338 relations: Absolute (philosophy), Agnatic seniority, Albinism, Altar, Ancestor, Ancestor veneration in China, Ancestral shrine, Animal worship, Animism, Anthropology, Apophatic theology, Arche, Atheism, Axis mundi, Baguadao, Bao ying, Baojuan, Baopuzi, Batam, Beijing, Benzhuism, Big Dipper, Bimoism, Bon, Boxer Rebellion, Buddhism, C. K. Yang (sociologist), Caishen, Cardinal direction, Cataphatic theology, Chen (surname), Chen Chun, Cheng Yi (philosopher), China, China Family Panel Studies, Chinese alchemy, Chinese architecture, Chinese Buddhism, Chinese Civil War, Chinese classics, Chinese creation myths, Chinese dragon, Chinese folk religion, Chinese gods and immortals, Chinese kin, Chinese lineage associations, Chinese mythology, Chinese New Year, Chinese philosophy, Chinese ritual mastery traditions, ..., Chinese salvationist religions, Chinese shamanism, Chinese spiritual world concepts, Chinese surname, Chinese temples in Kolkata, Chinese theology, Chinese unification, Chiyou, Christianity in China, Classic of Filial Piety, Classic of Mountains and Seas, Classical Chinese, Coincidence, Confucian church, Confucianism, Contemplation, Cosmology, Cosmos, Cultural Revolution, Culture hero, Daoist temple, Daoshi, Daozang, De (Chinese), De teaching, Deity, Destiny, Deus, Di (Chinese concept), Divination, Divine presence, Doctrine of the Mean, Dogma, Dong Zhongshu, Dongba, Doumu, Dragon King, Economy, Egalitarianism, Epic of King Gesar, Epic poetry, Eschatology, Ethnic minorities in China, Ethnic religion, Evangelism, Exorcism, Feng shui, Fire worship, Four Books and Five Classics, Four Symbols (China), Fuding, Fuji (planchette writing), Fujian, Fuxi, Ganesha, Gansu, Ge Hong, Genius (mythology), Genius loci, Germany, Ghosts in Chinese culture, Gnomon, Granary, Grassroots, Guan Yu, Guanxi, Guodian Chu Slips, Han Chinese, Han dynasty, Hebei, Heidi (god), Henan, Heresy, Hero, Hinduism, History of the People's Republic of China (1949–1976), Holism, Holy Confucian Church, Hongwu Emperor, Houtu, Huainanzi, Huangdi Sijing, Huangdi Yinfujing, Huaxia, Hun and po, Hunan, Hundred Schools of Thought, Hundun, Huxian, I Ching, Immanence, Imperium, India, Indian religions, Indonesia, Initiation, Inner Mongolia, Interactions Between Heaven and Mankind, Investiture of the Gods, J.J.M. de Groot, Jade Emperor, Japan, Japanese language, Jilin City, Jingxiang, Journey to the West, Kami, Karma, Kenosis, Kitchen God, Korean shamanism, Kristofer Schipper, Kui Xing, Kunlun (mythology), Kuomintang, Latin, Li (Confucianism), Liexian Zhuan, Liezi, Lin (surname), Ling (Chinese religion), List of Celestial Masters, List of mosques in China, List of nature deities, List of water deities, Luo teaching, Macranthropy, Mainland China, Manchu shamanism, Manchukuo, Mandala, Mandate of Heaven, Mao Zedong, Max Weber, Mazu, Mencius, Miao folk religion, Miao people, Miaohui, Millenarianism, Ming dynasty, Ming yun, Miracle, Mo (religion), Mohism, Mongolian shamanism, Mother goddess, Mount Hua, Mozi (book), Multiperspectivity, Mythology, Nüwa, Neo-Confucianism, Ningde, North China Plain, Northeast China folk religion, Northern and southern China, Northern Wei, Numen, Nuo folk religion, Orthopraxy, Overseas Chinese, Pangu, Pantheism, Pantheon (religion), Philanthropy, Pilgrimage, Pneuma, Polytheism, Prasenjit Duara, Progenitor, Psyche (psychology), Purdue University, Putian, Putian people, Qi, Qiang folk religion, Qigong, Qing dynasty, Qingming Festival, Qingshui County, Queen Mother of the West, Rectification of names, Religion, Religion in China, Religion in Inner Mongolia, Religious goods store, Republic of China (1912–1949), Rite of passage, Sacred, Sacred mountains, Sacred Mountains of China, Sacrifice, Salvation, Sanyi teaching, Science and Civilisation in China, Second Sino-Japanese War, Shaanbei, Shaanxi, Shamanism, Shandong, Shang dynasty, Shangdi, Shanghai, Shangqing School, Shanrendao, Shanxi, Shen (Chinese religion), Shenism in Southeast Asia, Shennong, Shenxian Zhuan, Shi Yi Ji, Shinto, Shizi (book), Shuowen Jiezi, Sinicization, Sino-Platonic Papers, Sinology, Song dynasty, Soteriology, Southeast Asia, Stephen F. Teiser, Swastika, Taichung, Taiji (philosophy), Taiping Rebellion, Taiwan, Taiwan under Japanese rule, Taiyi Shengshui, Talisman, Tang Chun-i, Tao, Tao Te Ching, Taoism, Taoist schools, Temple, Tengrism, The Peach Blossom Spring, Thumos, Tian, Tiandi teachings, Tianshui, Tibet Autonomous Region, Tongji (spirit medium), Totem, Transcendence (religion), Tu Weiming, Tujia people, Tungusic peoples, Tutelary deity, Universalism, Veneration of the dead, Vietnamese folk religion, Wang Ye worship, Warp and weft, Way of the Gods according to the Confucian Tradition, Western China, Wu (awareness), Wu (shaman), Wu wei, Wu Xing, Wufang Shangdi, Xian (Taoism), Xiantiandao, Xinhai Revolution, Xu Shen, Xuanyuan teaching, Xunzi (book), Yan Emperor, Yan Huang Zisun, Yan Mountains, Yangge, Yao folk religion, Yao people, Yellow Emperor, Yi people, Yiguandao, Yin and yang, Yuanfen, Yulin, Shaanxi, Zaili teaching, Zhang Zai, Zhengyi Dao, Zhenren, Zhou dynasty, Zhu Xi, Zhuang people, Zhuangzi (book). 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In philosophy, the concept of The Absolute, also known as The (Unconditioned) Ultimate, The Wholly Other, The Supreme Being, The Absolute/Ultimate Reality, and other names, is the thing, being, entity, power, force, reality, presence, law, principle, etc.
Agnatic seniority is a patrilineal principle of inheritance where the order of succession to the throne prefers the monarch's younger brother over the monarch's own sons.
Albinism in humans is a congenital disorder characterized by the complete or partial absence of pigment in the skin, hair and eyes.
An altar is any structure upon which offerings such as sacrifices are made for religious purposes, and by extension the 'Holy table' of post-reformation Anglican churches.
An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an antecedent (i.e., a grandparent, great-grandparent, great-great-grandparent, and so forth).
Chinese ancestor worship, or Chinese ancestor veneration, also called the Chinese patriarchal religion, is an aspect of the Chinese traditional religion which revolves around the ritual celebration of the deified ancestors and tutelary deities of people with the same surname organised into lineage societies in ancestral shrines.
An ancestral shrine, hall or temple, also called lineage temple, is a Chinese temple dedicated to deified ancestors and progenitors of surname lineages or families in the Chinese traditional religion.
Animal worship (or zoolatry) refers to rituals involving animals, such as the glorification of animal deities or animal sacrifice.
Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.
Apophatic theology, also known as negative theology, is a form of theological thinking and religious practice which attempts to approach God, the Divine, by negation, to speak only in terms of what may not be said about the perfect goodness that is God.
Arche (ἀρχή) is a Greek word with primary senses "beginning", "origin" or "source of action".
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
The axis mundi (also cosmic axis, world axis, world pillar, center of the world, world tree), in certain beliefs and philosophies, is the world center, or the connection between Heaven and Earth.
Baguadao (八卦道 "Way of the Eight Trigrams") or Eight Trigram Teaching (八卦教) is a network of Chinese folk religious sects, one of the most extended in northern China.
Bàoyìng (Traditional Chinese character: wikt:報應, Simplified Chinese character:报应) is a concept of cosmic and moral reciprocity in the Chinese folk religion.
Baojuan (宝卷 bǎojuǎn), literally precious scrolls, are a genre of prosimetric texts (texts written in an alternation of prose and verse) of a religious or mystical nature, produced within the context of Chinese folk religion and individual Chinese folk religious sects.
The Baopuzi, written by the Jin dynasty scholar Ge Hong 葛洪 (283-343), is divided into esoteric Neipian 內篇 "Inner Chapters" and exoteric Waipian 外篇 "Outer Chapters".
Batam is the largest city (kota) of Riau Islands Province of Indonesia as well the name of an island.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
Benzhuism is the indigenous religion of the Bai people, an ethnic group of Yunnan, China.
The Big Dipper (US) or the Plough (UK) is an asterism consisting of seven bright stars of the constellation Ursa Major; six of them are of second magnitude and one, Megrez (δ), of third magnitude.
Bimoism (Yi:ꀘꂾ) is the indigenous religion of the Yi people, the largest ethnic group in Yunnan after the Han Chinese.
Bon, also spelled Bön, is a Tibetan religion, which self-identifies as distinct from Tibetan Buddhism, although it shares the same overall teachings and terminology.
The Boxer Rebellion (拳亂), Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement (義和團運動) was a violent anti-foreign, anti-colonial and anti-Christian uprising that took place in China between 1899 and 1901, toward the end of the Qing dynasty.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Ch'ing-k'un Yang (1911 – 10 January 1999), better known as C. K. Yang, was a Chinese-born American sociologist who pioneered the application of sociological theory to the study of China.
Caishen is the Chinese god of prosperity worshipped in the Chinese folk religion and Taoism.
The four cardinal directions or cardinal points are the directions north, east, south, and west, commonly denoted by their initials N, E, S, and W. East and west are at right angles to north and south, with east being in the clockwise direction of rotation from north and west being directly opposite east.
Cataphatic theology or kataphatic theology is theology that uses "positive" terminology to describe or refer to the divine – specifically, God – i.e. terminology that describes or refers to what the divine is believed to be, in contrast to the "negative" terminology used in apophatic theology to indicate what it is believed the divine is not.
Chen is one of the most common East Asian surnames of Chinese origin.
Chén Chún (陳淳; 1483-1544) was a Ming Dynasty artist.
Cheng Yi (1033–1107), courtesy name Zhengshu (正叔), also known as Yichuan Xiansheng (伊川先生), was a Chinese philosopher born in Luoyang during the Song Dynasty.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
China Family Panel Studies (CFPS, 中国家庭追踪调查) is a nationally representative, biennial longitudinal general social survey project designed to document changes in Chinese society, economy, population, education, and health.
Chinese alchemy is an ancient Chinese scientific and technological approach to alchemy, a part of the larger tradition of Taoist body-spirit cultivation developed from the traditional Chinese understanding of medicine and the body.
Chinese architecture is a style of architecture that has taken shape in East Asia over many centuries.
Chinese Buddhism or Han Buddhism has shaped Chinese culture in a wide variety of areas including art, politics, literature, philosophy, medicine, and material culture.
The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC).
Chinese classic texts or canonical texts refers to the Chinese texts which originated before the imperial unification by the Qin dynasty in 221 BC, particularly the "Four Books and Five Classics" of the Neo-Confucian tradition, themselves a customary abridgment of the "Thirteen Classics".
Chinese creation myths are symbolic narratives about the origins of the universe, earth, and life.
Chinese dragons or East Asian dragons are legendary creatures in Chinese mythology, Chinese folklore, and East Asian culture at large.
Chinese folk religion (Chinese popular religion) or Han folk religion is the religious tradition of the Han people, including veneration of forces of nature and ancestors, exorcism of harmful forces, and a belief in the rational order of nature which can be influenced by human beings and their rulers as well as spirits and gods.
Chinese traditional religion is polytheistic; many deities are worshipped in a pantheistic view where divinity is inherent in the world.
A Chinese kin, lineage or sometimes rendered as clan, is a patrilineal and patrilocal group of related Chinese people with a common surname sharing a common ancestor and, in many cases, an ancestral home.
Chinese lineage associations, also kinship or ancestral associations, are a type of social relationship institutions found in Han Chinese ethnic groups and the fundamental unit of Chinese ancestral religion.
Chinese mythology refers to myths found in the historical geographic area of China: these include myths in Chinese and other languages, as transmitted by Han Chinese and other ethnic groups, which have their own languages and myths.
Chinese New Year, usually known as the Spring Festival in modern China, is an important Chinese festival celebrated at the turn of the traditional lunisolar Chinese calendar.
Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, during a period known as the "Hundred Schools of Thought", which was characterized by significant intellectual and cultural developments.
Chinese ritual mastery traditions, also referred to as ritual teachings (sometimes rendered as "Faism"),Yu-chi Tsao, 2012.
Chinese salvationist religions or Chinese folk religious sects are a Chinese religious tradition characterised by a concern for salvation (moral fulfillment) of the person and the society.
Chinese shamanism, alternatively called Wuism (alternatively 巫觋宗教 wū xí zōngjiào), refers to the shamanic religious tradition of China.
Chinese spiritual world concepts are cultural practices or methods found in Chinese culture.
Chinese surnames are used by Han Chinese and Sinicized ethnic groups in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, Malaysia, Brunei, Taiwan, Korea, Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam and among overseas Chinese communities.
Chinese temples are sacred sites for the practice of Chinese folk religion.
Chinese theology, which comes in different interpretations according to the classic texts and the common religion, and specifically Confucian, Taoist and other philosophical formulations, is fundamentally monistic, that is to say it sees the world and the gods of its phenomena as an organic whole, or cosmos, which continuously emerges from a simple principle.
Chinese (re)unification, more specifically Cross-strait (re)unification, is the irredentist concept of Greater China that expresses the goal of unifying the People's Republic of China and Taiwan into a single sovereign state.
Chiyou (蚩尤) was a tribal leader of the Nine Li tribe (九黎) in ancient China.
Christianity in China appeared in the 7th century, during the Tang dynasty, but did not take root until it was reintroduced in the 16th century by Jesuit missionaries.
The Classic of Filial Piety, also known by its Chinese name as the Xiaojing, is a Confucian classic treatise giving advice on filial piety: that is, how to behave towards a senior such as a father, an elder brother, or ruler.
The Classic of Mountains and Seas or Shan Hai Jing, formerly romanized as the Shan-hai Ching, is a Chinese classic text and a compilation of mythic geography and myth.
Classical Chinese, also known as Literary Chinese, is the language of the classic literature from the end of the Spring and Autumn period through to the end of the Han Dynasty, a written form of Old Chinese.
A coincidence is a remarkable concurrence of events or circumstances that have no apparent causal connection with one another.
The Confucian church is a Confucian religious and social institution of the congregational type.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
Contemplation is profound thinking about something.
Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.
The cosmos is the universe.
The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 until 1976.
A culture hero is a mythological hero specific to some group (cultural, ethnic, religious, etc.) who changes the world through invention or discovery.
A Taoist temple (also 道观 dàoguān, literally " where the Tao is observed/cultivated") is a place of worship in Taoism.
Daoshi usually refer to Taoist priests, professional Taoists who provide religious and ritual performances Daoshi may also refer to.
Daozang (Wade-Giles: Tao Tsang), meaning "Taoist Canon", consists of around 1,400 texts that were collected c. 400 (after the Dao De Jing and Zhuang Zi which are the core Taoist texts).
De is a key concept in Chinese philosophy, usually translated "inherent character; inner power; integrity" in Taoism, "moral character; virtue; morality" in Confucianism and other contexts, and "quality; virtue" (guna) or "merit; virtuous deeds" (punya) in Chinese Buddhism.
The De teaching (Chinese: 德教 Dejiao, "teaching of virtue", the concept of De), whose corporate name is the Church of Virtue (德教会 Déjiàohuì), is a sect rooted in Taoism, that was founded in 1945 in Chaozhou, Guangdong.
A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.
Destiny, sometimes referred to as fate (from Latin fatum – destiny), is a predetermined course of events.
Deus is Latin for "god" or "deity".
Di (Chinese: 地, p Dì, w Ti, lit. "earth") is one of the oldest Chinese terms for the earth and a key concept or figure in Chinese mythology and religion.
Divination (from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god", related to divinus, divine) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic, standardized process or ritual.
Divine presence, presence of God, Inner God, or simply presence is a concept in religion, spirituality, and theology that deals with the ability of a god or gods to be "present" with human beings.
The Doctrine of the Mean or Zhongyong is both a doctrine of Confucianism and also the title of one of the Four Books of Confucian philosophy.
The term dogma is used in pejorative and non-pejorative senses.
Dong Zhongshu (179–104 BC) was a Han Dynasty Chinese scholar.
The term dongba (Nakhi: ²dto¹mba) refers to priests of the Nakhi people of Southwest China, who are masters of traditional culture, literature and Dongba symbols.
Dǒumǔ, also known as Dǒumǔ Yuánjūn (斗母元君 "Lady Mother of the Chariot"), Dòulǎo Yuánjūn (斗姥元君 "Lady Ancestress of the Chariot") and Tàiyī Yuánjūn (太一元君 "Lady of the Great One"), is a goddess in Chinese religion and Taoism.
The Dragon King, also known as the Dragon God, is a Chinese water and weather god.
An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.
Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.
The Epic of King Gesar ("King Gesar"; Гэсэр Хаан, Geser Khagan, "King Geser", Гесар-хан or Кесар), also spelled Geser (especially in Mongolian contexts) or Kesar, is an epic cycle, believed to date from the 12th century, that relates the heroic deeds of the culture hero Gesar, the fearless lord of the legendary kingdom of Ling.
An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.
Eschatology is a part of theology concerned with the final events of history, or the ultimate destiny of humanity.
Ethnic minorities in China are the non-Han Chinese population in the People's Republic of China (PRC).
In religious studies, an ethnic religion (or indigenous religion) is a religion associated with a particular ethnic group.
In Christianity, Evangelism is the commitment to or act of publicly preaching of the Gospel with the intention of spreading the message and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Exorcism (from Greek εξορκισμός, exorkismós "binding by oath") is the religious or spiritual practice of evicting demons or other spiritual entities from a person, or an area, that are believed to be possessed.
Feng shui (pronounced), also known as Chinese geomancy, is a pseudoscience originating from China, which claims to use energy forces to harmonize individuals with their surrounding environment.
Worship or deification of fire (also pyrodulia, pyrolatry or pyrolatria) is known from various religions.
The Four Books and Five Classics are the authoritative books of Confucianism in China written before 300 BC.
The Four Symbols (literally meaning "four images") are four mythological creatures in the Chinese constellations.
() is a county-level city in northeastern Ningde prefecture level city, on Fujian's border with Zhejiang province.
Fuji is a method of "planchette writing", or "spirit writing", that uses a suspended sieve or tray to guide a stick which writes Chinese characters in sand or incense ashes.
Fujian (pronounced), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China.
Fuxi (Chinese: 伏羲), also romanized as Fu-hsi, is a culture hero in Chinese legend and mythology, credited (along with his sister Nüwa 女娲) with creating humanity and the invention of hunting, fishing and cooking as well as the Cangjie system of writing Chinese characters c. 2,000 BCE.
Ganesha (गणेश), also known as Ganapati, Vinayaka, Pillaiyar and Binayak, is one of the best-known and most worshipped deities in the Hindu pantheon.
Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.
Ge Hong (葛洪; b. 283 - d. 343 or 363) was an Eastern Jin Dynasty scholar, and the author of Essays on Chinese Characters.
In Roman religion, the genius (plural geniī) is the individual instance of a general divine nature that is present in every individual person, place, or thing.
In classical Roman religion, a genius loci (plural genii loci) was the protective spirit of a place.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Chinese folklore features a rich variety of ghosts, monsters, and other supernatural creatures.
A gnomon (from Greek γνώμων, gnōmōn, literally: "one that knows or examines") is the part of a sundial that casts a shadow.
A granary is a storehouse or room in a barn for threshed grain or animal feed.
A grassroots movement (often referenced in the context of a left-wing political movement) is one which uses the people in a given district, region, or community as the basis for a political or economic movement.
Guan Yu (died January or February 220), courtesy name Yunchang, was a general serving under the warlord Liu Bei in the late Eastern Han dynasty.
Guanxi describes the rudimentary dynamic in personalized social networks of influence (which can be best described as the relationships individuals cultivate with other individuals) and is a central idea in Chinese society.
The Guodian Chu Slips were unearthed in 1993 in Tomb no.
The Han Chinese,.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Hebei (postal: Hopeh) is a province of China in the North China region.
Hēidì or Hēishén, who is the Běidì (Cantonese: Pak Tai) or Běiyuèdàdì is a deity in Chinese religion, one of the cosmological "Five Forms of the Highest Deity".
Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country.
Heresy is any belief or theory that is strongly at variance with established beliefs or customs, in particular the accepted beliefs of a church or religious organization.
A hero (masculine) or heroine (feminine) is a real person or a main character of a literary work who, in the face of danger, combats adversity through feats of ingenuity, bravery or strength; the original hero type of classical epics did such things for the sake of glory and honor.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
The history of the People's Republic of China is often divided distinctly by historians into the "Mao era" and the "post-Mao era".
Holism (from Greek ὅλος holos "all, whole, entire") is the idea that systems (physical, biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic) and their properties should be viewed as wholes, not just as a collection of parts.
The Holy Confucian Church or Holy Church of Confucius (孔圣会 Kǒngshènghuì) or Holy Confucian Church of China (中华孔圣会 Zhōnghuá Kǒngshènghuì) is a body formed of many local Confucian churches or halls (孔圣堂 Kǒngshèngtáng) in China.
The Hongwu Emperor (21 October 1328 – 24 June 1398), personal name Zhu Yuanzhang (Chu Yuan-chang in Wade-Giles), was the founding emperor of China's Ming dynasty.
Hòutǔ or Hòutǔshén, also Hòutǔ Niángniáng (in Chinese either or), otherwise called Demǔ or Demǔ Niángniáng, is the deity of deep earth and soil in Chinese religion and mythology.
The Huainanzi is an ancient Chinese text that consists of a collection of essays that resulted from a series of scholarly debates held at the court of Liu An, King of Huainan, sometime before 139.
The Huangdi Sijing (lit. "The Yellow Emperor's Four Classics") are long-lost Chinese manuscripts that were discovered among the Mawangdui Silk Texts in 1973.
The Huangdi Yinfujing, or Yinfujing, is a circa 8th century CE Daoist scripture associated with Chinese astrology and Neidan-style Internal alchemy.
Huaxia is a historical concept representing the Chinese nation and civilization.
Hun and po are types of souls in Chinese philosophy and traditional religion.
Hunan is the 7th most populous province of China and the 10th most extensive by area.
The Hundred Schools of Thought were philosophies and schools that flourished from the 6th century to 221 BC, during the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period of ancient China.
Hundun is both a "legendary faceless being" in Chinese mythology and the "primordial and central chaos" in Chinese cosmogony, comparable with the World egg.
The I Ching,.
The doctrine or theory of immanence holds that the divine encompasses or is manifested in the material world.
Imperium is a Latin word that, in a broad sense, translates roughly as 'power to command'.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indian religions, sometimes also termed as Dharmic faiths or religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Initiation is a rite of passage marking entrance or acceptance into a group or society.
Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (Ѳвѳр Монголын Ѳѳртѳѳ Засах Орон in Mongolian Cyrillic), is one of the autonomous regions of China, located in the north of the country.
Interactions between Heaven and Mankind is a set of doctrines formulated by Chinese Han dynasty scholar Dong Zhongshu which at that time became the basis for deciding the legitimacy of a monarch.
The Investiture of the Gods or also known by its Chinese names and is a 16th-century Chinese novel and one of the major vernacular Chinese works in the gods-and-demons (shenmo) genre written during the Ming dynasty (1368–1644).
Jan Jakob Maria de Groot (18 February 185424 September 1921) was a Dutch sinologist and historian of religion.
The Jade Emperor (or 玉帝) in Chinese culture, traditional religions and myth is one of the representations of the first god (太帝). In Daoist theology he is the assistant of Yuanshi Tianzun, who is one of the Three Pure Ones, the three primordial emanations of the Tao.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Jilin City (postal: Kirin) Is the second-largest city and former capital of Jilin province in northeast China.
Jìngxiāng (敬香 "offering incense with respect"), shàngxiāng (上香 "offering incense"), bàishén (拜神 "worshipping gods"), is a ritual of offering incense accompanied by tea and or fruits in Chinese traditional religion.
Journey to the West is a Chinese novel published in the 16th century during the Ming dynasty and attributed to Wu Cheng'en.
are the spirits or phenomena that are worshipped in the religion of Shinto.
Karma (karma,; italic) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect).
In Christian theology, kenosis (Greek:, kénōsis, lit.) is the 'self-emptying' of Jesus' own will and becoming entirely receptive to God's divine will.
In Chinese folk religion, Chinese mythology and Taoism; the Kitchen God also known as the Stove God, named Zao Jun, Zao Shen, or Zhang Lang, is the most important of a plethora of Chinese domestic gods that protect the hearth and family.
Korean shamanism, also known as Shinism (Hangul 신교, Hanja 神敎; Shingyo or Shinkyo, "religion of the spirits/gods"), or Shindo (Hangul: 신도; Hanja: 神道, "way of the spirits/gods"), is the collective term for the ethnic religions of Korea which date back to prehistory, and consist in the worship of gods (신 shin) and ancestors (조상 josang).
Kristofer Marinus Schipper (23 October 1934, Järnskog, Eda Municipality), is a Dutch sinologist.
Kui Xing, originally called 奎星 (also kuí xīng), also known as 大魁夫子 "Great Master Kui" or 大魁星君 "Great Kui the Star Prince", is a character in Chinese mythology, the god of examinations, and an associate or servant of the god of literature, Wen Chang.
The Kunlun or Kunlun Shan is a mountain or mountain range in Chinese mythology, an important symbol representing the axis mundi and divinity.
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Li is a classical Chinese word which is commonly used in Chinese philosophy, particularly within Confucianism.
The Liexian Zhuan, sometimes translated as Biographies of Immortals, is the oldest extant Chinese hagiography of Daoist xian "transcendents; immortals; saints; alchemists".
The Liezi is a Daoist text attributed to Lie Yukou, a c. 5th century BCE Hundred Schools of Thought philosopher, but Chinese and Western scholars believe it was compiled around the 4th century CE.
Lin is the Mandarin romanization of the Chinese surname written 林 in Chinese character.
Ling (Pinyin:líng, Traditional Chinese:靈, Simplified Chinese:灵, Vietnamese: linh) is the notion of sacred in Chinese traditional religions.
This is a list of the Celestial Masters, leaders of Zhengyi Dao, continuing Wudoumi Dao (Way of the Five Pecks of Rice).
This is a list of notable mosques in China.
In nature worship, a nature deity is a deity in charge of forces of nature such as water deity, vegetation deity, sky deity, solar deity, fire deity or any other naturally occurring phenomena such as mountains, trees, or volcanoes.
A water deity is a deity in mythology associated with water or various bodies of water.
Luodao (罗道 "Way of Luo") or Luoism (罗教), originally Wuweiism (无为教), refers to a Chinese folk religious tradition, a wide range of sect organisations flourishing over the last five hundred years, which trace their origins back to the mystic and preacher Luo Menghong (1443-1527), the Patriarch Luo (罗祖 Luōzǔ) and the revelation contained in his major scripture, the Wǔbùliùcè (五部六册 "Five Instructions in Six Books"), which official title is The Scroll of Apprehending the Way through Hard Work and that marked the beginning of the precious scrolls' tradition.
Macranthropy is a term describing the allegorical portrayal of the universe as a giant anthropomorphic body with the various components of the universe assigned to corresponding body parts.
Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Manchu folk religion is the ethnic religion practiced by most of the Manchu people, the major of the Tungusic peoples, in China.
Manchukuo was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945.
A mandala (Sanskrit: मण्डल, maṇḍala; literally "circle") is a spiritual and ritual symbol in Hinduism and Buddhism, representing the universe.
The Mandate of Heaven or Tian Ming is a Chinese political and religious doctrine used since ancient times to justify the rule of the King or Emperor of China.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist.
Mazu, also known by several other names and titles, is a Chinese sea goddess.
Mencius or Mengzi (372–289 BC or 385–303 or 302BC) was a Chinese philosopher who has often been described as the "second Sage", that is after only Confucius himself.
Miao folk religion or Hmong folk religion is the common ethnic religion of Miao peoples, primarily consisting in the practice of ua dab (Hmongic: "worship of deities").
The Miao is an ethnic group belonging to South China, and is recognized by the government of China as one of the 55 official minority groups.
Miaohui (庙会), literally temple gatherings or translated as temple fairs, also called yíngshén sàihuì (迎神赛会 "collective rituals to greet the gods"), are Chinese religious gatherings held by folk temples for the worship of the Chinese gods and immortals.
Millenarianism (also millenarism), from Latin ''mīllēnārius'' "containing a thousand", is the belief by a religious, social, or political group or movement in a coming major transformation of society, after which all things will be changed.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
Ming yun is a concept of the personal life and destiny in the Chinese folk religion.
A miracle is an event not explicable by natural or scientific laws.
Mo or Moism, occasionally called Zhuang Shigongism, is the religion of most Zhuang people, the largest ethnic minority of China.
Mohism or Moism was an ancient Chinese philosophy of logic, rational thought and science developed by the academic scholars who studied under the ancient Chinese philosopher Mozi (c. 470 BC – c. 391 BC) and embodied in an eponymous book: the Mozi.
Mongolian shamanism, more broadly called the Mongolian folk religion, or occasionally Tengerism, refers to the animistic and shamanic ethnic religion that has been practiced in Mongolia and its surrounding areas (including Buryatia and Inner Mongolia) at least since the age of recorded history.
A mother goddess is a goddess who represents, or is a personification of nature, motherhood, fertility, creation, destruction or who embodies the bounty of the Earth.
Mount Hua is a mountain located near the city of Huayin in Shaanxi province, about east of Xi'an.
The Mozi is an ancient Chinese text from the Warring States period (476221) that expounds the philosophy of Mohism.
Multiperspectivity (sometimes polyperspectivity) is a characteristic of narration or representation, where more than one perspective is represented to the audience.
Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.
Nüwa or Nügua is the mother goddess of Chinese mythology, the sister and wife of Fuxi, the emperor-god.
Neo-Confucianism (often shortened to lixue 理學) is a moral, ethical, and metaphysical Chinese philosophy influenced by Confucianism, and originated with Han Yu and Li Ao (772–841) in the Tang Dynasty, and became prominent during the Song and Ming dynasties.
Ningde (Foochow Romanized: Nìng-dáik), also known as Mindong (Foochow Romanized: Mìng-dĕ̤ng; lit. East of Fujian), is a prefecture-level city located along the northeastern coast of Fujian province, People's Republic of China.
The North China Plain is based on the deposits of the Yellow River and is the largest alluvial plain of China.
Northeast China folk religion is the variety of Chinese folk religion of northeast China, characterised by distinctive cults original to Hebei and Shandong, transplanted and adapted by the Han Chinese settlers of Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang (the three provinces comprising Manchuria) since the Qing dynasty.
Northern China and southern China are two approximate regions within China. The exact boundary between these two regions are not precisely defined. Nevertheless, the self-perception of Chinese people, especially regional stereotypes, has often been dominated by these two concepts, given that regional differences in culture and language have historically fostered strong regional identities of the Chinese people.
The Northern Wei or the Northern Wei Empire, also known as the Tuoba Wei (拓跋魏), Later Wei (後魏), or Yuan Wei (元魏), was a dynasty founded by the Tuoba clan of the Xianbei, which ruled northern China from 386 to 534 (de jure until 535), during the period of the Southern and Northern Dynasties.
Nuo folk religion, or extendedly Chinese popular exorcistic religion, is a variant of Chinese folk religion with its own system of temples, rituals, orders of priests and gods, which is interethnic and practiced across central and southern China but is also intimately connected to the Tujia people.
In the study of religion, orthopraxy is correct conduct, both ethical and liturgical, as opposed to faith or grace etc.
Pangu is the first living being and the creator of all in some versions of Chinese mythology.
Pantheism is the belief that reality is identical with divinity, or that all-things compose an all-encompassing, immanent god.
A pantheon (from Greek πάνθεον pantheon, literally "(a temple) of all gods", "of or common to all gods" from πᾶν pan- "all" and θεός theos "god") is the particular set of all gods of any polytheistic religion, mythology, or tradition.
Philanthropy means the love of humanity.
A pilgrimage is a journey or search of moral or spiritual significance.
Pneuma (πνεῦμα) is an ancient Greek word for "breath", and in a religious context for "spirit" or "soul".
Polytheism (from Greek πολυθεϊσμός, polytheismos) is the worship of or belief in multiple deities, which are usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religions and rituals.
Prasenjit Duara (অসমীয়া: প্রসেনজিৎ দুৱঁৰা (Assamese), Chinese name), originally from Assam, India, an historian of China, is Professor, Department of History, Duke University, after being the Raffles Professor of Humanities at the National University of Singapore where he was also Director of Asian Research Institute and Research in Humanities and Social Sciences.
In genealogy, the progenitor (rarer: primogenitor; Stammvater or Ahnherr) is the – sometimes legendary – founder of a family, line of descent, clan or tribe, noble house or people group.
In psychology, the psyche is the totality of the human mind, conscious and unconscious.
Purdue University is a public research university in West Lafayette, Indiana and is the flagship campus of the Purdue University system.
Putian is a prefecture-level city in eastern Fujian province, China.
The Putian people, (Chinese: 莆田人, pinyin: Pútiánrén; Puxian Min: 莆仙儂, Hinghwa Romanized: Pó-sing-náng) also known as Henghua or Hinghwa are Han Chinese people from Putian, part of Fujian Province, China.
In traditional Chinese culture, qi or ch'i is believed to be a vital force forming part of any living entity.
Qiang folk religion is the indigenous religion of the majority of the Qiang people, an ethnic group of Sichuan (China) tightly related to the Han Chinese and the Tibetans.
Qigong, qi gong, chi kung, or chi gung is a holistic system of coordinated body posture and movement, breathing, and meditation used in the belief that it promotes health, spirituality, and martial arts training.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
The Qingming or Ching Ming festival, also known as Tomb-Sweeping Day in English (sometimes also called Chinese Memorial Day or Ancestors' Day), is a traditional Chinese festival.
Qingshui County (simplified Chinese: 清水县; traditional Chinese: 清水縣; pinyin: Qīngshuǐ Xiàn; literally: "clearwater") is an administrative district in Gansu, the People's Republic of China.
The Queen Mother of the West, known by various local names, is a goddess in Chinese religion and mythology, also worshipped in neighbouring Asian countries, and attested from ancient times.
Rectification of Names.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
China has long been a cradle and host to a variety of the most enduring religio-philosophical traditions of the world.
Religion in Inner Mongolia is characterised by the diverse traditions of Mongolian-Tibetan Buddhism, Chinese Buddhism, the Chinese traditional religion including the traditional Chinese ancestral religion, Taoism, Confucianism and folk religious sects, and the Mongolian native religion.
A religious goods store or religious supplies shop is a store specializing in supplying materials used in the practice of Chinese folk religion, Taoism and Chinese Buddhism.
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
A rite of passage is a ceremony of the passage which occurs when an individual leaves one group to enter another.
Sacred means revered due to sanctity and is generally the state of being perceived by religious individuals as associated with divinity and considered worthy of spiritual respect or devotion; or inspiring awe or reverence among believers.
Sacred mountains are central to certain religions and are the subjects of many legends.
The Sacred Mountains of China are divided into several groups.
Sacrifice is the offering of food, objects or the lives of animals to a higher purpose, in particular divine beings, as an act of propitiation or worship.
Salvation (salvatio; sōtēría; yāšaʕ; al-ḵalaṣ) is being saved or protected from harm or being saved or delivered from a dire situation.
The Harmonious Church of the Three-in-One (三一教协会), or Sanyiism (三一教) and Xiaism (夏教), is a Chinese folk religious sect of Confucian character founded in the 16th century by Lin Zhao'en, in Putian.
Science and Civilisation in China (1954–) is a series of books initiated and edited by British biochemist, historian and sinologist Joseph Needham, Ph.D (1900–1995).
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.
Shaanbei is the northern portion of Shaanxi province in Northwest China, and is a natural as well as cultural area, forming part of the Loess Plateau.
Shaanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China.
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.
Shandong (formerly romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the East China region.
The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.
Shangdi, also written simply, "Emperor", is the Chinese term for "Supreme Deity" or "Highest Deity" in the theology of the classical texts, especially deriving from Shang theology and finding an equivalent in the later Tian ("Heaven" or "Great Whole") of Zhou theology.
Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.
The Shangqing School (Chinese:上清) or Supreme Clarity is a Daoist movement that began during the aristocracy of the Western Jin dynasty.
w Shanrendao (善人道 "Way of the Virtuous Man") is a Confucian religious movement in northeast China.
Shanxi (postal: Shansi) is a province of China, located in the North China region.
Shen is the Chinese word for "god", "deity", "spirit" or theos.
Shenism (shen 神 worship) in Southeast Asia plays a dynamic role in the lives of the Chinese populations that have settled in the countries of this geographic region, particularly Burmese Chinese, Singaporean Chinese, Malaysian Chinese, Thai Chinese and Hoa.
Shennong (which can be variously translated as "God Farmer" or "God Peasant", "Agriculture God"), also known as the Wugushen (五穀神 "Five Grains' or Five Cereals' God") or also Wuguxiandi (五穀先帝 "First Deity of the Five Grains"), is a deity in Chinese religion, a mythical sage ruler of prehistoric China.
The Shenxian Zhuan, sometimes given in translation as the Biographies of the Deities and Immortals, is a hagiography of immortals and description of Chinese gods, partially attributed to the Daoist scholar Ge Hong (283-343).
Shi Yi Ji is a Chinese mythological / historical treatise compiled by the Taoist scholar Wang Jia (died 390).
or kami-no-michi (among other names) is the traditional religion of Japan that focuses on ritual practices to be carried out diligently to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient past.
The Shizi is an eclectic Chinese classic written by Shi Jiao 尸佼 (c. 390-330 BCE), and the earliest text from Chinese philosophical school of Zajia 雜家 "Syncretism", which combined ideas from the Hundred Schools of Thought, including Confucianism, Daoism, Mohism, and Legalism.
Shuowen Jiezi, often shortened to Shuowen, was an early 2nd-century Chinese dictionary from the Han Dynasty.
Sinicization, sinicisation, sinofication, or sinification is a process whereby non-Chinese societies come under the influence of Chinese culture, particularly Han Chinese culture and societal norms.
Sino-Platonic Papers is a scholarly monographic series published by the University of Pennsylvania.
Sinology or Chinese studies is the academic study of China primarily through Chinese language, literature, Chinese culture and history, and often refers to Western scholarship.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
Soteriology (σωτηρία "salvation" from σωτήρ "savior, preserver" and λόγος "study" or "word") is the study of religious doctrines of salvation.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Stephen F. Teiser (born 1956) is D.T. Suzuki Professor in Buddhist Studies and Professor of Religion in the Department of Religion, Princeton University.
The swastika (as a character 卐 or 卍) is a geometrical figure and an ancient religious icon from the cultures of Eurasia, where it has been and remains a symbol of divinity and spirituality in Indian religions, Chinese religions, Mongolian and Siberian shamanisms.
Taichung, officially known as Taichung City, is a special municipality located in center-western Taiwan.
Taiji is a Chinese cosmological term for the "Supreme Ultimate" state of undifferentiated absolute and infinite potential, the oneness before duality, from which Yin and Yang originate, can be compared with the old Wuji (無極, "without ridgepole").
The Taiping Rebellion, also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion or total civil war in China that was waged from 1850 to 1864 between the established Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom under Hong Xiuquan.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Taiwan under Japanese rule is the period between 1895 and 1945 in which the island of Taiwan (including the Penghu Islands) was a dependency of the Empire of Japan, after Qing China lost the First Sino-Japanese War to Japan and ceded Taiwan Province in the Treaty of Shimonoseki.
Taiyi Shengshui was written about 300 BC during the Warring States period.
A talisman is an object that someone believes holds magical properties that bring good luck to the possessor or protect the possessor from evil or harm.
Tang Chun-I (17 January 1909 – 2 February 1978) was a Chinese philosopher, who was one of the leading exponents of New Confucianism.
Tao or Dao (from) is a Chinese word signifying 'way', 'path', 'route', 'road' or sometimes more loosely 'doctrine', 'principle' or 'holistic science' Dr Zai, J..
The Tao Te Ching, also known by its pinyin romanization Daodejing or Dao De Jing, is a Chinese classic text traditionally credited to the 6th-century BC sage Laozi.
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
Taoism is a religion with many schools or denominations, of which none occupies a position of orthodoxy.
A temple (from the Latin word templum) is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice.
Tengrism, also known as Tengriism or Tengrianism, is a Central Asian religion characterized by shamanism, animism, totemism, poly- and monotheismMichael Fergus, Janar Jandosova,, Stacey International, 2003, p.91.
The Peach Blossom Spring (also translated as “(The Record of) the Peach Blossom”), or Peach Blossom Spring Story or The Peach Blossom Land, was a fable written by Tao Yuanming in 421 CE about a chance discovery of an ethereal utopia where the people lead an ideal existence in harmony with nature, unaware of the outside world for centuries.
Thumos (also commonly spelled thymos; θυμός) is a Greek word expressing the concept of "spiritedness" (as in "spirited stallion" or "spirited debate").
Tiān (天) is one of the oldest Chinese terms for heaven and a key concept in Chinese mythology, philosophy, and religion.
Tiandiism is a group of Chinese folk religious sects, namely the Holy Church of the Heavenly Virtue and the Lord of Universe Church, which emerged respectively from the teachings of Xiao Changming and Li Yujie, disseminated in the early 20th century.
Tianshui is the second-largest city in Gansu Province, China.
The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province-level autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Tongji (Tâi-lô: tâng-ki) or Jitong is a Chinese folk religious specialist, usually translated as a "spirit medium", "oracle", or "shaman".
A totem (Ojibwe doodem) is a spirit being, sacred object, or symbol that serves as an emblem of a group of people, such as a family, clan, lineage, or tribe.
In religion, transcendence refers to the aspect of a god's nature and power which is wholly independent of the material universe, beyond all known physical laws.
Tu Weiming (born February 26, 1940) is an ethicist and a New Confucian.
The Tujia (Northern Tujia: Bifzivkar, IPA:pi˧˥ ʦi˥ kʰa˨˩; Southern Tujia: Mongrzzir, IPA: /mõ˨˩ ʣi˨˩/; Chinese: 土家族, pinyin: Tǔjiāzú), with a total population of over 8 million, is the 8th largest ethnic minority in the People's Republic of China.
Tungusic peoples are the peoples who speak Tungusic languages.
A tutelary (also tutelar) is a deity or spirit who is a guardian, patron, or protector of a particular place, geographic feature, person, lineage, nation, culture, or occupation.
Universalism is a theological and philosophical concept that some ideas have universal application or applicability.
The veneration of the dead, including one's ancestors, is based on love and respect for the deceased.
Vietnamese folk religion or Vietnamese indigenous religion (tín ngưỡng dân gian Việt Nam, tôn giáo bản địa Việt Nam) is the ethnic religion of the Vietnamese people.
Wang Ye worship is a Fujianese and Taiwanese folk religion, frequently considered an aspect of the Taoist belief system.
Warp and weft are terms for the two basic components used in weaving to turn thread or yarn into fabric.
The Way of the Gods according to the Confucian Tradition (Chinese: 儒宗神教 Rúzōng Shénjiào), also called the Luandao (鸾道 "Phoenix Way" or 鸾门 Luánmén, "Phoenix Gate") or Luanism (鸾教 Luánjiào) or—from the name of its cell congregations—the phoenix halls or phoenix churches (鸾堂 luántáng), is a Confucian congregational religious movement of the Chinese traditional beliefs.
Western China (or rarely) is the west of China.
Wu (Chinese: 悟) is a concept of awareness, consciousness, or spiritual enlightenment in the Chinese folk religion.
Wu are spirit mediums who have practiced divination, prayer, sacrifice, rainmaking, and healing in Chinese traditions dating back over 3,000 years.
Wu wei is a concept literally meaning non-action or non-doing.
The Wu Xing, also known as the Five Elements, Five Phases, the Five Agents, the Five Movements, Five Processes, the Five Steps/Stages and the Five Planets of significant gravity: Jupiter-木, Saturn-土, Mercury-水, Venus-金, Mars-火Dr Zai, J..
The Wǔfāng Shàngdì (五方上帝 "Five Forms of the Highest Deity"), or simply Wǔdì (五帝 "Five Deities") or Wǔshén (五神 "Five Gods") are, in Chinese canonical texts and common Chinese religion, the fivefold manifestation of the supreme God of Heaven (天 Tiān).
Xian is a Chinese word for an enlightened person, translatable in English as.
The Xiantiandao (or "Way of the Primordial"; Vietnamese: Tiên Thiên Đạo, Japanese: Sentendō), also simply Tiandao (Vietnamese: Thiên Đạo, Japanese: Tendō) is one of the most productive currents of Chinese folk religious sects, characterised by representing the principle of divinity as feminine and by a concern for salvation (moral completion) of mankind.
The Xinhai Revolution, also known as the Chinese Revolution or the Revolution of 1911, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty (the Qing dynasty) and established the Republic of China (ROC).
Xu Shen (CE) was a Chinese scholar-official and philologist of the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-189).
Xuanyuandao (軒轅道 "Way of Xuanyuan"), also known as Xuanyuanism (軒轅教) or Huangdiism (黄帝教), is a Confucian folk religion of China which was founded in Taipei, Taiwan, in 1952.
The Xunzi is an ancient Chinese collection of philosophical writings attributed to Xun Kuang, a 3rd century BC philosopher usually associated with the Confucian tradition.
The Yan Emperor or the Flame Emperor was a legendary ancient Chinese ruler in pre-dynastic times.
Yan Huang Zisun is a term that represents the Chinese people and refers to a ethnocultural identity based on a common ancestry associated with a mythological origin.
The Yan Mountains, also known by their Chinese name Yanshan, are a major mountain range to the north of the North China Plain, principally in the province of Hebei.
Yangge is a form of Chinese folk dance developed from a dance known in the Song dynasty as Village Music (村田樂).
Yao folk religion is the ethnic religion of the Yao people, a non-Sinitic ethnic group who reside in the Guangxi, Hunan and surrounding provinces of China.
The Yao people (its majority branch is also known as Mien;; người Dao) is a government classification for various minorities in China and Vietnam.
The Yellow Emperor, also known as the Yellow Thearch, the Yellow God or the Yellow Lord, or simply by his Chinese name Huangdi, is a deity in Chinese religion, one of the legendary Chinese sovereigns and culture heroes included among the mytho-historical Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors and cosmological Five Forms of the Highest Deity (五方上帝 Wǔfāng Shàngdì).
The Yi or Nuosuo people (historically known as Lolo) are an ethnic group in China, Vietnam, and Thailand.
Yiguandao, meaning the Consistent Way or Persistent Way, is a Chinese folk religious sect that emerged from the Xiantiandao ("Way of Former Heaven") tradition in the late 19th century, in Shandong, to become China's most important redemptive society in the 1930s and 1940s, especially during the Japanese invasion.
In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang (and; 陽 yīnyáng, lit. "dark-bright", "negative-positive") describes how seemingly opposite or contrary forces may actually be complementary, interconnected, and interdependent in the natural world, and how they may give rise to each other as they interrelate to one another.
Yuán or Yuanfen (Vietnamese: duyên phận), "fateful coincidence," is a concept in the Chinese folk religion describing good and bad chances and potential relationships.
Yulin is a prefecture-level city in the Shanbei region of Shaanxi province, China, bordering Inner Mongolia to the north, Shanxi to the east, and Ningxia to the west.
Zailiism (在理教, the "Way of the Abiding Principle") or Liism (理教), also known as the Baiyidao (白衣道 "White-Clad Way") or Bafangdao (八方道 "Octagonal Way"), is a Chinese folk religious sect of north China, founded in the 17th century by Yang Zai.
Zhang Zai (1020–1077) was a Chinese Neo-Confucian moral philosopher and cosmologist.
Zhengyi Dao or the Way of Orthodox Unity is a Chinese Daoist movement that emerged during the Tang dynasty as a transformation of the earlier Tianshi Dao movement.
Zhenren is a Chinese term that first appeared in the Zhuangzi meaning "Daoist spiritual master", roughly translatable as "Perfected Person".
The Zhou dynasty or the Zhou Kingdom was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty.
Zhu Xi (October 18, 1130 – April 23, 1200), also known by his courtesy name Yuanhui (or Zhonghui), and self-titled Hui'an, was a Chinese philosopher, politician, and writer of the Song dynasty.
The Zhuang people are an ethnic group who mostly live in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China.
The Zhuangzi (Mandarin:; historically romanized Chuang-tzu) is an ancient Chinese text from the late Warring States period (476221) which contains stories and anecdotes that exemplify the carefree nature of the ideal Daoist sage.
Chinese Folk Religion, Chinese Folk Religions, Chinese Universism, Chinese Universists, Chinese civil religion, Chinese communal deity religion, Chinese ethnic religion, Chinese folk religious, Chinese indigenous religion, Chinese native religion, Chinese paganism, Chinese popular religion, Chinese traditional religion, Eighth Lord, Han folk religion, Han folk religions, Lords of the Five Peaks, Seventh Lord, Shehui, Shendao, Shenism, Shenshe, Shenxianism, Shenxianjiao, Traditional Chinese religion, Traditional Chinese religions, Traditional chinese religion, Zhonghuaism, Zhonghuajiao.