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Index Cholesterol

Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule. [1]

213 relations: Acetoacetyl-CoA, Acetone, Acetyl-CoA, Adenosine triphosphate, Adrenal gland, Alcohol, Aldosterone, American Heart Association, Amphiphile, Ancient Greek, Animal, Animal fat, Apheresis, Apolipoprotein, Apolipoprotein B, Apolipoprotein C, Apolipoprotein E, Archaea, Arcus senilis, Artery, Atheroma, Atherosclerosis, Avocado, Bacteria, Beef, Benzene, Bile, Bile acid, Bilirubin, Biosynthesis, Bisphosphonate, Bone, Breast milk, Cancer, Cardiovascular disease, Cause of death, Caveolae, Cell membrane, Cell wall, Cheese, Chemical modification, Chemical polarity, Chemical substance, Chirality (chemistry), Chloroform, Cholesterol embolism, Cholesterol total synthesis, Chylomicron, Clathrin, Coprostanol, ..., Coronary artery disease, Cortisol, Cyclodextrin, Demyelinating disease, Depression (mood), Dietary supplement, Drug metabolism, Dyslipidemia, Elizabeth DeLong, Emulsion, Endocytosis, Endogeny (biology), Endoplasmic reticulum, Enterohepatic circulation, Ester, Estrogen, Estrogen-related receptor alpha, Ethanol, Ether, Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy, Extracellular fluid, Familial hypercholesterolemia, Farnesyl pyrophosphate, Farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyltransferase, Fatty acid, Fatty acid metabolism, Feodor Lynen, Fibrate, Fish, Flax, Framingham Heart Study, François Poulletier de la Salle, Fructose, Functional food, GABAA receptor, Gallbladder, Gallstone, Gastrointestinal tract, Glucuronic acid, Glycine, Golgi apparatus, Hepatic lipase, Hexane, High-density lipoprotein, HMG-CoA, HMG-CoA reductase, Homeostasis, Homology (biology), Hydrocarbon, Hydrogen, Hydroxy group, Hypercholesterolemia, Hyperthyroidism, Hypocholesterolemia, Insulin-induced gene 1 protein, Intermediate-density lipoprotein, Intracellular, Intracerebral hemorrhage, Inward-rectifier potassium channel, Ion channel, Isopentenyl pyrophosphate, Isopropyl myristate, Janus-faced molecule, Joseph L. Goldstein, Kilogram, Kinase, Konrad Emil Bloch, Lanosterol, LDL receptor, Lecithin, Ligand (biochemistry), Lipid, Lipid bilayer, Lipid hypothesis, Lipid profile, Lipid raft, Lipid-lowering agent, Lipoprotein, Lipoprotein lipase, Liquid crystal, Liquid-crystal display, List of cholesterol in foods, Litre, Liver, Low-density lipoprotein, Lysosomal lipase, Lysosome, Macrophage, Medication, Membrane fluidity, Methanol, Mevalonate pathway, Mevalonic acid, Michael Stuart Brown, Michel Eugène Chevreul, Mole (unit), Molecule, Multiple sclerosis, Muscle, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycoplasma, Myelin, Myocardial infarction, National Cholesterol Education Program, National Health Service, Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, Niemann–Pick disease, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Organic compound, Oxidosqualene cyclase, Oxycholesterol, Oxysterol, Partial ileal bypass surgery, Peanut, Peripheral artery disease, Phospholipid, Phytosterol, Pork, Poultry, Precursor (chemistry), Progesterone, Prokaryote, Proteasome, Protein, Receptor (biochemistry), Remnant cholesterol, Reverse cholesterol transport, Schwann cell, Sex organ, Shrimp, Small intestine, Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome, Sodium, Space-filling model, Sphingolipid, Squalene, SREBP cleavage-activating protein, Stanol ester, Statin, Stereoisomerism, Steroid, Steroid hormone, Sterol, Sterol regulatory element-binding protein, Stroke, Suffix, Sulfate, Taurine, Testosterone, Thermometer, Trans fat, Transcription (biology), Transcription factor, Triglyceride, United States Department of Agriculture, Vertebrate, Very low-density lipoprotein, Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin K, Water, Yolk. Expand index (163 more) »


Acetoacetyl CoA is the precursor of HMG-CoA in the mevalonate pathway, which is essential for cholesterol biosynthesis.

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Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.

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Acetyl-CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

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Adenosine triphosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.

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Adrenal gland

The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.

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In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.

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Aldosterone, the main mineralocorticoid hormone, is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.

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American Heart Association

The American Heart Association (AHA) is a non-profit organization in the United States that fosters appropriate cardiac care in an effort to reduce disability and deaths caused by cardiovascular disease and stroke.

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An amphiphile (from the Greek αμφις, amphis: both and φιλíα, philia: love, friendship) is a chemical compound possessing both hydrophilic (water-loving, polar) and lipophilic (fat-loving) properties.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.

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Animal fat

Animal fats and oils are lipid materials derived from animals.

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Apheresis (ἀφαίρεσις (aphairesis, "a taking away")) is a medical technology in which the blood of a person is passed through an apparatus that separates out one particular constituent and returns the remainder to the circulation.The blood is filtered to remove the stem cells.

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Apolipoproteins are proteins that bind lipids (oil-soluble substances such as fat and cholesterol) to form lipoproteins.

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Apolipoprotein B

Apolipoprotein B (ApoB) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APOB gene.

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Apolipoprotein C

In the field of molecular biology, apolipoprotein C is a family of four low molecular weight apolipoproteins, designated as C-I, C-II, C-III, and C-IV that are surface components of chylomicrons, VLDL, and HDL.

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Apolipoprotein E

Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a class of proteins involved in the metabolism of fats in the body.

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Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.

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Arcus senilis

Arcus senilis is an old age syndrome where there is a white, grey, or blue opaque ring in the corneal margin (peripheral corneal opacity), or white ring in front of the periphery of the iris.

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An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).

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An atheroma is a reversible accumulation of degenerative material in the inner layer of an artery wall.

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Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.

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The avocado (Persea americana) is a tree, long thought to have originated in South Central Mexico, classified as a member of the flowering plant family Lauraceae.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle, particularly skeletal muscle.

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Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.

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Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine.

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Bile acid

Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in the bile of mammals and other vertebrates.

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Bilirubin is a yellow compound that occurs in the normal catabolic pathway that breaks down heme in vertebrates.

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Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.

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Bisphosphonates are a class of drugs that prevent the loss of bone density, used to treat osteoporosis and similar diseases.

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A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.

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Breast milk

Breast milk is the milk produced by the breasts (or mammary glands) of a human female to feed a child.

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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

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Cause of death

In law, medicine, and statistics, cause of death is a term which refers to an official determination of conditions resulting in a human's death.

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In biology, caveolae (Latin for "little caves"; singular, caveola), which are a special type of lipid raft, are small (50–100 nanometer) invaginations of the plasma membrane in many vertebrate cell types, especially in endothelial cells, adipocytes and embryonic notochord cells.

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Cell membrane

The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).

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Cell wall

A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.

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Cheese is a dairy product derived from milk that is produced in a wide range of flavors, textures, and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein.

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Chemical modification

Chemical modification describes the modification, addition or removal, through chemical reaction, of any of a variety of macromolecules, including proteins and nucleic acids.

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Chemical polarity

In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.

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Chemical substance

A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.

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Chirality (chemistry)

Chirality is a geometric property of some molecules and ions.

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Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.

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Cholesterol embolism

Cholesterol embolism (often cholesterol crystal embolism or atheroembolism, sometimes blue toe or purple toe syndrome or trash foot or warfarin blue toe syndrome) occurs when cholesterol is released, usually from an atherosclerotic plaque, and travels as an embolus in the bloodstream to lodge (as an embolism) causing an obstruction in blood vessels further away.

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Cholesterol total synthesis

Cholesterol total synthesis in chemistry describes the total synthesis of the complex biomolecule cholesterol and is considered a great scientific achievement.

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Chylomicrons (from the Greek χυλός, chylos, meaning juice (of plants or animals), and micron, meaning small particle) are lipoprotein particles that consist of triglycerides (85–92%), phospholipids (6–12%), cholesterol (1–3%), and proteins (1–2%).

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Clathrin is a protein that plays a major role in the formation of coated vesicles.

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5β-Coprostanol (5β-cholestan-3β-ol) is a 27-carbon stanol formed from the biohydrogenation of cholesterol (cholest-5en-3β-ol) in the gut of most higher animals and birds.

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Coronary artery disease

Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.

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Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones.

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Cyclodextrins (sometimes called cycloamyloses) are a family of compounds made up of sugar molecules bound together in a ring (cyclic oligosaccharides).

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Demyelinating disease

A demyelinating disease is any disease of the nervous system in which the myelin sheath of neurons is damaged.

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Depression (mood)

Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.

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Dietary supplement

A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.

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Drug metabolism

Drug metabolism is the metabolic breakdown of drugs by living organisms, usually through specialized enzymatic systems.

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Dyslipidemia is an abnormal amount of lipids (e.g. triglycerides, cholesterol and/or fat phospholipids) in the blood.

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Elizabeth DeLong

Elizabeth Ray DeLong is an American biostatistician.

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An emulsion is a mixture of two or more liquids that are normally immiscible (unmixable or unblendable).

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Endocytosis is a form of bulk transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.

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Endogeny (biology)

Endogenous substances and processes are those that originate from within an organism, tissue, or cell.

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Endoplasmic reticulum

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.

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Enterohepatic circulation

Enterohepatic circulation refers to the circulation of biliary acids, bilirubin, drugs or other substances from the liver to the bile, followed by entry into the small intestine, absorption by the enterocyte and transport back to the liver.

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In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.

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Estrogen, or oestrogen, is the primary female sex hormone.

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Estrogen-related receptor alpha

Estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα), also known as NR3B1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group B, member 1), is a nuclear receptor that in humans is encoded by the ESRRA (Estrogen Related Receptor Alpha) gene.

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Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.

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Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups.

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Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy

Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering all aspects of cardiology.

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Extracellular fluid

Extracellular fluid (ECF) denotes all body fluid outside the cells.

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Familial hypercholesterolemia

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder characterized by high cholesterol levels, specifically very high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL, "bad cholesterol"), in the blood and early cardiovascular disease.

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Farnesyl pyrophosphate

Farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), also known as farnesyl diphosphate (FDP), is an intermediate in both the mevalonate and non-mevalonate pathways used by organisms in the biosynthesis of terpenes, terpenoids, and sterols.

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Farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyltransferase

Squalene synthase (SQS) or farnesyl-diphosphate:farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyl transferase is an enzyme localized to the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum.

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Fatty acid

In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.

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Fatty acid metabolism

Fatty acid metabolism consists of catabolic processes that generate energy, and anabolic processes that create biologically important molecules (triglycerides, phospholipids, second messengers, local hormones and ketone bodies).

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Feodor Lynen

Feodor Felix Konrad Lynen (6 April 19116 August 1979) was a German biochemist.

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In pharmacology, the fibrates are a class of amphipathic carboxylic acids.

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Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.

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Flax (Linum usitatissimum), also known as common flax or linseed, is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae.

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Framingham Heart Study

The Framingham Heart Study is a long-term, ongoing cardiovascular cohort study on residents of the city of Framingham, Massachusetts.

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François Poulletier de la Salle

François Poulletier de la Salle (September 30, 1719 in Lyon – March 20, 1788 in Paris) was a French doctor and chemist.

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Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose.

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Functional food

A functional food is a food given an additional function (often one related to health-promotion or disease prevention) by adding new ingredients or more of existing ingredients.

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GABAA receptor

The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is an ionotropic receptor and ligand-gated ion channel.

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In vertebrates, the gallbladder is a small hollow organ where bile is stored and concentrated before it is released into the small intestine.

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A gallstone is a stone formed within the gallbladder out of bile components. The term cholelithiasis may refer to the presence of gallstones or to the diseases caused by gallstones. Most people with gallstones (about 80%) never have symptoms. When a gallstone blocks the bile duct, a crampy pain in the right upper part of the abdomen, known as biliary colic (gallbladder attack) can result. This happens in 1–4% of those with gallstones each year. Complications of gallstones may include inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), jaundice, and infection of a bile duct (cholangitis). Symptoms of these complications may include pain of more than five hours duration, fever, yellowish skin, vomiting, dark urine, and pale stools. Risk factors for gallstones include birth control pills, pregnancy, a family history of gallstones, obesity, diabetes, liver disease, or rapid weight loss. The bile components that form gallstones include cholesterol, bile salts, and bilirubin. Gallstones formed mainly from cholesterol are termed cholesterol stones, and those mainly from bilirubin are termed pigment stones. Gallstones may be suspected based on symptoms. Diagnosis is then typically confirmed by ultrasound. Complications may be detected on blood tests. The risk of gallstones may be decreased by maintaining a healthy weight through sufficient exercise and eating a healthy diet. If there are no symptoms, treatment is usually not needed. In those who are having gallbladder attacks, surgery to remove the gallbladder is typically recommended. This can be carried out either through several small incisions or through a single larger incision, usually under general anesthesia. In rare cases when surgery is not possible medication may be used to try to dissolve the stones or lithotripsy to break down the stones. In developed countries, 10–15% of adults have gallstones. Rates in many parts of Africa, however, are as low as 3%. Gallbladder and biliary related diseases occurred in about 104 million people (1.6%) in 2013 and they resulted in 106,000 deaths. Women more commonly have stones than men and they occur more commonly after the age of 40. Certain ethnic groups have gallstones more often than others. For example, 48% of Native Americans have gallstones. Once the gallbladder is removed, outcomes are generally good.

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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.

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Glucuronic acid

Glucuronic acid (from Greek γλυκύς "sweet" and οὖρον "urine") is a uronic acid that was first isolated from urine (hence the name).

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Glycine (symbol Gly or G) is the amino acid that has a single hydrogen atom as its side chain.

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Golgi apparatus

The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.

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Hepatic lipase

Hepatic lipase (HL), also called hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) or LIPC (for "lipase, hepatic"), is a form of lipase, catalyzing the hydrolysis of Triacylglyceride.

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Hexane is an alkane of six carbon atoms, with the chemical formula C6H14.

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High-density lipoprotein

High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are one of the five major groups of lipoproteins.

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β-Hydroxy β-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA), also known as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA, is an intermediate in the mevalonate and ketogenesis pathways.

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HMG-CoA reductase

HMG-CoA reductase (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, officially abbreviated HMGCR) is the rate-controlling enzyme (NADH-dependent,; NADPH-dependent) of the mevalonate pathway, the metabolic pathway that produces cholesterol and other isoprenoids.

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Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.

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Homology (biology)

In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.

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In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.

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Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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Hydroxy group

A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.

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Hypercholesterolemia, also called high cholesterol, is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood.

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Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.

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Hypocholesterolemia is the presence of abnormally low (hypo-) levels of cholesterol in the blood (-emia).

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Insulin-induced gene 1 protein

Insulin induced gene 1, also known as INSIG1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the INSIG1 gene.

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Intermediate-density lipoprotein

Intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDLs) belong to the lipoprotein particle family and are formed from the degradation of very low-density lipoproteins as well as high-density lipoproteins.

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In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means "inside the cell".

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Intracerebral hemorrhage

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), also known as cerebral bleed, is a type of intracranial bleed that occurs within the brain tissue or ventricles.

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Inward-rectifier potassium channel

Inward-rectifier potassium channels (Kir, IRK) are a specific subset of potassium channels.

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Ion channel

Ion channels are pore-forming membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through the channel pore.

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Isopentenyl pyrophosphate

Isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP, isopentenyl diphosphate, or IDP) is an isoprenoid precursor.

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Isopropyl myristate

Isopropyl myristate is the ester of isopropyl alcohol and myristic acid.

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Janus-faced molecule

A Janus molecule (or Janus-faced molecule) is a molecule which can represent both beneficial and toxic effects.

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Joseph L. Goldstein

Joseph Leonard Goldstein (born April 18, 1940) is an American biochemist.

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The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.

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In biochemistry, a kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups from high-energy, phosphate-donating molecules to specific substrates.

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Konrad Emil Bloch

Konrad Emil Bloch, ForMemRS (January 21, 1912 – October 15, 2000) was a German American biochemist.

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Lanosterol is a tetracyclic triterpenoid and is the compound from which all animal and fungal steroids are derived.

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LDL receptor

The Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Receptor (LDL-R) is a mosaic protein of 839 amino acids (after removal of 21-amino acid signal peptide) that mediates the endocytosis of cholesterol-rich LDL.

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Lecithin (from the Greek lekithos, "egg yolk") is a generic term to designate any group of yellow-brownish fatty substances occurring in animal and plant tissues, which are amphiphilic – they attract both water and fatty substances (and so are both hydrophilic and lipophilic), and are used for smoothing food textures, dissolving powders (emulsifying), homogenizing liquid mixtures, and repelling sticking materials.

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Ligand (biochemistry)

In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.

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In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.

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Lipid bilayer

The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules.

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Lipid hypothesis

The lipid hypothesis is a medical theory postulating a link between blood cholesterol levels and occurrence of heart disease.

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Lipid profile

Lipid profile or lipid panel is a panel of blood tests that serves as an initial screening tool for abnormalities in lipids, such as cholesterol and triglycerides.

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Lipid raft

The plasma membranes of cells contain combinations of glycosphingolipids and protein receptors organised in glycolipoprotein microdomains termed lipid rafts.

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Lipid-lowering agent

Hypolipidemic agents, or antihyperlipidemic agents, are a diverse group of pharmaceuticals that are used in the treatment of high levels of fats (lipids), such as cholesterol, in the blood (hyperlipidemia).

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A lipoprotein is a biochemical assembly whose purpose is to transport hydrophobic lipid (a.k.a. fat) molecules in water, as in blood or extracellular fluid.

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Lipoprotein lipase

Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a member of the lipase gene family, which includes pancreatic lipase, hepatic lipase, and endothelial lipase.

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Liquid crystal

Liquid crystals (LCs) are matter in a state which has properties between those of conventional liquids and those of solid crystals.

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Liquid-crystal display

A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat-panel display or other electronically modulated optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals.

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List of cholesterol in foods

This list consists of common foods with their cholesterol content recorded in milligrams per 100 grams (3.5 ounces) of food.

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The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l, sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,, p. 124. ("Days" and "hours" are examples of other non-SI units that SI accepts.) although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre", a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English. One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.

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The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Low-density lipoprotein

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is one of the five major groups of lipoprotein which transport all fat molecules around the body in the extracellular water.

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Lysosomal lipase

Lysosomal lipase is a form of lipase which functions intracellularly, in the lysosomes.

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A lysosome is a membrane-bound organelle found in nearly all animal cells.

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Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).

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A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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Membrane fluidity

In biology, membrane fluidity refers to the viscosity of the lipid bilayer of a cell membrane or a synthetic lipid membrane.

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Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).

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Mevalonate pathway

The mevalonate pathway, also known as the isoprenoid pathway or HMG-CoA reductase pathway is an essential metabolic pathway present in eukaryotes, archaea, and some bacteria.

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Mevalonic acid

Mevalonic acid (MVA) is a key organic compound in biochemistry; the name is a contraction of dihydroxymethylvalerolactone.

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Michael Stuart Brown

Michael Stuart Brown (born April 13, 1941) is an American geneticist and Nobel laureate.

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Michel Eugène Chevreul

Michel Eugène Chevreul (31 August 1786 – 9 April 1889) was a French chemist whose work with fatty acids led to early applications in the fields of art and science.

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Mole (unit)

The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.

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A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.

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Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a species of pathogenic bacteria in the family Mycobacteriaceae and the causative agent of tuberculosis.

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Mycoplasma is a genus of bacteria that lack a cell wall around their cell membrane.

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Myelin is a lipid-rich substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer.

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Myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.

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National Cholesterol Education Program

The National Cholesterol Education Program is a program managed by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, a division of the National Institutes of Health.

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National Health Service

The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.

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Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are receptor proteins that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

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Niemann–Pick disease

Niemann–Pick disease is a group of inherited, severe metabolic disorders in which sphingomyelin accumulates in lysosomes in cells.

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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.

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Organic compound

In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.

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Oxidosqualene cyclase

Oxidosqualene cyclases (OSC) are enzymes involved in cyclization reactions of 2,3-oxidosqualene to form sterols or triterpenes.

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Oxycholesterol or 5,6-epoxycholesterol is a form of oxidized cholesterol implicated in atherosclerosis.

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Oxysterols are oxidized derivatives of cholesterol which may be important in many biological processes, including.

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Partial ileal bypass surgery

Partial ileal bypass surgery is a surgical procedure which involves shortening the ileum to shorten the total small intestinal length.

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The peanut, also known as the groundnut or the goober and taxonomically classified as Arachis hypogaea, is a legume crop grown mainly for its edible seeds.

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Peripheral artery disease

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a narrowing of the arteries other than those that supply the heart or the brain.

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Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.

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Phytosterols, which encompass plant sterols and stanols, are phytosteroids, similar to cholesterol, which occur in plants and vary only in carbon side chains and/or presence or absence of a double bond.

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Pork is the culinary name for meat from a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).

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Poultry are domesticated birds kept by humans for their eggs, their meat or their feathers.

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Precursor (chemistry)

In chemistry, a precursor is a compound that participates in a chemical reaction that produces another compound.

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Progesterone (P4) is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species.

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A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.

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Proteasomes are protein complexes which degrade unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis, a chemical reaction that breaks peptide bonds.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Receptor (biochemistry)

In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.

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Remnant cholesterol

Remnant cholesterol, also known as remnant lipoprotein, is a very atherogenic lipoprotein composed primarily of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL).

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Reverse cholesterol transport

Reverse cholesterol transport is a multi-step process resulting in the net movement of cholesterol from peripheral tissues back to the liver first via entering the lymphatic system, then the bloodstream.

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Schwann cell

Schwann cells (named after physiologist Theodor Schwann) or neurolemmocytes are the principal glia of the peripheral nervous system (PNS).

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Sex organ

A sex organ (or reproductive organ) is any part of an animal's body that is involved in sexual reproduction.

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The term shrimp is used to refer to some decapod crustaceans, although the exact animals covered can vary.

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Small intestine

The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of food takes place.

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Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome

Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome (also SLOS, or 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase deficiency) is an inborn error of cholesterol synthesis.

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Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

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Space-filling model

In chemistry, a space-filling model, also known as a calotte model, is a type of three-dimensional (3D) molecular model where the atoms are represented by spheres whose radii are proportional to the radii of the atoms and whose center-to-center distances are proportional to the distances between the atomic nuclei, all in the same scale.

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Sphingolipids are a class of lipids containing a backbone of sphingoid bases, a set of aliphatic amino alcohols that includes sphingosine.

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Squalene is a natural 30-carbon organic compound originally obtained for commercial purposes primarily from shark liver oil (hence its name, as Squalus is a genus of sharks), although plant sources (primarily vegetable oils) are now used as well, including amaranth seed, rice bran, wheat germ, and olives.

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SREBP cleavage-activating protein

Sterol regulatory element-binding protein cleavage-activating protein, also known as SREBP cleavage-activating protein or SCAP is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SCAP gene.

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Stanol ester

Stanol ester is a heterogeneous group of chemical compounds known to reduce the level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in blood when ingested, though to a much lesser degree than prescription drugs such as statins.

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Statins, also known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are a class of lipid-lowering medications.

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In stereochemistry, stereoisomers are isomeric molecules that have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms (constitution), but differ in the three-dimensional orientations of their atoms in space.

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A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.

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Steroid hormone

A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone.

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Sterols, also known as steroid alcohols, are a subgroup of the steroids and an important class of organic molecules.

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Sterol regulatory element-binding protein

Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) are transcription factors that bind to the sterol regulatory element DNA sequence TCACNCCAC.

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A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.

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In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.

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The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.

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No description.

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Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.

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A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or a temperature gradient.

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Trans fat

Trans fat, also called trans-unsaturated fatty acids or trans fatty acids, are a type of unsaturated fat that occur in small amounts in nature but became widely produced industrially from vegetable fats starting in the 1950s for use in margarine, snack food, and packaged baked goods and for frying fast food.

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Transcription (biology)

Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.

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Transcription factor

In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.

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A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).

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United States Department of Agriculture

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.

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Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Very low-density lipoprotein

Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), density relative to extracellular water, is a type of lipoprotein made by the liver.

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Vitamin A

Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids (most notably beta-carotene).

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Vitamin D

Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.

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Vitamin E

Vitamin E is a group of eight compounds that include four tocopherols and four tocotrienols.

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Vitamin K

Vitamin K is a group of structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamins that the human body requires for complete synthesis of certain proteins that are prerequisites for blood coagulation (K from Koagulation, Danish for "coagulation") and which the body also needs for controlling binding of calcium in bones and other tissues.

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Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.

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Among animals which produce one, the yolk (also known as the vitellus) is the nutrient-bearing portion of the egg whose primary function is to supply food for the development of the embryo.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cholesterol

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