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Index Chordate

A chordate is an animal belonging to the phylum Chordata; chordates possess a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail, for at least some period of their life cycle. [1]

174 relations: Acanthodii, Acorn worm, Actinistia, Actinopterygii, Agnatha, Ambulacraria, Amniote, Amphibian, Anaspida, Animal, Anus, Archosauromorpha, Ascidiacea, Aspiraculata, Avemetatarsalia, BBC, Biochemistry, BioEssays, Bird, Blue whale, Body plan, Burgess Shale, Calcite, Cambrian, Cambrian explosion, Cartilage, Cephalaspidomorphi, Cephalochordate, Chondrichthyes, Chordate, Chordate genomics, Cilium, Circulatory system, Clade, Cladistics, Class (biology), Cnidaria, Coelom, Colony (biology), Conodont, Craniate, Crinoid, Crurotarsi, Cyclostomata, Cylinder, Dagger (typography), Deuterostome, Dorsal nerve cord, Echinoderm, Ediacaran, ..., Embryology, Endostyle, Ernietta, Ernst Haeckel, Esophagus, Evolution, Filter feeder, Fish, Fishes of the World, Fossil, Gastrointestinal tract, Gill, Gill slit, Giovanni Battista Cirri, Gnathostomata, Gonad, Graptolithina, Hacksaw, Hagfish, Haikouella, Haikouichthys, Hemichordate, Hepatic caecum, Holocene, Human, Human mouth, Hyperoartia, Incertae sedis, International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, Iodine, Jane Reece, Jaw, Jellyfish, Kimberella, Kryptopterus vitreolus, Lamprey, Lancelet, Larva, Larvacea, Lepidosauromorpha, Linnaean taxonomy, List of chordate orders, Liver, Lizard, Lungfish, Mammal, Maotianshan Shales, Metamerism (biology), Michael Benton, Molecular clock, Molecular phylogenetics, Monophyly, Mosasaur, Mucus, Myllokunmingia, Myllokunmingiidae, Neil Campbell (scientist), Nerve, Nervous system, Neural tube, Neurocranium, Notochord, Osteichthyes, Osteostraci, Ovary, Palaeospondylus, Paraphyly, Peregrine falcon, Peritoneum, Pharyngeal slit, Pharynx, Philippe Janvier, Phylogenetic tree, Phylum, Pikaia, Placodermi, Plankton, Proboscis, Protostome, Pteraspidomorphi, Pterobranchia, Reptile, Rhabdotubus, Ribosome, RNA, Salp, Sarcopterygii, Sauropsida, Sea cucumber, Sea urchin, Sediment, Siphon, Sister group, Skeleton, Skull, Snake, Spinal cord, Starfish, Symmetry in biology, Synapsid, Tadpole, Tail, Taxonomy of invertebrates (Brusca & Brusca, 2003), Terreneuvian, Testicle, Tetrapod, Thaliacea, Thelodonti, Throat, Thyroid, Tuatara, Tube feet, Tunica (biology), Tunicate, Vertebra, Vertebral column, Vertebrate, Vertebrate Palaeontology (Benton), Vetulicolia, Water vascular system, William Bateson, Yunnanozoon, Zhongjianichthys, Zhongxiniscus. Expand index (124 more) »


Acanthodii or acanthodians (sometimes called spiny sharks) is a paraphyletic class of extinct teleostome fish, sharing features with both bony fish and cartilaginous fish.

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Acorn worm

The acorn worms or Enteropneusta are a hemichordate class of invertebrates consisting of one order of the same name.

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Actinistia is a subclass of mostly fossil lobe-finned fishes.

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Actinopterygii, or the ray-finned fishes, constitute a class or subclass of the bony fishes.

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Agnatha (Greek, "no jaws") is a superclass of jawless fish in the phylum Chordata, subphylum Vertebrata, consisting of both present (cyclostomes) and extinct (conodonts and ostracoderms) species.

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Ambulacraria or Coelomopora is a clade of invertebrate phyla which includes echinoderms and hemichordates; a member of this group is called an ambulacrarian.

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Amniotes (from Greek ἀμνίον amnion, "membrane surrounding the fetus", earlier "bowl in which the blood of sacrificed animals was caught", from ἀμνός amnos, "lamb") are a clade of tetrapod vertebrates comprising the reptiles, birds, and mammals.

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Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.

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Anaspida ("without shield") is an extinct group of primitive jawless vertebrates that lived primarily during the Silurian period, and became extinct soon after the start of the Devonian.

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Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.

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The anus (from Latin anus meaning "ring", "circle") is an opening at the opposite end of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth.

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Archosauromorpha (Greek for "ruling lizard forms") is a clade (or infraclass) of diapsid reptiles that first appeared during the middle Permian and became more common during the Triassic.

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Ascidiacea (commonly known as the ascidians or sea squirts) is a paraphyletic class in the subphylum Tunicata of sac-like marine invertebrate filter feeders.

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Sorberacea are a monofamilial class of benthic Tunicates.

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Avemetatarsalia (meaning "bird metatarsals") is a clade name established by British palaeontologist Michael Benton in 1999 for all crown group archosaurs that are closer to birds than to crocodiles.

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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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BioEssays is a monthly peer-reviewed review journal covering molecular and cellular biology.

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Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

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Blue whale

The blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) is a marine mammal belonging to the baleen whale parvorder, Mysticeti.

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Body plan

A body plan, Bauplan (German plural Baupläne), or ground plan is a set of morphological features common to many members of a phylum of animals.

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Burgess Shale

The Burgess Shale is a fossil-bearing deposit exposed in the Canadian Rockies of British Columbia, Canada.

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Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

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The Cambrian Period was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon.

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Cambrian explosion

The Cambrian explosion or Cambrian radiation was an event approximately in the Cambrian period when most major animal phyla appeared in the fossil record.

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Cartilage is a resilient and smooth elastic tissue, a rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints, and is a structural component of the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes, the intervertebral discs, and many other body components.

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Cephalaspidomorphs are a group of jawless fishes named for Cephalaspis of the osteostracans.

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A cephalochordate (from Greek: κεφαλή, "head" and χορδή, "chord") is an animal in the chordate subphylum, Cephalochordata.

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Chondrichthyes (from Greek χονδρ- chondr- 'cartilage', ἰχθύς ichthys 'fish') is a class that contains the cartilaginous fishes: they are jawed vertebrates with paired fins, paired nares, scales, a heart with its chambers in series, and skeletons made of cartilage rather than bone.

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A chordate is an animal belonging to the phylum Chordata; chordates possess a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail, for at least some period of their life cycle.

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Chordate genomics

Chordate genomics is the study of the evolution of the chordate clade based on a comparison of the genomes of several species within the clade.

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A cilium (the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".

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Cladistics (from Greek κλάδος, cládos, i.e., "branch") is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor.

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Class (biology)

In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.

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Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments: they are predominantly marine species.

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The coelom is the main body cavity in most animals and is positioned inside the body to surround and contain the digestive tract and other organs.

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Colony (biology)

In biology, a colony is composed of two or more conspecific individuals living in close association with, or connected to, one another.

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Conodonts (Greek kōnos, "cone", + odont, "tooth") are extinct agnathan chordates resembling eels, classified in the class Conodonta.

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A craniate is a member of the Craniata (sometimes called the Craniota), a proposed clade of chordate animals with a skull of hard bone or cartilage.

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Crinoids are marine animals that make up the class Crinoidea of the echinoderms (phylum Echinodermata).

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Crurotarsi is a group of archosauriform reptiles that includes the archosaurs (represented today by birds and crocodilians) and the extinct, crocodile-like phytosaurs.

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Cyclostomata is a group of agnathans that comprises the living jawless fishes: the lampreys and hagfishes.

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A cylinder (from Greek κύλινδρος – kulindros, "roller, tumbler"), has traditionally been a three-dimensional solid, one of the most basic of curvilinear geometric shapes.

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Dagger (typography)

A dagger, obelisk, or obelus is a typographical symbol usually used to indicate a footnote if an asterisk has already been used.

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Deuterostomes (taxonomic term: Deuterostomia; meaning "second mouth" in Greek) are any members of a superphylum of animals.

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Dorsal nerve cord

The dorsal nerve cord is a unique feature to chordates, and it is mainly found in the Vertebrata chordate subphylum.

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Echinoderm is the common name given to any member of the phylum Echinodermata (from Ancient Greek, ἐχῖνος, echinos – "hedgehog" and δέρμα, derma – "skin") of marine animals.

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The Ediacaran Period, spans 94 million years from the end of the Cryogenian Period 635 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Cambrian Period 541 Mya.

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Embryology (from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses.

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The endostyle is an organ which assists lower-chordates (urochordates and cephalochordates, as well as the larvae of lampreys) in filter-feeding.

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Ernietta plateauensis, the sole species of the genus Ernietta, is a bag-shaped erniettomorph genus that lived half-buried in sediment, and probably fed by osmosis.

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Ernst Haeckel

Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was a German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including anthropogeny, ecology, phylum, phylogeny, and Protista. Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the influential but no longer widely held recapitulation theory ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny") claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny.

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The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.

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Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Filter feeder

Filter feeders are a sub-group of suspension feeding animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized filtering structure.

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Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.

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Fishes of the World

Fishes of the World by Joseph S. Nelson is a standard reference for fish systematics.

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A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.

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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.

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A gill is a respiratory organ found in many aquatic organisms that extracts dissolved oxygen from water and excretes carbon dioxide.

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Gill slit

Gill slits are individual openings to gills, i.e., multiple gill arches, which lack a single outer cover.

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Giovanni Battista Cirri

Giovanni Battista Cirri (1 October 1724 – 11 June 1808) was an Italian cellist and composer in the 18th century.

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Gnathostomata are the jawed vertebrates.

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A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.

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Graptolithina is a subclass of the class Pterobranchia, the members of which are known as graptolites.

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A hacksaw is a fine-toothed saw, originally and mainly made for cutting metal.

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Hagfish, the class '''Myxini''' (also known as Hyperotreti), are eel-shaped, slime-producing marine fish (occasionally called slime eels).

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Haikouella is an agnathan chordate from the Lower Cambrian Maotianshan shales of Chengjiang County in Yunnan Province, China.

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Haikouichthys is an extinct genus of craniate (animals with notochords and distinct heads) believed to have lived 525 million years ago, during the Cambrian explosion of multicellular life.

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Hemichordata is a phylum of marine deuterostome animals, generally considered the sister group of the echinoderms.

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Hepatic caecum

Hepatic caecum or hepatic cecum is a name used in describing various physiological structures in some crustaceans, insects and cephalochordates.

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The Holocene is the current geological epoch.

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Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.

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Human mouth

In human anatomy, the mouth is the first portion of the alimentary canal that receives food and produces saliva.

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Hyperoartia or Petromyzontida is a disputed group of vertebrates that includes the modern lampreys and their fossil relatives.

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Incertae sedis

Incertae sedis (Latin for "of uncertain placement") is a term used for a taxonomic group where its broader relationships are unknown or undefined.

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International Code of Zoological Nomenclature

The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a widely accepted convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific naming of organisms treated as animals.

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Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.

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Jane Reece

Jane B. Reece (born 15 April 1944) is an American scientist and textbook author.

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The jaw is any opposable articulated structure at the entrance of the mouth, typically used for grasping and manipulating food.

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Jellyfish or sea jelly is the informal common name given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a major part of the phylum Cnidaria.

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Kimberella is a monospecific genus of bilaterian known only from rocks of the Ediacaran period.

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Kryptopterus vitreolus

Kryptopterus vitreolus, known in the aquarium trade traditionally as the glass catfishSeriouslyFish: Retrieved 18 July 2014.

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Lampreys (sometimes also called, inaccurately, lamprey eels) are an ancient lineage of jawless fish of the order Petromyzontiformes, placed in the superclass Cyclostomata.

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The lancelets — also known as amphioxi (singular, amphioxus) consist of about 32 species of fish-like marine chordates in the order Amphioxiformes.

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A larva (plural: larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults.

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Larvaceans (Class Appendicularia) are solitary, free-swimming tunicates found throughout the world's oceans.

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Lepidosauromorpha is a group of reptiles comprising all diapsids closer to lizards than to archosaurs (which include crocodiles and birds).

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Linnaean taxonomy

Linnaean taxonomy can mean either of two related concepts.

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List of chordate orders

This page contains a list of all of the classes and orders that are located in the Phylum Chordata.

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The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains.

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Lungfish are freshwater rhipidistian fish belonging to the subclass Dipnoi.

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Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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Maotianshan Shales

The Maotianshan Shales are a series of Early Cambrian deposits in the Chiungchussu Formation, famous for their Konservat Lagerstätten, deposits known for the exceptional preservation of fossilized organisms or traces.

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Metamerism (biology)

In biology, metamerism is the phenomenon of having a linear series of body segments fundamentally similar in structure, though not all such structures are entirely alike in any single life form because some of them perform special functions.

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Michael Benton

Michael James "Mike" Benton FRS (born 8 April 1956) is a British palaeontologist, and professor of vertebrate palaeontology in the School of Earth Sciences at the University of Bristol.

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Molecular clock

The molecular clock is a technique that uses the mutation rate of biomolecules to deduce the time in prehistory when two or more life forms diverged.

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Molecular phylogenetics

Molecular phylogenetics is the branch of phylogeny that analyzes genetic, hereditary molecular differences, predominately in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.

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In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.

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Mosasaurs (from Latin Mosa meaning the 'Meuse river', and Greek σαύρος sauros meaning 'lizard') are an extinct group of large marine reptiles containing 38 genera in total.

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Mucus is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.

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Myllokunmingia is a genus of basal chordate from the Lower Cambrian Maotianshan shales of China, thought to be a vertebrate, although this is not conclusively proven.

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Myllokunmingiidae is a group of very early, jawless prehistoric fish (Agnathans) which lived during the Cambrian period.

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Neil Campbell (scientist)

Neil Allison Campbell (April 17, 1946 – October 21, 2004) was an American scientist known best for his textbook Biology.

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A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.

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Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.

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Neural tube

In the developing chordate (including vertebrates), the neural tube is the embryonic precursor to the central nervous system, which is made up of the brain and spinal cord.

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In human anatomy, the neurocranium, also known as the braincase, brainpan, or brain-pan is the upper and back part of the skull, which forms a protective case around the brain.

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In anatomy, the notochord is a flexible rod made out of a material similar to cartilage.

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Osteichthyes, popularly referred to as the bony fish, is a diverse taxonomic group of fish that have skeletons primarily composed of bone tissue, as opposed to cartilage.

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The class Osteostraci ("Bony Shields") is an extinct taxon of bony-armored jawless fish, termed "ostracoderms", that lived in what is now North America, Europe and Russia from the Middle Silurian to Late Devonian.

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The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.

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Palaeospondylus gunni ("Gunn's Ancient Vertebrae") is a mysterious, fish-like fossil vertebrate.

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In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups.

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Peregrine falcon

The peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), also known as the peregrine, and historically as the duck hawk in North America, is a widespread bird of prey (raptor) in the family Falconidae.

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The peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity or coelom in amniotes and some invertebrates, such as annelids.

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Pharyngeal slit

Pharyngeal slits are filter-feeding organs found in Invertebrate chordates (lancelets and tunicates) and hemichordates living in aquatic environments.

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The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.

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Philippe Janvier

Philippe Janvier is a French paleontologist, specialising in Palaeozoic vertebrates, who currently works at the Museum National de l’Histoire Naturelle in Paris.

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Phylogenetic tree

A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.

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In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.

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Pikaia gracilens is an extinct cephalochordate animal known from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale of British Columbia.

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Placodermi (from the Greek πλάξ.

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Plankton (singular plankter) are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current.

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A proboscis is an elongated appendage from the head of an animal, either a vertebrate or an invertebrate.

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Protostomia (from Greek πρωτο- proto- "first" and στόμα stoma "mouth") is a clade of animals.

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Pteraspidomorphi is an extinct class of early jawless fish.

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Pterobranchia is a clade of small worm-shaped animals.

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Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.

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The Lower-Middle Cambrian animal Rhabdotubus is the earliest known pterobranch.

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The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).

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Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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A salp (plural salps), salpa (plural salpae or salpas), is a barrel-shaped, planktonic tunicate.

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The Sarcopterygii or lobe-finned fish (from Greek σαρξ sarx, flesh, and πτερυξ pteryx, fin) – sometimes considered synonymous with Crossopterygii ("fringe-finned fish", from Greek κροσσός krossos, fringe) – constitute a clade (traditionally a class or subclass) of the bony fish, though a strict cladistic view includes the terrestrial vertebrates.

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Sauropsida ("lizard faces") is a group of amniotes that includes all existing birds and other reptiles as well as their fossil ancestors and other extinct relatives.

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Sea cucumber

Sea cucumbers are echinoderms from the class Holothuroidea.

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Sea urchin

Sea urchins or urchins are typically spiny, globular animals, echinoderms in the class Echinoidea.

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Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.

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The word siphon (from σίφων "pipe, tube", also spelled syphon) is used to refer to a wide variety of devices that involve the flow of liquids through tubes.

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Sister group

A sister group or sister taxon is a phylogenetic term denoting the closest relatives of another given unit in an evolutionary tree.

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The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.

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The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in vertebrates.

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Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.

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Spinal cord

The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column.

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Starfish or sea stars are star-shaped echinoderms belonging to the class Asteroidea.

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Symmetry in biology

Symmetry in biology is the balanced distribution of duplicate body parts or shapes within the body of an organism.

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Synapsids (Greek, 'fused arch'), synonymous with theropsids (Greek, 'beast-face'), are a group of animals that includes mammals and every animal more closely related to mammals than to other living amniotes.

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A tadpole (also called a pollywog) is the larval stage in the life cycle of an amphibian, particularly that of a frog or toad.

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The tail is the section at the rear end of an animal's body; in general, the term refers to a distinct, flexible appendage to the torso.

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Taxonomy of invertebrates (Brusca & Brusca, 2003)

The taxonomy of invertebrates as proposed by Richard C. Brusca and Gary J. Brusca in 2003 is a system of classification with emphasis on the invertebrates, in other words, a way to classify animals, primarily those which have no backbone.

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The Terreneuvian is the lowermost and oldest series of the Cambrian geological system.

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The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.

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The superclass Tetrapoda (from Greek: τετρα- "four" and πούς "foot") contains the four-limbed vertebrates known as tetrapods; it includes living and extinct amphibians, reptiles (including dinosaurs, and its subgroup birds) and mammals (including primates, and all hominid subgroups including humans), as well as earlier extinct groups.

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The Thaliacea comprise a class of marine animals within the subphylum Tunicata.

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Thelodonti (from Greek: "feeble teeth")Maisey, John G., Craig Chesek, and David Miller.

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In vertebrate anatomy, the throat is the front part of the neck, positioned in front of the vertebra.

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The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.

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Tuatara are reptiles endemic to New Zealand.

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Tube feet

Tube feet are small active tubular projections on the oral face of an echinoderm, whether the arms of a starfish, or the undersides of sea urchins, sand dollars and sea cucumbers.

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Tunica (biology)

In biology, a tunica (plural tunicae) is a layer, coat, sheath, or similar covering.

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A tunicate is a marine invertebrate animal, a member of the subphylum Tunicata, which is part of the Chordata, a phylum which includes all animals with dorsal nerve cords and notochords.

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In the vertebrate spinal column, each vertebra is an irregular bone with a complex structure composed of bone and some hyaline cartilage, the proportions of which vary according to the segment of the backbone and the species of vertebrate.

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Vertebral column

The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton.

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Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Vertebrate Palaeontology (Benton)

Vertebrate Palaeontology is a basic textbook on vertebrate paleontology by Michael J. Benton, published by Blackwell's.

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VetulicoliaThe taxon name, Vetulocolia, is derived from the type genus, Vetulicola, which is a compound Latin word composed of vetuli "old" and cola "inhabitant".

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Water vascular system

The water vascular system is a hydraulic system used by echinoderms, such as sea stars and sea urchins, for locomotion, food and waste transportation, and respiration.

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William Bateson

William Bateson (8 August 1861 – 8 February 1926) was an English biologist who was the first person to use the term genetics to describe the study of heredity, and the chief populariser of the ideas of Gregor Mendel following their rediscovery in 1900 by Hugo de Vries and Carl Correns.

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Yunnanozoon lividum (Yunnan + Greek ζῷον zôion, lividum; "livid animal of Yunnan") is an extinct species from the Lower Cambrian, Chengjiang biota of Yunnan province, China.

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Zhongjianichthys rostratus is an extinct basal chordate that lived in the Cambrian period, approximately 530 million years ago.

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Zhongxiniscus is a genus of primitive chordate from eastern Yunnan that lived during the Early Cambrian.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chordate

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