59 relations: Abbreviation, China, Chinese characters, Chinese emperors family tree, Chinese emperors family tree (early), Chinese emperors family tree (late), Chinese emperors family tree (middle), Chinese era name, Chinese historiography, Chinese mythology, Chinese nobility, Concubinage, Confucianism, Crown prince, Dynasties in Chinese history, Emperor of China, Emperor of Japan, Emperor Taizong of Tang, Eunuch, Family tree of ancient Chinese emperors, Göktürks, Han dynasty, Head of state, Heir apparent, History of China, Khagan, Khan of Heaven, List of Chinese monarchs, List of recipients of tribute from China, List of tributaries of China, Manchu people, Mandate of Heaven, Ming dynasty, Oracle bone, Pinyin, Posterity of Heaven, Posthumous name, Primogeniture, Qin dynasty, Qin Shi Huang, Qing dynasty, Shang dynasty, Sinocentrism, Son of Heaven, Synonym, Taiping Rebellion, Tang dynasty, Temple name, Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors, Tian, ..., Tianxia, Timeline of Chinese history, Wade–Giles, Wu Zetian, Xia dynasty, Xiang Yu, Yuan dynasty, Zhou dynasty, Zizhi Tongjian. Expand index (9 more) » « Shrink index
An abbreviation (from Latin brevis, meaning short) is a shortened form of a word or phrase.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
This a list of articles containing Chinese emperors family trees.
This is a family tree of Chinese emperors from the foundation of the Qin dynasty in 221 BC (by Qin Shihuangdi), till the end of the Sixteen Kingdoms period, in the first half of the fifth century AD.
This is a family tree of Chinese emperors from the Mongol conquest of 1279 to the end of the Qing dynasty in 1912.
The following is a family tree of Chinese emperors (420-1279), from the Northern and Southern dynasties period, of first half of the fifth century AD, until the conquest of China by the Mongols under Kublai Khan, and the sequel end of the Southern Song dynasty in 1279.
A Chinese era name is the regnal year, reign period, or regnal title used when traditionally numbering years in an emperor's reign and naming certain Chinese rulers.
Chinese historiography is the study of the techniques and sources used by historians to develop the recorded history of China.
Chinese mythology refers to myths found in the historical geographic area of China: these include myths in Chinese and other languages, as transmitted by Han Chinese and other ethnic groups, which have their own languages and myths.
Chinese sovereignty and peerage, the nobility of China, was an important feature of the traditional social and political organization of Imperial China.
Concubinage is an interpersonal and sexual relationship in which the couple are not or cannot be married.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
A crown prince is the male heir apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy.
The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese History.
The Emperor or Huangdi was the secular imperial title of the Chinese sovereign reigning between the founding of the Qin dynasty that unified China in 221 BC, until the abdication of Puyi in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution and the establishment of the Republic of China, although it was later restored twice in two failed revolutions in 1916 and 1917.
The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and the head of state of Japan.
Emperor Taizong of Tang (28January 598 10July 649), previously Prince of Qin, personal name Li Shimin, was the second emperor of the Tang dynasty of China, ruling from 626 to 649.
The term eunuch (εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man who has been castrated, typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences.
This is a family tree of Chinese kings before the establishment of the title emperor (皇帝) by Shi Huangdi.
The Göktürks, Celestial Turks, Blue Turks or Kok Turks (Old Turkic: 𐰜𐰇𐰛:𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰰, Kök Türük;, Middle Chinese: *duət̚-kʉɐt̚, Тўҗүә; Khotanese Saka: Ttūrka, Ttrūka; Old Tibetan: Drugu), were a nomadic confederation of Turkic peoples in medieval Inner Asia.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
An heir apparent is a person who is first in a line of succession and cannot be displaced from inheriting by the birth of another person.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
Khagan or Qaghan (Old Turkic: kaɣan; хаан, khaan) is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic and Mongolian languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a khaganate (empire).
Khan of Heaven or Tian Khehan, Celestial Khagan, Tengri Khan was a title addressed to Emperor Taizong of Tang by various Turkic nomads.
This list of Chinese monarchs includes rulers of China with various titles prior to the establishment of the Republic in 1912.
Chinese zhongyuan state entities have paid tribute to a number states and confederations throughout history.
This list of tributary states of China encompasses suzerain kingdoms from China in Europe, Africa, East Asia, South Asia, Central Asia and Southeast Asia.
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.
The Mandate of Heaven or Tian Ming is a Chinese political and religious doctrine used since ancient times to justify the rule of the King or Emperor of China.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
Oracle bones are pieces of ox scapula or turtle plastron, which were used for pyromancy – a form of divination – in ancient China, mainly during the late Shang dynasty.
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
Posterity of Heaven or Cheonson (천손, 天孫) designates the Korean people because they are considered the descendants of Heaven or the heavenly god.
A posthumous name is an honorary name given to royalty, nobles, and sometimes others, in East Asia after the person's death, and is used almost exclusively instead of one's personal name or other official titles during his life.
Primogeniture is the right, by law or custom, of the paternally acknowledged, firstborn son to inherit his parent's entire or main estate, in preference to daughters, elder illegitimate sons, younger sons and collateral relatives; in some cases the estate may instead be the inheritance of the firstborn child or occasionally the firstborn daughter.
The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.
Qin Shi Huang (18 February 25910 September 210) was the founder of the Qin dynasty and was the first emperor of a unified China.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.
Sinocentrism refers to the ideology that China is the cultural center of the world.
Son of Heaven, or Tian Zi, was the sacred imperial title of the Chinese emperor.
A synonym is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language.
The Taiping Rebellion, also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion or total civil war in China that was waged from 1850 to 1864 between the established Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom under Hong Xiuquan.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Temple names are commonly used when naming most Chinese, Korean (Goryeo and Joseon periods), and Vietnamese (such dynasties as Trần, Lý, and Lê) royalty.
The Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors were a group of mythological rulers or deities in ancient northern China who in later history have been assigned dates in a period from circa 2852 BC to 2070 BC.
Tiān (天) is one of the oldest Chinese terms for heaven and a key concept in Chinese mythology, philosophy, and religion.
Tianxia is a Chinese term for an ancient Chinese cultural concept that denoted either the entire geographical world or the metaphysical realm of mortals, and later became associated with political sovereignty.
This is a timeline of Chinese history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in China and its predecessor states.
Wade–Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese.
Wu Zetian (624 December16, 705),Paludan, 100 alternatively named Wu Zhao, Wu Hou, and during the later Tang dynasty as Tian Hou, also referred to in English as Empress Consort Wu or by the deprecated term "Empress Wu", was a Chinese sovereign who ruled unofficially as empress consort and empress dowager and later, officially as empress regnant (皇帝) during the brief Zhou dynasty (周, 684–705), which interrupted the Tang dynasty (618–690 & 705–907).
The Xia dynasty is the legendary, possibly apocryphal first dynasty in traditional Chinese history.
Xiang Ji (232–202 BC), courtesy name Yu, better known as Xiang Yu, was a prominent warlord who lived in the late Qin dynasty.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
The Zhou dynasty or the Zhou Kingdom was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty.
The Zizhi Tongjian is a pioneering reference work in Chinese historiography, published in 1084, in the form of a chronicle.
Chinese Sovereigns, Chinese king, Chinese kings, Chinese monarch, Chinese monarchs, Chinese sovereigns, King of China, Kings of China, Monarch of China, Monarchs of China, Sovereign of China, Sovereigns of China, Tables of Chinese Sovereigns, Tables of Chinese sovereigns.