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Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.
Balhae (698–926), also known as Parhae or Bohai was a multi-ethnic kingdom in Manchuria and the Korean peninsula.
Ban Chao (32–102 CE), courtesy name Zhongsheng, was a Chinese military general, explorer and diplomat of the Eastern Han Dynasty.
Beatification (from Latin beatus, "blessed" and facere, "to make") is a recognition accorded by the Catholic Church of a dead person's entrance into Heaven and capacity to intercede on behalf of individuals who pray in his or her name.
Bo Qin (Chinese: 禽, p Bóqín), also known as Qin Fu (禽父), was the founder of the State of Lu during the early Zhou dynasty.
The Book of Sui (Suí Shū) is the official history of the Sui dynasty.
The Book of the Later Han, also known as the History of the Later Han and by its Chinese name Hou Hanshu, is one of the Twenty-Four Histories and covers the history of the Han dynasty from 6 to 189 CE, a period known as the Later or Eastern Han.
Borjigin (plural Borjigid; Боржигин, Borjigin; Борджигин, Bordjigin; Mongolian script:, Borjigit) is the last name of the imperial clan of Genghis Khan and his successors.
Bu Shang (507–BC), commonly known by his courtesy name Zixia or as Buzi, was a prominent disciple of Confucius who was considered one of the most accomplished in cultural learning.
Cai Rukai (1867 - 1923) was a Chinese politician and educator of the late Qing dynasty and early Republican period.
Cao Cao (– 15 March 220), courtesy name Mengde, was a Chinese warlord and the penultimate Chancellor of the Eastern Han dynasty who rose to great power in the final years of the dynasty.
General Cao Kun (Courtesy name: Zhongshan (仲珊)) (December 12, 1862 – May 15, 1938) was a Chinese warlord and politician, who served the President of the Republic of China from 1923 to 1924, as well as the military leader of the Zhili clique in the Beiyang Army; he also served as a trustee of the Catholic University of Peking.
Cao Pi (– 29 June 226), courtesy name Zihuan, was the first emperor of the state of Cao Wei in the Three Kingdoms period of China.
Wei (220–266), also known as Cao Wei, was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280).
The Chahars (Khalkha Mongolian: Цахар, Tsahar) are a subgroup of Mongols that speak Chakhar Mongolian and predominantly live in southeastern Inner Mongolia, China.
Chen Bingkun,,(1868 – September 1927) was born in 1868 in Liujiang, Guangxi, China.
The Chen dynasty (557-589), also known as the Southern Chen dynasty, was the fourth and last of the Southern Dynasties in China, eventually destroyed by the Sui dynasty.
Chen Shubao (553–604), also known as the Final Lord of Chen, posthumous name Duke Yáng of Chángchéng, courtesy name), nickname, was the last emperor of Chen China, which was conquered by Sui China. At the time of his ascension, Chen was already facing military pressure by the Sui on multiple fronts, and, according to traditional historians, Chen Shubao was an incompetent ruler who was more interested in literature and women than in the affairs of the state. In 589, Sui forces captured his capital, Jiankang, and captured him, ending Chen rule and unifying China after nearly three centuries of division that had started with the conquests of Emperor Hui of Jin. He was taken to the Sui capital Chang'an, where he was treated kindly by Emperor Wen of Sui until his death in 604, during the reign of Emperor Wen's son, Emperor Yang.
Chen Yi (courtesy names Gongxia (公俠) and later Gongqia (公洽), sobriquet Tuisu (退素); May 3, 1883 – June 18, 1950) was the chief executive and garrison commander of Taiwan Province after the Empire of Japan surrendered to the Republic of China.
Chéng Hào (1032–1085), Courtesy name Bóchún, was a neo-Confucian philosopher from Luoyang, China.
Cheng Yi (1033–1107), courtesy name Zhengshu (正叔), also known as Yichuan Xiansheng (伊川先生), was a Chinese philosopher born in Luoyang during the Song Dynasty.
Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih or Jiang Jieshi and known as Chiang Chungcheng, was a political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and then in exile in Taiwan.
A chiefdom is a form of hierarchical political organization in non-industrial societies usually based on kinship, and in which formal leadership is monopolized by the legitimate senior members of select families or 'houses'.
The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC).
Chinese classic texts or canonical texts refers to the Chinese texts which originated before the imperial unification by the Qin dynasty in 221 BC, particularly the "Four Books and Five Classics" of the Neo-Confucian tradition, themselves a customary abridgment of the "Thirteen Classics".
Chu (Old Chinese: *s-r̥aʔ) was a hegemonic, Zhou dynasty era state.
The common people, also known as the common man, commoners, or the masses, are the ordinary people in a community or nation who lack any significant social status, especially those who are members of neither royalty, nobility, the clergy, nor any member of the aristocracy.
Concubinage is an interpersonal and sexual relationship in which the couple are not or cannot be married.
Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.
Imperial Noble Consort Keshun (27 February 1876 – 15 August 1900), better known as Consort Zhen or popularly as the Pearl Concubine, was a consort of the Guangxu Emperor, the penultimate emperor of the Qing dynasty and imperial China.
The Cui clan of Boling(博陵崔氏) was a notable Chinese clan of noble descent which was politically active from the Han dynasty to the end of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
The Cui clan of Qinghe (清河崔氏) was an eminent Chinese family of high-ranking government officials and Confucian scholars.
Cui Hao (崔浩) (died 450 CE), courtesy name Boyuan (伯淵), was a prime minister of the Chinese/Xianbei dynasty Northern Wei.
Cui Qun (崔群) (772 – August 30, 832Old Book of Tang, vol. 17, part 2.), courtesy name Dunshi (敦詩), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Xianzong.
The Dali Kingdom, also known as the Dali State (Bai: Dablit Guaif), was a kingdom situated in modern Yunnan province, China from 937 until 1253 when it was conquered by the Mongols.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
Denis Crispin Twitchett (23 September 192524 February 2006) was a British Sinologist and scholar who specialized in Chinese history, and is well known as one of the co-editors of The Cambridge History of China.
According to Sima Qian, Confucius said: "The disciples who received my instructions, and could themselves comprehend them, were seventy-seven individuals.
Dishu was an important legal and moral system involving marriage and inheritance in ancient China.
The Dongyi or Eastern Yi was a collective term, referring to ancient peoples who lived in eastern China during the prehistory of ancient China and in lands located in the Shandong peninsula and some other eastern parts of ancient China.
Duan Zhigui (1869 – March 1925) was a Chinese general.
Duanmu Ci (520–456 BC), also known by his courtesy name Zigong, was one of the most important and loyal disciples of Confucius.
A duchy is a country, territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess.
Dugu (獨孤) was a Chinese compound surname of Xianbei/Xiongnu origin.
Duke Huan of Lu (died 694 BC) was from 711 to 694 BC the 15th ruler of the State of Lu during the Spring and Autumn period of ancient China.
Dan, Duke Wen of Zhou (11th Century BC), commonly known as the Duke of Zhou, was a member of the royal family of the Zhou dynasty who played a major role in consolidating the kingdom established by his elder brother King Wu.
The Duke of Yansheng, literally "Duke Overflowing with Sagacity", sometimes translated as Holy Duke of Yen, was a Chinese title of nobility.
Wu (222–280), commonly known as Dong Wu (Eastern Wu) or Sun Wu, was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280).
Ejei Khongghor or Ejei Khan (?–1661) was the son of Ligdan Khan, the last in the Borjigin clan of Mongol Khans, who once established the Mongol Empire in the 13th century.
An emperor (through Old French empereor from Latin imperator) is a monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm.
Emperor Ai of Tang (27 October 89226 March 908), also known as Emperor Zhaoxuan (昭宣帝), born Li Zuo, later known as Li Zhu, was the last emperor of the Tang dynasty of China.
Emperor An of Han (94 – 30 April 125) was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty and the sixth emperor of the Eastern Han, ruling from 106 to 125.
Emperor Gao of Southern Qi ((南)齊高帝; 427–482), personal name Xiao Daocheng (蕭道成), courtesy name Shaobo (紹伯), nickname Doujiang (鬥將)) was the founding emperor of the Chinese dynasty Southern Qi. He served as a general under the preceding dynasty Liu Song's Emperor Ming and Emperor Houfei. In 477, fearful that the young, cruel Emperor Houfei would kill him, assassinated Emperor Houfei and seized power, eventually taking the throne in 479 to start Southern Qi.
Emperor Gaozong of Song (12 June 1107 – 9 November 1187), personal name Zhao Gou, courtesy name Deji, was the tenth emperor of the Song dynasty in China and the first emperor of the Southern Song dynasty.
Emperor Gaozu of Han (256 BC – 1 June 195 BC), born Liu Bang (刘邦), was the founder and first emperor of the Han dynasty, reigning from 202 – 195 BC.
Emperor Gaozu of Tang (8 April 566 – 25 June 635), born Li Yuan, courtesy name Shude, was the founder of the Tang Dynasty of China, and the first emperor of this dynasty from 618 to 626.
Emperor Gong of Jin (386–421) was last emperor of the Eastern Jin Dynasty (265-420) in China.
Emperor Gong of Song (2 November 1271 – May 1323), personal name Zhao Xian, was the 16th emperor of the Song dynasty in China and the seventh emperor of the Southern Song dynasty.
Emperor He of Southern Qi ((南)齊和帝) (488–502), personal name Xiao Baorong (蕭寶融), courtesy name Zhizhao (智昭), was the last emperor of the Chinese dynasty Southern Qi.
Emperor Huai of Jin (284 – March 14, 313), personal name Sima Chi (司馬熾), courtesy name Fengdu (豐度), was an emperor of the Jin Dynasty (265-420).
Emperor Jing of Liang (543–558), personal name Xiao Fangzhi (蕭方智), courtesy name Huixiang (慧相), nickname Fazhen (法真), was an emperor of the Chinese Liang Dynasty.
Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou ((北)周靜帝) (573–581), personally name né Yuwen Yan (宇文衍), later Yuwen Chan (宇文闡), was the last emperor of the Xianbei dynasty Northern Zhou.
The Emperor or Huangdi was the secular imperial title of the Chinese sovereign reigning between the founding of the Qin dynasty that unified China in 221 BC, until the abdication of Puyi in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution and the establishment of the Republic of China, although it was later restored twice in two failed revolutions in 1916 and 1917.
The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and the head of state of Japan.
Emperor Qinzong of Song (23 May 1100 – 14 June 1161), personal name Zhao Huan, was the ninth emperor of the Song dynasty in China and the last emperor of The Northern Song Dynasty.
Emperor Shun of Liu Song ((劉)宋順帝) (8 August 467 – 23 June 479), personal name Liu Zhun (劉準), courtesy name Zhongmou (仲謀), nickname Zhiguan (智觀), was an emperor of the Chinese dynasty Liu Song.
Emperor Taizong of Song (20 November 939 – 8 May 997), personal name Zhao Jiong, was the second emperor of the Song dynasty in China.
Emperor Tianzuo of Liao (5 June 1075 – 1128 or 1156), personal name Yelü Yanxi, courtesy name Yanning, was the ninth and last emperor of the Khitan-led Liao dynasty.
Emperor Wen of Sui (隋文帝; 21 July 541 – 13 August 604), personal name Yang Jian (楊堅), Xianbei name Puliuru Jian (普六茹堅), nickname Nryana, was the founder and first emperor of China's Sui Dynasty (581–618 AD).
Emperor Wu of Chen (陳武帝) (503–559), personal name Chen Baxian (陳霸先), courtesy name Xingguo (興國), nickname Fasheng (法生), was the first emperor of the Chen dynasty of China.
Emperor Wu of Liang (梁武帝) (464–549), personal name Xiao Yan (蕭衍), courtesy name Shuda (叔達), nickname Lian'er (練兒), was the founding emperor of the Liang Dynasty of Chinese history.
Emperor Wu of (Liu) Song ((劉)宋武帝; 363–422), personal name Liu Yu (劉裕), courtesy name Dexing (德興), nickname Jinu (寄奴), was the founding emperor of the Chinese dynasty Liu Song.
Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou ((北)周武帝) (543–578), personal name Yuwen Yong (宇文邕), nickname Miluotu (禰羅突), was an emperor of the Xianbei dynasty Northern Zhou.
Emperor Xian of Han (2 April 181 – 21 April 234), personal name Liu Xie, courtesy name Bohe, was the 14th and last emperor of the Eastern Han dynasty in China.
Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei ((北)魏孝文帝) (October 13, 467 – April 26, 499), personal name né Tuoba Hong (拓拔宏), later Yuan Hong (元宏), or Toba Hung II, was an emperor of the Northern Wei from September 20, 471 to April 26, 499.
Emperor Xiaozhuang of Northern Wei (507–531), personal name Yuan Ziyou, was an emperor of China of the Northern Wei, a Xianbei dynasty. He was placed on the throne by General Erzhu Rong, who refused to recognize the young emperor, Yuan Zhao, who Empress Dowager Hu had placed on the throne after she poisoned her son Emperor Xiaoming. During his reign, General Erzhu largely controlled the military and acted in a violent manner, leading Emperor Xiaozhuang to believe that he would usurp the throne. In 530, Emperor Xiaozhuang ambushed General Erzhu and killed him in the palace, but his cousin Erzhu Shilong and nephew Erzhu Zhao subsequently captured and killed Xiaozhuang.
Emperor Yi of Chu (died 206 BC), also known as King Huai II of Chu, personal name Xiong Xin, was the ruler of the Chu state in the late Qin dynasty.
The Empire of China was a short-lived attempt by statesman and general Yuan Shikai from late 1915 to early 1916 to reinstate monarchy in China, with himself as the Hongxian Emperor.
Empress dowager (also dowager empress or empress mother) (hiragana: こうたいごう) is the English language translation of the title given to the mother or widow of a Chinese, Japanese, Korean or Vietnamese emperor.
Empress Dowager Cixi1 (Manchu: Tsysi taiheo; 29 November 1835 – 15 November 1908), of the Manchu Yehenara clan, was a Chinese empress dowager and regent who effectively controlled the Chinese government in the late Qing dynasty for 47 years from 1861 until her death in 1908.
The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.
The term eunuch (εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man who has been castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences.
The term face idiomatically refers to one's own sense of self-image, dignity or prestige in social contexts.
Féng Guózhāng, (courtesy: Huafu 華甫 or 華符) (January 7, 1859 – December 12, 1919) was a key Beiyang Army general and politician in early republican China.
Feng Xifan (17th century), pseudonym Xifan (希範), was an official and general of the Kingdom of Tungning in Taiwan in the 17th century.
Feng Yuxiang (6 November 1882 – 1 September 1948) was a warlord and leader in Republican China from Chaohu, Anhui.
Fēngjiàn (封建) was a political ideology during the later part of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China, its social structure forming a decentralized system of government based on four occupations, or "four categories of the people." The Zhou kings enfeoffed their fellow warriors and relatives, creating large domains of land.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
The Five Barbarians or Wu Hu, is a Chinese historical exonym for ancient non-Han Chinese peoples who immigrated to northern China in the Eastern Han Dynasty, and then overthrew the Western Jin Dynasty and established their own kingdoms in the 4th–5th centuries.
The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period was an era of political upheaval in 10th-century Imperial China.
The Four Lords of the Warring States were four powerful aristocrats of the late Warring States period of Chinese history who exerted a strong influence on the politics of their respective states in the third century BCE.
The Four Sages, Assessors,Legge, James.
Fu Sheng (268–178 BC), also known as Master Fu (伏生), was a Confucian scholar of the Qin and Western Han dynasties of ancient China.
Fushun (formerly romanised as Fouchouen, using French spelling, also as Fuxi (撫西)) is a prefecture level city in Liaoning province, China, about east of Shenyang, with a population of 2,138,090 inhabitants (2010 census) and a total area of, of which is the city proper.
Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.
Gao Heng (570–577), often known in history as the Youzhu of Northern Qi ((北)齊幼主), was briefly an emperor of Northern Qi.
Gao Huan (496–547), courtesy name Heliuhun (賀六渾), formally Prince Xianwu of Qi (齊獻武王), later further formally honored by Northern Qi initially as Emperor Xianwu (獻武皇帝), then as Emperor Shenwu (神武皇帝) with the temple name Gaozu (高祖), was the Han Chinese paramount general of the Chinese/Xianbei dynasty Northern Wei and Northern Wei's branch successor state Eastern Wei.
Gegeen Khan (Mongolian: Шидэбал Гэгээн хаан, Shidebal Gegegen qaγan), born Shidibala, also known by the temple name Yingzong (Emperor Yingzong of Yuan, Chinese: 元英宗, February 22, 1302 – September 4, 1323), was the successor of Ayurbarwada to rule as Emperor of the Yuan dynasty.
Guan Yu (died January or February 220), courtesy name Yunchang, was a general serving under the warlord Liu Bei in the late Eastern Han dynasty.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Han Yu (76825 December 824) was a Chinese writer, poet, and government official of the Tang dynasty who significantly influenced the development of Neo-Confucianism.
The Hanlin Academy (Manchu: bithei yamun) was an academic and administrative institution founded in the eighth-century Tang China by Emperor Xuanzong in Chang'an.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Hegemony (or) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.
Herbert Franke (27 September 1914 – 10 June 2011) was a German historian of China.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
The History of Ming or the Ming History (Míng Shǐ) is one of the official Chinese historical works known as the Twenty-Four Histories.
The Hongwu Emperor (21 October 1328 – 24 June 1398), personal name Zhu Yuanzhang (Chu Yuan-chang in Wade-Giles), was the founding emperor of China's Ming dynasty.
House of Zhu, also known as House of Chu, was the imperial family of the Ming dynasty of China.
The ranks of imperial consorts have varied over the course of Chinese history but remained important throughout owing to its importance in management of the inner court and in imperial succession, which ranked heirs according to the prominence of their mothers in addition to their strict birth order.
The Chinese imperial examinations were a civil service examination system in Imperial China to select candidates for the state bureaucracy.
Inheritance is the practice of passing on property, titles, debts, rights, and obligations upon the death of an individual.
Jiang Guiti (1844 – January 16, 1922) was a Chinese general who served under Song Qing in the suppression of the Taiping and Nian rebels and later against the Empire of Japan.
Jin (Old Chinese: *), originally known as Tang (唐), was a major state during the middle part of the Zhou dynasty, based near the centre of what was then China, on the lands attributed to the legendary Xia dynasty: the southern part of modern Shanxi.
The Jin dynasty, officially known as the Great Jin, lasted from 1115 to 1234 as one of the last dynasties in Chinese history to predate the Mongol invasion of China.
The Jin dynasty or the Jin Empire (sometimes distinguished as the or) was a Chinese dynasty traditionally dated from 266 to 420.
Jin Yunpeng;; 1877 – 30 January 1951) was a Chinese general and politician of the Warlord Era of the Republic of China. He served as both Minister of War and then Premier of China several times. The first time he served as Premier, his government was plagued with financial woes; as such, he prepared to resign in May 1920. Instead, the President, Xu Shichang, allowed him to go on temporary holiday; this holiday quickly turned permanent with the appointment of Sa Zhenbing as Jin's successor the next day. In December 1921, having been made Premier once again, he resigned again; this time, he was replaced with Liang Shiyi. In 1927, he attempted to reorganize the cabinet of China, but was blocked from doing so.
Juqu Mujian (before 420 – 447), named Juqu Maoqian (沮渠茂虔) in some sources, formally Prince Ai of Hexi (河西哀王), was a king of the Xiongnu state Northern Liang—with most Chinese historians considering him the last king, although with some considering his brothers Juqu Wuhui and Juqu Anzhou to be kings of the state as well.
The Kangxi Emperor (康熙; 4 May 165420 December 1722), personal name Xuanye, was the fourth emperor of the Qing dynasty, the first to be born on Chinese soil south of the Shanhai Pass near Beijing, and the second Qing emperor to rule over that part of China, from 1661 to 1722.
Khagan or Qaghan (Old Turkic: kaɣan; хаан, khaan) is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic and Mongolian languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a khaganate (empire).
Khan خان/khan; is a title for a sovereign or a military ruler, used by Mongolians living to the north of China. Khan has equivalent meanings such as "commander", "leader", or "ruler", "king" and "chief". khans exist in South Asia, Middle East, Central Asia, Eastern Europe, East Africa and Turkey. The female alternatives are Khatun and Khanum. These titles or names are sometimes written as Khan/خان in Persian, Han, Kan, Hakan, Hanum, or Hatun (in Turkey) and as "xan", "xanım" (in Azerbaijan), and medieval Turkic tribes.
King, or King Regnant is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts.
King Wen of Zhou (1152 1056 BC) was king of Zhou during the late Shang dynasty in ancient China.
The Kingdom of Tungning or Kingdom of Formosa was a government that ruled part of southwestern Formosa (Taiwan) between 1661 and 1683.
After Liu Bang defeated Xiang Yu and proclaimed himself emperor of the Han dynasty, he followed the practice of Xiang Yu and enfeoffed many generals, noblemen, and imperial relatives as kings, the same title borne by the sovereigns of the Shang and Zhou dynasties and by the rulers of the Warring States.
Kublai (Хубилай, Hubilai; Simplified Chinese: 忽必烈) was the fifth Khagan (Great Khan) of the Mongol Empire (Ikh Mongol Uls), reigning from 1260 to 1294 (although due to the division of the empire this was a nominal position).
Kung Tsui-chang (born 1 July 1975) is the Sacrificial Official to Confucius in the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Senior Advisor to the President of the Republic of China.
Laozi (. Collins English Dictionary.; also Lao-Tzu,. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2016. or Lao-Tze;, literally "Old Master") was an ancient Chinese philosopher and writer.
The Later Jìn (936–947), also called Shi Jin (石晉), was one of the Five Dynasties during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in China.
The Later Liang (1 June 907 – 19 November 923), also known as Zhu Liang, was one of the Five Dynasties during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in China.
Fajia or Legalism is one of Sima Tan's six classical schools of thought in Chinese philosophy.
Li Bai (701–762), also known as Li Bo, Li Po and Li Taibai, was a Chinese poet acclaimed from his own day to the present as a genius and a romantic figure who took traditional poetic forms to new heights.
Li Fengji (758 – February 27, 835), courtesy name Xuzhou (虛舟), formally Duke Cheng of Zheng (鄭成公) or Duke Cheng of Liang (涼成公), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reigns of Emperor Xianzong, Emperor Xianzong's son Emperor Muzong, and grandson Emperor Jingzong.
Li Gao (351–417), courtesy name Xuansheng (玄盛), nickname Changsheng (長生), formally Prince Wuzhao of (Western) Liang ((西)涼武昭王), was the founding duke of the Chinese state Western Liang.
Li Guang (died 119 BC) was a Chinese general of the Western Han dynasty.
Li Hongzhang, Marquess Suyi (also romanised as Li Hung-chang) (15 February 1823 – 7 November 1901),, was a Chinese politician, general and diplomat of the late Qing dynasty.
Li Jing (571 – July 2, 649), courtesy name Yaoshi, posthumously known as Duke Jingwu of Wei (also spelled as Duke of Wey), was a Chinese general who lived in the early Tang dynasty and was most active during the reign of Emperor Taizong.
Li Jiongxiu (李迥秀), courtesy name Maozhi (茂之), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty, serving as chancellor during Wu Zetian's reign.
Li Kui (李揆) (711 – May 17, 784), courtesy name Duanqing (端卿), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Suzong.
Li Linfu (died January 3, 753), nickname Genu, formally the Duke of Jin, was an official of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor for 18 years (734–752), during the reign of Emperor Xuanzong—one of the longest terms of service for a chancellor in Tang history, and the longest during Xuanzong's reign.
Li Wei (李蔚) (died November 20, 879.Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 253.), courtesy name Maoxiu (茂休), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Xizong.
Li Xin (李信) was a general of Qin during the Warring States era.
Li Yiyan (李義琰) (died 688) was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Gaozong.
Li Yuanhong (courtesy name Songqing 宋卿) (October 19, 1864 – June 3, 1928) was a Chinese politician during the Qing dynasty and the republican era.
Li Zhaode (李昭德) (died April 28, 697) was an official of Wu Zetian's Zhou Dynasty and at one point served as chancellor.
Li Zhongyan (李仲言) (died December 16, 835 Zizhi Tongjian, vol. 245.), known as Li Xun (李訓) in 835, courtesy name initially Zixun (子訓), later Zichui (子垂), pseudonym Hermit Wang (王山人) during the mourning period for his mother, was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty.
The Liang dynasty (502–557), also known as the Southern Liang dynasty (南梁), was the third of the Southern Dynasties during China's Southern and Northern Dynasties period.
The Liao dynasty (Khitan: Mos Jælud), also known as the Liao Empire, officially the Great Liao, or the Khitan (Qidan) State (Khitan: Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur), was an empire in East Asia that ruled from 907 to 1125 over present-day Mongolia and portions of the Russian Far East, northern China, and northeastern Korea.
Liaoning is a province of China, located in the northeast of the country.
This is a list of the Celestial Masters, leaders of Zhengyi Dao, continuing Wudoumi Dao (Way of the Five Pecks of Rice).
This is a list of monarchs of Korea, arranged by dynasty.
Liu Bei (161 – 10 June 223), courtesy name Xuande, was a warlord in the late Eastern Han dynasty who founded the state of Shu Han in the Three Kingdoms period and became its first ruler.
Liu Guanxiong (1861, Fuzhou, Fujian – 1927, Tianjin) was a Chinese Admiral who was Navy Minister of China, from 1912–1916 and 1917-1919.
Liu Shan (207–271), courtesy name Gongsi, was the second and last emperor of the state of Shu Han during the Three Kingdoms period.
The Song dynasty, better known as the Liu Song dynasty (420–479 CE;; Wade-Giles: Liu Sung), also known as Former Song (前宋) or Southern Song (南宋), was the first of the four Southern Dynasties in China, succeeding the Eastern Jin and followed by the Southern Qi.
Liu Xianshi (May 8, 1870 – October 14, 1927) was a Chinese general of the Late Qing Dynasty and early Republican period.
Long Jiguang (龍濟光) (1867–1925) was an ethnic Hani Chinese general of the late Qing and early Republican period of China.
Lu (c. 1042–249 BC) was a vassal state during the Zhou dynasty of ancient China.
The Lu clan of Fanyang (范陽盧氏) was a Chinese political clan active from the late Eastern Han dynasty to the early Song dynasty.
Lu Jianzhang (1862 – June 14, 1918) was a general of the late Qing dynasty and early Republican period of China.
Lu Rongting (September 9, 1859 – November 6, 1928), also spelled as Lu Yung-ting and Lu Jung-t'ing, was a late Qing/early Republican military and political leader from Wuming, Guangxi.
Ma Anliang (French romanization: Ma-ngan-leang, Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ءًا ﻟِﯿْﺎ); 1855 – November 24, 1918) was a Hui born in Hezhou, Gansu, China. He became a general in the Qing dynasty army, and of the Republic of China. His father was Ma Zhan'ao, and his younger brothers were Ma Guoliang and Ma Suiliang (Ma Sui-liang) 馬遂良. Ma was educated in Chinese and Islamic education. His Muslim name was Abdul Majid 阿卜都里默直底.
Madam, or, as French, madame or, is a polite form of address for women, often contracted to ma'am.
Mahārāja (महाराज, also spelled Maharajah, Moharaja) is a Sanskrit title for a "great ruler", "great king" or "high king".
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.
Manchukuo was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945.
A mandarin (Chinese: 官 guān) was a bureaucrat scholar in the government of imperial China and Vietnam.
The Mandate of Heaven or Tian Ming is a Chinese political and religious doctrine used since ancient times to justify the rule of the King or Emperor of China.
A march or mark was, in broad terms, a medieval European term for any kind of borderland, as opposed to a notional "heartland".
A marquess (marquis) is a nobleman of hereditary rank in various European peerages and in those of some of their former colonies.
Marquis of Extended Grace was a title held by a descendant of the imperial family of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) during the subsequent Qing dynasty (1644–1912).
Matrilineality is the tracing of descent through the female line.
Mencius or Mengzi (372–289 BC or 385–303 or 302BC) was a Chinese philosopher who has often been described as the "second Sage", that is after only Confucius himself.
Meng Enyuan (1856–1933) was a Chinese general of the late Qing and early Republican period in China.
Meng Haoran (689/691–740) was a major Tang dynasty poet, and a somewhat older contemporary of Wang Wei, Li Bai and Du Fu.
Meng Jiao (751–814) was a Chinese poet during the Tang Dynasty.
A millennium (plural millennia or, rarely, millenniums) is a period equal to 1000 years, also called kiloyears.
Min Sun (536– BC), also known by his courtesy name Ziqian, was one of the most prominent disciples of Confucius.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
The Ming tombs are a collection of mausoleums built by the emperors of the Ming dynasty of China.
A mistress is a relatively long-term female lover and companion who is not married to her partner, especially when her partner is married to someone else.
Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco (Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign city-state, country and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe.
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Mu Ying (1345-1392) was a general during the Ming Dynasty, and an adopted son of its founder, the Hongwu Emperor (aka Zhu Yuanzhang).
The New Book of Tang (Xīn Tángshū), generally translated as "New History of the Tang", or "New Tang History", is a work of official history covering the Tang dynasty in ten volumes and 225 chapters.
Ni Sichong (1868–1924) was a Chinese general.
The nine rank system, also known as the nine grade controller system, was used to categorize and classify government officials in Imperial China.
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
The Northern Liang (397-439) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms in China.
The Northern Qi was one of the Northern dynasties of Chinese history and ruled northern China from 550 to 577.
The Northern Song Dynasty (2.4.960-3.20.1127) is an era of Song Dynasty.
The Northern Wei or the Northern Wei Empire, also known as the Tuoba Wei (拓跋魏), Later Wei (後魏), or Yuan Wei (元魏), was a dynasty founded by the Tuoba clan of the Xianbei, which ruled northern China from 386 to 534 (de jure until 535), during the period of the Southern and Northern Dynasties.
The Northern Yuan dynasty, was a Mongol régime based in the Mongolian homeland.
The Northern Zhou followed the Western Wei, and ruled northern China from 557 to 581 AD.
Nurhaci (alternatively Nurhachi; 21 February 1559 – 30 September 1626) was a Jurchen chieftain of Jianzhou, a vassal of Ming, who rose to prominence in the late 16th century in Manchuria.
Patrilineality, also known as the male line, the spear side or agnatic kinship, is a common kinship system in which an individual's family membership derives from and is recorded through his or her father's lineage.
A peerage is a legal system historically comprising hereditary titles in various countries, comprising various noble ranks.
The Pei clan of Hedong(河東裴氏) was a notable Chinese clan politically active from the Han dynasty to the end of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.
Primogeniture is the right, by law or custom, of the paternally acknowledged, firstborn son to inherit his parent's entire or main estate, in preference to daughters, elder illegitimate sons, younger sons and collateral relatives; in some cases the estate may instead be the inheritance of the firstborn child or occasionally the firstborn daughter.
Princess is a regal rank and the feminine equivalent of prince (from Latin princeps, meaning principal citizen).
A principality (or princedom) can either be a monarchical feudatory or a sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a monarch with the title of prince or by a monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince.
Puyi or Pu Yi (7 February 190617 October 1967), of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan, was the last Emperor of China and the twelfth and final ruler of the Qing dynasty.
The Qara Khitai (alternatively spelled Kara Khitai; Хар Хятан; 1124–1218), also known as the Kara Khitan Khanate or Western Liao, officially the Great Liao, was a sinicized Khitan empire in Central Asia.
Qi (Old Chinese) was a minor feudal state in ancient China that existed from the beginning of the Shang Dynasty (16th century BCE) until the beginning of the Warring States period, c. 445 BCE.
Qi Yaolin (1863 – ?) was a Chinese politician of the late Qing Dynasty and early period of the Republic of China.
Qian Chu (29 September 929 – 7 October 988, courtesy name Wende), known as Qian Hongchu before 960, was the last king of Wuyue, reigning from 947 until 978 when he surrendered his kingdom to the Song dynasty.
Qin (Old Chinese: *) was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty.
The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.
Qin Shi Huang (18 February 25910 September 210) was the founder of the Qin dynasty and was the first emperor of a unified China.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Qu Yingguang (February 6, 1883 – September 19, 1973), courtesy name Wenliu, was a Chinese politician active during the Republican period.
A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king (or an empress consort in the case of an emperor).
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
is a prefecture-level city in western Zhejiang province, People's Republic of China.
Ran Geng (born 544BC), also known by his courtesy name Boniu, was one of the most prominent disciples of Confucius.
Ran Qiu (born 522BC), also known by his courtesy name Ziyou and as Ran You, was a leading disciple of Confucius.
Ran Yong (522 BC – ?), also known by his courtesy name Zhonggong, was one of the prominent disciples of Confucius.
The Rebellion of the Seven States or Revolt of the Seven Kingdoms took place in 154 BC against China's Han Dynasty by its regional semi-autonomous kings, to resist the emperor's attempt to centralize the government further.
The Records of the Grand Historian, also known by its Chinese name Shiji, is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Han dynasty official Sima Qian after having been started by his father, Sima Tan, Grand Astrologer to the imperial court.
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
Republicanism is an ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty.
The Revolt of the Three Feudatories was a rebellion lasting from 1673 to 1681 in the Qing dynasty (1644–1912) during the early reign of the Kangxi Emperor (r. 1661–1722).
The Rites of Zhou, originally known as "Officers of Zhou" is actually a work on bureaucracy and organizational theory.
Traditional rank amongst European royalty, peers, and nobility is rooted in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.
The Qing dynasty (1644–1912) of China developed a complicated peerage system for royal and noble ranks.
The Second Emperor of Qin (229 – October 207 BCE) was the son of Qin Shi Huang and the second emperor of China's Qin dynasty.
The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.
Shao Kang (his surname was Sì 姒) was the sixth king of the Xia dynasty of ancient China.
Shao Yong (1011–1077), courtesy name Yaofu (堯夫), named Shào Kāngjié (邵康節) after death, was a Song dynasty Chinese philosopher, cosmologist, poet and historian who greatly influenced the development of Neo-Confucianism in China.
Shen Jinjian (1875–1924) was a politician of the Republic of China.
Shenyang, formerly known by its Manchu name Mukden or Fengtian, is the provincial capital and the largest city of Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China, as well as the largest city in Northeast China by urban population.
Shi Lang (1621–1696), Marquis Jinghai, also known as Secoe or Sego, was a Chinese admiral who served under the Ming and Qing dynasties in the 17th century.
The State of Shu was an ancient state in what is now Sichuan Province.
Shu or Shu Han (221–263) was one of the three major states that competed for supremacy over China in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280).
Sima Guang (17 November 1019 – 11 October 1086), courtesy name Junshi, was a Chinese historian, writer, and politician.
A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
The Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE) was a period of Ancient China divided into the Western Han (206 BCE – 9 CE) and Eastern Han (25–220 CE) periods, when the capital cities were located at Chang'an and Luoyang, respectively.
Son of Heaven, or Tian Zi, was the sacred imperial title of the Chinese emperor.
Sòng (Old Chinese: *) was a state during the Zhou dynasty of ancient China, with its capital at Shangqiu.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
Song Lian (宋濂, 1310–1381), style name Jinglian (景濂), was a literary and political adviser to the Ming dynasty founder, and one of the principal figures in the Mongol Yuan Dynasty Jinhua school of Neo-Confucianism.
The Southern Qi (479-502) was the second of the Southern dynasties in China, followed by the Liang Dynasty.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BC (or according to some authorities until 403 BC) which corresponds roughly to the first half of the Eastern Zhou Period.
Suí was a Zhou dynasty vassal state in the Han River Basin in modern Suizhou, Hubei, China.
The Sui Dynasty was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance.
Sun Hao (243 – January or February 284), courtesy name Yuanzong, originally named Sun Pengzu with the courtesy name Haozong, was the fourth and last emperor of the state of Eastern Wu during the Three Kingdoms period of China.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Tang Jiyao (August 14, 1883 – May 23, 1927) was a Chinese general and warlord of Yunnan during the Warlord Era of early Republican China.
Tang Xiangming (1885–1975) was a Chinese naval officer.
The Three Kingdoms (220–280) was the tripartite division of China between the states of Wei (魏), Shu (蜀), and Wu (吳).
The Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors were a group of mythological rulers or deities in ancient northern China who in later history have been assigned dates in a period from circa 2852 BC to 2070 BC.
Tian Wenlie (November 9, 1858 – November 12, 1924) was a Chinese politician of the late Qing Dynasty and early Republican period, military governor of Henan province and supporter of Yuan Shikai's restoration of the monarchy.
The transition from Ming to Qing or the Ming–Qing transition, also known as the Manchu conquest of China, was a period of conflict between the Qing dynasty, established by Manchu clan Aisin Gioro in Manchuria (contemporary Northeastern China), and the Ming dynasty of China in the south (various other regional or temporary powers were also associated with events, such as the short-lived Shun dynasty).
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.
Wang Yitang (October 17, 1877 – September 10, 1948) was a politician and military leader in the Qing Dynasty and Republic of China.
Wang Zhanyuan (February 20, 1861 – September 14, 1934) was a Chinese general of the Warlord Era of China's Republican period, whose power base was in Hubei province.
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.
The Way of the Celestial Masters is a Chinese Daoist movement that was founded by Zhang Daoling in 142 CE.
The Wei River is a major river in west-central China's Gansu and Shaanxi provinces.
Wen Tianxiang (June 6, 1236 – January 9, 1283 AD), Duke of Xinguo （信國公）, was a scholar-general in the last years of the Southern Song Dynasty.
The Western Liang (400-421) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms in China, one of the "Five Liang" (Wu Liang) of this era.
The study of women's history in the context of imperial China has been pursued since at least the late 1990s.
Wu Zetian (624 December16, 705),Paludan, 100 alternatively named Wu Zhao, Wu Hou, and during the later Tang dynasty as Tian Hou, also referred to in English as Empress Consort Wu or by the deprecated term "Empress Wu", was a Chinese sovereign who ruled unofficially as empress consort and empress dowager and later, officially as empress regnant (皇帝) during the brief Zhou dynasty (周, 684–705), which interrupted the Tang dynasty (618–690 & 705–907).
Wuyue (Shanghainese), 907–978, was an independent coastal kingdom founded during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (907–960) of Chinese history.
The Xia dynasty is the legendary, possibly apocryphal first dynasty in traditional Chinese history.
The Xianbei were proto-Mongols residing in what became today's eastern Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Northeast China.
Xiang Ji (232–202 BC), courtesy name Yu, better known as Xiang Yu, was a prominent warlord who lived in the late Qin dynasty.
Xiao Baoyin (蕭寶寅) (487–530), courtesy name Zhiliang (智亮), was an imperial prince of the Chinese dynasty Southern Qi.
Emperor Jing of (Western) Liang ((西)梁靖帝, as later honored by Xiao Xi in 617), personal name Xiao Cong (蕭琮), courtesy name Wenwen (溫文), known during the Sui dynasty as the Duke of Ju (莒公) then Duke of Liang (梁公), was the final emperor of the Chinese Western Liang dynasty.
The Xinhai Revolution, also known as the Chinese Revolution or the Revolution of 1911, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty (the Qing dynasty) and established the Republic of China (ROC).
Xu Shiying (許世英; September 10, 1873 – October 13, 1964, also romanized as Hsu Shih-ying) was a Chinese Kuomintang politician of the Republic of China.
Yan Hui (–481 BC) was the favorite disciple of Confucius and one of the most revered figures of Confucianism.
Yan Xishan; 8 October 1883 – 22 July 1960) was a Chinese warlord who served in the government of the Republic of China. He effectively controlled the province of Shanxi from the 1911 Xinhai Revolution to the 1949 Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War. As the leader of a relatively small, poor, remote province, he survived the machinations of Yuan Shikai, the Warlord Era, the Nationalist Era, the Japanese invasion of China and the subsequent civil war, being forced from office only when the Nationalist armies with which he was aligned had completely lost control of the Chinese mainland, isolating Shanxi from any source of economic or military supply. He has been viewed by Western biographers as a transitional figure who advocated using Western technology to protect Chinese traditions, while at the same time reforming older political, social and economic conditions in a way that paved the way for the radical changes that would occur after his rule.Gillin The Journal of Asian Studies 289.
Yan Yan (b. 506BC), also known by his courtesy name Ziyou and as Yan You or Yanzi, was a prominent disciple of Confucius, considered by Confucius to be his most distinguished disciple in the study of the classics.
Yan Zhitui (531–591) was a Chinese calligrapher, painter, musician, writer and politician who served four different Chinese states during the late Southern and Northern Dynasties: the Liang Dynasty in southern China, the Northern Qi and Northern Zhou Dynasties of northern China, and their successor state that reunified China, the Sui Dynasty.
Yang Yuhuan (26 June, 719 — 15 July 756), often known as Yang Guifei (Yang Kuei-fei) (with Guifei being the highest rank for imperial consorts during her time), known briefly by the Taoist nun name Taizhen (太真), was known as one of the Four Beauties of ancient China.
Yang Guozhong (died July 15, 756), né Yang Zhao (楊釗), was an official of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor late in the reign of Emperor Xuanzong.
Yang Shande (1873 – August 13, 1919) was a Chinese politician of the late Qing Dynasty and early Republican period.
Yang Wan (died August 27, 777), courtesy name Gongquan (公權), was an official of the Chinese Tang dynasty, serving briefly as chancellor during the reign of Emperor Daizong.
Yang Zengxin (March 6, 1864 – July 7, 1928) was the ruler of Xinjiang after the Xinhai Revolution in 1911 until his assassination in 1928.
Yelü Chucai (Yeh-lu Chu-tsai;; Mongolian: Urtu Saqal, 吾圖撒合里, "long beard"; the components of his name also variously spelt Yeh-Lu, Ye Liu, Yeliu, Chutsai, Ch'u-Ts'ai, etc.) (July 24, 1190 - June 20, 1244) was a statesman of Khitan ethnicity with royal family lineage to the Liao Dynasty, who became a vigorous adviser and administrator of the early Mongol Empire in the Confucian tradition.
Yelü Dashi (alternatively 耶律達實 Yēlǜ Dáshí), or Yeh-Lü Ta-Shih (r. 1124–1143) was the founder of the Qara Khitai state, also known as the Western Liao dynasty.
A yeoman was a member of a social class in late medieval to early modern England.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
Yuan Shikai (16 September 1859 – 6 June 1916) was a Chinese warlord, famous for his influence during the late Qing dynasty, his role in the events leading up to the abdication of the last Qing Emperor, his autocratic rule as the first formal President of the Republic of China, and his short-lived attempt to restore monarchy in China, with himself as the Hongxian Emperor.
Yue (Old Chinese: *), also known as Yuyue, was a state in ancient China which existed during the first millennium BC the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods of China's Zhou dynasty in the modern provinces of Zhejiang, Shanghai, and Jiangsu.
Yuwen Tai (507–556), nickname Heita (黑獺), formally Duke Wen of Anding (安定文公), later further posthumously honored by Northern Zhou initially as Prince Wen (文王) then as Emperor Wen (文皇帝) with the temple name Taizu (太祖), was the paramount general of the Chinese/Xianbei state Western Wei, a branch successor state of Northern Wei.
Zeng Guofan, Marquis Yiyong (26 November 1811 – 12 March 1872), birth name Zeng Zicheng, courtesy name Bohan, was a Chinese statesman, military general, and Confucian scholar of the late Qing dynasty.
Zengzi (505–435 BC), born Zeng Shen, courtesy name Ziyu, was an influential Chinese philosopher and disciple of Confucius.
Zhang Ling (34–156), courtesy name Fuhan, was an Eastern Han Dynasty Taoist figure credited with founding the Way of the Celestial Masters sect of Taoism, which is also known as the Way of the Five Pecks of Rice.
Zhang Guangjian (1864/1867 – 1938) was a Chinese politician of the late Qing Dynasty and early Republican period.
Zhang Huaizhi (1862 – 1934) was a brigade-general during the Boxer Rebellion; a warlord in the early Chinese Republic; Viceroy of Shandong.
Zhang Mingqi (July 29, 1875 – September 15, 1945) was a Qing Dynasty politician who served as the last Viceroy of Liangguang from April 14 to November 8, 1911.
Zhang Xiluan (1843–1922) was a Chinese general of the late Qing Dynasty.
Zhang Xun (September 16, 1854 – September 11, 1923), courtesy name Shaoxuan, was a Qing loyalist general who attempted to restore the abdicated emperor Puyi in the Manchu Restoration of 1917.
Zhang Zai (1020–1077) was a Chinese Neo-Confucian moral philosopher and cosmologist.
Zhao Mengfu (courtesy name Zi'ang (子昂); pseudonyms Songxue (松雪, "Pine Snow"), Oubo (鸥波, "Gull Waves"), and Shuijing-gong Dao-ren (水精宫道人, "Master of the Crystal Palace"); 1254–1322), was a descendant of the Song Dynasty's imperial family, and a Chinese scholar, painter and calligrapher during the Yuan Dynasty.
Zhao Ti (1871–1933) was a Chinese general of the late Qing and early Republican period of China.
Zhao Yiguang (1559–1625) was a writer who lived during the Ming dynasty.
Zheng Keshuang, Prince of Yanping 鄭克塽 (13 August 1670 – 22 September 1707), courtesy name Shihong, art name Huitang, was the third and last ruler of the Kingdom of Tungning in Taiwan in the 17th century.
Zhong You (542–480), commonly known by his courtesy names Zilu and Jilu, was one of the best known and most faithful disciples of Confucius.
The Zhou family of Runan was a notable Chinese family which descended from Ji Lie (姬烈), the youngest son of King Ping of the Zhou dynasty in 8th century BCE China.
Zhou Dunyi (1017–1073) was a Song dynasty Chinese Neo-Confucian philosopher and cosmologist born during the Song Dynasty.
The Zhou dynasty or the Zhou Kingdom was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty.
Zhu Jiabao (1860 – September 5, 1923) was a Chinese monarchist politician who supported the creation of the Empire of China and the 1917 Manchu Restoration of Zhang Xun.
Zhu Qinglan (1874 – January 13, 1941) courtesy name Ziqiao was a Chinese military officer of the Republic of China Category:1874 births Category:1941 deaths.
Zhu Rui(1905–1948), was born in Suqian, Jiangsu province.
Emperor Taizu of Later Liang (後梁太祖), personal name Zhu Quanzhong (朱全忠) (852–912), né Zhu Wen (朱溫), name later changed to Zhu Huang (朱晃), nickname Zhu San (朱三, literally, "the third Zhu"), was a Jiedushi (military governor) at the end of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, who previously served as a general under the rival Emperor Huang Chao's Empire of Qi and overthrew Empire of Tang in 907, established the Later Liang as its emperor, and ushered in the era of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms.
Zhu Xi (October 18, 1130 – April 23, 1200), also known by his courtesy name Yuanhui (or Zhonghui), and self-titled Hui'an, was a Chinese philosopher, politician, and writer of the Song dynasty.
Zhuansun Shi (b. 503BC), commonly known by his courtesy name Zizhang, was a prominent disciple of Confucius, who accompanied Confucius in his travels abroad, and later started his own sect of Confucianism.
Ziying (died January 206 BC) was the third and last ruler of the Qin dynasty.
Zuo Zongtang, Marquis Kejing (also romanised as Tso Tsung-t'ang;; 10 November 1812 – 5 September 1885), sometimes referred to as General Tso, was a Chinese statesman and military leader of the late Qing dynasty.
Aristocracy in ancient China, Aristocracy in china, Aristocrats in china, Bo (Chinese title), Bo (title), Chinese noble, Chinese peer, Chinese peerage, Chinese peers, Marquess (China), Marquis (China), Wang (title), Zi (Chinese title), Zi (title).