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Chlorine

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Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17. [1]

360 relations: Abundance of elements in Earth's crust, Accounts of Chemical Research, Actinide, Activated carbon, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Alkali, Alkaloid, Alkane, Alkylation, Allyl chloride, Aluminium, Aluminium chloride, Amino acid, Ammonia, Anatomical theatre, Anode, Antimony, Antimony pentachloride, Antimony pentafluoride, Antimony trichloride, Antiseptic, Antoine Germain Labarraque, Aqua regia, Argon, Arsenic, Arsenic pentafluoride, Arsenic trichloride, Aryl, Asbestos, Atomic electron transition, Atomic number, Atomic radius, Austria, Azeotrope, Azide, Bacteria, Barium perchlorate, Barrel bomb, Base (chemistry), Benzoyl chloride, Beta decay, Bifluoride, Bismuth, Bismuth chloride, Blackleg (disease), Bleach, Borohydride, Brine, Bromine, Burial, ..., Butyl group, Caesium, Calcium, Calcium chloride, Calcium hydroxide, Calcium hypochlorite, Car bomb, Carbon monoxide, Carbon tetrachloride, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Catalysis, Catgut, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Century Pharmaceuticals, Cerebral edema, Charles Tennant, Chemical element, Chemical equation, Chemical Society Reviews, Chemical warfare, Chemical weapon, Chloralkali process, Chloramine, Chlorate, Chloric acid, Chloride, Chlorine dioxide, Chlorine monofluoride, Chlorine nitrate, Chlorine oxide, Chlorine pentafluoride, Chlorine perchlorate, Chlorine trifluoride, Chlorine-36, Chlorobenzene, Chlorofluorocarbon, Chloroform, Chloromethane, Chlorous acid, Chloryl fluoride, Classical antiquity, Clathrate hydrate, Claude Louis Berthollet, Concentration, Corrosive substance, Cosmic ray, Cosmogenic nuclide, Cyanate, Cyanogen chloride, Dakin's solution, DDT, Deacon process, Dead Sea, Diamagnetism, Dichlorine heptoxide, Dichlorine hexoxide, Dichlorine monoxide, Dichlorobenzene, Dichloromethane, Disinfectant, Disulfur dichloride, Drinking water, Electrolysis, Electrolyte imbalance, Electron affinity, Electron capture, Electronegativity, Electrophile, Embalming, Epichlorohydrin, Escherichia coli, Ethane, Ethyl group, Fatty acid, Flavonoid, Fluorine, Friedel–Crafts reaction, Fritz Haber, Gas mask, Germ theory of disease, German Army (German Empire), Gold, Goldbeater's skin, Great Salt Lake, Hafnium, Half-life, Haloform reaction, Halogen, Halogenation, Heavy water, Henry Drysdale Dakin, Hexachloropropene, Hexafluoroacetone, HOMO/LUMO, Hospital, Humphry Davy, Hydrazine, Hydrocarbon, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen, Hydrogen bond, Hydrogen chloride, Hydrogen fluoride, Hydrogen iodide, Hyperchloremia, Hypergolic propellant, Hypernatremia, Hypochloremia, Hypochlorite, Hypochlorous acid, Hypoventilation, IG Farben, Ignaz Semmelweis, Immediately dangerous to life or health, Industrial gas, Injection moulding, Interhalogen, Iodine, Iodine monochloride, Iodine trichloride, Ion, Ion exchange, Ionization energy, Iraq, Iraq War in Anbar Province, Iridium, Iron, Iron(III) chloride, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Jan Baptist van Helmont, Javel – André Citroën (Paris Métro), Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Johann Schweigger, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac, July Monarchy, Kaiser Wilhelm Society, Lanthanide, Latin Quarter, Paris, Latrine, Lattice energy, Laundry, Lazaretto, Leaving group, Lewis acids and bases, Ligand, Litmus, Louis Jacques Thénard, Magnanery, Magnesium, Manganese dioxide, Mercury (element), Mercury(II) oxide, Mesosphere, Methane, Methyl group, Miasma theory, Michael Faraday, Microorganism, Mineral (nutrient), Molybdenum, Molybdenum(III) bromide, Molybdenum(V) chloride, Mortar (weapon), Mucous membrane, Muon capture, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Neutron activation, Neutron temperature, Neutrophil, Nickel, Nitrile, Nitrosyl chloride, Noble gas, Noble metal, Nonmetal, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Nuclear Physics (journal), Nuclear quadrupole resonance, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Offal, Organic chemistry, Organochloride, Orthorhombic crystal system, Overpotential, Oxidation state, Oxide, Oxidizing agent, Oxygen, Oxygen-burning process, Ozone depletion, Palladium, Paris, Parts-per notation, Perchloric acid, Perchloryl fluoride, Periodic trends, Periodic Videos, Peritoneum, Permissible exposure limit, Persistent organic pollutant, Peshmerga, Phenol, Phosgene, Phosphoric acid, Phosphorus, Phosphorus pentachloride, Phosphorus trichloride, Phosphoryl chloride, Phytochemistry (journal), Plastic, Platinum, Plutonium, Poison, Polybutene, Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, Polymer, Polymer degradation, Polyoxymethylene, Polyvinyl chloride, Postpartum infections, Potassium, Potassium fluoride, Primordial nuclide, Prison, Proton, Pseudohalogen, Putrefaction, Pyrolusite, Quaternary ammonium cation, Radon, Reagent, Recommended exposure limit, Reductive dechlorination, Reflux, Regioselectivity, Relative permittivity, Respiratory acidosis, Rhodium, Second Battle of Ypres, Selenium, Semipermeable membrane, Sewerage, Silicon tetrachloride, Silicon-burning process, Silver, Silver chloride, Slaughterhouse, Société d'encouragement pour l'industrie nationale, Sodium, Sodium chlorate, Sodium chloride, Sodium chlorite, Sodium dichloroisocyanurate, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium hypochlorite, Sodium perchlorate, Solvolysis, Spallation, Stable, Stainless steel, Standard electrode potential, Steroid, Steven Johnson (author), Stress corrosion cracking, Sulfur, Sulfur dichloride, Sulfur mustard, Sulfuric acid, Swimming pool, Swimming pool sanitation, Tellurium, Terpene, Tetrachloroethylene, The Ghost Map, Thiocyanate, Thionyl chloride, Tin, Tin(IV) chloride, Titanium, Titanium tetrachloride, Titanium(III) chloride, Trench, Trichlorobenzene, Trichloroethylene, Trichloroisocyanuric acid, Triiodide, Tungsten, United States Department of the Treasury, Uranium, Uranium hexafluoride, Uranium tetrachloride, Uranium trioxide, Valence electron, Van der Waals force, Vienna General Hospital, Vinyl chloride, Water, Water purification, World War I, World War II, Xenon, Xenon dichloride, Ypres, Zinc, Zinc chloride, Zirconium, Zirconium dioxide, Zirconium(IV) chloride, 1,1-Dichloroethene, 1,2-Dichloroethane. 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Abundance of elements in Earth's crust

The abundance of elements in Earth's crust is shown in tabulated form with the estimated crustal abundance for each chemical element shown as either percentage or parts per million (ppm) by mass (10,000 ppm.

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Accounts of Chemical Research

Accounts of Chemical Research is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Chemical Society containing overviews of basic research and applications in chemistry and biochemistry.

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Actinide

The actinide or actinoid (IUPAC nomenclature) series encompasses the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers from 89 to 103, actinium through lawrencium.

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Activated carbon

Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal, is a form of carbon processed to have small, low-volume pores that increase the surface area available for adsorption or chemical reactions.

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Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is a federal public health agency within the United States Department of Health and Human Services.

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Alkali

In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly “ashes of the saltwort”) is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chemical element.

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Alkaloid

Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.

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Alkane

In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon.

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Alkylation

Alkylation is the transfer of an alkyl group from one molecule to another.

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Allyl chloride

Allyl chloride is the organic compound with the formula CH2.

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Aluminium

Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.

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Aluminium chloride

Aluminium chloride (AlCl3) is the main compound of aluminium and chlorine.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Ammonia

Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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Anatomical theatre

An anatomical theatre (Latin: Theatrum Anatomicum) was an institution used in teaching anatomy at early modern universities.

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Anode

An anode is an electrode through which the conventional current enters into a polarized electrical device.

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Antimony

Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.

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Antimony pentachloride

Antimony pentachloride is a chemical compound with the formula SbCl5.

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Antimony pentafluoride

Antimony pentafluoride is the inorganic compound with the formula SbF5.

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Antimony trichloride

Antimony trichloride is the chemical compound with the formula SbCl3.

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Antiseptic

Antiseptics (from Greek ἀντί anti, "against" and σηπτικός sēptikos, "putrefactive") are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction.

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Antoine Germain Labarraque

Antoine-Germain Labarraque (28 March 1777 – 9 December 1850)Maurice Bouvet.

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Aqua regia

Aqua regia (from Latin, "royal water" or "king's water") is a mixture of nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, optimally in a molar ratio of 1:3.

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Argon

Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.

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Arsenic

Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.

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Arsenic pentafluoride

Arsenic pentafluoride is a chemical compound of arsenic and fluorine.

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Arsenic trichloride

Arsenic trichloride is an inorganic compound with the formula AsCl3, also known as arsenous chloride or butter of arsenic.

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Aryl

In the context of organic molecules, aryl is any functional group or substituent derived from an aromatic ring, usually an aromatic hydrocarbon, such as phenyl and naphthyl.

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Asbestos

Asbestos is a set of six naturally occurring silicate minerals, which all have in common their eponymous asbestiform habit: i.e. long (roughly 1:20 aspect ratio), thin fibrous crystals, with each visible fiber composed of millions of microscopic "fibrils" that can be released by abrasion and other processes.

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Atomic electron transition

Atomic electron transition is a change of an electron from one energy level to another within an atom or artificial atom.

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Atomic number

The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.

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Atomic radius

The atomic radius of a chemical element is a measure of the size of its atoms, usually the mean or typical distance from the center of the nucleus to the boundary of the surrounding cloud of electrons.

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Austria

Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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Azeotrope

An azeotrope (gK, US) or a constant boiling point mixture is a mixture of two or more liquids whose proportions cannot be altered or changed by simple distillation.

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Azide

Azide is the anion with the formula N. It is the conjugate base of hydrazoic acid (HN3).

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Bacteria

Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Barium perchlorate

Barium perchlorate is a powerful oxidizing agent, with the formula Ba(ClO4)2.

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Barrel bomb

A barrel bomb is an improvised unguided bomb, sometimes described as a flying IED (improvised explosive device).

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Base (chemistry)

In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali, change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions.

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Benzoyl chloride

Benzoyl chloride, also known as benzenecarbonyl chloride, is an organochlorine compound with the formula C6H5COCl.

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Beta decay

In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.

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Bifluoride

Bifluoride is an inorganic anion with the chemical formula HF (also written −).

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Bismuth

Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.

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Bismuth chloride

Bismuth chloride (or butter of bismuth) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula BiCl3.

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Blackleg (disease)

Blackleg, black quarter, quarter evil, or quarter ill (gangraena emphysematosa) is an infectious bacterial disease most commonly caused by Clostridium chauvoei, a Gram-positive bacterial species.

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Bleach

Bleach is the generic name for any chemical product which is used industrially and domestically to whiten clothes, lighten hair color and remove stains.

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Borohydride

Borohydride refers to the anion BH4− and its salts.

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Brine

Brine is a high-concentration solution of salt (usually sodium chloride) in water.

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Bromine

Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.

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Burial

Burial or interment is the ritual act of placing a dead person or animal, sometimes with objects, into the ground.

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Butyl group

In organic chemistry, butyl is a four-carbon alkyl radical or substituent group with general chemical formula −C4H9, derived from either of the two isomers of butane.

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Caesium

Caesium (British spelling and IUPAC spelling) or cesium (American spelling) is a chemical element with symbol Cs and atomic number 55.

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Calcium

Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.

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Calcium chloride

Calcium chloride is an inorganic compound, a salt with the chemical formula CaCl2.

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Calcium hydroxide

Calcium hydroxide (traditionally called slaked lime) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2.

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Calcium hypochlorite

Calcium hypochlorite is an inorganic compound with formula2.

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Car bomb

A car bomb, lorry bomb, or truck bomb, also known as a vehicle-borne improvised explosive device (VBIED), is an improvised explosive device placed inside a car or other vehicle and detonated.

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Carbon monoxide

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.

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Carbon tetrachloride

Carbon tetrachloride, also known by many other names (the most notable being tetrachloromethane, also recognized by the IUPAC, carbon tet in the cleaning industry, Halon-104 in firefighting, and Refrigerant-10 in HVACR) is an organic compound with the chemical formula CCl4.

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Carl Wilhelm Scheele

Carl Wilhelm Scheele (9 December 1742 – 21 May 1786) was a Swedish Pomeranian and German pharmaceutical chemist.

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Catalysis

Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.

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Catgut

Catgut is a type of cord that is prepared from the natural fibre found in the walls of animal intestines.

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.

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Century Pharmaceuticals

Century Pharmaceuticals, Inc. is an U. S. company, founded in 1966, in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

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Cerebral edema

Cerebral edema is excess accumulation of fluid in the intracellular or extracellular spaces of the brain.

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Charles Tennant

Charles Tennant (3 May 1768 – 1 October 1838) was a Scottish chemist and industrialist.

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Chemical element

A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).

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Chemical equation

A chemical equation is the symbolic representation of a chemical reaction in the form of symbols and formulae, wherein the reactant entities are given on the left-hand side and the product entities on the right-hand side.

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Chemical Society Reviews

Chemical Society Reviews is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society of Chemistry, for review articles on topics of current interest in chemistry.

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Chemical warfare

Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.

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Chemical weapon

A chemical weapon (CW) is a specialized munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on humans.

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Chloralkali process

The chloralkali process (also chlor-alkali and chlor alkali) is an industrial process for the electrolysis of sodium chloride.

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Chloramine

Chloramines are derivatives of ammonia by substitution of one, two or three hydrogen atoms with chlorine atoms: monochloramine (chloroamine, NH2Cl), dichloramine (NHCl2), and nitrogen trichloride (NCl3).

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Chlorate

The chlorate anion has the formula.

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Chloric acid

Chloric acid, HClO3, is an oxoacid of chlorine, and the formal precursor of chlorate salts.

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Chloride

The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.

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Chlorine dioxide

Chlorine dioxide is a chemical compound with the formula ClO2.

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Chlorine monofluoride

Chlorine monofluoride is a volatile interhalogen compound with the chemical formula ClF.

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Chlorine nitrate

Chlorine nitrate, with chemical formula ClNO3 is an important atmospheric gas present in the stratosphere.

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Chlorine oxide

Chlorine and oxygen can bond in many ways.

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Chlorine pentafluoride

Chlorine pentafluoride is an interhalogen compound with formula ClF5.

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Chlorine perchlorate

Chlorine perchlorate is the chemical compound with the formula Cl2O4.

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Chlorine trifluoride

Chlorine trifluoride is an interhalogen compound with the formula ClF3.

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Chlorine-36

Chlorine-36 is an isotope of chlorine.

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Chlorobenzene

Chlorobenzene is an aromatic organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5Cl.

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Chlorofluorocarbon

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are fully halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon (С), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane.

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Chloroform

Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.

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Chloromethane

Chloromethane, also called methyl chloride, Refrigerant-40, R-40 or HCC 40, is a chemical compound of the group of organic compounds called haloalkanes.

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Chlorous acid

Chlorous acid is an inorganic compound with the formula HClO2.

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Chloryl fluoride

Chloryl fluoride is the chemical compound with the formula ClO2F.

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Clathrate hydrate

Clathrate hydrates, or gas clathrates, gas hydrates, clathrates, hydrates, etc., are crystalline water-based solids physically resembling ice, in which small non-polar molecules (typically gases) or polar molecules with large hydrophobic moieties are trapped inside "cages" of hydrogen bonded, frozen water molecules.

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Claude Louis Berthollet

Claude Louis Berthollet (9 December 1748 in Talloires, France – 6 November 1822 in Arcueil, France) was a Savoyard-French chemist who became vice president of the French Senate in 1804.

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Concentration

In chemistry, concentration is the abundance of a constituent divided by the total volume of a mixture.

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Corrosive substance

A corrosive substance is one that will destroy and damage other substances with which it comes into contact.

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Cosmic ray

Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.

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Cosmogenic nuclide

Cosmogenic nuclides (or cosmogenic isotopes) are rare nuclides (isotopes) created when a high-energy cosmic ray interacts with the nucleus of an in situ Solar System atom, causing nucleons (protons and neutrons) to be expelled from the atom (see cosmic ray spallation).

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Cyanate

The cyanate ion is an anion with the chemical formula written as − or −. In aqueous solution it acts as a base, forming isocyanic acid, HNCO.

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Cyanogen chloride

Cyanogen chloride is a chemical compound with the formula NCCl.

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Dakin's solution

Dakin's solution is a dilute solution of sodium hypochlorite (0.4% to 0.5%) and other stabilizing ingredients, traditionally used as an antiseptic, e.g. to cleanse wounds in order to prevent infection.

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DDT

Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, commonly known as DDT, is a colorless, tasteless, and almost odorless crystalline chemical compound, an organochlorine, originally developed as an insecticide, and ultimately becoming infamous for its environmental impacts.

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Deacon process

The Deacon process is a process used during the manufacture of alkalis (the initial end product was sodium carbonate) by the Leblanc process.

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Dead Sea

The Dead Sea (יָם הַמֶּלַח lit. Sea of Salt; البحر الميت The first article al- is unnecessary and usually not used.) is a salt lake bordered by Jordan to the east and Israel and Palestine to the west.

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Diamagnetism

Diamagnetic materials are repelled by a magnetic field; an applied magnetic field creates an induced magnetic field in them in the opposite direction, causing a repulsive force.

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Dichlorine heptoxide

Dichlorine heptoxide is the chemical compound with the formula Cl2O7.

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Dichlorine hexoxide

Dichlorine hexoxide is the chemical compound with the molecular formula, which is correct for its gaseous state.

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Dichlorine monoxide

Dichlorine monoxide, is an inorganic compound with the molecular formula Cl2O.

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Dichlorobenzene

There are three distinct chemical compounds which are dichlorobenzenes.

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Dichloromethane

Methylene dichloride (DCM, or methylene chloride, or dichloromethane) is a geminal organic compound with the formula CH2Cl2.

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Disinfectant

Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface of non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects.

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Disulfur dichloride

Disulfur dichloride is the chemical compound of sulfur and chlorine with the formula S2Cl2.

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Drinking water

Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.

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Electrolysis

In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.

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Electrolyte imbalance

Electrolyte imbalance is an abnormality in the concentration of electrolytes in the body.

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Electron affinity

In chemistry and atomic physics, the electron affinity (Eea) of an atom or molecule is defined as the amount of energy released or spent when an electron is added to a neutral atom or molecule in the gaseous state to form a negative ion.

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Electron capture

Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell.

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Electronegativity

Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.

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Electrophile

In organic chemistry, an electrophile is a reagent attracted to electrons.

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Embalming

Embalming is the art and science of preserving human remains by treating them (in its modern form with chemicals) to forestall decomposition.

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Epichlorohydrin

Epichlorohydrin (abbreviated ECH) is an organochlorine compound and an epoxide.

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Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).

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Ethane

Ethane is an organic chemical compound with chemical formula.

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Ethyl group

In chemistry, an ethyl group is an alkyl substituent derived from ethane (C2H6).

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Fatty acid

In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.

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Flavonoid

Flavonoids (or bioflavonoids) (from the Latin word flavus meaning yellow, their color in nature) are a class of plant and fungus secondary metabolites.

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Fluorine

Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9.

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Friedel–Crafts reaction

The Friedel–Crafts reactions are a set of reactions developed by Charles Friedel and James Crafts in 1877 to attach substituents to an aromatic ring.

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Fritz Haber

Fritz Haber (9 December 1868 – 29 January 1934) was a German chemist who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his invention of the Haber–Bosch process, a method used in industry to synthesize ammonia from nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas.

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Gas mask

The gas mask is a mask used to protect the user from inhaling airborne pollutants and toxic gases.

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Germ theory of disease

The germ theory of disease is the currently accepted scientific theory of disease.

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German Army (German Empire)

The Imperial German Army (Deutsches Heer) was the name given to the combined land and air forces of the German Empire (excluding the Marine-Fliegerabteilung maritime aviation formations of the Imperial German Navy).

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Gold

Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.

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Goldbeater's skin

Goldbeater's skin is the processed outer membrane of the intestine of an animal, typically an ox, valued for its strength against tearing.

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Great Salt Lake

The Great Salt Lake, located in the northern part of the U.S. state of Utah, is the largest salt water lake in the Western Hemisphere, and the eighth-largest terminal lake in the world.

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Hafnium

Hafnium is a chemical element with symbol Hf and atomic number 72.

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Half-life

Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.

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Haloform reaction

The haloform reaction is a chemical reaction where a haloform (CHX3, where X is a halogen) is produced by the exhaustive halogenation of a methyl ketone (a molecule containing the R–CO–CH3 group) in the presence of a base.

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Halogen

The halogens are a group in the periodic table consisting of five chemically related elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At).

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Halogenation

Halogenation is a chemical reaction that involves the addition of one or more halogens to a compound or material.

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Heavy water

Heavy water (deuterium oxide) is a form of water that contains a larger than normal amount of the hydrogen isotope deuterium (or D, also known as heavy hydrogen), rather than the common hydrogen-1 isotope (or H, also called protium) that makes up most of the hydrogen in normal water.

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Henry Drysdale Dakin

Henry Drysdale Dakin FRS (12 March 188010 February 1952) was an English chemist.

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Hexachloropropene

Hexachloropropene is a toxic compound of chlorine and carbon.

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Hexafluoroacetone

Hexafluoroacetone (HFA) is a chemical compound with the formula (CF3)2CO.

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HOMO/LUMO

In chemistry, HOMO and LUMO are types of molecular orbitals.

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Hospital

A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment.

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Humphry Davy

Sir Humphry Davy, 1st Baronet (17 December 177829 May 1829) was a Cornish chemist and inventor, who is best remembered today for isolating, using electricity, a series of elements for the first time: potassium and sodium in 1807 and calcium, strontium, barium, magnesium and boron the following year, as well as discovering the elemental nature of chlorine and iodine.

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Hydrazine

Hydrazine is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written), called diamidogen, archaically.

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Hydrocarbon

In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.

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Hydrochloric acid

Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.

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Hydrogen

Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hydrogen bond

A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.

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Hydrogen chloride

The compound hydrogen chloride has the chemical formula and as such is a hydrogen halide.

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Hydrogen fluoride

Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula.

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Hydrogen iodide

Hydrogen iodide is a diatomic molecule and hydrogen halide.

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Hyperchloremia

Hyperchloremia is an electrolyte disturbance in which there is an elevated level of the chloride ions in the blood.

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Hypergolic propellant

A hypergolic propellant combination used in a rocket engine is one whose components spontaneously ignite when they come into contact with each other.

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Hypernatremia

Hypernatremia, also spelled hypernatraemia, is a high concentration of sodium in the blood.

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Hypochloremia

Hypochloremia (or Hypochloraemia) is an electrolyte disturbance in which there is an abnormally low level of the chloride ion in the blood.

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Hypochlorite

In chemistry, hypochlorite is an ion with the chemical formula ClO−.

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Hypochlorous acid

Hypochlorous acid (HClO) is a weak acid that forms when chlorine dissolves in water, and itself partially dissociates, forming ClO-.

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Hypoventilation

Hypoventilation (also known as respiratory depression) occurs when ventilation is inadequate (hypo meaning "below") to perform needed gas exchange.

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IG Farben

IG Farben was a German chemical and pharmaceutical industry conglomerate.

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Ignaz Semmelweis

Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis (Semmelweis Ignác Fülöp; 1 July 1818 – 13 August 1865) was a Hungarian physician of ethnic-German ancestry, now known as an early pioneer of antiseptic procedures.

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Immediately dangerous to life or health

The term immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) is defined by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as exposure to airborne contaminants that is "likely to cause death or immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects or prevent escape from such an environment." Examples include smoke or other poisonous gases at sufficiently high concentrations.

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Industrial gas

Industrial gases are gaseous materials that are manufactured for use in Industry.

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Injection moulding

Injection moulding (British English) or injection molding (American English) is a manufacturing process for producing parts by injecting molten material into a mould.

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Interhalogen

An interhalogen compound is a molecule which contains two or more different halogen atoms (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, or astatine) and no atoms of elements from any other group.

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Iodine

Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.

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Iodine monochloride

Iodine monochloride is an interhalogen compound with the formula.

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Iodine trichloride

Iodine trichloride is an interhalogen compound of iodine and chlorine.

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Ion

An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Ion exchange

Ion exchange is an exchange of ions between two electrolytes or between an electrolyte solution and a complex.

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Ionization energy

The ionization energy (Ei) is qualitatively defined as the amount of energy required to remove the most loosely bound electron, the valence electron, of an isolated gaseous atom to form a cation.

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Iraq

Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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Iraq War in Anbar Province

The Iraq War in Anbar Province, also known as the Al Anbar campaign, consisted of fighting between the United States military, together with Iraqi Government forces, and Sunni insurgents in the western Iraqi province of Al Anbar.

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Iridium

Iridium is a chemical element with symbol Ir and atomic number 77.

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Iron

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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Iron(III) chloride

Iron(III) chloride, also called ferric chloride, is an industrial scale commodity chemical compound, with the formula FeCl3 and with iron in the +3 oxidation state.

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Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.

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Jan Baptist van Helmont

Jan Baptist van Helmont (12 January 1580 – 30 December 1644) was a Flemish chemist, physiologist, and physician.

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Javel – André Citroën (Paris Métro)

Javel - André Citroën is a station of the Paris Métro, serving Line 10 and offering transfer to the RER C via Javel RER station in the 15th arrondissement.

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Jöns Jacob Berzelius

Baron Jöns Jacob Berzelius (20 August 1779 – 7 August 1848), named by himself and contemporary society as Jacob Berzelius, was a Swedish chemist.

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Johann Schweigger

Johann Salomo Christoph Schweigger (8 April 1779 – 6 September 1857) was a German chemist, physicist, and professor of mathematics born in Erlangen.

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Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac

Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (also Louis Joseph Gay-Lussac; 6 December 1778 – 9 May 1850) was a French chemist and physicist.

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July Monarchy

The July Monarchy (Monarchie de Juillet) was a liberal constitutional monarchy in France under Louis Philippe I, starting with the July Revolution of 1830 and ending with the Revolution of 1848.

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Kaiser Wilhelm Society

The Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science (German Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften) was a German scientific institution established in the German Empire in 1911.

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Lanthanide

The lanthanide or lanthanoid series of chemical elements comprises the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum through lutetium.

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Latin Quarter, Paris

The Latin Quarter of Paris (Quartier latin) is an area in the 5th and the 6th arrondissements of Paris.

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Latrine

A latrine is a toilet or an even simpler facility which is used as a toilet within a sanitation system.

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Lattice energy

The lattice energy of a crystalline solid is often defined as the energy of formation of a crystal from infinitely-separated ions and as such is invariably negative.

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Laundry

Laundry refers to the washing of clothing and other textiles.

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Lazaretto

A lazaretto or lazaret (from lazzaretto) is a quarantine station for maritime travellers.

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Leaving group

In chemistry, a leaving group is a molecular fragment that departs with a pair of electrons in heterolytic bond cleavage.

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Lewis acids and bases

A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.

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Ligand

In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.

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Litmus

Litmus is a water-soluble mixture of different dyes extracted from lichens.

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Louis Jacques Thénard

Louis Jacques Thénard (4 May 1777 – 21 June 1857) was a French chemist.

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Magnanery

A magnanery (magnanerie.) is the site of sericulture, or silk farming, similar to a farm being the site of agriculture.

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Magnesium

Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.

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Manganese dioxide

Manganese(IV) oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula.

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Mercury (element)

Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

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Mercury(II) oxide

Mercury(II) oxide, also called mercuric oxide or simply mercury oxide, has a formula of HgO.

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Mesosphere

The mesosphere (from Greek mesos "middle" and sphaira "sphere") is the layer of the Earth's atmosphere that is directly above the stratosphere and directly below the thermosphere.

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Methane

Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).

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Methyl group

A methyl group is an alkyl derived from methane, containing one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms — CH3.

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Miasma theory

The miasma theory (also called the miasmatic theory) is an obsolete medical theory that held that diseases—such as cholera, chlamydia, or the Black Death—were caused by a miasma (μίασμα, ancient Greek: "pollution"), a noxious form of "bad air", also known as night air.

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Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.

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Microorganism

A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.

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Mineral (nutrient)

In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.

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Molybdenum

Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.

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Molybdenum(III) bromide

Molybdenum(III) bromide is the inorganic compound with the formula MoBr3.

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Molybdenum(V) chloride

Molybdenum(V) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula 2.

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Mortar (weapon)

A mortar is usually a simple, lightweight, man portable, muzzle-loaded weapon, consisting of a smooth-bore metal tube fixed to a base plate (to absorb recoil) with a lightweight bipod mount.

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Mucous membrane

A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.

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Muon capture

Muon capture is the capture of a negative muon by a proton, usually resulting in production of a neutron and a neutrino, and sometimes a gamma photon.

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National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.

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Neutron activation

Neutron activation is the process in which neutron radiation induces radioactivity in materials, and occurs when atomic nuclei capture free neutrons, becoming heavier and entering excited states.

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Neutron temperature

The neutron detection temperature, also called the neutron energy, indicates a free neutron's kinetic energy, usually given in electron volts.

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Neutrophil

Neutrophils (also known as neutrocytes) are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant (40% to 70%) type of white blood cells in most mammals.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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Nickel

Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.

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Nitrile

A nitrile is any organic compound that has a −C≡N functional group.

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Nitrosyl chloride

Nitrosyl chloride is the chemical compound with the formula NOCl.

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Noble gas

The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.

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Noble metal

In chemistry, the noble metals are metals that are resistant to corrosion and oxidation in moist air (unlike most base metals).

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Nonmetal

Apart from hydrogen, nonmetals are located in the p-block. Helium, as an s-block element, would normally be placed next to hydrogen and above beryllium. However, since it is a noble gas, it is instead placed above neon (in the p-block). In chemistry, a nonmetal (or non-metal) is a chemical element that mostly lacks metallic attributes.

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Nuclear magnetic resonance

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.

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Nuclear Physics (journal)

Nuclear Physics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier.

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Nuclear quadrupole resonance

Nuclear quadrupole resonance spectroscopy or NQR is a chemical analysis technique related to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).

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Occupational Safety and Health Administration

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.

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Offal

Offal, also called variety meats, pluck or organ meats, refers to the internal organs and entrails of a butchered animal.

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Organic chemistry

Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.

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Organochloride

An organochloride, organochlorine compound, chlorocarbon, or chlorinated hydrocarbon is an organic compound containing at least one covalently bonded atom of chlorine that has an effect on the chemical behavior of the molecule.

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Orthorhombic crystal system

In crystallography, the orthorhombic crystal system is one of the 7 crystal systems.

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Overpotential

In electrochemistry, overpotential is the potential difference (voltage) between a half-reaction's thermodynamically determined reduction potential and the potential at which the redox event is experimentally observed.

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Oxidation state

The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.

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Oxide

An oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element in its chemical formula.

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Oxidizing agent

In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.

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Oxygen

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Oxygen-burning process

The oxygen-burning process is a set of nuclear fusion reactions that take place in massive stars that have used up the lighter elements in their cores.

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Ozone depletion

Ozone depletion describes two related events observed since the late 1970s: a steady lowering of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earth's atmosphere(the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth's polar regions.

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Palladium

Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46.

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Paris

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Parts-per notation

In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.

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Perchloric acid

Perchloric acid is a mineral acid with the formula HClO4.

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Perchloryl fluoride

Perchloryl fluoride is a reactive gas with the chemical formula.

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Periodic trends

Periodic trends are specific patterns that are present in the periodic table that illustrate different aspects of a certain element, including its radius and its electronic properties.

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Periodic Videos

The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.

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Peritoneum

The peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity or coelom in amniotes and some invertebrates, such as annelids.

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Permissible exposure limit

The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States for exposure of an employee to a chemical substance or physical agent such as loud noise.

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Persistent organic pollutant

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes.

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Peshmerga

Peshmerga (lit, or Those who face death') are the military forces of the federal region of Iraqi Kurdistan.

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Phenol

Phenol, also known as phenolic acid, is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH.

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Phosgene

Phosgene is the chemical compound with the formula COCl2.

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Phosphoric acid

Phosphoric acid (also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a mineral (inorganic) and weak acid having the chemical formula H3PO4.

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Phosphorus

Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.

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Phosphorus pentachloride

Phosphorus pentachloride is the chemical compound with the formula PCl5.

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Phosphorus trichloride

Phosphorus trichloride is a chemical compound of phosphorus and chlorine, having the chemical formula PCl3.

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Phosphoryl chloride

Phosphoryl chloride (commonly called phosphorus oxychloride) is a colourless liquid with the formula 3.

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Phytochemistry (journal)

Phytochemistry is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering pure and applied plant chemistry, plant biochemistry and molecular biology.

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Plastic

Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.

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Platinum

Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.

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Plutonium

Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.

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Poison

In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.

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Polybutene

Polybutene and polyisobutylene are liquid oligomers widely used as plasticizers for high-molecular weight polymers, such as polyethylene, and as carriers and lubricants.

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Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins

Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), or simply dioxins, are a group of polyhalogenated organic compounds that are significant environmental pollutants.

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Polymer

A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.

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Polymer degradation

Polymer degradation is a change in the properties—tensile strength, color, shape, etc.—of a polymer or polymer-based product under the influence of one or more environmental factors such as heat, light or chemicals such as acids, alkalis and some salts.

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Polyoxymethylene

Polyoxymethylene (POM), also known as acetal, polyacetal, and polyformaldehyde, is an engineering thermoplastic used in precision parts requiring high stiffness, low friction, and excellent dimensional stability.

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Polyvinyl chloride

Polyvinyl chloride, also known as polyvinyl or '''vinyl''', commonly abbreviated PVC, is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene.

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Postpartum infections

Postpartum infections, also known as childbed fever and puerperal fever, are any bacterial infections of the female reproductive tract following childbirth or miscarriage.

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Potassium

Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.

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Potassium fluoride

Potassium fluoride is the chemical compound with the formula KF.

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Primordial nuclide

In geochemistry, geophysics and geonuclear physics, primordial nuclides, also known as primordial isotopes, are nuclides found on Earth that have existed in their current form since before Earth was formed.

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Prison

A prison, also known as a correctional facility, jail, gaol (dated, British English), penitentiary (American English), detention center (American English), or remand center is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the state.

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Proton

| magnetic_moment.

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Pseudohalogen

The pseudohalogens are polyatomic analogues of halogens, whose chemistry, resembling that of the true halogens, allows them to substitute for halogens in several classes of chemical compounds.

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Putrefaction

Putrefaction is the fifth stage of death, following pallor mortis, algor mortis, rigor mortis, and livor mortis.

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Pyrolusite

Pyrolusite is a mineral consisting essentially of manganese dioxide (MnO2) and is important as an ore of manganese.

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Quaternary ammonium cation

Quaternary ammonium cations, also known as quats, are positively charged polyatomic ions of the structure, R being an alkyl group or an aryl group.

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Radon

Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn and atomic number 86.

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Reagent

A reagent is a substance or compound added to a system to cause a chemical reaction, or added to test if a reaction occurs.

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Recommended exposure limit

A recommended exposure limit (REL) is an occupational exposure limit that has been recommended by the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for adoption as a permissible exposure limit.

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Reductive dechlorination

Reductive dechlorination is degradation of chlorinated organic compounds by chemical reduction with release of inorganic chloride ions.

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Reflux

Reflux is a technique involving the condensation of vapors and the return of this condensate to the system from which it originated.

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Regioselectivity

In chemistry, regioselectivity is the preference of one direction of chemical bond making or breaking over all other possible directions.

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Relative permittivity

The relative permittivity of a material is its (absolute) permittivity expressed as a ratio relative to the permittivity of vacuum.

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Respiratory acidosis

Respiratory acidosis is a medical emergency in which decreased ventilation (hypoventilation) increases the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood and decreases the blood's pH (a condition generally called acidosis).

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Rhodium

Rhodium is a chemical element with symbol Rh and atomic number 45.

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Second Battle of Ypres

During World War I, the Second Battle of Ypres was fought from for control of the strategic Flemish town of Ypres in western Belgium after the First Battle of Ypres the previous autumn.

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Selenium

Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.

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Semipermeable membrane

A semipermeable membrane is a type of biological or synthetic, polymeric membrane that will allow certain molecules or ions to pass through it by diffusion—or occasionally by more specialized processes of facilitated diffusion, passive transport or active transport.

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Sewerage

Sewerage is the infrastructure that conveys sewage or surface runoff (stormwater, meltwater, rainwater) using sewers.

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Silicon tetrachloride

Silicon tetrachloride or tetrachlorosilane is the inorganic compound with the formula SiCl4.

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Silicon-burning process

In astrophysics, silicon burning is a very brief sequence of nuclear fusion reactions that occur in massive stars with a minimum of about 8-11 solar masses.

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Silver

Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.

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Silver chloride

Silver chloride is a chemical compound with the chemical formula AgCl.

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Slaughterhouse

A slaughterhouse or abattoir is a facility where animals are slaughtered for consumption as food.

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Société d'encouragement pour l'industrie nationale

The Société d'encouragement pour l'industrie nationale (Society for Encouraging National Industry) is an organization established in 1801 to encourage French industry.

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Sodium

Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

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Sodium chlorate

Sodium chlorate is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaClO3.

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Sodium chloride

Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.

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Sodium chlorite

Sodium Chlorite (NaClO2) is a chemical compound used in the manufacturing of paper and as a disinfectant.

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Sodium dichloroisocyanurate

Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (INN: sodium troclosene, troclosenum natricum or NaDCC or SDIC) is a chemical compound widely used as a cleansing agent and disinfectant.

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Sodium hydroxide

Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.

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Sodium hypochlorite

No description.

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Sodium perchlorate

Sodium perchlorate is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula NaClO4.

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Solvolysis

Solvolysis is a type of nucleophilic substitution (SN1) /(SN2) or elimination, where the nucleophile is a solvent molecule.

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Spallation

Spallation is a process in which fragments of material (spall) are ejected from a body due to impact or stress.

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Stable

A stable is a building in which livestock, especially horses, are kept.

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Stainless steel

In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French inoxydable (inoxidizable), is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass.

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Standard electrode potential

In electrochemistry, the standard electrode potential is the measure of the individual potential of a reversible electrode at standard state, i.e., with solutes at an effective concentration of 1 mol dm−3 and gases at a pressure of 1 atm.

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Steroid

A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.

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Steven Johnson (author)

Steven Berlin Johnson (born June 6, 1968) is an American popular science author and media theorist.

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Stress corrosion cracking

Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is the growth of crack formation in a corrosive environment.

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Sulfur

Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.

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Sulfur dichloride

Sulfur dichloride is the chemical compound with the formula SCl2.

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Sulfur mustard

Sulfur mustard, commonly known as mustard gas, is the prototypical substance of the sulfur-based family of cytotoxic and vesicant chemical warfare agents known as the sulfur mustards which have the ability to form large blisters on exposed skin and in the lungs.

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Sulfuric acid

Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.

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Swimming pool

A swimming pool, swimming bath, wading pool, or paddling pool is a structure designed to hold water to enable swimming or other leisure activities.

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Swimming pool sanitation

Swimming pool sanitation is the process of ensuring healthy conditions in swimming pools, hot tubs, plunge pools, and similar recreational water venues.

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Tellurium

Tellurium is a chemical element with symbol Te and atomic number 52.

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Terpene

Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic compounds, produced by a variety of plants, particularly conifers, and by some insects.

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Tetrachloroethylene

Tetrachloroethylene, also known under the systematic name tetrachloroethene, or perchloroethylene ("perc" or "PERC"), and many other names, is a chlorocarbon with the formula Cl2C.

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The Ghost Map

The Ghost Map: The Story of London's Most Terrifying Epidemic – and How it Changed Science, Cities and the Modern World is a book by Steven Berlin Johnson in which he describes the most intense outbreak of cholera in Victorian London (See 1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak) The book incorporated the idea of gemeinschaft, dealing with the effects of an epidemic in a city of common values, language, and traditions.

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Thiocyanate

Thiocyanate (also known as rhodanide) is the anion −. It is the conjugate base of thiocyanic acid.

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Thionyl chloride

Thionyl chloride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula SOCl2.

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Tin

Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.

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Tin(IV) chloride

Tin(IV) chloride, also known as tin tetrachloride or stannic chloride, is an inorganic compound with the formula SnCl4.

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Titanium

Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.

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Titanium tetrachloride

Titanium tetrachloride is the inorganic compound with the formula TiCl4.

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Titanium(III) chloride

Titanium(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula TiCl3.

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Trench

A trench is a type of excavation or depression in the ground that is generally deeper than it is wide (as opposed to a wider gully, or ditch), and narrow compared with its length (as opposed to a simple hole).

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Trichlorobenzene

Trichlorobenzene (TCB) may refer to any of three isomeric chlorinated derivatives of benzene with the molecular formula C6H3Cl3.

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Trichloroethylene

The chemical compound trichloroethylene is a halocarbon commonly used as an industrial solvent.

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Trichloroisocyanuric acid

Trichloroisocyanuric acid is an organic compound with the formula (C3Cl3N3O3).

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Triiodide

In chemistry, triiodide usually refers to the triiodide ion,.

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Tungsten

Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.

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United States Department of the Treasury

The Department of the Treasury (USDT) is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government.

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Uranium

Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.

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Uranium hexafluoride

Uranium hexafluoride, referred to as "hex" in the nuclear industry, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons.

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Uranium tetrachloride

Uranium tetrachloride (UCl4) is compound of uranium in oxidation state +4.

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Uranium trioxide

Uranium trioxide (UO3), also called uranyl oxide, uranium(VI) oxide, and uranic oxide, is the hexavalent oxide of uranium.

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Valence electron

In chemistry, a valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.

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Van der Waals force

In molecular physics, the van der Waals forces, named after Dutch scientist Johannes Diderik van der Waals, are distance-dependent interactions between atoms or molecules.

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Vienna General Hospital

The Vienna General Hospital (Allgemeines Krankenhaus der Stadt Wien), usually abbreviated to AKH, is the general hospital of the city of Vienna, Austria.

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Vinyl chloride

Vinyl chloride is an organochloride with the formula H2C.

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Water

Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.

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Water purification

Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from water.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Xenon

Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.

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Xenon dichloride

Xenon dichloride (XeCl2) is a xenon compound and the only known stable chloride of xenon.

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Ypres

Ypres (Ieper) is a Belgian municipality in the province of West Flanders.

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Zinc

Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.

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Zinc chloride

Zinc chloride is the name of chemical compounds with the formula ZnCl2 and its hydrates.

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Zirconium

Zirconium is a chemical element with symbol Zr and atomic number 40.

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Zirconium dioxide

Zirconium dioxide, sometimes known as zirconia (not to be confused with zircon), is a white crystalline oxide of zirconium.

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Zirconium(IV) chloride

Zirconium(IV) chloride, also known as zirconium tetrachloride, is an inorganic compound frequently used as a precursor to other compounds of zirconium.

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1,1-Dichloroethene

1,1-Dichloroethene, commonly called 1,1-dichloroethylene or vinylidene chloride or 1,1-DCE, is an organochloride with the molecular formula C2H2Cl2.

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1,2-Dichloroethane

The chemical compound 1,2-dichloroethane commonly known as ethylene dichloride (EDC), is a chlorinated hydrocarbon.

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2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlorine

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