233 relations: Abiotic component, ABO blood group system, Acidosis, ADP-ribosylation, Africa, Americas, Amino acid, Amplified fragment length polymorphism, Anthony Holden, Antibiotic, Antibiotic sensitivity, Antimicrobial resistance, ARF6, Assay, Asymptomatic, Azithromycin, Bacteria, Bacteriophage, Bangladesh, Bangladesh Liberation War, Bicarbonate, Biotic material, Bleach, Blood pressure, Blood type, Camphor, Carl von Clausewitz, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Charles X of France, Chief Justice of Singapore, Chloramphenicol, Chloride, Chlorine, Cholera belt, Cholera outbreaks and pandemics, Cholera toxin, Cholera vaccine, Ciprofloxacin, Cloth filter, Coma, Contagious disease, Copepod, Cramp, CTXφ bacteriophage, Cyanosis, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Cystic fibrosis, Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, David Brown (musicologist), Death (personification), ..., Decontamination, Dehydration, Developed country, Developing country, Dhaka, Diarrhea, Dipstick, Disinfectant, Disulfide, DNA profiling, Doxycycline, Drawing, Drinking water, Dry toilet, Elecampane, Electrolyte, Electrolyte imbalance, Elliot Bovill, Elsevier, Endemism, Endocytosis, England, Enophthalmia, Epidemic, Epidemiology, Epileptic seizure, Erythromycin, Escherichia coli, Europe, European Journal of Political Economy, Exotoxin, Fecal sludge management, Fecal–oral route, Feces, Filippo Pacini, Flagellin, Flagellum, Flush toilet, Foodborne illness, Furazolidone, G protein, Ganglioside, Gastric acid, Gastroenteritis, Gene, Gene cluster, Gene expression, Genetic isolate, GM1, Groundwater, Gs alpha subunit, Haiti, Hand washing, Health professional, Herd immunity, Heterotrimeric G protein, Heterozygote advantage, HIV, HIV/AIDS, Horizontal gene transfer, Human feces, Human waste, Hygiene, Immunodeficiency, Indian subcontinent, Indonesia, Infection, Infectious disease (medical specialty), International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, International maritime signal flags, Intestinal epithelium, Intravenous therapy, Iron, ΔF508, James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy, James K. Polk, Jaume Ferran i Clua, John Snow, Kussmaul breathing, Lactic acidosis, Lasker Award, Le Petit Journal (newspaper), Malnutrition, Medical history, Metropolitan Board of Health, Miasma theory, Multiple drug resistance, Mutation, Natural reservoir, Naval Medical Research Unit Two, Nepal, Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot, North America, Notifiable disease, Nutrient, Nylon, Oligomer, Open defecation, Oral rehydration therapy, Oyster, Pandemic, Peacekeeping, Pedro II of Brazil, Perfusion, Phytoplankton, Pit latrine, Plankton, Port-au-Prince, Potassium, Poverty, Protein, Protein subunit, Proton-pump inhibitor, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Quarantine, Quinolone antibiotic, Ringer's lactate solution, Risk factor, Rita R. Colwell, Robert Allan Phillips, Robert Koch, Russia, Russian Empire, Samuel Hahnemann, Sanitation, Sanskrit, Sari, Sea level rise, Seafood, Septic tank, Serotype, Sewage, Sewage treatment, Shellfish, Small intestine, SMS Moltke (1877), Solar water disinfection, Southeast Asia, Stomach, Stool test, Strain (biology), Swinburne Island, Temperateness (virology), Tetracycline, The New York Times, The Washington Post, Toilet, Toxicity, Trade route, Transmission (medicine), Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, United Nations, Urine-diverting dry toilet, Viable but nonculturable, Vibrio cholerae, Virulence, Vomiting, Waldemar Haffkine, Water chlorination, Water filter, Water pollution, Water purification, Water stagnation, Water treatment, Waterborne diseases, Waterway, Wet season, World Health Organization, Yemen, Zinc, Zinc sulfate (medical use), Zooplankton, Zygosity, 1817–24 cholera pandemic, 1829–51 cholera pandemic, 1852–60 cholera pandemic, 1863–75 cholera pandemic, 1881–96 cholera pandemic, 1899–1923 cholera pandemic, 1961–75 cholera pandemic, 2008 Zimbabwean cholera outbreak, 2010s Haiti cholera outbreak, 2016–18 Yemen cholera outbreak. Expand index (183 more) » « Shrink index
In biology and ecology, abiotic components or abiotic factors are non-living chemical and physical parts of the environment that affect living organisms and the functioning of ecosystems.
The ABO blood group system is used to denote the presence of one, both, or neither of the A and B antigens on erythrocytes.
Acidosis is a process causing increased acidity in the blood and other body tissues (i.e., an increased hydrogen ion concentration).
ADP-ribosylation is the addition of one or more ADP-ribose moieties to a protein.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
AFLP-PCR or just AFLP is a PCR-based tool used in genetics research, DNA fingerprinting, and in the practice of genetic engineering.
Anthony Holden (born 22 May 1947) is an English writer, broadcaster and critic, particularly known as a biographer of artists including Shakespeare, Tchaikovsky, Leigh Hunt, Lorenzo da Ponte and Laurence Olivier, and of members of the British Royal family, notably Charles, Prince of Wales.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Antibiotic sensitivity or antibiotic susceptibility is the susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.
ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) is a member of the ADP ribosylation factor family of GTP-binding proteins.
An assay is an investigative (analytic) procedure in laboratory medicine, pharmacology, environmental biology and molecular biology for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence, amount, or functional activity of a target entity (the analyte).
In medicine, a disease is considered asymptomatic if a patient is a carrier for a disease or infection but experiences no symptoms.
Azithromycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
A bacteriophage, also known informally as a phage, is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria and Archaea.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
The Bangladesh Liberation War (মুক্তিযুদ্ধ), also known as the Bangladesh War of Independence, or simply the Liberation War in Bangladesh, was a revolution and armed conflict sparked by the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination movement in what was then East Pakistan during the 1971 Bangladesh genocide.
In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid.
Biotic material or biological derived material is any material that originates from living organisms.
Bleach is the generic name for any chemical product which is used industrially and domestically to whiten clothes, lighten hair color and remove stains.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
A blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of blood based on the presence and absence of antibodies and also based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs).
Camphor is a waxy, flammable, white or transparent solid with a strong aroma.
Carl Philipp Gottfried (or Gottlieb) von Clausewitz (1 June 1780 – 16 November 1831)Bassford, Christopher (2002).
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
Charles X (Charles Philippe; 9 October 1757 – 6 November 1836) was King of France from 16 September 1824 until 2 August 1830.
The Chief Justice of Singapore is the highest post in the judicial system of Singapore.
Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
A cholera belt was a flat strip of (usually red) flannel or knitted wool about six feet long and six inches wide which was twisted around the abdomen before wearing a shirt and purported to be a preventive measure against cholera.
Seven cholera pandemics have occurred in the past 200 years, with the seventh pandemic originating in Indonesia in 1961.
Cholera toxin (also known as choleragen and sometimes abbreviated to CTX, Ctx or CT) is protein complex secreted by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Cholera vaccines are vaccines that are effective at preventing cholera.
Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic used to treat a number of bacterial infections.
Developed for use in Bangladesh, the cloth filter is a simple and cost-effective appropriate technology method for reducing the contamination of drinking water.
Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.
A contagious disease is a subset category of transmissible diseases, which are transmitted to other persons, either by physical contact with the person suffering the disease, or by casual contact with their secretions or objects touched by them or airborne route among other routes.
Copepods (meaning "oar-feet") are a group of small crustaceans found in the sea and nearly every freshwater habitat.
A cramp is a sudden, involuntary muscle contraction or over-shortening; while generally temporary and non-damaging, they can cause significant pain, and a paralysis-like immobility of the affected muscle.
The CTXφ bacteriophage is a filamentous bacteriophage that contains the genetic material needed by the Vibrio cholerae bacterium for the production of cholera toxin, or CT.
Cyanosis is defined as the bluish or purplish discolouration of the skin or mucous membranes due to the tissues near the skin surface having low oxygen saturation.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs, but also the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestine.
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a membrane protein and chloride channel in vertebrates that is encoded by the CFTR gene.
David Clifford Brown (born Gravesend, 8 July 1929, died 20 June 2014)Peter Le Huray 1980 was an English musicologist, most noteworthy for his major study of Tchaikovsky’s life and works.
Death, due to its prominent place in human culture, is frequently imagined as a personified force, also known as the Grim Reaper.
Decontamination (sometimes abbreviated as decon, dcon, or decontam) is the process of cleansing an object or substance to remove contaminants such as micro-organisms or hazardous materials, including chemicals, radioactive substances, and infectious diseases.
In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Dhaka (or; ঢাকা); formerly known as Dacca is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
A dipstick is one of several measurement devices.
Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface of non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects.
In chemistry, a disulfide refers to a functional group with the structure R−S−S−R′.
DNA profiling (also called DNA fingerprinting, DNA testing, or DNA typing) is the process of determining an individual's DNA characteristics, which are as unique as fingerprints.
Doxycycline is an antibiotic that is used in the treatment of a number of types of infections caused by bacteria and protozoa.
Drawing is a form of visual art in which a person uses various drawing instruments to mark paper or another two-dimensional medium.
Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.
A dry toilet (or non-flush toilet, no flush toilet or toilet without a flush) is a toilet that operates without flush water, unlike a flush toilet.
Elecampane, Inula helenium, also called horse-heal or elfdock, is a widespread plant species in the sunflower family Asteraceae.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
Electrolyte imbalance is an abnormality in the concentration of electrolytes in the body.
Sir Elliot Charles Bovill (1848 – 24 March 1893) was a British lawyer and judge.
Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
Endocytosis is a form of bulk transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
In medicine, enophthalmia describes eyes that are abnormally sunken into their sockets.
An epidemic (from Greek ἐπί epi "upon or above" and δῆμος demos "people") is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time, usually two weeks or less.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Erythromycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Journal of Political Economy is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering research on economic phenomena, including collective decision making, political behavior, and the role of institutions.
An exotoxin is a toxin secreted by bacteria.
Fecal sludge management (FSM) (or faecal sludge management in British English) is the collection, transport, and treatment of fecal sludge from pit latrines, septic tanks or other onsite sanitation systems.
The fecal–oral route (or oral–fecal route or fecal oral route) describes a particular route of transmission of a disease.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
Filippo Pacini (25 May 1812 – 9 July 1883) was an Italian anatomist, posthumously famous for isolating the cholera bacterium Vibrio cholerae in 1854, well before Robert Koch's more widely accepted discoveries 30 years later.
Flagellin is a globular protein that arranges itself in a hollow cylinder to form the filament in a bacterial flagellum.
A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells.
A flush toilet (also known as a flushing toilet, flush lavatory, or water closet (WC)) is a toilet that disposes of human excreta (urine and feces) by using water to flush it through a drainpipe to another location for disposal, thus maintaining a separation between humans and their excreta.
Foodborne illness (also foodborne disease and colloquially referred to as food poisoning) is any illness resulting from the food spoilage of contaminated food, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or parasites that contaminate food, as well as toxins such as poisonous mushrooms and various species of beans that have not been boiled for at least 10 minutes.
Furazolidone is a nitrofuran antibacterial agent and monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI).
G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior.
A ganglioside is a molecule composed of a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide) with one or more sialic acids (e.g. n-acetylneuraminic acid, NANA) linked on the sugar chain.
Gastric acid, gastric juice or stomach acid, is a digestive fluid formed in the stomach and is composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl).
Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract -- the stomach and small intestine.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
A gene family is a set of homologous genes within one organism.
Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product.
A genetic isolate is population of organisms that has little genetic mixing with other organisms within the same species.
GM1 (monosialotetrahexosylganglioside) the "prototype" ganglioside, is a member of the ganglio series of gangliosides which contain one sialic acid residue.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
The Gs alpha subunit (Gαs, Gsα, or Gs protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by activating adenylyl cyclase.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
Hand washing, also known as hand hygiene, is the act of cleaning hands for the purpose of removing soil, dirt, and microorganisms.
A health professional, health practitioner or healthcare provider (sometimes simply "provider") is an individual who provides preventive, curative, promotional or rehabilitative health care services in a systematic way to people, families or communities.
Herd immunity (also called herd effect, community immunity, population immunity, or social immunity) is a form of indirect protection from infectious disease that occurs when a large percentage of a population has become immune to an infection, thereby providing a measure of protection for individuals who are not immune.
"G protein" usually refers to the membrane-associated heterotrimeric G proteins, sometimes referred to as the "large" G proteins (as opposed to the subclass of smaller, monomeric small GTPases).
A heterozygote advantage describes the case in which the heterozygous genotype has a higher relative fitness than either the homozygous dominant or homozygous recessive genotype.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.
Human feces (or faeces in British English; fæx) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, but has been rotted down by bacteria in the large intestine.
Human waste (or human excreta) is a waste type usually used to refer to byproducts of digestion, such as feces and urine.
Hygiene is a set of practices performed to preserve health.
Immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer is compromised or entirely absent.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Infectious disease, also known as infectious diseases, infectious medicine, infectious disease medicine or infectiology, is a medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis, control and treatment of infections.
The International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) is an international health research organisation located in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
International maritime signal flags refers to various flags used to communicate with ships.
The intestinal epithelium is the layer of cells that forms the luminal surface or lining of both the small and large intestine (colon) of the gastrointestinal tract.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
ΔF508 (Delta-F508, full name CFTRΔF508 or F508del-CFTR) is a specific mutation within the gene for a protein called the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR).
The James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy, also known as the Baker Institute, is an American think tank on the campus of Rice University in Houston, Texas.
James Knox Polk (November 2, 1795 – June 15, 1849) was an American politician who served as the 11th President of the United States (1845–1849).
Jaume Ferran i Clua (Corbera d'Ebre, 1851 – Barcelona 1929) was a Spanish bacteriologist and sanitarian, contemporary of Koch, and said by his fellows to have made some of the discoveries attributed to Koch.
John Snow (15 March 1813 – 16 June 1858) was an English physician and a leader in the adoption of anesthesia and medical hygiene.
Kussmaul breathing is a deep and labored breathing pattern often associated with severe metabolic acidosis, particularly diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) but also kidney failure.
Lactic acidosis is a medical condition characterized by the buildup of lactate (especially L-lactate) in the body, which results in an excessively low pH in the bloodstream.
The Lasker Awards have been awarded annually since 1945 to living persons who have made major contributions to medical science or who have performed public service on behalf of medicine.
Le Petit Journal was a conservative daily Parisian newspaper founded by Moïse Polydore Millaud; published from 1863 to 1944.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
The medical history or case history of a patient is information gained by a physician by asking specific questions, either of the patient or of other people who know the person and can give suitable information, with the aim of obtaining information useful in formulating a diagnosis and providing medical care to the patient.
The New York City Metropolitan Board of Health was the first modern municipal public health authority in the United States.
The miasma theory (also called the miasmatic theory) is an obsolete medical theory that held that diseases—such as cholera, chlamydia, or the Black Death—were caused by a miasma (μίασμα, ancient Greek: "pollution"), a noxious form of "bad air", also known as night air.
Multiple drug resistance (MDR), multidrug resistance or multiresistance is antimicrobial resistance shown by a species of microorganism to multiple antimicrobial drugs.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
In infectious disease ecology and epidemiology, a natural reservoir, also known as a disease reservoir or a reservoir of infection, is the population of organisms or the specific environment in which an infectious pathogen naturally lives and reproduces, or upon which the pathogen primarily depends for its survival.
Naval Medical Research Unit Two (NAMRU-2) is a biomedical research laboratory of the US Navy established with the purpose to study infectious diseases of potential military significance in Asia.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1 June 1796 – 24 August 1832) was a French military engineer and physicist, often described as the "father of thermodynamics".
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
A notifiable disease is any disease that is required by law to be reported to government authorities.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers, based on aliphatic or semi-aromatic polyamides.
An oligomer (oligo-, "a few" + -mer, "parts") is a molecular complex of chemicals that consists of a few monomer units, in contrast to a polymer, where the number of monomers is, in principle, infinite.
Open defecation is the human practice of defecating outside (in the open environment) rather than into a toilet.
Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) is a type of fluid replacement used to prevent and treat dehydration, especially that due to diarrhea.
Oyster is the common name for a number of different families of salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats.
A pandemic (from Greek πᾶν pan "all" and δῆμος demos "people") is an epidemic of infectious disease that has spread across a large region; for instance multiple continents, or even worldwide.
Peacekeeping refers to activities intended to create conditions that favour lasting peace.
Dom Pedro II (English: Peter II; 2 December 1825 – 5 December 1891), nicknamed "the Magnanimous", was the second and last ruler of the Empire of Brazil, reigning for over 58 years.
Perfusion is the passage of fluid through the circulatory system or lymphatic system to an organ or a tissue, usually referring to the delivery of blood to a capillary bed in tissue.
Phytoplankton are the autotrophic (self-feeding) components of the plankton community and a key part of oceans, seas and freshwater basin ecosystems.
A pit latrine or pit toilet is a type of toilet that collects human feces in a hole in the ground.
Plankton (singular plankter) are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current.
Port-au-Prince (Pòtoprens) is the capital and most populous city of Haiti.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
In structural biology, a protein subunit is a single protein molecule that assembles (or "coassembles") with other protein molecules to form a protein complex.
Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are a group of drugs whose main action is a pronounced and long-lasting reduction of stomach acid production.
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Often "Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky" in English.
A quarantine is used to separate and restrict the movement of people; it is a 'a restraint upon the activities or communication of persons or the transport of goods designed to prevent the spread of disease or pests', for a certain period of time.
A quinolone antibiotic is any member of a large group of broad-spectrum bactericides that share a bicyclic core structure related to the compound 4-quinolone.
Ringer's lactate solution (RL), also known as sodium lactate solution and Hartmann's solution, is a mixture of sodium chloride, sodium lactate, potassium chloride, and calcium chloride in water.
In epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection.
Rita Rossi Colwell (born November 23, 1934) is an American environmental microbiologist and scientific administrator.
Robert Allan Phillips MD (July 16, 1906 in Clear Lake, Iowa Retrieved 2014-11-19. – September 20, 1976) was a research scientist during World War II who developed battlefield methods to evaluate hemoglobin levels using specific gravity saving many lives.
Robert Heinrich Hermann Koch (11 December 1843 – 27 May 1910) was a German physician and microbiologist.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann (10 April 1755 – 2 July 1843) was a German physician, freemason best known for creating the system of alternative medicine called homeopathy.
Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
A sari, saree, or shariThe name of the garment in various regional languages include:শাড়ি, साड़ी, ଶାଢୀ, ಸೀರೆ,, साडी, कापड, चीरे,, സാരി, साडी, सारी, ਸਾਰੀ, புடவை, చీర, ساڑى is a female garment from the Indian subcontinent that consists of a drape varying from five to nine yards (4.5 metres to 8 metres) in length and two to four feet (60 cm to 1.20 m) in breadth that is typically wrapped around the waist, with one end draped over the shoulder, baring the midriff.
A sea level rise is an increase in global mean sea level as a result of an increase in the volume of water in the world’s oceans.
Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans.
A septic tank is a chamber made of concrete, fiberglass, PVC or plastic, through which domestic wastewater (sewage) flows for primary treatment.
A serotype or serovar is a distinct variation within a species of bacteria or virus or among immune cells of different individuals.
Sewage (or domestic wastewater or municipal wastewater) is a type of wastewater that is produced from a community of people.
Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, primarily from household sewage.
Shellfish is a food source and fisheries term for exoskeleton-bearing aquatic invertebrates used as food, including various species of molluscs, crustaceans, and echinoderms.
The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of food takes place.
SMS Moltke was a built for the German Imperial Navy (Kaiserliche Marine) in the late 1870s.
Solar water disinfection (SoDis) is a type of portable water purification that uses solar energy to make biologically-contaminated (e.g. bacteria, viruses, protozoa and worms) water safe to drink.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
A stool test involves the collection and analysis of fecal matter to diagnose the presence or absence of a medical condition.
In biology, a strain is a low-level taxonomic rank used at the intraspecific level (within a species).
Swinburne Island is the smaller of two artificial islands created in the Lower New York Bay east of South Beach, Staten Island for quarantine of immigrants, the other being Hoffman Island.
In virology, temperate refers to the ability of some bacteriophages (notably coliphage λ) to display a lysogenic life cycle.
Tetracycline, sold under the brand name Sumycin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat a number of infections.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
A toilet is a piece of hardware used for the collection or disposal of human urine and feces.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo.
In medicine, public health, and biology, transmission is the passing of a pathogen causing communicable disease from an infected host individual or group to a particular individual or group, regardless of whether the other individual was previously infected.
Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX), also known as co-trimoxazole among other names, is an antibiotic used to treat a variety of bacterial infections.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
A urine-diverting dry toilet (UDDT) is a type of dry toilet with urine diversion that can be used to provide safe, affordable sanitation in a variety of contexts worldwide.
Viable but nonculturable (VBNC) bacteria refers to bacteria that are in a state of very low metabolic activity and do not divide, but are alive and have the ability to become culturable once resuscitated.
Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative, comma-shaped bacterium.
Virulence is a pathogen's or microbe's ability to infect or damage a host.
Vomiting, also known as emesis, puking, barfing, throwing up, among other terms, is the involuntary, forceful expulsion of the contents of one's stomach through the mouth and sometimes the nose.
Sir Waldemar Mordechai Wolff Haffkine, CIE (Мордехай-Вольф Хавкин) (15 March 1860 – 26 October 1930) was a bacteriologist from the Russian Empire whose career was blighted in Russia because he refused to convert from Judaism to Russian Orthodox Christianity.
Water chlorination is the process of adding chlorine or hypochlorite to water.
A water filter removes impurities by lowering contamination of water using a fine physical barrier, a chemical process, or a biological process.
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities.
Water purification is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids and gases from water.
Water stagnation occurs when water stops flowing.
Water treatment is any process that improves the quality of water to make it more acceptable for a specific end-use.
Waterborne diseases are conditions caused by pathogenic micro-organisms that are transmitted in water.
A waterway is any navigable body of water.
The monsoon season, is the time of year when most of a region's average annual rainfall occurs.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zinc sulfate is used medically as a dietary supplement.
Zooplankton are heterotrophic (sometimes detritivorous) plankton.
Zygosity is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism.
The first cholera pandemic (1817–24), also known as the first Asiatic cholera pandemic or Asiatic cholera, began near Calcutta and spread throughout Southeast Asia to the Middle East, eastern Africa and the Mediterranean coast.
The second cholera pandemic (1829–1851), also known as the Asiatic Cholera Pandemic, was a cholera pandemic that reached from India across western Asia to Europe, Great Britain and the Americas, as well as east to China and Japan.
The third cholera pandemic (1852–60) was the third major outbreak of cholera originating in India in the nineteenth century that reached far beyond its borders.
The fourth cholera pandemic of the 19th century began in the Ganges Delta of the Bengal region and traveled with Muslim pilgrims to Mecca.
The fifth cholera pandemic (1881–96) was the fifth major international outbreak of cholera in the 19th century starting in India.
The sixth cholera pandemic (1899–1923) was a major outbreak of cholera beginning in India, where it killed more than 800,000 people, and spreading to the Middle East, North Africa, Eastern Europe and Russia.
The seventh cholera pandemic was the seventh major outbreak of cholera and occurred from the years 1961 to the 1970s and has continued (though much diminished) to the present.
The 2008 Zimbabwean cholera outbreak was an epidemic of cholera affecting much of Zimbabwe from August 2008 until June 2009.
The 2010-2017 Haitian cholera outbreak was the first modern large scale outbreak of cholera, once considered a beaten back disease thanks to the invention of modern sanitation, yet now resurgent, having spread across Haiti from October 2010 to May 2017, waxing and waning with eradication effort and climate variability.
In October 2016, an outbreak of cholera began in Yemen and is ongoing as of 30 September 2017.