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Cholera toxin

Index Cholera toxin

Cholera toxin (also known as choleragen and sometimes abbreviated to CTX, Ctx or CT) is protein complex secreted by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. [1]

47 relations: Adenylyl cyclase, ADP-ribosylation, Alpha helix, ARF6, Bacteria, Bicarbonate, Bordetella pertussis, Chloride, Cholera, CTXφ bacteriophage, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, Dehydration, Disulfide, Endocytosis, Enterotoxin, Enzyme, ER oxidoreductin, Escherichia coli, Exotoxin, G protein, Ganglioside, Gi alpha subunit, GM1, Gs alpha subunit, Heat-labile enterotoxin, Hes3 signaling axis, Histochemical tracer, Horizontal gene transfer, Ion, Lipid raft, Lumen (anatomy), Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, Oligomer, Pertussis toxin, Potassium, Protein complex, Protein disulfide-isomerase, Protein kinase A, Protein primary structure, Sambhu Nath De, Sodium, Unified atomic mass unit, Vibrio cholerae, Virulence, Water, X-ray crystallography.

Adenylyl cyclase

Adenylyl cyclase (also commonly known as adenyl cyclase and adenylate cyclase, abbreviated AC) is an enzyme with key regulatory roles in essentially all cells.

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ADP-ribosylation is the addition of one or more ADP-ribose moieties to a protein.

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Alpha helix

The alpha helix (α-helix) is a common motif in the secondary structure of proteins and is a righthand-spiral conformation (i.e. helix) in which every backbone N−H group donates a hydrogen bond to the backbone C.

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ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6) is a member of the ADP ribosylation factor family of GTP-binding proteins.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid.

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Bordetella pertussis

Bordetella pertussis is a Gram-negative, aerobic, pathogenic, encapsulated coccobacillus of the genus Bordetella, and the causative agent of pertussis or whooping cough.

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The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.

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Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.

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CTXφ bacteriophage

The CTXφ bacteriophage is a filamentous bacteriophage that contains the genetic material needed by the Vibrio cholerae bacterium for the production of cholera toxin, or CT.

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Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.

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Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a membrane protein and chloride channel in vertebrates that is encoded by the CFTR gene.

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In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.

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In chemistry, a disulfide refers to a functional group with the structure R−S−S−R′.

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Endocytosis is a form of bulk transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.

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An enterotoxin is a protein exotoxin released by a microorganism that targets the intestines.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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ER oxidoreductin

ER oxidoreductin 1 (Ero1) is an oxidoreductase enzyme that catalyses the formation and isomerization of protein disulfide bonds in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotes.

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Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).

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An exotoxin is a toxin secreted by bacteria.

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G protein

G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior.

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A ganglioside is a molecule composed of a glycosphingolipid (ceramide and oligosaccharide) with one or more sialic acids (e.g. n-acetylneuraminic acid, NANA) linked on the sugar chain.

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Gi alpha subunit

Gi alpha subunit (Gαi, or Gi/G0 or Gi protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that inhibits the production of cAMP from ATP.

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GM1 (monosialotetrahexosylganglioside) the "prototype" ganglioside, is a member of the ganglio series of gangliosides which contain one sialic acid residue.

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Gs alpha subunit

The Gs alpha subunit (Gαs, Gsα, or Gs protein) is a heterotrimeric G protein subunit that activates the cAMP-dependent pathway by activating adenylyl cyclase.

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Heat-labile enterotoxin

Heat-labile enterotoxin is a type of labile toxin found in Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus.

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Hes3 signaling axis

The STAT3-Ser/Hes3 signaling axis is a specific type of intracellular signaling pathway that regulates several fundamental properties of cells.

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Histochemical tracer

A histochemical tracer is a compound used to reveal the location of cells and track neuronal projections.

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Horizontal gene transfer

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.

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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Lipid raft

The plasma membranes of cells contain combinations of glycosphingolipids and protein receptors organised in glycolipoprotein microdomains termed lipid rafts.

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Lumen (anatomy)

In biology, a lumen (plural lumina) is the inside space of a tubular structure, such as an artery or intestine.

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Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a coenzyme found in all living cells.

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An oligomer (oligo-, "a few" + -mer, "parts") is a molecular complex of chemicals that consists of a few monomer units, in contrast to a polymer, where the number of monomers is, in principle, infinite.

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Pertussis toxin

Pertussis toxin (PT) is a protein-based AB5-type exotoxin produced by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis, which causes whooping cough.

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Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.

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Protein complex

A protein complex or multiprotein complex is a group of two or more associated polypeptide chains.

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Protein disulfide-isomerase

Protein disulfide isomerase, or PDI, is an enzyme in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in eukaryotes and the periplasm of bacteria that catalyzes the formation and breakage of disulfide bonds between cysteine residues within proteins as they fold.

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Protein kinase A

In cell biology, protein kinase A (PKANot to be confused with pKa, the symbol for the acid dissociation constant.) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP).

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Protein primary structure

Protein primary structure is the linear sequence of amino acids in a peptide or protein.

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Sambhu Nath De

Shambhu Nath De was born in Hooghly District, West Bengal, India.

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Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

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Unified atomic mass unit

The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).

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Vibrio cholerae

Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative, comma-shaped bacterium.

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Virulence is a pathogen's or microbe's ability to infect or damage a host.

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Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.

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X-ray crystallography

X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.

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Cholera toxin and enterotoxin.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholera_toxin

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