Dynasty, and became prominent during the Song and Ming dynasties.
The New Book of Tang (Xīn Tángshū), generally translated as "New History of the Tang", or "New Tang History", is a work of official history covering the Tang dynasty in ten volumes and 225 chapters.
New Songs from the Jade Terrace is an anthology of early medieval Chinese poetry in the romantic or semi-erotic "palace style" (gongti 宮體) that dates to the late Southern dynasties period (420589).
The Old Book of Tang, or simply the Book of Tang, is the first classic historical work about the Tang dynasty, comprising 200 chapters, and is one of the Twenty-Four Histories.
The Old History of the Five Dynasties (Jiù Wǔdài Shǐ) was an official history of the Five Dynasties (907–960), which controlled much of northern China.
In Chinese philology, the Old Texts refer to some versions of the Five Classics discovered during the Han Dynasty, written in archaic characters and supposedly produced before the burning of the books, as opposed to the Modern Texts or New Texts (今文經) in the new orthography.
Ouyang Xiu (1 August 1007 – 22 September 1072), courtesy name Yongshu, also known by his art names Zuiweng ("Old Drunkard") and Liu Yi Jushi ("Retiree Six-One"), was a Chinese scholar-official, essayist, historian, poet, calligrapher, and epigrapher of the Song dynasty.
The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Qu Yuan (–278 BC) was a Chinese poet and minister who lived during the Warring States period of ancient China.
Quan Tangshi (Complete Tang Poems), commissioned in 1705 at the direction and published under the name of the Qing dynasty Kangxi Emperor, is the largest collection of Tang poetry, containing some 49,000 lyric poems by more than twenty-two hundred poets.
Questions and Replies between Emperor Taizong of Tang and Li Weigong is a dialogue between Emperor Taizong (599-649 AD) of the Tang Dynasty and Li Jing (571-649 AD), a prominent Tang general.
The Records of the Grand Historian, also known by its Chinese name Shiji, is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Han dynasty official Sima Qian after having been started by his father, Sima Tan, Grand Astrologer to the imperial court.
The Records of the Three Kingdoms is a Chinese historical text which covers the history of the late Eastern Han dynasty (c. 184–220 AD) and the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD).
The Rites of Zhou, originally known as "Officers of Zhou" is actually a work on bureaucracy and organizational theory.
Scholar-officials, also known as Literati, Scholar-gentlemen, Scholar-bureaucrats or Scholar-gentry were politicians and government officials appointed by the emperor of China to perform day-to-day political duties from the Han dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty in 1912, China's last imperial dynasty.
The Seven Military Classics were seven important military texts of ancient China, which also included Sun-tzu's The Art of War.
The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.
Shang Yang, or Wei YangAntonio S. Cua (ed.), 2003, p. 362, Encyclopedia of Chinese Philosophy (born with the surname Gongsun in Wey, Zhou Kingdom; c. 390 – 338 BCE), was a statesman and reformer of the State of Qin during the Warring States period of ancient China.
The Chinese statesman Shen Buhai (c. 400c. 337) was Chancellor of the Han state under Marquis Zhao of Han for fifteen years, from 354 BC to 337 BC.
Shen Dao (c. 350c. 275BC) was a "Chinese Legalist" theoretician most remembered for his influence on Han Fei with regards to the concept of shi 勢 (circumstantial advantage, power, or authority), though most of his book concerns the concept of fa 法 (administrative methods & standards) more commonly shared among "Legalists".
Shen Kuo (1031–1095), courtesy name Cunzhong (存中) and pseudonym Mengqi (now usually given as Mengxi) Weng (夢溪翁),Yao (2003), 544.
Shen Yue (441–513), courtesy name Xiuwen (休文), was a poet, statesman, and historian born in Huzhou, Zhejiang.
The Shiming, also known as the Yìyǎ (逸雅; I-ya; Lost Erya), is a Chinese dictionary that employed phonological glosses, and "is believed to date from c. 200 " (Miller 1980: 424).
The Shitong is the first Chinese-language work about historiography compiled by Liu Zhiji between 708 and 710.
The Shizi is an eclectic Chinese classic written by Shi Jiao 尸佼 (c. 390-330 BCE), and the earliest text from Chinese philosophical school of Zajia 雜家 "Syncretism", which combined ideas from the Hundred Schools of Thought, including Confucianism, Daoism, Mohism, and Legalism.
The Siku Quanshu, variously translated as the Complete Library in Four Sections, Imperial Collection of Four, Emperor's Four Treasuries, Complete Library in Four Branches of Literature, or Complete Library of the Four Treasuries, is the largest collection of books in Chinese history.
Sima Guang (17 November 1019 – 11 October 1086), courtesy name Junshi, was a Chinese historian, writer, and politician.
Sima Qian was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty (206AD220).
Sima Rangju (Chinese:司馬穰苴) or Tian Rangju (Chinese: 田穰苴) (dates of birth and death unknown) was a famous Chinese military general during the Spring and Autumn period, often seen as the spiritual successor of Jiang Ziya.
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China.
Sinology or Chinese studies is the academic study of China primarily through Chinese language, literature, Chinese culture and history, and often refers to Western scholarship.
Six Dynasties (Chinese: 六朝; Pinyin: Liù Cháo; 220 or 222–589) is a collective term for six Chinese dynasties in China during the periods of the Three Kingdoms (220–280 AD), Jin dynasty (265–420), and Southern and Northern Dynasties (420–589).
The Six Secret Teachings, is a treatise on civil and military strategy traditionally attributed to Lü Shang (aka Jiang Ziya), a top general of King Wen of Zhou, founder of the Zhou dynasty, at around the eleventh century BC.
The Sixteen Kingdoms, less commonly the Sixteen States, was a chaotic period in Chinese history from 304 CE to 439 CE when the political order of northern China fractured into a series of short-lived sovereign states, most of which were founded by the "Five Barbarians" who had settled in northern China during the preceding centuries and participated in the overthrow of the Western Jin dynasty in the early 4th century.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
Song Lian (宋濂, 1310–1381), style name Jinglian (景濂), was a literary and political adviser to the Ming dynasty founder, and one of the principal figures in the Mongol Yuan Dynasty Jinhua school of Neo-Confucianism.
Song Yingxing (Traditional Chinese: 宋應星; Simplified Chinese: 宋应星; Wade Giles: Sung Ying-Hsing; 1587-1666 AD) was a Chinese scientist and encyclopedist who lived during the late Ming Dynasty (1368–1644).
The Spring and Autumn Annals or Chunqiu is an ancient Chinese chronicle that has been one of the core Chinese classics since ancient times.
The Spring and Autumn Annals of the Sixteen Kingdoms, also known by its Chinese title Shiliuguo Chunqiu is a biographical history of the Sixteen Kingdoms work compiled by Cui Hong between 501 and 522.
The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BC (or according to some authorities until 403 BC) which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou Period.
Sun Tzu (also rendered as Sun Zi; 孫子) was a Chinese general, military strategist, writer, and philosopher who lived in the Eastern Zhou period of ancient China.
The Taiping Guangji, sometimes translated as the Extensive Records of the Taiping Era, or Extensive Records of the Taiping Xinguo Period, is a collection of stories compiled in the early Song dynasty under imperial direction by Li Fang.
The Taiping Yulan, translated as the Imperial Reader or Readings of the Taiping Era, is a massive Chinese leishu encyclopedia compiled by a number of officers under Li Fang from 977 to 983.
The Tale of King Mu, Son of HeavenLiterally "Mu() Heaven('s) Son('s) Tale".
Tan Daoji (died April 9, 436) was a high level general of the Chinese dynasty Liu Song.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
The Tang Huiyao is an institutional history of Tang dynasty compiled by Wang Pu and presented it to Emperor Taizu of Song in 961.
The Tao Te Ching, also known by its pinyin romanization Daodejing or Dao De Jing, is a Chinese classic text traditionally credited to the 6th-century BC sage Laozi.
The Art of War is an ancient Chinese military treatise dating from the Spring and Autumn period.
The Book of Lord Shang is an ancient Chinese text from the 3rd century BC, regarded as a foundational work of "Chinese Legalism".
The Methods of the Sima (also known as The Marshal's Art of War) is a text discussing laws, regulations, government policies, military organization, military administration, discipline, basic values, tactics, and strategy.
The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art is a Chinese mathematics book, composed by several generations of scholars from the 10th–2nd century BCE, its latest stage being from the 2nd century CE.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
The Thirteen Classics is a term for the group of thirteen classics of Confucian tradition that became the basis for the Imperial Examinations during the Song dynasty and have shaped much of East Asian culture and thought.
The Thirty-Six Stratagems was a Chinese essay used to illustrate a series of stratagems used in politics, war, and civil interaction.
Sir Thomas Francis Wade (25August 181831July 1895), was a British diplomat and sinologist who produced an early Chinese textbook in English, in 1867, that was later amended, extended and converted into the Wade-Giles romanization system for Mandarin Chinese by Herbert Giles in 1892.
The Thousand Character Classic, also known as the Thousand Character Text, is a Chinese poem that has been used as a primer for teaching Chinese characters to children from the sixth century onward.
The Three Character Classic, Trimetric Classic or Sanzijing is one of the Chinese classic texts.
The Three Strategies of Huang Shigong is a text on military strategy that was historically associated with the Han dynasty general Zhang Liang.
The Tiangong Kaiwu (天工開物), or The Exploitation of the Works of Nature was a Chinese encyclopedia compiled by Song Yingxing.
The Tongdian is a Chinese institutional history and encyclopedia text.
Toqto’a (ᠲᠣᠭᠲᠠᠭᠠ Toqtogha; Cyrillic: Тогтох;; 1314－1356), also called "The Great Historian Tuotuo", was a Yuan official historian and the high-ranking minister of the Yuan dynasty of China.
Traditional Chinese characters (Pinyin) are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.
The Treatise on Astrology of the Kaiyuan Era is a Chinese astrology encyclopedia compiled by the lead editor Gautama Siddha and numerous scholars from 714 to 724 AD during the Kaiyuan era of Tang Dynasty.
The Twenty-Four Histories, also known as the Orthodox Histories are the Chinese official historical books covering a period from 3000 BC to the Ming dynasty in the 17th century.
Wang Pu (王溥) (922–982) was a chancellor of imperial China's Later Zhou and Song Dynasty.
Warp and weft are terms for the two basic components used in weaving to turn thread or yarn into fabric.
The Wei Liaozi is a text on military strategy, one of the Seven Military Classics of ancient China.
Wei Shou (506–572), born in Xingtai, Hebei, was a Chinese author.
Wei Zheng (580–643), courtesy name Xuancheng, posthumously known as Duke Wenzhen of Zheng, was a Chinese statesman and historian.
The Wenyuan Yinghua, sometimes translated as Finest Blossoms in the Garden of Literature, is an anthology of poetry, odes, songs and writings from the Liang dynasty to the Five Dynasties era.
The Wenzi is a Daoist classic allegedly written by the a disciple of Laozi.
The Western Zhou (西周; c. 1046 – 771 BC) was the first half of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China.
Written Vernacular Chinese is the forms of written Chinese based on the varieties of Chinese spoken throughout China, in contrast to Classical Chinese, the written standard used during imperial China up to the early twentieth century.
Wu (Old Chinese: *) was one of the states during the Western Zhou Dynasty and the Spring and Autumn period.
Wu Qi (440-381 BC) was a Chinese military leader, Legalist philosopher, and politician in the Warring States period.
The Wuzi is a classic Chinese work on military strategy attributed to Wu Qi.
The Xia dynasty is the legendary, possibly apocryphal first dynasty in traditional Chinese history.
Xiao Zixian (489–537), courtesy name Jingyang (景陽), formally Viscount Jiao of Ningdu (寧都驕子), was a historian and author, best known for producing the Book of Qi.
Xuanzang (fl. c. 602 – 664) was a Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveller, and translator who travelled to India in the seventh century and described the interaction between Chinese Buddhism and Indian Buddhism during the early Tang dynasty.
Xue Juzheng (912 – 12 July 981, courtesy name Ziping) was a scholar-official who successively served the Later Jin, Later Han, Later Zhou and Song dynasties.
Xun Kuang (c. 310c. 235 BC, alt. c. 314c. 217 BC), also widely known as Xunzi ("Master Xun"), was a Chinese Confucian philosopher who lived during the Warring States period and contributed to the Hundred Schools of Thought.
The Xunzi is an ancient Chinese collection of philosophical writings attributed to Xun Kuang, a 3rd century BC philosopher usually associated with the Confucian tradition.
Yan Ying, courtesy name Zhong, or more widely known as Yan Zi c.578-500 BC, was born in present-day Gaomi county, Shandong province.
The Yanzi chunqiu, or Annals of Master Yan, is an ancient Chinese text dating to the Warring States period (475221) that contains a collection of stories, speeches, and remonstrations attributed to Yan Ying, a famous official from the State of Qi who served Duke Jing of Qi (r. 547489).
Yao Silian (姚思廉; died 637), courtesy name Jianzhi (簡之), formally Baron Kang of Fengcheng (豐成康男), was an official of the Chinese dynasties Sui Dynasty and Tang Dynasty and was the lead author of the Book of Liang and Book of Chen, official histories of Liang Dynasty and Chen Dynasty, which his father Yao Cha (姚察), a Chen official, had begun but did not finish.
The Yi Zhou Shu is a compendium of Chinese historical documents about the Western Zhou period (1046–771 BCE).
Yue (Old Chinese: *), also known as Yuyue, was a state in ancient China which existed during the first millennium BC the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods of China's Zhou dynasty in the modern provinces of Zhejiang, Shanghai, and Jiangsu.
The Zhan Guo Ce, also known in English as the Strategies of the Warring States, is an ancient Chinese text that contains anecdotes of political manipulation and warfare during the Warring States period (5th to 3rd centuries).
Zhang Tingyu (October 29, 1672 – April 30, 1755) was a Han Chinese politician and historian who lived in the Qing dynasty.
Zhao Erxun (23 May 1844 – 3 September 1927), courtesy name Cishan, art name Wubu, was a Chinese political and military officeholder who lived in the late Qing dynasty.
Zhao Yanshou (趙延壽) (died November 10, 948History of Liao, vol. 5..), né Liu Yanshou (劉延壽), formally the Prince of Wei (魏王), was a major general of Later Tang of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, as well as the Khitan Liao Dynasty.
Zhu Xi (October 18, 1130 – April 23, 1200), also known by his courtesy name Yuanhui (or Zhonghui), and self-titled Hui'an, was a Chinese philosopher, politician, and writer of the Song dynasty.
Zhuang Zhou, often known as Zhuangzi ("Master Zhuang"), was an influential Chinese philosopher who lived around the 4th century BC during the Warring States period, a period corresponding to the summit of Chinese philosophy, the Hundred Schools of Thought.
The Zhuangzi (Mandarin:; historically romanized Chuang-tzu) is an ancient Chinese text from the late Warring States period (476221) which contains stories and anecdotes that exemplify the carefree nature of the ideal Daoist sage.
The Zizhi Tongjian is a pioneering reference work in Chinese historiography, published in 1084, in the form of a chronicle.
The Zuo zhuan, generally translated The Zuo Tradition or The Commentary of Zuo, is an ancient Chinese narrative history that is traditionally regarded as a commentary on the ancient Chinese chronicle ''Spring and Autumn Annals'' (''Chunqiu'' 春秋).
Ancient Chinese classics, Chinese Classical Texts, Chinese Classics, Chinese classic, Chinese classic text, Chinese classic texts, Chinese classical literature, Classical Chinese literature, Classical Chinese writings, Confucian Classics, Confucian classic, Confucian classics, Three Histories.