34 relations: Acetylcholine, Acetylcholine receptor, Acetylcholinesterase, Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, Adrenergic, Anticholinergic, Basal forebrain, Cerebral cortex, Choline, Donepezil, Dopaminergic, Frontal lobe, GABAergic, Galantamine, Glutamatergic, Hyoscine, Inositol, Ion, Lecithin, Ligand (biochemistry), Moly (herb), Neurotransmitter, Nootropic, Occipital lobe, Parasympathetic nervous system, Parasympathomimetic drug, Physostigmine, Quaternary ammonium cation, Racetam, Receptor (biochemistry), Rivastigmine, Serotonergic, Sympathetic nervous system, Synapse.
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
An acetylcholine receptor (abbreviated AChR) is an integral membrane protein that responds to the binding of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter.
Acetylcholinesterase, encoded by HGNC gene ACHE; EC 188.8.131.52) is the primary cholinesterase in the body. It is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of acetylcholine and of some other choline esters that function as neurotransmitters. AChE is found at mainly neuromuscular junctions and in chemical synapses of the cholinergic type, where its activity serves to terminate synaptic transmission. It belongs to carboxylesterase family of enzymes. It is the primary target of inhibition by organophosphorus compounds such as nerve agents and pesticides.
An acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (often abbreviated AChEI) or anti-cholinesterase is a chemical or a drug that inhibits the acetylcholinesterase enzyme from breaking down acetylcholine, thereby increasing both the level and duration of action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Adrenergic means "working on adrenaline (epinephrine) or noradrenaline (norepinephrine)".
An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.
The basal forebrain structures are located in the forebrain to the front of and below the striatum.
The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.
Choline is a water-soluble vitamin-like essential nutrient.
Donepezil, marketed under the trade name Aricept, is a medication used in the palliative treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
Dopaminergic means "related to dopamine" (literally, "working on dopamine"), dopamine being a common neurotransmitter.
The frontal lobe, located at the front of the brain, is the largest of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the mammalian brain.
GABAergic means "pertaining to or affecting the neurotransmitter GABA".
Galantamine (Nivalin, Razadyne, Razadyne ER, Reminyl, Lycoremine) is used for the treatment of cognitive decline in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and various other memory impairments.
Glutamatergic means "related to glutamate".
Hyoscine, also known as scopolamine, is a medication used to treat motion sickness and postoperative nausea and vomiting.
Myo-inositol, or simply inositol, is a carbocyclic sugar that is abundant in brain and other mammalian tissues, mediates cell signal transduction in response to a variety of hormones, neurotransmitters and growth factors and participates in osmoregulation It is a sugar alcohol with half the sweetness of sucrose (table sugar).
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Lecithin (from the Greek lekithos, "egg yolk") is a generic term to designate any group of yellow-brownish fatty substances occurring in animal and plant tissues, which are amphiphilic – they attract both water and fatty substances (and so are both hydrophilic and lipophilic), and are used for smoothing food textures, dissolving powders (emulsifying), homogenizing liquid mixtures, and repelling sticking materials.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
Moly (Greek: μῶλυ) is a magical herb mentioned in book 10 of Homer's Odyssey.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nootropics, also known as smart drugs and cognitive enhancers, are drugs, supplements, and other substances that purport to improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals.
The occipital lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.
The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system (a division of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)), the other being the sympathetic nervous system.
A parasympathomimetic drug, sometimes called a cholinomimetic drug, is a substance that stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS).
Physostigmine (also known as eserine from éséré, the West African name for the Calabar bean) is a highly toxic parasympathomimetic alkaloid, specifically, a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor.
Quaternary ammonium cations, also known as quats, are positively charged polyatomic ions of the structure, R being an alkyl group or an aryl group.
Racetams are a class of drugs that share a pyrrolidone nucleus.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Rivastigmine (sold under the trade name Exelon) is a acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used for the treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's.
Serotonergic or serotoninergic means "pertaining to or affecting serotonin".
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the two main divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the other being the parasympathetic nervous system.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.