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Christiaan Huygens

Index Christiaan Huygens

Christiaan Huygens (Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695) was a Dutch physicist, mathematician, astronomer and inventor, who is widely regarded as one of the greatest scientists of all time and a major figure in the scientific revolution. [1]

318 relations: Achromatic lens, Action at a distance, Adriaen Hanneman, Aerial telescope, Ahasuerus Fromanteel, Air pump, Albertus Antonie Nijland, Alexander Bruce, 2nd Earl of Kincardine, Alfred Rupert Hall, Amsterdam, Analytic geometry, André Rivet, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Arago spot, Archimedes, Archive for History of Exact Sciences, Astronomer, Astronomy, Athanasius Kircher, Atom, Augustin-Jean Fresnel, Øresund, Baconian method, Balance spring, Baruch Spinoza, Bernard Vaillant, Birefringence, Blaise Pascal, Breda, Calcite, Calculus, Cambridge University Press, Cape of Good Hope, Carl Benjamin Boyer, Cartesianism, Caspar Netscher, Cassini–Huygens, Catenary, Caustic (optics), Cayenne, Celestial navigation, Center of percussion, Centrifugal force, Centripetal force, Christopher Wren, Chromatic aberration, Circular motion, Classical mechanics, Claude Mylon, Clifford Truesdell, ..., Clock, Collision, Conical pendulum, Conservation law, Consonance and dissonance, Constantijn Huygens, Constantijn Huygens Jr., Copenhagen, Cornelis Dirk Andriesse, Cornelis Drebbel, Corpuscular theory of light, Cosmic distance ladder, Cosmography, County of Bentheim (district), Curator, Curve, Cycloid, Cyrano de Bergerac, Dance, David Bierens de Haan, Delft University of Technology, Denis Papin, Diederik Korteweg, Differential geometry, Diffraction, Dirk Jan Struik, Dispersion (optics), Double star, Dutch East India Company, Dutch Republic, Edict of Fontainebleau, Eduard Jan Dijksterhuis, Eindhoven, Elastic collision, Equestrianism, Ernst Mach, Evangelista Torricelli, Evolute, Expected value, Extraterrestrial life, Eyepiece, Fencing, Figure of the Earth, First Stadtholderless Period, Flanging, Flensburg, François Arago, Francis Bacon, Francis Godwin, Francis Vernon, Francisco de Salinas, Franco-Dutch War, Frans van Schooten, French Academy of Sciences, Frequency, Fronde, Fusee (horology), Galilean invariance, Galileo Galilei, Game of chance, Gérard Edelinck, Geography, Geometrical optics, Giambattista della Porta, Giovanni Domenico Cassini, Girard Desargues, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Gravitational acceleration, Gravitational constant, Gravity, Grégoire de Saint-Vincent, Gresham College and the formation of the Royal Society, Grote of Sint-Jacobskerk (The Hague), Gunpowder engine, Hampshire, Harpsichord, Heliocentrism, Helsingør, Henri Louis Habert de Montmor, Henri Testelin, Henry Oldenburg, History of the internal combustion engine, Hofwijck, Horologium Oscillatorium, Horology, Horror vacui (physics), House of Orange-Nassau, Huygens (crater), Huygens (spacecraft), Huygens Software, Huygens-Fokker Foundation, Huygens–Fresnel principle, Iceland spar, Ignace-Gaston Pardies, Inductivism, Injection locking, Internet Archive, Inventor, Inverse-square law, Isaac Barrow, Isaac Newton, Ismaël Bullialdus, Isochronous timing, Ivor Grattan-Guinness, Jacques Rohault, Jan Gullberg, Jan Jansz de Jonge Stampioen, Jean Richer, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Jean-Jacques Clérion, Jeremiah Horrocks, Johann Heinrich Lambert, Johannes Hevelius, John Graunt, John Locke, John Pell, John Wilkins, Jonathan Israel, Joseph Needham, Journal des sçavans, JSTOR, Kepler's laws of planetary motion, Leiden, Leiden University, Lens (optics), Leonhard Euler, Lever escapement, Leviathan and the Air-Pump, Life expectancy, Life table, Light, Linda Hall Library, Lisa Jardine, List of largest optical telescopes historically, List of minor planets: 2001–3000, Locket, Lodewijck Huygens, Logic, Longitude, Longitudinal wave, Louis Henry, Prince of Nassau-Dillenburg, Louis XIV of France, Luminiferous aether, Magic lantern, Mainz, Marin Mersenne, Marine chronometer, Mars, Mass, Mathematical physics, Mathematician, Mathematics, Mauritshuis, Meantone temperament, Mechanical calculator, Mechanical philosophy, Mechanics, Mercury (planet), Microscope image processing, Microscopy, Mill (grinding), Moment of inertia, Mons Huygens, Museum Boerhaave, Nebula, Netherland Line, Newton's laws of motion, Niccolò Guicciardini, Nicolaas Hartsoeker, Nicolas Malebranche, Ole Rømer, Opticks, Optics, Orange College of Breda, Orion Nebula, Oscillation, Palace of Versailles, Parabola, Parallel axis theorem, Paris Observatory, Pendulum, Pendulum clock, Peter Heylin, Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Photometry (astronomy), Photon, Physical optics, Physics, Pierre Bouguer, Pierre Bourguignon (painter), Pierre de Carcavi, Pierre de Fermat, Pierre Séguier, Planet, Planetarium, Pocket watch, Polarization (waves), Principle of plenitude, Probability, Probability theory, Problem of points, Quadrature (mathematics), Quantum mechanics, Radboud University Nijmegen, Radius, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Rasmus Bartholin, Rationalism, Refracting telescope, Relief, René Descartes, Reproducibility, Rhetoric, Richard Reeve, Rings of Saturn, Robert Boyle, Robert Holmes (Royal Navy officer), Robert Hooke, Robert Moray, Roger Cotes, Rotterdam, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Royal Society, Salomon Coster, Saturn, Scalar (mathematics), Scientific Revolution, Second Anglo-Dutch War, Simon Arnauld, Marquis de Pomponne, Simon Schaffer, Simon Stevin, Simple harmonic motion, Sirius, Speed of light, Squaring the circle, Steven Shapin, Stockholm, String vibration, Suspension bridge, Suzanna van Baerle, Syrtis Major Planum, Tautochrone curve, Telescope, The Hague, The World (Descartes), Theoretical physics, Thomas Birch, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Street, Thomas Young (scientist), Thuret family, Titan (moon), Transit of Venus, 1639, Transverse wave, Treatise on Light, University of Angers, Utopia, Velocity, Verge escapement, Versailles, Yvelines, Voorburg, Wave, Wave equation, Wavefront, Wavelet, William Brouncker, 2nd Viscount Brouncker, Young's interference experiment, 31 equal temperament. Expand index (268 more) »

Achromatic lens

An achromatic lens or achromat is a lens that is designed to limit the effects of chromatic and spherical aberration.

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Action at a distance

In physics, action at a distance is the concept that an object can be moved, changed, or otherwise affected without being physically touched (as in mechanical contact) by another object.

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Adriaen Hanneman

Adriaen Hanneman (c. 1603 – buried 11 July 1671) was a Dutch Golden Age painter best known for his portraits of the exiled British royal court.

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Aerial telescope

An aerial telescope is a type of very long focal length refracting telescope, built in the second half of the 17th century, that did not use a tube.

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Ahasuerus Fromanteel

Ahasuerus Fromanteel (25 February 1607 – 31 January 1693) was a clockmaker, the first maker of pendulum clocks in Britain.

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Air pump

An air pump is a device for pushing air.

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Albertus Antonie Nijland

Albertus (Albert) Antonie Nijland (October 30, 1868 – August 18, 1936) was a Dutch astronomer.

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Alexander Bruce, 2nd Earl of Kincardine

Alexander Bruce, 2nd Earl of Kincardine FRS (1629–1681) was a Scottish inventor, politician, judge and freemason, responsible for developing the pendulum clock, in collaboration with Christiaan Huygens.

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Alfred Rupert Hall

Alfred Rupert Hall (or Rupert Hall) (26 July 1920 – 5 February 2009) was a prominent British historian of science, known as editor of a collection of Isaac Newton's unpublished scientific papers (1962), and Newton's correspondence, in 1977.

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Amsterdam

Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.

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Analytic geometry

In classical mathematics, analytic geometry, also known as coordinate geometry or Cartesian geometry, is the study of geometry using a coordinate system.

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André Rivet

André Rivet (Andreas Rivetus) (August 1572 – January 7, 1651) was a French Huguenot theologian.

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Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek FRS (24 October 1632 – 26 August 1723) was a Dutch businessman and scientist in the Golden Age of Dutch science and technology.

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Arago spot

In optics, the Arago spot, Poisson spot, or Fresnel bright spot, is a bright point that appears at the center of a circular object's shadow due to Fresnel diffraction.

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Archimedes

Archimedes of Syracuse (Ἀρχιμήδης) was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer.

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Archive for History of Exact Sciences

Archive for History of Exact Sciences is a peer-reviewed academic journal published quarterly by Springer Science+Business Media, covering the history of mathematics and of astronomy observations and techniques, epistemology of science, and philosophy of science from Antiquity until now.

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Astronomer

An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who concentrates their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth.

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Astronomy

Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

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Athanasius Kircher

Athanasius Kircher, S.J. (sometimes erroneously spelled Kirchner; Athanasius Kircherus, 2 May 1602 – 28 November 1680) was a German Jesuit scholar and polymath who published around 40 major works, most notably in the fields of comparative religion, geology, and medicine.

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Atom

An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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Augustin-Jean Fresnel

Augustin-Jean Fresnel (10 May 178814 July 1827) was a French civil engineer and physicist whose research in optics led to the almost unanimous acceptance of the wave theory of light, excluding any remnant of Newton's corpuscular theory, from the late 1830s until the end of the 19th century.

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Øresund

Øresund or Öresund (Øresund,; Öresund), commonly known in English as the Sound, is a strait which forms the Danish–Swedish border, separating Zealand (Denmark) from Scania (Sweden).

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Baconian method

The Baconian method is the investigative method developed by Sir Francis Bacon.

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Balance spring

A balance spring, or hairspring, is a spring attached to the balance wheel in mechanical timepieces.

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Baruch Spinoza

Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.

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Bernard Vaillant

Bernard Vaillant (1632, Lille – 1698, Leiden), was a Dutch Golden Age painter.

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Birefringence

Birefringence is the optical property of a material having a refractive index that depends on the polarization and propagation direction of light.

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Blaise Pascal

Blaise Pascal (19 June 1623 – 19 August 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Catholic theologian.

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Breda

Breda is a city and municipality in the southern part of the Netherlands, located in the province of North Brabant.

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Calcite

Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

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Calculus

Calculus (from Latin calculus, literally 'small pebble', used for counting and calculations, as on an abacus), is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Cape of Good Hope

The Cape of Good Hope (Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop, Cabo da Boa Esperança) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.

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Carl Benjamin Boyer

Carl Benjamin Boyer (November 3, 1906 – April 26, 1976) was an American historian of sciences, and especially mathematics.

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Cartesianism

Cartesianism is the philosophical and scientific system of René Descartes and its subsequent development by other seventeenth century thinkers, most notably Nicolas Malebranche and Baruch Spinoza.

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Caspar Netscher

Caspar (or Gaspar) Netscher (1639 – January 15, 1684) was a Dutch portrait and genre painter.

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Cassini–Huygens

The Cassini–Huygens mission, commonly called Cassini, was a collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) to send a probe to study the planet Saturn and its system, including its rings and natural satellites.

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Catenary

In physics and geometry, a catenary is the curve that an idealized hanging chain or cable assumes under its own weight when supported only at its ends.

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Caustic (optics)

In optics, a caustic or caustic network is the envelope of light rays reflected or refracted by a curved surface or object, or the projection of that envelope of rays on another surface.

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Cayenne

Cayenne is the capital city of French Guiana, an overseas region and department of France located in South America.

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Celestial navigation

Celestial navigation, also known as astronavigation, is the ancient and modern practice of position fixing that enables a navigator to transition through a space without having to rely on estimated calculations, or dead reckoning, to know their position.

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Center of percussion

The Center of Percussion is the point on an extended massive object attached to a pivot where a perpendicular impact will produce no reactive shock at the pivot.

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Centrifugal force

In Newtonian mechanics, the centrifugal force is an inertial force (also called a "fictitious" or "pseudo" force) directed away from the axis of rotation that appears to act on all objects when viewed in a rotating frame of reference.

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Centripetal force

A centripetal force (from Latin centrum, "center" and petere, "to seek") is a force that makes a body follow a curved path.

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Christopher Wren

Sir Christopher Wren PRS FRS (–) was an English anatomist, astronomer, geometer, and mathematician-physicist, as well as one of the most highly acclaimed English architects in history.

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Chromatic aberration

In optics, chromatic aberration (abbreviated CA; also called chromatic distortion and spherochromatism) is an effect resulting from dispersion in which there is a failure of a lens to focus all colors to the same convergence point.

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Circular motion

In physics, circular motion is a movement of an object along the circumference of a circle or rotation along a circular path.

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Classical mechanics

Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.

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Claude Mylon

Claude Mylon (1618–1660) was a French mathematician and member of the Académie Parisienne and the Académie des Sciences.

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Clifford Truesdell

Clifford Ambrose Truesdell III (February 18, 1919 – January 14, 2000) was an American mathematician, natural philosopher, and historian of science.

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Clock

A clock is an instrument to measure, keep, and indicate time.

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Collision

A collision is an event in which two or more bodies exert forces on each other for a relatively short time.

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Conical pendulum

A conical pendulum consists of a weight (or bob) fixed on the end of a string or rod suspended from a pivot.

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Conservation law

In physics, a conservation law states that a particular measurable property of an isolated physical system does not change as the system evolves over time.

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Consonance and dissonance

In music, consonance and dissonance are categorizations of simultaneous or successive sounds.

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Constantijn Huygens

Sir Constantijn Huygens, Lord of Zuilichem (4 September 159628 March 1687), was a Dutch Golden Age poet and composer.

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Constantijn Huygens Jr.

Constantijn Huygens Jr., Lord of Zuilichem (10 March 1628 – October 1697) was a Dutch statesman and poet, mostly known for his work on scientific instruments (sometimes in conjunction with his younger brother Christiaan Huygens).

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Copenhagen

Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.

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Cornelis Dirk Andriesse

Cornelis Dirk (Cees) Andriesse (Leeuwarden, 21 December 1939) is a Dutch physicist, writer and historian of science.

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Cornelis Drebbel

Cornelis Jacobszoon Drebbel (1572 – 7 November 1633) was a Dutch engineer and inventor.

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Corpuscular theory of light

In optics, the corpuscular theory of light, arguably set forward by Descartes (1637) states that light is made up of small discrete particles called "corpuscles" (little particles) which travel in a straight line with a finite velocity and possess impetus.

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Cosmic distance ladder

The cosmic distance ladder (also known as the extragalactic distance scale) is the succession of methods by which astronomers determine the distances to celestial objects.

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Cosmography

Cosmography is the science that maps the general features of the cosmos or universe, describing both heaven and Earth (but without encroaching on geography or astronomy).

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County of Bentheim (district)

County of Bentheim (Grafschaft Bentheim) is a district (Landkreis) in Lower Saxony, Germany.

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Curator

A curator (from cura, meaning "to take care") is a manager or overseer.

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Curve

In mathematics, a curve (also called a curved line in older texts) is, generally speaking, an object similar to a line but that need not be straight.

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Cycloid

A cycloid is the curve traced by a point on the rim of a circular wheel as the wheel rolls along a straight line without slipping.

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Cyrano de Bergerac

Savinien de Cyrano de Bergerac (6 March 1619 – 28 July 1655) was a French novelist, playwright, epistolarian and duelist.

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Dance

Dance is a performing art form consisting of purposefully selected sequences of human movement.

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David Bierens de Haan

David Bierens de Haan (3 May 1822, Amsterdam – 12 August 1895, Leiden) was a Dutch mathematician and historian of science.

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Delft University of Technology

Delft University of Technology (Technische Universiteit Delft) also known as TU Delft, is the largest and oldest Dutch public technological university, located in Delft, Netherlands.

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Denis Papin

Denis Papin FRS (22 August 1647 – 26 August 1713) was a French physicist, mathematician and inventor, best known for his pioneering invention of the steam digester, the forerunner of the pressure cooker and of the steam engine.

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Diederik Korteweg

Diederik Johannes Korteweg (31 March 1848 – 10 May 1941) was a Dutch mathematician.

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Differential geometry

Differential geometry is a mathematical discipline that uses the techniques of differential calculus, integral calculus, linear algebra and multilinear algebra to study problems in geometry.

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Diffraction

--> Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit.

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Dirk Jan Struik

Dirk Jan Struik (September 30, 1894 – October 21, 2000) was a Dutch mathematician, historian of mathematics and Marxian theoretician who spent most of his life in the United States.

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Dispersion (optics)

In optics, dispersion is the phenomenon in which the phase velocity of a wave depends on its frequency.

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Double star

In observational astronomy, a double star or visual double is a pair of stars that appear close to each other in the sky as seen from Earth when viewed through an optical telescope.

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Dutch East India Company

The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.

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Dutch Republic

The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.

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Edict of Fontainebleau

The Edict of Fontainebleau (22 October 1685) was an edict issued by Louis XIV of France, also known as the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes.

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Eduard Jan Dijksterhuis

Eduard Jan Dijksterhuis (28 October 1892 in Tilburg – 18 May 1965 in De Bilt) was a Dutch historian of science.

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Eindhoven

Eindhoven is a municipality and city in the south of the Netherlands, originally at the confluence of the Dommel and Gender streams.

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Elastic collision

An elastic collision is an encounter between two bodies in which the total kinetic energy of the two bodies after the encounter is equal to their total kinetic energy before the encounter.

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Equestrianism

Equestrianism (from Latin equester, equestr-, equus, horseman, horse), more often known as riding, horse riding (British English) or horseback riding (American English), refers to the skill of riding, driving, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses.

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Ernst Mach

Ernst Waldfried Josef Wenzel Mach (18 February 1838 – 19 February 1916) was an Austrian physicist and philosopher, noted for his contributions to physics such as study of shock waves.

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Evangelista Torricelli

Evangelista Torricelli; 15 October 1608 – 25 October 1647) was an Italian physicist and mathematician, best known for his invention of the barometer, but is also known for his advances in optics and work on the method of indivisibles.

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Evolute

In the differential geometry of curves, the evolute of a curve is the locus of all its centers of curvature.

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Expected value

In probability theory, the expected value of a random variable, intuitively, is the long-run average value of repetitions of the experiment it represents.

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Extraterrestrial life

Extraterrestrial life,Where "extraterrestrial" is derived from the Latin extra ("beyond", "not of") and terrestris ("of Earth", "belonging to Earth").

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Eyepiece

An eyepiece, or ocular lens, is a type of lens that is attached to a variety of optical devices such as telescopes and microscopes.

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Fencing

Fencing is a group of three related combat sports.

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Figure of the Earth

The figure of the Earth is the size and shape of the Earth in geodesy.

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First Stadtholderless Period

The First Stadtholderless Period or Era (1650–72; Eerste Stadhouderloze Tijdperk) is the period in the history of the Dutch Republic in which the office of a Stadtholder was absent in five of the seven Dutch provinces (the provinces of Friesland and Groningen, however, retained their customary stadtholder from the cadet branch of the House of Orange).

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Flanging

Flanging is an audio effect produced by mixing two identical signals together, one signal delayed by a small and gradually changing period, usually smaller than 20 milliseconds.

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Flensburg

Flensburg (Danish, Low Saxon: Flensborg; North Frisian: Flansborj; South Jutlandic: Flensborre) is an independent town (kreisfreie Stadt) in the north of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein.

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François Arago

Dominique François Jean Arago (Domènec Francesc Joan Aragó), known simply as François Arago (Catalan: Francesc Aragó) (26 February 17862 October 1853), was a French mathematician, physicist, astronomer, freemason, supporter of the carbonari and politician.

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Francis Bacon

Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (22 January 15619 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.

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Francis Godwin

Francis Godwin (1562–1633) was an English historian, science fiction author, divine, Bishop of Llandaff and of Hereford.

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Francis Vernon

Francis Vernon (1637?–1677) was an English traveller and author.

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Francisco de Salinas

Francisco de Salinas (1513, Burgos – 1590, Salamanca) was a Spanish music theorist and organist, noted as among the first to describe meantone temperament in mathematically precise terms, and one of the first (along with Guillaume Costeley) to describe, in effect, 19 equal temperament.

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Franco-Dutch War

The Franco-Dutch War (1672–78), often simply called the Dutch War (Guerre de Hollande; Hollandse Oorlog), was a war fought by France, Sweden, Münster, Cologne and England against the Dutch Republic, which was later joined by the Austrian Habsburg lands, Brandenburg-Prussia and Spain to form a Quadruple Alliance.

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Frans van Schooten

Franciscus van Schooten (1615, Leiden – 29 May 1660, Leiden) was a Dutch mathematician who is most known for popularizing the analytic geometry of René Descartes.

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French Academy of Sciences

The French Academy of Sciences (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research.

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Frequency

Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.

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Fronde

The Fronde was a series of civil wars in France between 1648 and 1653, occurring in the midst of the Franco-Spanish War, which had begun in 1635.

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Fusee (horology)

Used in antique spring-powered mechanical watches and clocks, a fusee is a cone-shaped pulley with a helical groove around it, wound with a cord or chain which is attached to the mainspring barrel.

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Galilean invariance

Galilean invariance or Galilean relativity states that the laws of motion are the same in all inertial frames.

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Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.

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Game of chance

A game of chance is a game whose outcome is strongly influenced by some randomizing device, and upon which contestants may choose to wager money or anything of monetary value.

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Gérard Edelinck

Gérard Edelinck (20 October 1640 (baptized) – 2 April 1707) was a copper-plate engraver and print publisher of Flemish origin, who worked in Paris from 1666 and became a naturalized French citizen in 1675.

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Geography

Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.

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Geometrical optics

Geometrical optics, or ray optics, describes light propagation in terms of rays.

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Giambattista della Porta

Giambattista della Porta (1535? – 4 February 1615), also known as Giovanni Battista Della Porta, was an Italian scholar, polymath and playwright who lived in Naples at the time of the Scientific Revolution and Reformation.

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Giovanni Domenico Cassini

Giovanni Domenico Cassini (8 June 1625 – 14 September 1712) was an Italian (naturalised French) mathematician, astronomer and engineer.

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Girard Desargues

Girard Desargues (21 February 1591 – September 1661) was a French mathematician and engineer, who is considered one of the founders of projective geometry.

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Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.

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Gravitational acceleration

In physics, gravitational acceleration is the acceleration on an object caused by the force of gravitation.

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Gravitational constant

The gravitational constant (also known as the "universal gravitational constant", the "Newtonian constant of gravitation", or the "Cavendish gravitational constant"), denoted by the letter, is an empirical physical constant involved in the calculation of gravitational effects in Sir Isaac Newton's law of universal gravitation and in Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity.

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Gravity

Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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Grégoire de Saint-Vincent

Grégoire de Saint-Vincent (22 March 1584 Bruges – 5 June 1667 Ghent) was a Flemish Jesuit and mathematician.

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Gresham College and the formation of the Royal Society

The Gresham College group was a loose collection of scientists in England of the 1640s and 1650s, a precursor to the Royal Society of London.

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Grote of Sint-Jacobskerk (The Hague)

Grote of Sint-Jacobskerk (Great, or St. James Church) is a landmark Protestant church in The Hague, Netherlands.

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Gunpowder engine

A gunpowder engine, also known as an explosion engine or Huygens' engine, is a type of internal combustion engine using gunpowder as its fuel.

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Hampshire

Hampshire (abbreviated Hants) is a county on the southern coast of England in the United Kingdom.

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Harpsichord

A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard which activates a row of levers that in turn trigger a mechanism that plucks one or more strings with a small plectrum.

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Heliocentrism

Heliocentrism is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System.

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Helsingør

Helsingør, classically known in English as Elsinore, is a city in eastern Denmark.

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Henri Louis Habert de Montmor

Henri Louis Habert de Montmor (1600, Paris – 21 January 1679, Paris) was a French scholar and man of letters.

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Henri Testelin

Henri Testelin (1616–1695) was a French painter.

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Henry Oldenburg

Henry Oldenburg (also Henry Oldenbourg) FRS (c. 1619 as Heinrich Oldenburg – 5 September 1677) was a German theologian known as a diplomat, a natural philosopher and as the creator of scientific peer review.

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History of the internal combustion engine

Various scientists and engineers contributed to the development of internal combustion engines.

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Hofwijck

Hofwijck (or Vitaulium in Latin) is a mansion built for 17th-century politician Constantijn Huygens.

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Horologium Oscillatorium

Horologium Oscillatorium: sive de motu pendulorum ad horologia aptato demonstrationes geometricae (Latin for The Pendulum Clock: or geometrical demonstrations concerning the motion of pendula as applied to clocks), often abbreviated Horologium Oscillatorium, is a book published by Christiaan Huygens in 1673; it is his major work on pendulums and horology.

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Horology

Horology ("the study of time", related to Latin horologium from Greek ὡρολόγιον, "instrument for telling the hour", from ὥρα hṓra "hour; time" and -o- interfix and suffix -logy) is the study of the measurement of time.

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Horror vacui (physics)

In physics, horror vacui, or plenism, is commonly stated as "Nature abhors a vacuum".

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House of Orange-Nassau

The House of Orange-Nassau (Dutch: Huis van Oranje-Nassau), a branch of the European House of Nassau, has played a central role in the politics and government of the Netherlands and Europe especially since William the Silent organized the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule, which after the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) led to an independent Dutch state.

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Huygens (crater)

Huygens is an impact crater on Mars named in honour of the Dutch astronomer, mathematician and physicist Christiaan Huygens.

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Huygens (spacecraft)

Huygens was an atmospheric entry probe that landed successfully on Saturn's moon Titan in 2005.

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Huygens Software

Huygens software refers to different multiplatform microscope image processing packages from Scientific Volume Imaging, made for restoring 2D and 3D microscopy images or time series and analyzing and visualizing them.

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Huygens-Fokker Foundation

The Huygens-Fokker Foundation is a "centre for microtonal music" founded on February 15, 1960, housed in the Muziekgebouw aan 't IJ (Amsterdam, Netherlands), and named for Christiaan Huygens and Adriaan Fokker (inventor of 31 equal temperament and creator of the Fokker organ).

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Huygens–Fresnel principle

The Huygens–Fresnel principle (named after Dutch physicist Christiaan Huygens and French physicist Augustin-Jean Fresnel) is a method of analysis applied to problems of wave propagation both in the far-field limit and in near-field diffraction.

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Iceland spar

Iceland spar, formerly known as Iceland crystal (silfurberg; lit. silver-rock), is a transparent variety of calcite, or crystallized calcium carbonate, originally brought from Iceland, and used in demonstrating the polarization of light (see polarimetry).

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Ignace-Gaston Pardies

Ignace-Gaston Pardies (5 September 1636 – 21 April 1673) was a French Catholic priest and scientist.

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Inductivism

Inductivism is the traditional model of scientific method attributed to Francis Bacon, who in 1620 vowed to subvert allegedly traditional thinking.

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Injection locking

Injection locking and injection pulling are the frequency effects that can occur when a harmonic oscillator is disturbed by a second oscillator operating at a nearby frequency.

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Internet Archive

The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.

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Inventor

An inventor is a person who creates or discovers a new method, form, device or other useful means that becomes known as an invention.

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Inverse-square law

The inverse-square law, in physics, is any physical law stating that a specified physical quantity or intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of that physical quantity.

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Isaac Barrow

Isaac Barrow (October 1630 – 4 May 1677) was an English Christian theologian and mathematician who is generally given credit for his early role in the development of infinitesimal calculus; in particular, for the discovery of the fundamental theorem of calculus.

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Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

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Ismaël Bullialdus

Ismaël Bullialdus (born Ismaël Boulliau,; 28 September 1605 – 25 November 1694) was a 17th-century French astronomer and mathematician who was also interested in history, theology, classical studies, and philology.

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Isochronous timing

A sequence of events is isochronous if the events occur regularly, or at equal time intervals.

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Ivor Grattan-Guinness

Ivor Owen Grattan-Guinness (23 June 1941 – 12 December 2014) was a historian of mathematics and logic.

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Jacques Rohault

Jacques Rohault (1618–1672) was a French philosopher, physicist and mathematician, and a follower of Cartesianism.

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Jan Gullberg

Jan Gullberg (1936 – 21 May 1998) was a Swedish surgeon and anaesthesiologist, but became known as a writer on popular science and medical topics.

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Jan Jansz de Jonge Stampioen

Jan Jansz de Jonge Stampioen (1610, Rotterdam - 1653, The Hague) was a Dutch mathematician famous for his published work on spherical trigonometry.

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Jean Richer

Jean Richer (1630–1696) was a French astronomer and assistant (élève astronome) at The French Academy of Sciences, under the direction of Giovanni Domenico Cassini.

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Jean-Baptiste Colbert

Jean-Baptiste Colbert (29 August 1619 – 6 September 1683) was a French politician who served as the Minister of Finances of France from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV.

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Jean-Jacques Clérion

Jean-Jacques Clérion (16 April 1637 – 28 April 1714) was a French sculptor who worked mainly for King Louis XIV.

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Jeremiah Horrocks

Jeremiah Horrocks (1618 – 3 January 1641), sometimes given as Jeremiah Horrox (the Latinised version that he used on the Emmanuel College register and in his Latin manuscripts), – See footnote 1 was an English astronomer.

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Johann Heinrich Lambert

Johann Heinrich Lambert (Jean-Henri Lambert in French; 26 August 1728 – 25 September 1777) was a Swiss polymath who made important contributions to the subjects of mathematics, physics (particularly optics), philosophy, astronomy and map projections.

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Johannes Hevelius

Johannes Hevelius Some sources refer to Hevelius as Polish.

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John Graunt

John Graunt (24 April 1620 – 18 April 1674) was one of the first demographers, though by profession he was a haberdasher.

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John Locke

John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".

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John Pell

John Pell (1 March 1611 – 12 December 1685) was an English mathematician and political agent abroad.

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John Wilkins

John Wilkins, (16141672) was an Anglican clergyman, natural philosopher and author, and was one of the founders of the Royal Society.

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Jonathan Israel

Jonathan Irvine Israel (born 26 January 1946) is a British writer and academic specialising in Dutch history, the Age of Enlightenment and European Jews.

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Joseph Needham

Noel Joseph Terence Montgomery Needham (9 December 1900 – 24 March 1995) was a British biochemist, historian and sinologist known for his scientific research and writing on the history of Chinese science and technology.

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Journal des sçavans

The Journal des sçavans (later renamed Journal des savants), established by Denis de Sallo, was the earliest academic journal published in Europe.

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JSTOR

JSTOR (short for Journal Storage) is a digital library founded in 1995.

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Kepler's laws of planetary motion

In astronomy, Kepler's laws of planetary motion are three scientific laws describing the motion of planets around the Sun.

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Leiden

Leiden (in English and archaic Dutch also Leyden) is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.

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Leiden University

Leiden University (abbreviated as LEI; Universiteit Leiden), founded in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands.

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Lens (optics)

A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction.

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Leonhard Euler

Leonhard Euler (Swiss Standard German:; German Standard German:; 15 April 170718 September 1783) was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, logician and engineer, who made important and influential discoveries in many branches of mathematics, such as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory, while also making pioneering contributions to several branches such as topology and analytic number theory.

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Lever escapement

The lever escapement, invented by British clockmaker Thomas Mudge in 1755, is a type of escapement that is used in almost all mechanical watches, as well as small mechanical non-pendulum clocks, alarm clocks, and kitchen timers.

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Leviathan and the Air-Pump

Leviathan and the Air-Pump: Hobbes, Boyle, and the Experimental Life (published 1985) is a book by Steven Shapin and Simon Schaffer.

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Life expectancy

Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.

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Life table

In actuarial science and demography, a life table (also called a mortality table or actuarial table) is a table which shows, for each age, what the probability is that a person of that age will die before his or her next birthday ("probability of death").

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Light

Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Linda Hall Library

The Linda Hall Library is a privately endowed American library of science, engineering and technology located in Kansas City, Missouri, sitting "majestically on a urban arboretum." It is the "largest independently funded public library of science, engineering and technology in North America" and "among the largest science libraries in the world.".

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Lisa Jardine

Lisa Anne Jardine (née Bronowski; 12 April 1944 – 25 October 2015) was a British historian of the early modern period.

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List of largest optical telescopes historically

Telescope have grown in size since they first appeared around 1608.

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List of minor planets: 2001–3000

#FA8072 | 2078 Nanking || 1975 AD || January 12, 1975 || Nanking || Purple Mountain Obs.

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Locket

A locket is a pendant that opens to reveal a space used for storing a photograph or other small item such as a curl of hair.

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Lodewijck Huygens

Lodewijck Huygens (13 March 1631 – 1 July 1699) was a Dutch diplomat.

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Logic

Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.

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Longitude

Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.

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Longitudinal wave

Longitudinal waves are waves in which the displacement of the medium is in the same direction as, or the opposite direction to, the direction of propagation of the wave.

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Louis Henry, Prince of Nassau-Dillenburg

Louis Henry of Nassau-Dillenburg (9 May 1594 in Saarbrücken – 12 July 1662 in Dillenburg), was Count, and from 1654 Prince of Nassau-Dillenburg.

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Louis XIV of France

Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.

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Luminiferous aether

In the late 19th century, luminiferous aether or ether ("luminiferous", meaning "light-bearing"), was the postulated medium for the propagation of light.

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Magic lantern

The magic lantern, also known by its Latin name lanterna magica, is an early type of image projector employing pictures painted, printed or produced photographically on transparent plates (usually made of glass), one or more lenses, and a light source.

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Mainz

Satellite view of Mainz (south of the Rhine) and Wiesbaden Mainz (Mogontiacum, Mayence) is the capital and largest city of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany.

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Marin Mersenne

Marin Mersenne, Marin Mersennus or le Père Mersenne (8 September 1588 – 1 September 1648) was a French polymath, whose works touched a wide variety of fields.

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Marine chronometer

A marine chronometer is a timepiece that is precise and accurate enough to be used as a portable time standard; it can therefore be used to determine longitude by means of celestial navigation.

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Mars

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.

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Mass

Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.

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Mathematical physics

Mathematical physics refers to the development of mathematical methods for application to problems in physics.

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Mathematician

A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems.

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Mathematics

Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

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Mauritshuis

The Mauritshuis (Maurice House) is an art museum in The Hague, Netherlands.

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Meantone temperament

Meantone temperament is a musical temperament, that is a tuning system, obtained by slightly compromising the fifths in order to improve the thirds.

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Mechanical calculator

A mechanical calculator, or calculating machine, is a mechanical device used to perform automatically the basic operations of arithmetic.

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Mechanical philosophy

The mechanical philosophy is a natural philosophy describing the universe as similar to a large-scale mechanism.

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Mechanics

Mechanics (Greek μηχανική) is that area of science concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.

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Mercury (planet)

Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.

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Microscope image processing

Microscope image processing is a broad term that covers the use of digital image processing techniques to process, analyze and present images obtained from a microscope.

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Microscopy

Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).

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Mill (grinding)

A mill is a device that breaks solid materials into smaller pieces by grinding, crushing, or cutting.

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Moment of inertia

The moment of inertia, otherwise known as the angular mass or rotational inertia, of a rigid body is a tensor that determines the torque needed for a desired angular acceleration about a rotational axis; similar to how mass determines the force needed for a desired acceleration.

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Mons Huygens

Mons Huygens is the Moon's tallest mountain (but not its highest point).

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Museum Boerhaave

Museum Boerhaave is a museum of the history of science and medicine, based in Leiden, Netherlands.

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Nebula

A nebula (Latin for "cloud" or "fog"; pl. nebulae, nebulæ, or nebulas) is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and other ionized gases.

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Netherland Line

The Stoomvaart Maatschappij Nederland ("Netherlands Steamship Company") or SMN, also known as the Netherland Line or Nederland Line, was a Dutch shipping line that operated from 1870 until 1970, when it merged with several other companies to form what would become Royal Nedlloyd.

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Newton's laws of motion

Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics.

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Niccolò Guicciardini

Niccolò Guicciardini Corsi Salviati (born 28 May 1957 in Firenze) is an Italian historian of mathematics.

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Nicolaas Hartsoeker

Nicolaas Hartsoeker (26 March 1656, Gouda – 10 December 1725, Utrecht) was a Dutch mathematician and physicist who invented the screw-barrel simple microscope circa 1694.

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Nicolas Malebranche

Nicolas Malebranche, Oratory of Jesus (6 August 1638 – 13 October 1715), was a French Oratorian priest and rationalist philosopher.

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Ole Rømer

Ole Christensen Rømer (25 September 1644 – 19 September 1710) was a Danish astronomer who in 1676 made the first quantitative measurements of the speed of light.

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Opticks

Opticks: or, A Treatise of the Reflexions, Refractions, Inflexions and Colours of Light is a book by English natural philosopher Isaac Newton that was published in English in 1704.

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Optics

Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.

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Orange College of Breda

The Orange College of Breda (Collegium Auriacum) was a college of higher learning at Breda in the Dutch Republic in the middle of the 17th century, teaching divinity, philosophy, mathematics, and law.

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Orion Nebula

The Orion Nebula (also known as Messier 42, M42, or NGC 1976) is a diffuse nebula situated in the Milky Way, being south of Orion's Belt in the constellation of Orion.

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Oscillation

Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states.

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Palace of Versailles

The Palace of Versailles (Château de Versailles;, or) was the principal residence of the Kings of France from Louis XIV in 1682 until the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789.

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Parabola

In mathematics, a parabola is a plane curve which is mirror-symmetrical and is approximately U-shaped.

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Parallel axis theorem

The parallel axis theorem, also known as Huygens–Steiner theorem, or just as Steiner's theorem, after Christiaan Huygens and Jakob Steiner, can be used to determine the mass moment of inertia or the second moment of area of a rigid body about any axis, given the body's moment of inertia about a parallel axis through the object's center of gravity and the perpendicular distance between the axes.

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Paris Observatory

The Paris Observatory (Observatoire de Paris or Observatoire de Paris-Meudon), a research institution of PSL Research University, is the foremost astronomical observatory of France, and one of the largest astronomical centres in the world.

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Pendulum

A pendulum is a weight suspended from a pivot so that it can swing freely.

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Pendulum clock

A pendulum clock is a clock that uses a pendulum, a swinging weight, as its timekeeping element.

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Peter Heylin

Peter Heylin or Heylyn (29 November 1599 – 8 May 1662) was an English ecclesiastic and author of many polemical, historical, political and theological tracts.

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Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Latin for Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Isaac Newton, in Latin, first published 5 July 1687.

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Photometry (astronomy)

Photometry is a technique of astronomy concerned with measuring the flux, or intensity of an astronomical object's electromagnetic radiation.

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Photon

The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

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Physical optics

In physics, physical optics, or wave optics, is the branch of optics that studies interference, diffraction, polarization, and other phenomena for which the ray approximation of geometric optics is not valid.

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Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Pierre Bouguer

Pierre Bouguer (16 February 1698, Croisic – 15 August 1758, Paris) was a French mathematician, geophysicist, geodesist, and astronomer.

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Pierre Bourguignon (painter)

Pierre Bourguignon (1630–1698) was a French Baroque painter.

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Pierre de Carcavi

Pierre de Carcavi, was born in about 1603, in Lyon, France, died in Paris in April 1684, was a secretary of the National Library of France under Louis XIV and French mathematician.

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Pierre de Fermat

Pierre de Fermat (Between 31 October and 6 December 1607 – 12 January 1665) was a French lawyer at the Parlement of Toulouse, France, and a mathematician who is given credit for early developments that led to infinitesimal calculus, including his technique of adequality.

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Pierre Séguier

Pierre Séguier (28 May 1588 – 28 January 1672) was a French statesman, chancellor of France from 1635.

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Planet

A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.

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Planetarium

A planetarium (plural planetaria or planetariums) is a theatre built primarily for presenting educational and entertaining shows about astronomy and the night sky, or for training in celestial navigation.

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Pocket watch

A pocket watch (or pocketwatch) is a watch that is made to be carried in a pocket, as opposed to a wristwatch, which is strapped to the wrist.

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Polarization (waves)

Polarization (also polarisation) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations.

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Principle of plenitude

The principle of plenitude asserts that the universe contains all possible forms of existence.

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Probability

Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.

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Probability theory

Probability theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with probability.

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Problem of points

The problem of points, also called the problem of division of the stakes, is a classical problem in probability theory.

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Quadrature (mathematics)

In mathematics, quadrature is a historical term which means determining area.

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Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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Radboud University Nijmegen

Radboud University Nijmegen (abbreviated as RU, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, formerly Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen) is a public university with a strong focus on research located in Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

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Radius

In classical geometry, a radius of a circle or sphere is any of the line segments from its center to its perimeter, and in more modern usage, it is also their length.

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Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary

Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.

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Rasmus Bartholin

Rasmus Bartholin (Latinized: Erasmus Bartholinus; 13 August 1625 – 4 November 1698) was a Danish scientist, physician and grammarian.

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Rationalism

In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".

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Refracting telescope

A refracting telescope (also called a refractor) is a type of optical telescope that uses a lens as its objective to form an image (also referred to a dioptric telescope).

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Relief

Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.

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René Descartes

René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.

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Reproducibility

Reproducibility is the closeness of the agreement between the results of measurements of the same measurand carried out under changed conditions of measurement.

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Rhetoric

Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.

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Richard Reeve

Richard Reeve (fl. 1640 – 1680) was an instrument-maker in London in the 17th century.

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Rings of Saturn

The rings of Saturn are the most extensive ring system of any planet in the Solar System.

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Robert Boyle

Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor.

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Robert Holmes (Royal Navy officer)

Sir Robert Holmes (ca. 1622 – 18 November 1692) was an English Admiral of the Restoration Navy.

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Robert Hooke

Robert Hooke FRS (– 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.

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Robert Moray

Sir Robert Moray (alternative spellings: Murrey, Murray) FRS (1608 or 1609 – 4 July 1673) was a Scottish soldier, statesman, diplomat, judge, spy, freemason and natural philosopher.

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Roger Cotes

Roger Cotes FRS (10 July 1682 – 5 June 1716) was an English mathematician, known for working closely with Isaac Newton by proofreading the second edition of his famous book, the Principia, before publication.

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Rotterdam

Rotterdam is a city in the Netherlands, in South Holland within the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt river delta at the North Sea.

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Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences

The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, abbreviated: KNAW) is an organization dedicated to the advancement of science and literature in the Netherlands.

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Royal Society

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.

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Salomon Coster

Salomon Coster (c. 1620–1659) was a Dutch clockmaker of the Hague, who in 1657 was the first to make a pendulum clock, which had been invented by Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695).

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Saturn

Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.

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Scalar (mathematics)

A scalar is an element of a field which is used to define a vector space.

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Scientific Revolution

The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.

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Second Anglo-Dutch War

The Second Anglo-Dutch War (4 March 1665 – 31 July 1667), or the Second Dutch War (Tweede Engelse Oorlog "Second English War") was a conflict fought between England and the Dutch Republic for control over the seas and trade routes, where England tried to end the Dutch domination of world trade during a period of intense European commercial rivalry.

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Simon Arnauld, Marquis de Pomponne

Simon Arnauld de Pomponne, Seigneur and then Marquis (1682) of Pomponne (Paris, November 1618 – Fontainebleau, 26 September 1699) was a French diplomat and minister.

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Simon Schaffer

Simon J. Schaffer (born 1 January 1955) is a professor of the history and philosophy of science at the Department of History and Philosophy of Science at the University of Cambridge and was editor of The British Journal for the History of Science from 2004 to 2009.

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Simon Stevin

Simon Stevin (1548–1620), sometimes called Stevinus, was a Flemish mathematician, physicist and military engineer.

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Simple harmonic motion

In mechanics and physics, simple harmonic motion is a special type of periodic motion or oscillation motion where the restoring force is directly proportional to the displacement and acts in the direction opposite to that of displacement.

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Sirius

Sirius (a romanization of Greek Σείριος, Seirios,."glowing" or "scorching") is a star system and the brightest star in the Earth's night sky.

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Speed of light

The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.

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Squaring the circle

Squaring the circle is a problem proposed by ancient geometers.

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Steven Shapin

Steven Shapin is an American historian and sociologist of science.

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Stockholm

Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.

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String vibration

A vibration in a string is a wave.

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Suspension bridge

A suspension bridge is a type of bridge in which the deck (the load-bearing portion) is hung below suspension cables on vertical suspenders.

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Suzanna van Baerle

Suzanna van Baerle or Susanna Huygens (8 March 1599 – 10 May 1637) was a Dutch woman known for the book-long poem Dagh-werck that was written about her by her husband, Constantijn Huygens.

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Syrtis Major Planum

Syrtis Major Planum is a "dark spot" (an albedo feature) located in the boundary between the northern lowlands and southern highlands of Mars just west of the impact basin Isidis in the Syrtis Major quadrangle.

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Tautochrone curve

A tautochrone or isochrone curve (from Greek prefixes tauto- meaning same or iso- equal, and chrono time) is the curve for which the time taken by an object sliding without friction in uniform gravity to its lowest point is independent of its starting point.

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Telescope

A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).

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The Hague

The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.

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The World (Descartes)

The World, also called Treatise on the Light (French title: Traité du monde et de la lumière), is a book by René Descartes (1596–1650).

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Theoretical physics

Theoretical physics is a branch of physics that employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena.

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Thomas Birch

Thomas Birch (23 November 1705 – 9 January 1766) was an English historian.

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Thomas Hobbes

Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.

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Thomas Street

Thomas Street (also spelled Streete) (1621–1689) was an English astronomer, known for his writings on celestial motions.

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Thomas Young (scientist)

Thomas Young FRS (13 June 1773 – 10 May 1829) was a British polymath and physician.

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Thuret family

The Thuret family of clockmakers established themselves as one of the outstanding craftsman-dynasties in 17th- and 18th-century Paris.

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Titan (moon)

Titan is the largest moon of Saturn.

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Transit of Venus, 1639

The first known observations and recording of a transit of Venus were made in 1639 by the English astronomers Jeremiah Horrocks and his friend and correspondent William Crabtree.

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Transverse wave

A transverse wave is a moving wave that consists of oscillations occurring perpendicular (right angled) to the direction of energy transfer (or the propagation of the wave).

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Treatise on Light

Treatise on Light (Traité de la Lumière) is a 1690 book written by the Dutch polymath Christiaan Huygens on his wave theory of light.

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University of Angers

The University of Angers (Université d'Angers) is an institution of higher education situated in the town of the same name, in western France.

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Utopia

A utopia is an imagined community or society that possesses highly desirable or nearly perfect qualities for its citizens.

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Velocity

The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference, and is a function of time.

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Verge escapement

The verge (or crown wheel) escapement is the earliest known type of mechanical escapement, the mechanism in a mechanical clock that controls its rate by allowing the gear train to advance at regular intervals or 'ticks'.

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Versailles, Yvelines

Versailles is a city in the Yvelines département in Île-de-France region, renowned worldwide for the Château de Versailles and the gardens of Versailles, designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

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Voorburg

Voorburg is a Dutch town and former municipality in the west part of the province of South Holland, the Netherlands.

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Wave

In physics, a wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space, with little or no associated mass transport.

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Wave equation

The wave equation is an important second-order linear partial differential equation for the description of waves—as they occur in classical physics—such as mechanical waves (e.g. water waves, sound waves and seismic waves) or light waves.

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Wavefront

In physics, a wavefront is the locus of points characterized by propagation of positions of identical phase: propagation of a point in 1D, a curve in 2D or a surface in 3D.

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Wavelet

A wavelet is a wave-like oscillation with an amplitude that begins at zero, increases, and then decreases back to zero.

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William Brouncker, 2nd Viscount Brouncker

William Brouncker, 2nd Viscount Brouncker, PRS (1620 – 5 April 1684) was an English mathematician who introduced Brouncker's formula, and was the first President of the Royal Society.

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Young's interference experiment

Young's interference experiment, also called Young's double-slit interferometer, was the original version of the modern double-slit experiment, performed at the beginning of the nineteenth century by Thomas Young.

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31 equal temperament

In music, 31 equal temperament, 31-ET, which can also be abbreviated 31-TET, 31-EDO (equal division of the octave), also known as tricesimoprimal, is the tempered scale derived by dividing the octave into 31 equal-sized steps (equal frequency ratios).

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Redirects here:

Bibiolography of Christiaan Huygens, Bibliography of Christiaan Huygens, C. Huyghens, Christaan Huygens, Christan Huygens, Christiaan Huyghens, Christiaan huygens, Christian Huygens, Christian Huyges, Christian Huyghens, Christianus Hugenius, Christiian Huygens, Huyghenian, Huyghens.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christiaan_Huygens

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