224 relations: Activator technique, Activities of daily living, Acupuncture, Adverse effect, Afferent nerve fiber, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Alberta, Alternative medicine, American Chiropractic Association, American Medical Association, Ancient Greek, Anesthesiologist, Annals of Internal Medicine, Antiscience, Applied kinesiology, Association for the History of Chiropractic, Asthma, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Attorneys in the United States, B. J. Palmer, Baby colic, Back pain, Backlash (sociology), Best Practice & Research: Clinical Rheumatology, Biofeedback, Bonesetter, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College, Carotid artery dissection, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Causality, Causative, Cervicogenic headache, Chiropractic controversy and criticism, Chiropractic education, Chiropractic in Canada, Chiropractic treatment techniques, Christian Science, Cochrane (organisation), Contraindication, Cornwall, Correlation and dependence, Cost-effectiveness analysis, Council on Chiropractic Education – USA, Councils on Chiropractic Education International, Critical thinking, Cryotherapy, CT scan, Cult, Current Pharmaceutical Design, ..., Daniel David Palmer, Davenport, Iowa, Death, Deductive reasoning, Delaware, Demos Medical Publishing, Dentistry, Diet (nutrition), Dietary supplement, Dizziness, Dogma, Dysmenorrhea, Edzard Ernst, Efferent, Electrical muscle stimulation, Emergency medical services, European Convention on Human Rights, European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Evidence-based medicine, Existentialism, Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Fibromyalgia, Free Exercise Clause, Gastrointestinal disease, General Chiropractic Council, Grading in education, Health care, Health maintenance organization, Health policy, Herbalism, Hippocratic Oath, Holism, Homeopathy, Homeostasis, HuffPost, Human body, Human factors and ergonomics, Human musculoskeletal system, Hypertension, Ice pack, Idiopathic disease, Incidence (epidemiology), Inference, Insomnia, International Chiropractors Association, Ionizing radiation, Iowa, Irritable bowel syndrome, Joseph C. Keating Jr., Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Learning disability, License, Life University, Limp, List of chiropractic schools, List of topics characterized as pseudoscience, Low back pain, Magnet therapy, Managed care, Manipulation under anesthesia, Manual therapy, Massage, Materialism, McGraw-Hill Education, Medical prescription, Medicine, Menopause, Metaphysics, Migraine, Moist heat sterilization, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, National Board of Chiropractic Examiners, National Health Service, National Health Service (England), Neck manipulation, Neck pain, Nervous system, Neuroleptic malignant syndrome, Neuromuscular therapy, Neutral spine, New Jersey, New Mexico, Nocturnal enuresis, Office of Inspector General (United States), Oregon, Orthopedic surgery, Osteopathic medicine in the United States, Osteopathy, Osteoporosis, Over-the-counter drug, Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, Palmer College of Chiropractic, Pediatrics (journal), Pelvic girdle pain, Physical fitness, Physical therapy, Physician, Physiology, Placebo, Podiatry, Populism, Precautionary principle, Preventive healthcare, Primary care, Professional degree, Propranolol, Pseudoscience, Public health, Quackery, Radiculopathy, Radiology, Rationalism, Reductionism, Relaxation technique, Rheumatoid arthritis, Royal we, Sciatica, Scientific evidence, Scientific method, Scoliosis, Screening (medicine), Self-care, Shoulder problem, Skeptical Inquirer, Social contract, Social Science & Medicine, Soft tissue, Spinal adjustment, Spinal disc herniation, Spinal manipulation, Spine (journal), Spirituality, Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak, Sports medicine, Stress management, Stretching, Stroke, Suboccipital muscles, Systematic review, Tension headache, Testability, The Journal of Chiropractic Education, The Neurologist, Therapeutic ultrasound, Time (magazine), Toftness device, Topiramate, Traditional medicine, Trick or Treatment?, Trust (business), United States Department of Education, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Upper limb, Vaccination, Vertebral artery dissection, Vertebral column, Vertebral compression fracture, Vertebral subluxation, Veterinary chiropractic, Visceral pain, Visual perception, Vitalism, Water fluoridation, Western esotericism, Whiplash (medicine), Wilk v. American Medical Ass'n, William Harvey Lillard, World Federation of Chiropractic, World Health Organization, X-ray. Expand index (174 more) » « Shrink index
The Activator Method Chiropractic Technique is a chiropractic treatment method and device created by Arlan Fuhr as an alternative to manual manipulation of the spine or extremity joints.
Activities of daily living (ADLs or ADL) is a term used in healthcare to refer to people's daily self care activities.
Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine in which thin needles are inserted into the body.
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
Afferent nerve fibers refer to axonal projections that arrive at a particular region; as opposed to efferent projections that exit the region.
The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), located in Rockville, MD, a suburb of Washington, D.C., is one of 12 Agencies within the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).
Alberta is a western province of Canada.
Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.
The American Chiropractic Association (ACA), based in Arlington, VA, representing doctors of chiropractic.
The American Medical Association (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association of physicians—both MDs and DOs—and medical students in the United States.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
An anesthesiologist is a physician trained in anesthesia and perioperative medicine.
Annals of Internal Medicine is an academic medical journal published by the American College of Physicians (ACP).
Antiscience is a position that rejects science and the scientific method.
Applied kinesiology (AK) is a technique in alternative medicine claimed to be able to diagnose illness or choose treatment by testing muscles for strength and weakness.
The Association for the History of Chiropractic, founded in 1980, promotes the scholarly study and recording of the history of chiropractic.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
An attorney at law (or attorney-at-law) in the United States is a practitioner in a court of law who is legally qualified to prosecute and defend actions in such court on the retainer of clients.
Bartlett Joshua (B.J.) Palmer (September 14, 1882 – May 21, 1961), born in What Cheer, Iowa, 1882 (Sept 14): BJ Palmer is born in What Cheer (Rehm, 1980, p. 271; Gielow, 1981, p. 32) was the son of Daniel David Palmer (D.D.), the founder of chiropractic, and became known as the "Developer" of chiropractic.
Baby colic, also known as infantile colic, is defined as episodes of crying for more than three hours a day, for more than three days a week, for three weeks in an otherwise healthy child.
Back pain is pain felt in the back of the body.
A "backlash" is an adverse reaction to something which has gained popularity, prominence, or influence.
Best Practice & Research: Clinical Rheumatology is a medical journal covering evidence-based medicine as applied to clinical practice of musculoskeletal conditions.
Biofeedback is the process of gaining greater awareness of many physiological functions primarily using instruments that provide information on the activity of those same systems, with a goal of being able to manipulate them at will.
A bonesetter is a practitioner of joint manipulation.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) is a unit of the United States Department of Labor.
The Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College (CMCC) is a non-profit, private higher education institution in Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Carotid artery dissection is a separation of the layers of the artery wall supplying oxygen-bearing blood to the head and brain and is the most common cause of stroke in young adults.
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a medical condition due to compression of the median nerve as it travels through the wrist at the carpal tunnel.
Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.
In linguistics, a causative (abbreviated) is a valency-increasing operationPayne, Thomas E. (1997).
Cervicogenic headache is a type of headache characterised by chronic Hemicranial pain referred to the head from either the cervical spine or soft tissues within the neck.
Throughout its history chiropractic has been the subject of internal and external controversy and criticism.
Chiropractic education trains students in chiropractic, a form of alternative medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, especially the spine under the belief that such a disorder affects general health via the nervous system.
Chiropractic in Canada is licensed at the provincial and territorial level.
Chiropractors primarily use manipulation ("adjustment") of the spine as a treatment.
Christian Science is a set of beliefs and practices belonging to the metaphysical family of new religious movements.
Cochrane is a non-profit, non-governmental organization formed to organize medical research findings so as to facilitate evidence-based choices about health interventions faced by health professionals, patients, and policy makers.
In medicine, a contraindication is a condition or factor that serves as a reason to withhold a certain medical treatment due to the harm that it would cause the patient.
Cornwall (Kernow) is a county in South West England in the United Kingdom.
In statistics, dependence or association is any statistical relationship, whether causal or not, between two random variables or bivariate data.
Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is a form of economic analysis that compares the relative costs and outcomes (effects) of different courses of action.
The Council on Chiropractic Education (CCE) is an American agency recognized by the United States Department of Education for accreditation of programs and institutions offering the Doctor of Chiropractic degree.
The Councils on Chiropractic Education International (CCEI) is an organization of chiropractic accrediting bodies worldwide.
Critical thinking is the objective analysis of facts to form a judgment.
Cryotherapy, sometimes known as cold therapy, is the local or general use of low temperatures in medical therapy.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
The term cult usually refers to a social group defined by its religious, spiritual, or philosophical beliefs, or its common interest in a particular personality, object or goal.
Current Pharmaceutical Design is a peer-reviewed medical journal which covers issues related to pharmacology and medicinal chemistry.
Daniel David Palmer or D.D. Palmer (March 7, 1845 – October 20, 1913) was the founder of chiropractic.
Davenport is the county seat of Scott County in Iowa and is located along the Mississippi River on the eastern border of the state.
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, logical deduction is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion.
Delaware is one of the 50 states of the United States, in the Mid-Atlantic or Northeastern region.
Demos Medical Publishing, now an imprint of Springer Publishing Company, publishes books on neurology, oncology, pathology, and other medical subjects.
Dentistry is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the oral cavity, commonly in the dentition but also the oral mucosa, and of adjacent and related structures and tissues, particularly in the maxillofacial (jaw and facial) area.
In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.
Dizziness is an impairment in spatial perception and stability.
The term dogma is used in pejorative and non-pejorative senses.
Dysmenorrhea, also known as painful periods, or menstrual cramps, is pain during menstruation.
Edzard Ernst (born 30 January 1948) is an academic physician and researcher specializing in the study of complementary and alternative medicine.
Efferent is an anatomical term with the following meanings.
Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS), also known as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) or electromyostimulation, is the elicitation of muscle contraction using electric impulses.
Emergency medical services, also known as ambulance services or paramedic services (abbreviated to the initialism EMS, EMAS, EMARS or SAMU in some countries), are a type of emergency service dedicated to providing out-of-hospital acute medical care, transport to definitive care, and other medical transport to patients with illnesses and injuries which prevent the patient from transporting themselves.
The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) (formally the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms) is an international treaty to protect human rights and political freedoms in Europe.
The European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (print:, online) is a quarterly peer-reviewed medical journal.
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine is a peer-reviewed open-access medical journal covering alternative medicine published by Hindawi Publishing Corporation.
Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is an approach to medical practice intended to optimize decision-making by emphasizing the use of evidence from well-designed and well-conducted research.
Existentialism is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed.
The Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, based in Greeley, Colorado, is a non-profit organization which facilitates the coordination and communication of the 50 individual United States' chiropractic licensing boards.
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a medical condition characterised by chronic widespread pain and a heightened pain response to pressure.
The Free Exercise Clause accompanies the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Gastrointestinal diseases refer to diseases involving the gastrointestinal tract, namely the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine and rectum, and the accessory organs of digestion, the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
The General Chiropractic Council (GCC) is an independent statutory body established by Parliament to regulate the chiropractic profession in the United Kingdom.
Grading in education is the process of applying standardized measurements of varying levels of achievement in a course.
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.
In the United States, a health maintenance organization (HMO) is a medical insurance group that provides health services for a fixed annual fee.
Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific healthcare goals within a society".
Herbalism (also herbal medicine or phytotherapy) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet.
The Hippocratic Oath is an oath historically taken by physicians.
Holism (from Greek ὅλος holos "all, whole, entire") is the idea that systems (physical, biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic) and their properties should be viewed as wholes, not just as a collection of parts.
Homeopathy or homœopathy is a system of alternative medicine developed in 1796 by Samuel Hahnemann, based on his doctrine of like cures like (similia similibus curentur), a claim that a substance that causes the symptoms of a disease in healthy people would cure similar symptoms in sick people.
Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.
HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.
The human body is the entire structure of a human being.
Human factors and ergonomics (commonly referred to as Human Factors), is the application of psychological and physiological principles to the (engineering and) design of products, processes, and systems.
The human musculoskeletal system (also known as the locomotor system, and previously the activity system) is an organ system that gives humans the ability to move using their muscular and skeletal systems.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
An ice pack or gel pack is a portable plastic sac filled with water, or refrigerant gel or liquid.
An idiopathic disease is any disease with an unknown cause or mechanism of apparently spontaneous origin.
Incidence in epidemiology is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time.
Inferences are steps in reasoning, moving from premises to logical consequences.
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.
The International Chiropractors Association (ICA) was founded by B.J. Palmer in 1938 in Davenport, Iowa, USA.
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
Iowa is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States, bordered by the Mississippi River to the east and the Missouri and Big Sioux rivers to the west.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms—including abdominal pain and changes in the pattern of bowel movements without any evidence of underlying damage.
Joseph C. Keating Jr. (1950–2007) was trained as a clinical psychologist who spent the majority of his life teaching and researching the chiropractic profession.
The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering alternative medicine published by Mary Ann Liebert.
The Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy is a quarterly peer-reviewed medical journal covering the field of orthopaedic manual therapy, including clinical research, therapeutic practice, and academic training.
The Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine is an open peer-reviewed medical journal.
Learning disability is a classification that includes several areas of functioning in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner, usually caused by an unknown factor or factors.
A license (American English) or licence (British English) is an official permission or permit to do, use, or own something (as well as the document of that permission or permit).
Life University is a private university in the Atlanta suburb of Marietta, Georgia, United States, that offers undergraduate, masters, and a Doctor of Chiropractic degree.
A limp is a type of asymmetric abnormality of the gait.
This list of chiropractic schools is organized alphabetically by country.
This is a list of topics that have, at one point or another in their history, been characterized as pseudoscience by academics or researchers.
Low back pain (LBP) is a common disorder involving the muscles, nerves, and bones of the back.
Magnet therapy, magnetic therapy, or magnotherapy is a pseudoscientific alternative medicine practice involving the use of weak static magnetic fields, a form of electromagnetic radiation, produced by permanent magnets.
The term "managed care" or "managed healthcare" is used in the United States to describe a group of activities ostensibly intended to reduce the cost of providing for profit health care while improving the quality of that care ("managed care techniques").
Manipulation under anesthesia (MUA) or fibrosis release procedures is a multidisciplinary, chronic pain-related manual therapy modality which is used for the purpose of improving articular and soft tissue movement.
Manual therapy, or manipulative therapy, is a physical treatment primarily used by physical therapists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, chiropractors, massage therapists, athletic trainers, osteopaths, and osteopathic physicians to treat musculoskeletal pain and disability; it most commonly includes kneading and manipulation of muscles, joint mobilization and joint manipulation.
Massage is to work and act on the body with pressure.
Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
A prescription is a health-care program implemented by a physician or other qualified health care practitioner in the form of instructions that govern the plan of care for an individual patient.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children.
Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.
A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.
Moist heat sterilization describes sterilization techniques that utilize hot air that is heavily laden with water vapor and where this moisture plays the most important role in the sterilization.
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (also known as "NASEM" or "the National Academies") is the collective scientific national academy of the United States.
The National Board of Chiropractic Examiners (NBCE) is a non-profit national and international testing organization for the chiropractic profession that develops, administers, analyzes, scores, and reports results from various examinations.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the publicly funded national healthcare system for England and one of the four National Health Services for each constituent country of the United Kingdom.
Cervical manipulation, commonly known as neck manipulation, is a procedure involving adjustment of the upper 7 vertebrae of the spinal column.
Neck pain (or cervical Gia) is a common problem, with two-thirds of the population having neck pain at some point in their lives.
The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening reaction that occasionally occurs in response to neuroleptic or antipsychotic medication.
Neuromuscular Therapy (NMT) is an approach to soft tissue manual therapy.
A good posture refers to the "three natural curves are present in a healthy spine.". It is also called Neutral Spine.
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.
New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.
Nocturnal enuresis, also called bedwetting, is involuntary urination while asleep after the age at which bladder control usually occurs.
In the United States, the Office of Inspector General (OIG) is a generic term for the oversight division of a federal or state agency aimed at preventing inefficient or illegal operations within their parent agency.
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States.
Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics, also spelled orthopaedic, is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system.
Osteopathic medicine is a branch of the medical profession in the United States.
Osteopathy is a type of alternative medicine that emphasizes manual readjustments, myofascial release and other physical manipulation of muscle tissue and bones.
Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Palmer College of Chiropractic is the founding college of chiropractic and is located in Davenport, Iowa.
Pediatrics is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Pelvic girdle pain (abbreviated PGP) is a pregnancy discomfort that causes pain, instability and limitation of mobility and functioning in any of the three pelvic joints.
Physical fitness is a state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities.
Physical therapy (PT), also known as physiotherapy, is one of the allied health professions that, by using mechanical force and movements (bio-mechanics or kinesiology), manual therapy, exercise therapy, and electrotherapy, remediates impairments and promotes mobility and function.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which work within a living system.
A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.
Podiatry or podiatric medicine is a branch of medicine devoted to the study, diagnosis, and medical and surgical treatment of disorders of the foot, ankle and lower extremity.
In politics, populism refers to a range of approaches which emphasise the role of "the people" and often juxtapose this group against "the elite".
The precautionary principle (or precautionary approach) generally defines actions on issues considered to be uncertain, for instance applied in assessing risk management.
Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.
Primary care is the day-to-day healthcare given by a health care provider.
A professional degree, formerly known in the US as a first professional degree, is a degree that prepares someone to work in a particular profession, often meeting the academic requirements for licensure or accreditation.
Propranolol, sold under the brand name Inderal among others, is a medication of the beta blocker type. It is used to treat high blood pressure, a number of types of irregular heart rate, thyrotoxicosis, capillary hemangiomas, performance anxiety, and essential tremors. It is used to prevent migraine headaches, and to prevent further heart problems in those with angina or previous heart attacks. It can be taken by mouth or by injection into a vein. The formulation that is taken by mouth comes in short-acting and long-acting versions. Propranolol appears in the blood after 30 minutes and has a maximum effect between 60 and 90 minutes when taken by mouth. Common side effects include nausea, abdominal pain, and constipation. It should not be used in those with an already slow heart rate and most of those with heart failure. Quickly stopping the medication in those with coronary artery disease may worsen symptoms. It may worsen the symptoms of asthma. Caution is recommended in those with liver or kidney problems. Propranolol may cause harmful effects in the baby if taken during pregnancy. Its use during breastfeeding is probably safe, but the baby should be monitored for side effects. It is a non-selective beta blocker which works by blocking β-adrenergic receptors. Propranolol was discovered in 1964. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Propranolol is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.24 and 2.16 per month as of 2014. In the United States it costs about $15 per month at a typical dose.
Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual, but are incompatible with the scientific method.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
Quackery or health fraud is the promotion of fraudulent or ignorant medical practices.
Radiculopathy, also commonly referred to as pinched nerve, refers to a set of conditions in which one or more nerves are affected and do not work properly (a neuropathy).
Radiology is the science that uses medical imaging to diagnose and sometimes also treat diseases within the body.
In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".
Reductionism is any of several related philosophical ideas regarding the associations between phenomena which can be described in terms of other simpler or more fundamental phenomena.
A relaxation technique (also known as relaxation training) is any method, process, procedure, or activity that helps a person to relax; to attain a state of increased calmness; or otherwise reduce levels of pain, anxiety, stress or anger.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.
The royal we, or majestic plural (pluralis maiestatis), is the use of a plural pronoun (or corresponding plural-inflected verb forms) to refer to a single person who is a monarch.
Sciatica is a medical condition characterized by pain going down the leg from the lower back.
Scientific evidence is evidence which serves to either support or counter a scientific theory or hypothesis.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
Scoliosis is a medical condition in which a person's spine has a sideways curve.
Screening, in medicine, is a strategy used in a population to identify the possible presence of an as-yet-undiagnosed disease in individuals without signs or symptoms.
In health care, self-care is any necessary human regulatory function which is under individual control, deliberate and self-initiated.
Shoulder problems including pain, are one of the more common reasons for physician visits for musculoskeletal symptoms.
Skeptical Inquirer is a bimonthly American magazine published by the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSI) with the subtitle: The Magazine for Science and Reason.
In both moral and political philosophy, the social contract is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment.
Social Science & Medicine is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering social science research on health, including anthropology, economics, geography, psychology, social epidemiology, social policy, sociology, medicine and health care practice, policy, and organization.
In anatomy, soft tissue includes the tissues that connect, support, or surround other structures and organs of the body, not being hard tissue such as bone.
Spinal adjustment and chiropractic adjustment are terms used by chiropractors to describe their approaches to spinal manipulation, as well as some osteopaths, who use the term adjustment.
Spinal disc herniation, also known as a slipped disc, is a medical condition affecting the spine in which a tear in the outer, fibrous ring of an intervertebral disc allows the soft, central portion to bulge out beyond the damaged outer rings.
Spinal manipulation is an intervention performed on spinal articulations which are synovial joints, which is asserted to be therapeutic.
Spine is a biweekly peer-reviewed medical journal covering research in the field of orthopaedics, especially concerning the spine.
Traditionally, spirituality refers to a religious process of re-formation which "aims to recover the original shape of man," oriented at "the image of God" as exemplified by the founders and sacred texts of the religions of the world.
A spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak (SCSFL) is a medical condition in which the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) surrounding the human brain and spinal cord leaks out of the surrounding protective dural sac for no apparent reason.
Sports medicine, also known as sport and exercise medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with physical fitness and the treatment and prevention of injuries related to sports and exercise.
Stress management is a wide spectrum of techniques and psychotherapies aimed at controlling a person's level of stress, especially chronic stress, usually for the purpose of improving everyday functioning.
Stretching is a form of physical exercise in which a specific muscle or tendon (or muscle group) is deliberately flexed or stretched in order to improve the muscle's felt elasticity and achieve comfortable muscle tone.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
The suboccipital muscles are a group of muscles defined by their location to the occiput.
Systematic reviews are a type of literature review that uses systematic methods to collect secondary data, critically appraise research studies, and synthesize studies.
Tension headache, also known as tension-type headache, is the most common type of primary headache.
Testability, a property applying to an empirical hypothesis, involves two components.
The Journal of Chiropractic Education is a medical journal and the official journal of the Association of Chiropractic Colleges.
The Neurologist is a peer-reviewed medical journal, which publishes articles related to neurological diseases, with a focus on clinical aspects.
Therapeutic ultrasound refers generally to any type of ultrasonic procedure that uses ultrasound for therapeutic benefit.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
The Toftness Radiation Detector is an instrument used by some chiropractors.
Topiramate (brand name Topamax) is an anticonvulsant (antiepilepsy) drug.
Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises medical aspects of traditional knowledge that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine.
Trick or Treatment? Alternative Medicine on Trial (North American title: Trick or Treatment: The Undeniable Facts about Alternative Medicine) is a 2008 book about alternative medicine by Simon Singh and Edzard Ernst.
A trust or corporate trust is a large grouping of business interests with significant market power, which may be embodied as a corporation or as a group of corporations that cooperate with one another in various ways.
The United States Department of Education (ED or DoED), also referred to as the ED for (the) Education Department, is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government.
The Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières (UQTR) (English: University of Quebec at Trois-Rivières), established in 1969 and located in Trois-Rivières, Quebec, Canada, is a public university within the Université du Québec network.
The upper limb or upper extremity is the region in a vertebrate animal extending from the deltoid region up to and including the hand, including the arm, axilla and shoulder.
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.
Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) is a flap-like tear of the inner lining of the vertebral artery, which is located in the neck and supplies blood to the brain.
The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton.
A compression fracture is a collapse of a vertebra.
In chiropractic, a vertebral subluxation is a purported misalignment of the spinal column, not necessarily visible on X-rays, leading to a set of signs and symptoms sometimes termed vertebral subluxation complex.
Veterinary chiropractic, also known as animal chiropractic, is the practice of spinal manipulation or manual therapy for animals.
Visceral pain is pain that results from the activation of nociceptors of the thoracic, pelvic, or abdominal viscera (organs).
Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.
Vitalism is the belief that "living organisms are fundamentally different from non-living entities because they contain some non-physical element or are governed by different principles than are inanimate things".
Water fluoridation is the controlled addition of fluoride to a public water supply to reduce tooth decay.
Western esotericism (also called esotericism and esoterism), also known as the Western mystery tradition, is a term under which scholars have categorised a wide range of loosely related ideas and movements which have developed within Western society.
Whiplash is a non-medical term describing a range of injuries to the neck caused by or related to a sudden distortion of the neck associated with extension, although the exact injury mechanisms remain unknown.
Wilk v. American Medical Association, 895 F.2d 352 (7th Cir. 1990), was a federal antitrust suit brought against the American Medical Association (AMA) and 10 co-defendants by chiropractor Chester A. Wilk, DC, and four co-plaintiffs.
William Harvey Lillard (1856 – September 7, 1925) was the first chiropractic patient.
The World Federation of Chiropractic (WFC) (La Fédération Mondiale de Chiropratique (FMC).; La Federación Mundial de Quiropráctica (FMQ).) is an international consulting body representing chiropractic to the international health care community.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
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