339 relations: Abbot, Africa, Agilulf, Ailbe of Emly, Al Jazeera, Alemanni, Alfred the Great, Alps, Amelungsborn Abbey, Americas, Anabaptism, Anatolia, Anglican Communion, Anglican religious order, Anglicanism, Anglo-Catholicism, Anglo-Saxon mission, Anthony the Great, Apostolnik, Ardagh Hoard, Arranged marriage, Arthur Kreinheder, Asceticism, Asia, Asser, Athanasius of Alexandria, Athens, Augustana Catholic Church, Östanbäck Monastery, Bangor Abbey, Barlaam of Seminara, Basil of Caesarea, Basilea Schlink, Basilian monks, Bavaria, Bénédictine, Bede, Benedict of Nursia, Bernardo Tolomei, Beuno, Bobbio, Book of Kells, Bose Monastic Community, Brendan, Bridgettines, Brigid of Kildare, Brother Roger, Bruderhof Communities, Bulgaria, Bursfelde, ..., Bursfelde Abbey, Byzantine Empire, Cadoc, Caesarea, Camaldolese, Canada, Candida Casa, Cannes, Canon law, Canonical hours, Canonization, Canons regular, Carmelites, Carthusians, Catholic Church, Catholic religious order, Celestines, Cenobitic monasticism, Charlemagne, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Chastity, Childebert II, Christian Church, Christian denomination, Church History (Eusebius), Church of England, Church of St Mary and St Nicholas, Littlemore, Church Slavonic language, Ciarán of Clonmacnoise, Cistercians, Clas (ecclesiastical settlement), Clerics Regular, Clonmacnoise, Cluniac Reforms, Coarb, Collegeville, Minnesota, Colmán of Dromore, Columba, Columbanus, Communität Casteller Ring, Communität Christusbruderschaft Selbitz, Congregation (Catholic), Consensoria Monachorum, Constantine the Great, Constantinople, Coptic monasticism, Darmstadt, Deiniol, Desert Fathers, Desert Mothers, Diocese, Dissolution of the Monasteries, Dom Pérignon (monk), Double monastery, Early Christianity, East–West Schism, Eastern Orthodox Church, Ebstorf Abbey, Education, Egypt, Elijah, Enda of Aran, English Dissenters, English Reformation, Episcopal Church (United States), Essenes, Ethiopia, Eucharist, Eusebius, Evangelical Anglicanism, Evangelical counsels, Evangelical Sisterhood of Mary, Evangelicalism, Fasting, Finnian of Clonard, Finnian of Movilla, Fontaine-lès-Luxeuil, Francis de Sales, Friar, Gallo-Roman culture, Gender equality, Genoa, Georgia (country), Gildas, Glamorgan, Gospel of Matthew, Gothic architecture, Great Lent, Greece, Gregorian chant, Gregory Palamas, Hagiography, Health care, Hegumen, Helenopolis, Bithynia, Henry VIII of England, Hermit, Hesychasm, Hieromonk, Hieronymites, High cross, Holy Land, Honoratus, Hungary, Hutterites, Illtud, Illuminated manuscript, Industrial Revolution, Insular art, Intentional community, Into Great Silence, Iona Abbey, Jane Frances de Chantal, Jerome, Jesus, Jesus Prayer, John Cassian, John Climacus, John Henry Newman, John the Baptist, John Wycliffe, Judaean Desert, Julian of Norwich, Kellia, Kildare, Klobuk, Korea, Latin, Lausiac History, Lérins Abbey, Lindisfarne, List of monastic houses in England, Littlemore, Llancarfan, Llantwit Major, Loccum Abbey, Loire, Lollardy, Lombards, Lutheranism, Luxeuil-les-Bains, Lydia Sellon, Macarius of Egypt, Mantle (monastic vesture), Marmoutier, Marseille, Martin of Tours, Martyr, Max Weber, Medication, Members of the Covenant, Milan, Miniature (illuminated manuscript), Monastery, Monastery of Yuste, Monastic school, Monk, Monte Cassino, Mount Athos, Mount Sinai, Naples, Negenborn, New Monasticism, New York Daily News, Ninian, Nobility, North Africa, Northern England, Novice, Nun, Oceania, Oenology, Old Testament, Olivetans, Order of Ecumenical Franciscans, Order of Saint Benedict, Order of Saint Luke, Order of Saint Paul the First Hermit, Order of the Holy Paraclete, Order of the Visitation of Holy Mary, Order of Watchers, Orthodoxy, Oswald of Northumbria, Oxford, Oxford Movement, Oxford, Michigan, Pachomius the Great, Pacific Ocean, Pacifism, Padarn, Palestine (region), Palladius of Galatia, Paul Aurelian, Paul of Thebes, Penitential, Persecution of Christians, Phalanstère, Pharmacy, Philip II of Spain, Philokalia, Plymouth, Poitiers, Pope Celestine V, Portland, Oregon, Poustinia, Poverty, Prayer rope, Prefect, Priesthood in the Catholic Church, Primogeniture, Priory of St. Wigbert, Protestantism, Puritans, Quadrivium, R. A. Torrey, Recluse, Refectory, Reformation, Rehburg-Loccum, Religious habit, Republic of Macedonia, Revolutions of 1989, Robert of Molesme, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Arles, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Tours, Roman Empire, Romania, Rule of Saint Benedict, Rule of St. Augustine, Rule of the Master, Russia, Sabbathday Lake Shaker Village, Sacrament, Sacrament of Penance, Saint, Saint Brigid of Kildare Monastery (Methodist-Benedictine), Saint Catherine's Monastery, Saint David, Saint Mungo, Saint Teilo, Samson of Dol, Scapular, Scotland, Scriptorium, Serbia, Shakers, Skete, Skufia, Soutra Aisle, Sparkling wine production, St Asaph, St David's Cathedral, St Michael's Mount, Starets, State (theology), Subiaco, Lazio, Sweden, Swiss Reformed Church, Switzerland, Syria, Syriac Christianity, Syriac language, Tabenna, Taizé Community, The Ladder of Divine Ascent, Thebaid, Theodelinda, Theodore the Studite, Theology, Therapeutae, Thessaloniki, Thomas More, Thomas O'Loughlin, Tonsure, Trappist beer, Trappists, Trivium, Tysilio, Uelzen, United Methodist Church, University, Utopia, Vallumbrosan Order, Virginity, Visigothic Kingdom, Vow of obedience, Whitby, Whithorn, Wine. Expand index (289 more) » « Shrink index
Abbot, meaning father, is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various traditions, including Christianity.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Agilulf (555 – April 616) called the Thuringian, was a duke of Turin and king of the Lombards from 591 until his death.
Saint Ailbe (Albeus), usually known in English as St Elvis, (British/Welsh) Eilfyw or Eilfw, was regarded as the chief 'pre-Patrician' saint of Ireland (although his death was recorded in the early 6th-century).
Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
The Alemanni (also Alamanni; Suebi "Swabians") were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the Upper Rhine River.
Alfred the Great (Ælfrēd, Ælfrǣd, "elf counsel" or "wise elf"; 849 – 26 October 899) was King of Wessex from 871 to 899.
The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
Amelungsborn Abbey, also Amelunxborn Abbey (Kloster Amelungsborn) near Negenborn and Stadtoldendorf, in the Landkreis of Holzminden in the Weserbergland, was the second oldest Cistercian foundation in Lower Saxony, Germany, after Walkenried Abbey.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Anabaptism (from Neo-Latin anabaptista, from the Greek ἀναβαπτισμός: ἀνά- "re-" and βαπτισμός "baptism", Täufer, earlier also WiedertäuferSince the middle of the 20th century, the German-speaking world no longer uses the term "Wiedertäufer" (translation: "Re-baptizers"), considering it biased. The term Täufer (translation: "Baptizers") is now used, which is considered more impartial. From the perspective of their persecutors, the "Baptizers" baptized for the second time those "who as infants had already been baptized". The denigrative term Anabaptist signifies rebaptizing and is considered a polemical term, so it has been dropped from use in modern German. However, in the English-speaking world, it is still used to distinguish the Baptizers more clearly from the Baptists, a Protestant sect that developed later in England. Cf. their self-designation as "Brethren in Christ" or "Church of God":.) is a Christian movement which traces its origins to the Radical Reformation.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion with 85 million members, founded in 1867 in London, England.
Anglican religious orders are communities of men or women (or in some cases mixed communities of both sexes) in the Anglican Communion who live under a common rule of life.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
The terms Anglo-Catholicism, Anglican Catholicism, and Catholic Anglicanism refer to people, beliefs and practices within Anglicanism that emphasise the Catholic heritage and identity of the various Anglican churches.
Anglo-Saxon missionaries were instrumental in the spread of Christianity in the Frankish Empire during the 8th century, continuing the work of Hiberno-Scottish missionaries which had been spreading Celtic Christianity across the Frankish Empire as well as in Scotland and Anglo-Saxon England itself during the 6th century (see Anglo-Saxon Christianity).
Saint Anthony or Antony (Ἀντώνιος Antṓnios; Antonius); January 12, 251 – January 17, 356) was a Christian monk from Egypt, revered since his death as a saint. He is distinguished from other saints named Anthony such as, by various epithets of his own:,, and For his importance among the Desert Fathers and to all later Christian monasticism, he is also known as the. His feast day is celebrated on January 17 among the Orthodox and Roman Catholic churches and on Tobi 22 in the Egyptian calendar used by the Coptic Church. The biography of Anthony's life by Athanasius of Alexandria helped to spread the concept of Christian monasticism, particularly in Western Europe via its Latin translations. He is often erroneously considered the first Christian monk, but as his biography and other sources make clear, there were many ascetics before him. Anthony was, however, the first to go into the wilderness (about 270), which seems to have contributed to his renown. Accounts of Anthony enduring supernatural temptation during his sojourn in the Eastern Desert of Egypt inspired the often-repeated subject of the temptation of St. Anthony in Western art and literature. Anthony is appealed to against infectious diseases, particularly skin diseases. In the past, many such afflictions, including ergotism, erysipelas, and shingles, were referred to as St. Anthony's fire.
An apostolnik or epimandylion is an item of clerical clothing worn by Orthodox Christian and Eastern Catholic nuns.
The Ardagh Hoard, best known for the Ardagh Chalice, is a hoard of metalwork from the 8th and 9th centuries.
Arranged marriage is a type of marital union where the bride and groom are selected by individuals other than the couple themselves, particularly family members, such as the parents.
Father Arthur Carl Kreinheder, C.S.C. (October 1, 1905 - October 13, 1989) was an American Lutheran Benedictine monk and founder of a Lutheran religious order, The Congregation of the Servants of Christ.
Asceticism (from the ἄσκησις áskesis, "exercise, training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from sensual pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Asser (died c. 909) was a Welsh monk from St David's, Dyfed, who became Bishop of Sherborne in the 890s.
Athanasius of Alexandria (Ἀθανάσιος Ἀλεξανδρείας; ⲡⲓⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ ⲁⲑⲁⲛⲁⲥⲓⲟⲩ ⲡⲓⲁⲡⲟⲥⲧⲟⲗⲓⲕⲟⲥ or Ⲡⲁⲡⲁ ⲁⲑⲁⲛⲁⲥⲓⲟⲩ ⲁ̅; c. 296–298 – 2 May 373), also called Athanasius the Great, Athanasius the Confessor or, primarily in the Coptic Orthodox Church, Athanasius the Apostolic, was the 20th bishop of Alexandria (as Athanasius I).
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
The Augustana Catholic Church (ACC), formerly the Anglo-Lutheran Catholic Church (ALCC) and the Evangelical Community Church-Lutheran (ECCL), is an American church in the Lutheran Evangelical Catholic tradition.
Östanbäck Monastery is a Lutheran Benedictine monastery for men in the Church of Sweden, located outside Sala in Sweden.
Bangor Abbey was established by Saint Comgall in 558 in Bangor, County Down, Northern Ireland and was famous for its learning and austere rule.
Barlaam of Seminara (Bernardo Massari, as a layman), c. 1290–1348, or Barlaam of Calabria (Βαρλαὰμ Καλαβρός) was a southern Italian scholar (Aristotelian scholastic) and clergyman of the 14th century, as well as a Humanist, a philologist, and a theologian.
Basil of Caesarea, also called Saint Basil the Great (Ἅγιος Βασίλειος ὁ Μέγας, Ágios Basíleios o Mégas, Ⲡⲓⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ Ⲃⲁⲥⲓⲗⲓⲟⲥ; 329 or 330 – January 1 or 2, 379), was the bishop of Caesarea Mazaca in Cappadocia, Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey).
Mother Basilea, born Klara Schlink (October 21, 1904, in Darmstadt, Germany – March 21, 2001, in Darmstadt) was a German religious leader and writer.
Basilian monks are monks who follow the rule of Saint Basil the Great, bishop of Caesarea (330–379).
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
Bénédictine is a herbal liqueur beverage developed by Alexandre Le Grand in the 19th century and produced in France.
Bede (italic; 672/3 – 26 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, Venerable Bede, and Bede the Venerable (Bēda Venerābilis), was an English Benedictine monk at the monastery of St.
Benedict of Nursia (Benedictus Nursiae; Benedetto da Norcia; Vulgar Latin: *Benedecto; Benedikt; 2 March 480 – 543 or 547 AD) is a Christian saint, who is venerated in the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Churches, the Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Anglican Communion and Old Catholic Churches.
Saint Bernardo Tolomei (10 May 1272 – 20 August 1348) was an Italian Roman Catholic theologian and the founder of the Congregation of the Blessed Virgin of Monte Oliveto.
Saint Beuno (Bonus;Baring-Gould & Fisher, "Lives of the British Saints" (1907), quoted at, Early British Kingdoms website by David Nash Ford, accessed 6 February 2012 640), sometimes anglicized as Bono, was a 7th-century Welsh abbot, confessor, and saint.
Bobbio (Bobbiese: Bòbi; Bêubbi; Bobium) is a small town and commune in the province of Piacenza in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy.
The Book of Kells (Codex Cenannensis; Leabhar Cheanannais; Dublin, Trinity College Library, MS A. I., sometimes known as the Book of Columba) is an illuminated manuscript Gospel book in Latin, containing the four Gospels of the New Testament together with various prefatory texts and tables.
The ecumenical Monastic Community of Bose (Monastero di Bose) was established by Catholic layman Enzo Bianchi in 1965 at Bose, a frazione in the commune of Magnano (province of Biella, Italy).
Saint Brendan of Clonfert (AD 484 – 577) (Irish: Naomh Bréanainn or Naomh Breandán; Brendanus; (heilagur) Brandanus), also referred to as "Brendan moccu Altae", called "the Navigator", "the Voyager", "the Anchorite", and "the Bold", is one of the early Irish monastic saints and one of the Twelve Apostles of Ireland.
The Order of the Most Holy Savior, abbreviated as O.Ss.S., and informally known as the Brigittine or Bridgettine Order is a monastic religious order of Augustinian nuns, Religious Sisters, and monks founded by Saint Bridget of Sweden (Birgitta) in 1344, and approved by Pope Urban V in 1370.
Saint Brigid of Kildare or Brigid of Ireland (Naomh Bríd; Brigida; 525) is one of Ireland's patron saints, along with Patrick and Columba.
Roger Schütz, popularly known as Brother Roger (Frère Roger; May 12, 1915 – August 16, 2005), was a Swiss Christian leader and monastic brother.
The Bruderhof (place of brothers) is a Christian movement that practices community of goods after the example of the first church described in Acts 2 and Acts 4.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Bursfelde is a village, now administratively joined with Hemeln as Bursfelde-Hemeln, in the northern part of Hann. Münden in the district of Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany.
Bursfelde Abbey (in German Kloster Bursfelde) was a house of the Benedictine Order located in the present Bursfelde, part of the town of Hannoversch Münden in Lower Saxony in Germany.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Saint Cadoc or Cadog (Cadocus; also Cattwg; born or before) was a 5th–6th-century Abbot of Llancarfan, near Cowbridge in Glamorganshire, Wales, a monastery famous from the era of the British church as a centre of learning, where Illtud spent the first period of his religious life under Cadoc's tutelage.
Caesarea (קֵיסָרְיָה, Kaysariya or Qesarya; قيسارية, Qaysaria; Καισάρεια) is a town in north-central Israel.
The Camaldolese (Ordo Camaldulensium) monks and nuns are two different, but related, monastic communities that trace their lineage to the monastic movement begun by Saint Romuald.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Candida Casa was the name given to the church established by St Ninian in Whithorn, Galloway, southern Scotland, in the mid fifth century AD.
Cannes (Canas) is a city located on the French Riviera.
Canon law (from Greek kanon, a 'straight measuring rod, ruler') is a set of ordinances and regulations made by ecclesiastical authority (Church leadership), for the government of a Christian organization or church and its members.
In the practice of Christianity, canonical hours mark the divisions of the day in terms of periods of fixed prayer at regular intervals.
Canonization is the act by which a Christian church declares that a person who has died was a saint, upon which declaration the person is included in the "canon", or list, of recognized saints.
Canons regular are priests in the Western Church living in community under a rule ("regula" in Latin), and sharing their property in common.
The Order of the Brothers of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel or Carmelites (sometimes simply Carmel by synecdoche; Ordo Fratrum Beatissimæ Virginis Mariæ de Monte Carmelo) is a Roman Catholic religious order founded, probably in the 12th century, on Mount Carmel in the Crusader States, hence the name Carmelites.
The Carthusian Order (Ordo Cartusiensis), also called the Order of Saint Bruno, is a Catholic religious order of enclosed monastics.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Catholic religious order is a religious order of the Catholic Church.
The Celestines were a Roman Catholic monastic order, a branch of the Benedictines, founded in 1244.
Cenobitic (or coenobitic) monasticism is a monastic tradition that stresses community life.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
Chastity is sexual conduct of a person deemed praiseworthy and virtuous according to the moral standards and guidelines of their culture, civilization or religion.
Childebert II (570–595) was the Merovingian king of Austrasia, which included Provence at the time, from 575 until his death in 595, the eldest and succeeding son of Sigebert I, and the king of Burgundy from 592 to his death, as the adopted and succeeding son of his uncle Guntram.
"Christian Church" is an ecclesiological term generally used by Protestants to refer to the whole group of people belonging to Christianity throughout the history of Christianity.
A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation, leadership and doctrine.
The Church History (Ἐκκλησιαστικὴ ἱστορία; Historia Ecclesiastica or Historia Ecclesiae) of Eusebius, the bishop of Caesarea was a 4th-century pioneer work giving a chronological account of the development of Early Christianity from the 1st century to the 4th century.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
The Church of St Mary and St Nicholas is a Church of England parish church in Littlemore, Oxford, Oxfordshire.
Church Slavonic, also known as Church Slavic, New Church Slavonic or New Church Slavic, is the conservative Slavic liturgical language used by the Orthodox Church in Bulgaria, Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, Russia, Belarus, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Macedonia and Ukraine.
Saint Ciarán of Clonmacnoise (c. 516 – c. 549), supposedly born Ciarán mac an tSaeir ("son of the carpenter")), was one of the Twelve Apostles of Ireland and the first abbot of Clonmacnoise. He is sometimes called Ciarán the Younger to distinguish him from the 5th-century Saint Ciarán the Elder who was bishop of Osraige. His name produced many variant spellings, including Ceran, Kieran and Queran.
A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (abbreviated as OCist, SOCist ((Sacer) Ordo Cisterciensis), or ‘’’OCSO’’’ (Ordo Cisterciensis Strictioris Observantiae), which are religious orders of monks and nuns. They are also known as “Trappists”; as Bernardines, after the highly influential St. Bernard of Clairvaux (though that term is also used of the Franciscan Order in Poland and Lithuania); or as White Monks, in reference to the colour of the "cuccula" or white choir robe worn by the Cistercians over their habits, as opposed to the black cuccula worn by Benedictine monks. The original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. Over the centuries, however, education and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of many monasteries. A reform movement seeking to restore the simpler lifestyle of the original Cistercians began in 17th-century France at La Trappe Abbey, leading eventually to the Holy See’s reorganization in 1892 of reformed houses into a single order Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (OCSO), commonly called the Trappists. Cistercians who did not observe these reforms became known as the Cistercians of the Original Observance. The term Cistercian (French Cistercien), derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux, near Dijon in eastern France. It was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more closely the Rule of Saint Benedict. The best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Cîteaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, who were the first three abbots. Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order. By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread throughout France and into England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Eastern Europe. The keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict. Rejecting the developments the Benedictines had undergone, the monks tried to replicate monastic life exactly as it had been in Saint Benedict's time; indeed in various points they went beyond it in austerity. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, especially agricultural work in the fields, a special characteristic of Cistercian life. Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. Additionally, in relation to fields such as agriculture, hydraulic engineering and metallurgy, the Cistercians became the main force of technological diffusion in medieval Europe. The Cistercians were adversely affected in England by the Protestant Reformation, the Dissolution of the Monasteries under King Henry VIII, the French Revolution in continental Europe, and the revolutions of the 18th century, but some survived and the order recovered in the 19th century.
A clas (Welsh clasau) was a native Christian church in early medieval Wales.
The term Clerics Regular (previously Clerks Regular) designates a number of Roman Catholic priests (clerics), and clergy of other traditions, who are members of a religious order (regular) of clergy, but are not Canons Regular.
The monastery of Clonmacnoise (Cluain Mhic Nóis in Irish, meaning "Meadow of the Sons of Nós", or perhaps, albeit less likely, Cluain Muccu Nóis "Meadow of the Pigs of Nós") is situated in County Offaly, Ireland on the River Shannon south of Athlone.
The Cluniac Reforms (also called the Benedictine Reform) were a series of changes within medieval monasticism of the Western Church focused on restoring the traditional monastic life, encouraging art, and caring for the poor.
A coarb, from the Old Irish comarbae (Modern Irish comharba), meaning "heir" or "successor", was a distinctive office of the medieval church among the Gaels of Ireland and Scotland.
Collegeville is an unincorporated community in St. Wendel Township, Stearns County, Minnesota, United States, near St. Joseph.
Saint Colmán of Dromore, also known by the pet form Mocholmóc, was a 6th-century Irish saint.
Saint Columba (Colm Cille, 'church dove'; Columbkille; 7 December 521 – 9 June 597) was an Irish abbot and missionary credited with spreading Christianity in what is today Scotland at the start of the Hiberno-Scottish mission.
Columbanus (Columbán, 543 – 21 November 615), also known as St.
Communität Casteller Ring (CCR) is a Religious order for women in the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Bavaria.
The Communität Christusbruderschaft Selbitz (CCB) (Community of the Christ-Brotherhood Selbitz) is a mixed Religious Order in the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Bavaria in Germany.
In the Roman Catholic Church, the term "congregation" is used not only in the senses that it has in other contexts (to indicate, for instance, a gathering for worship or some other purpose), but also to mean specifically either a type of department of the Roman Curia, or a type of religious institute, or certain organized groups of Augustinian, Benedictine, and Cistercian houses.
In Christian monasticism, the Consensoria Monachorum, also known as the (Regula Consensoria Monachorum) refers to an agreement among a group of people to establish a monastic community.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Coptic Monasticism is claimed to be the original form of Monasticism as St. Anthony of Egypt became the first one to be called "monk" (Gr: μοναχός) and he was the first to established a Christian monastery which is now known as the Monastery of Saint Anthony in the Red Sea area.
Darmstadt is a city in the state of Hesse in Germany, located in the southern part of the Rhine-Main-Area (Frankfurt Metropolitan Region).
Saint Deiniol (died 584) was traditionally the first Bishop of Bangor in the Kingdom of Gwynedd, Wales.
The Desert Fathers (along with Desert Mothers) were early Christian hermits, ascetics, and monks who lived mainly in the Scetes desert of Egypt beginning around the third century AD.
The Desert Mothers were female Christian ascetics living in the desert of Egypt, Palestine, and Syria in the 4th and 5th centuries AD.
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".
The Dissolution of the Monasteries, sometimes referred to as the Suppression of the Monasteries, was the set of administrative and legal processes between 1536 and 1541 by which Henry VIII disbanded monasteries, priories, convents and friaries in England and Wales and Ireland, appropriated their income, disposed of their assets, and provided for their former personnel and functions.
Dom Pierre Pérignon, O.S.B., (December 163814 September 1715) was a French Benedictine monk who made important contributions to the production and quality of champagne wine in an era when the region's wines were predominantly still red.
A double monastery (also double house) is a monastery combining a separate community of monks and one of nuns, joined in one institution.
Early Christianity, defined as the period of Christianity preceding the First Council of Nicaea in 325, typically divides historically into the Apostolic Age and the Ante-Nicene Period (from the Apostolic Age until Nicea).
The East–West Schism, also called the Great Schism and the Schism of 1054, was the break of communion between what are now the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox churches, which has lasted since the 11th century.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Ebstorf Abbey (Abtei Ebstorf or Kloster Ebstorf) is a former Benedictine monastery of nuns.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Elijah (meaning "My God is Yahu/Jah") or latinized form Elias (Ἡλίας, Elías; ܐܸܠܝܼܵܐ, Elyāe; Arabic: إلياس or إليا, Ilyās or Ilyā) was, according to the Books of Kings in the Hebrew Bible, a prophet and a miracle worker who lived in the northern kingdom of Israel during the reign of King Ahab (9th century BC).
Saint Enda of Aran (Éanna, Éinne or Endeus, died 530 AD) is an Irish saint.
English Dissenters or English Separatists were Protestant Christians who separated from the Church of England in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries.
The English Reformation was a series of events in 16th century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church.
The Episcopal Church is the United States-based member church of the worldwide Anglican Communion.
The Essenes (Modern Hebrew:, Isiyim; Greek: Ἐσσηνοί, Ἐσσαῖοι, or Ὀσσαῖοι, Essenoi, Essaioi, Ossaioi) were a sect of Second Temple Judaism which flourished from the 2nd century BC to the 1st century AD.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
The Eucharist (also called Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper, among other names) is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches and an ordinance in others.
Eusebius of Caesarea (Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, Eusébios tés Kaisareías; 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου), was a historian of Christianity, exegete, and Christian polemicist. He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about 314 AD. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as an extremely learned Christian of his time. He wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel, and On Discrepancies between the Gospels, studies of the Biblical text. As "Father of Church History" (not to be confused with the title of Church Father), he produced the Ecclesiastical History, On the Life of Pamphilus, the Chronicle and On the Martyrs. During the Council of Antiochia (325) he was excommunicated for subscribing to the heresy of Arius, and thus withdrawn during the First Council of Nicaea where he accepted that the Homoousion referred to the Logos. Never recognized as a Saint, he became counselor of Constantine the Great, and with the bishop of Nicomedia he continued to polemicize against Saint Athanasius of Alexandria, Church Fathers, since he was condemned in the First Council of Tyre in 335.
Evangelical Anglicanism or evangelical Episcopalianism is a tradition or church party within Anglicanism that shares affinity with broader evangelicalism.
The three evangelical counsels or counsels of perfection in Christianity are chastity, poverty (or perfect charity), and obedience.
The Evangelical Sisterhood of Mary is an ecumenical, Lutheran based, religious order.
Evangelicalism, evangelical Christianity, or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide, crossdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity which maintains the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace through faith in Jesus Christ's atonement.
Fasting is the willing abstinence or reduction from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time.
Saint Finnian of Clonard ('Cluain Eraird') – also Finian, Fionán or Fionnán in Irish; or Vennianus and Vinniaus in its Latinised form (470–549) – was one of the early Irish monastic saints, who founded Clonard Abbey in modern-day County Meath.
Finnian of Movilla (–589) was an Irish Christian missionary.
Fontaine-lès-Luxeuil is a commune in the Haute-Saône department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France.
Francis de Sales (François de Sales; Francesco di Sales); 21 August 156728 December 1622) was a Bishop of Geneva and is honored as a saint in the Catholic Church. He became noted for his deep faith and his gentle approach to the religious divisions in his land resulting from the Protestant Reformation. He is known also for his writings on the topic of spiritual direction and spiritual formation, particularly the Introduction to the Devout Life and the Treatise on the Love of God.
A friar is a brother member of one of the mendicant orders founded since the twelfth or thirteenth century; the term distinguishes the mendicants' itinerant apostolic character, exercised broadly under the jurisdiction of a superior general, from the older monastic orders' allegiance to a single monastery formalized by their vow of stability.
The term "Gallo-Roman" describes the Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire.
Gender equality, also known as sexual equality, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender.
Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Gildas (Breton: Gweltaz; c. 500 – c. 570) — also known as Gildas the Wise or Gildas Sapiens — was a 6th-century British monk best known for his scathing religious polemic De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, which recounts the history of the Britons before and during the coming of the Saxons.
Glamorgan, or sometimes Glamorganshire, (Morgannwg or Sir Forgannwg) is one of the thirteen historic counties of Wales and a former administrative county of Wales.
The Gospel According to Matthew (translit; also called the Gospel of Matthew or simply, Matthew) is the first book of the New Testament and one of the three synoptic gospels.
Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.
Great Lent, or the Great Fast, (Greek: Μεγάλη Τεσσαρακοστή or Μεγάλη Νηστεία, meaning "Great 40 Days," and "Great Fast," respectively) is the most important fasting season in the church year in the Byzantine Rite of the Eastern Orthodox Church (including Western Rite Orthodoxy) and the Eastern Catholic Churches, which prepares Christians for the greatest feast of the church year, Pascha (Easter).
Gregorian chant is the central tradition of Western plainchant, a form of monophonic, unaccompanied sacred song of the Roman Catholic Church.
Gregory Palamas (Γρηγόριος Παλαμάς; c. 1296 – 1357 or 1359) was a prominent theologian and ecclesiastical figure of the late Byzantine period.
A hagiography is a biography of a saint or an ecclesiastical leader.
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.
Hegumen, hegumenos, or igumen (ἡγούμενος, trans.) is the title for the head of a monastery in the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches, similar to the title of abbot.
Helenopolis (Ἑλενόπολις) or Drepana (Δρέπανα) was an ancient Greco-Roman and Byzantine town and bishopric in Bithynia, Asia Minor, on the southern side of the Gulf of Astacus.
Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England from 1509 until his death.
A hermit (adjectival form: eremitic or hermitic) is a person who lives in seclusion from society, usually for religious reasons.
Hesychasm is a mystical tradition of contemplative prayer in the Eastern Orthodox Church.
A hieromonk (Greek: Ἱερομόναχος, Ieromonachos; Slavonic: Ieromonakh, Ieromonah), also called a priestmonk, is a monk who is also a priest in the Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholicism.
The Order of Saint Jerome or Hieronymites (Ordo Sancti Hieronymi, abbreviated O.S.H.) is a Catholic enclosed religious order and a common name for several congregations of hermit monks living according to the Rule of Saint Augustine, though the inspiration and model of their lives is the 5th-century hermit and biblical scholar, Saint Jerome.
A high cross or standing cross (cros ard / ardchros, crois àrd / àrd-chrois, croes uchel / croes eglwysig) is a free-standing Christian cross made of stone and often richly decorated.
The Holy Land (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ הַקּוֹדֶשׁ, Terra Sancta; Arabic: الأرض المقدسة) is an area roughly located between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea that also includes the Eastern Bank of the Jordan River.
Honoratus (Saint Honorat or Saint Honoré; c. 350 – January 6, 429) was an early Archbishop of Arles, who was also the Abbot of Lérins Abbey.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Hutterites (Hutterer) are an ethnoreligious group that is a communal branch of Anabaptists who, like the Amish and Mennonites, trace their roots to the Radical Reformation of the 16th century.
St. Illtud (also spelled Illtyd, Eltut, and, in Latin, Hildutus), also known as Illtud Farchog "Illtud the Knight", is venerated as the founder-abbot and teacher of the divinity school known as Cor Tewdws, located in Llanilltud Fawr (Llantwit Major) in the Welsh county of Glamorgan. He founded the monastery and college in the 6th century, and the school is believed to be Britain’s earliest centre of learning. At its height, it had over 1000 pupils and schooled many of the great saints of the age, including Saint David of Wales, Gildas the Historian, and Samson of Dol.Rudge, F.M. (1910). St. Illtyd. In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 1 September 2012.
An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented with such decoration as initials, borders (marginalia) and miniature illustrations.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Insular art, also known as Hiberno-Saxon art, is the style of art produced in the post-Roman history of Ireland and Britain.
An intentional community is a planned residential community designed from the start to have a high degree of social cohesion and teamwork.
Into Great Silence (Die große Stille) is a documentary film directed by Philip Gröning that was released in 2005.
Iona Abbey is located on the Isle of Iona, just off the Isle of Mull on the West Coast of Scotland.
Saint Jane Frances de Chantal (Jeanne-Françoise Frémiot, Baronne de Chantal; 28 January 1572 – 13 December 1641) is a Roman Catholic saint, who founded a religious order after the death of her husband.
Jerome (Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c. 27 March 347 – 30 September 420) was a priest, confessor, theologian, and historian.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
The Jesus Prayer (or The Prayer) is a short formulaic prayer esteemed and advocated especially within the Eastern churches: "Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me, a sinner." The prayer has been widely taught and discussed throughout the history of the Orthodox Church.
John Cassian (–), John the Ascetic, or John Cassian the Roman (Ioannes Eremita Cassianus, Ioannus Cassianus, or Ioannes Massiliensis), was a Christian monk and theologian celebrated in both the Western and Eastern Churches for his mystical writings.
Saint John Climacus (Ἰωάννης τῆς Κλίμακος; Ioannes Climacus), also known as John of the Ladder, John Scholasticus and John Sinaites, was a 6th-7th-century Christian monk at the monastery on Mount Sinai.
John Henry Newman, (21 February 1801 – 11 August 1890) was a poet and theologian, first an Anglican priest and later a Catholic priest and cardinal, who was an important and controversial figure in the religious history of England in the 19th century.
John the Baptist (יוחנן המטביל Yokhanan HaMatbil, Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, Iōánnēs ho baptistḗs or Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτίζων, Iōánnēs ho baptízōn,Lang, Bernhard (2009) International Review of Biblical Studies Brill Academic Pub p. 380 – "33/34 CE Herod Antipas's marriage to Herodias (and beginning of the ministry of Jesus in a sabbatical year); 35 CE – death of John the Baptist" ⲓⲱⲁⲛⲛⲏⲥ ⲡⲓⲡⲣⲟⲇⲣⲟⲙⲟⲥ or ⲓⲱ̅ⲁ ⲡⲓⲣϥϯⲱⲙⲥ, يوحنا المعمدان) was a Jewish itinerant preacherCross, F. L. (ed.) (2005) Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd ed.
John Wycliffe (also spelled Wyclif, Wycliff, Wiclef, Wicliffe, Wickliffe; 1320s – 31 December 1384) was an English scholastic philosopher, theologian, Biblical translator, reformer, English priest, and a seminary professor at the University of Oxford.
The Judaean Desert or Judean Desert (מִדְבַּר יְהוּדָה Midbar Yehuda, both Desert of Judah or Judaean Desert; صحراء يهودا Sahara Yahudan) is a desert in Israel and the West Bank that lies east of Jerusalem and descends to the Dead Sea.
Julian of Norwich (c. 8 November 1342 – c. 1416), also called Juliana of Norwich, was an English anchoress and an important Christian mystic and theologian.
Kellia ("the Cells"), referred to as "the innermost desert", was a 4th-century Egyptian Christian monastic community spread out over many square kilometers in the Nitrian Desert.
Kildare is a town in County Kildare, Ireland.
Klobuk of Patriarch Philaret of Moscow (1619-33), Kremlin museum A klobuk is an item of clerical clothing worn by Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic monastics and bishops, especially in the Russian tradition.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Lausiac History (Historia Lausiaca) is a seminal work archiving the Desert Fathers (early Christian monks who lived in the Egyptian desert) written in 419-420 by Palladius of Galatia, at the request of Lausus, chamberlain at the court of the Byzantine Emperor Theodosius II.
Lérins Abbey is a Cistercian monastery on the island of Saint-Honorat, one of the Lérins Islands, on the French Riviera, with an active monastic community.
The Holy Island of Lindisfarne, also known simply as Holy Island, is a tidal island off the northeast coast of England, which constitutes the civil parish of Holy Island in Northumberland.
Monastic houses in England include abbeys, priories and friaries, among other monastic religious houses.
Littlemore is a district and civil parish in Oxford, England.
Llancarfan is a rural village and community in the Vale of Glamorgan, Wales.
Llantwit Major (Llanilltud Fawr) is a small coastal town and community in the Vale of Glamorgan, Wales, on the Bristol Channel coast.
Loccum Abbey (Kloster Loccum) is a Lutheran monastery in the town of Rehburg-Loccum, Lower Saxony, near Steinhude Lake.
The Loire (Léger; Liger) is the longest river in France and the 171st longest in the world.
Lollardy (Lollardism, Lollard movement) was a pre-Protestant Christian religious movement that existed from the mid-14th century to the English Reformation.
The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi, Longobardi, Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.
Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.
Luxeuil-les-Bains is a commune in the Haute-Saône department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France.
Lydia Sellon or Priscilla Lydia Sellon (1821 – 20 November 1876) was a British founder of an Anglican women's order.
Macarius of Egypt (Ὅσιος Μακάριος ο Ἀιγύπτιος, Osios Makarios o Egyptios; ⲁⲃⲃⲁ ⲙⲁⲕⲁⲣⲓ; 300-391) was an Egyptian Christian monk and hermit.
A mantle (translit; Church Slavonic: мантия, mantiya) is an ecclesiastical garment in the form of a very full cape that extends to the floor, joined at the neck, that is worn over the outer garments.
Marmoutier is a commune in the Bas-Rhin département in Grand Est in north-eastern France.
Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.
Saint Martin of Tours (Sanctus Martinus Turonensis; 316 or 336 – 8 November 397) was Bishop of Tours, whose shrine in France became a famous stopping-point for pilgrims on the road to Santiago de Compostela in Spain.
A martyr (Greek: μάρτυς, mártys, "witness"; stem μάρτυρ-, mártyr-) is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party.
Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
The Members of the Covenant were an important part of early Syriac Christianity.
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
The word miniature, derived from the Latin minium, red lead, is a small illustration used to decorate an ancient or medieval illuminated manuscript; the simple illustrations of the early codices having been miniated or delineated with that pigment.
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone (hermits).
The Monastery of Yuste is a monastery in the small village now called Cuacos de Yuste (in older works San Yuste or San Just) in the province of Cáceres in the autonomous community of Extremadura, Spain.
Monastic schools (Scholae monasticae) were, along with cathedral schools, the most important institutions of higher learning in the Latin West from the early Middle Ages until the 12th century.
A monk (from μοναχός, monachos, "single, solitary" via Latin monachus) is a person who practices religious asceticism by monastic living, either alone or with any number of other monks.
Monte Cassino (sometimes written Montecassino) is a rocky hill about southeast of Rome, in the Latin Valley, Italy, to the west of the town of Cassino and altitude.
Mount Athos (Άθως, Áthos) is a mountain and peninsula in northeastern Greece and an important centre of Eastern Orthodox monasticism.
Mount Sinai (Ṭūr Sīnāʼ or lit; ܛܘܪܐ ܕܣܝܢܝ or ܛܘܪܐ ܕܡܘܫܐ; הַר סִינַי, Har Sinai; Όρος Σινάι; Mons Sinai), also known as Mount Horeb or Gabal Musa, is a mountain in the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt that is a possible location of the biblical Mount Sinai, which is considered a holy site by the Abrahamic religions.
Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.
Negenborn is a municipality in the district of Holzminden, in Lower Saxony, Germany.
New Monasticism is a diverse movement, not limited to a specific religious denomination or church and including varying expressions of contemplative life.
The New York Daily News, officially titled Daily News, is an American newspaper based in New York City.
Ninian is a Christian saint first mentioned in the 8th century as being an early missionary among the Pictish peoples of what is now Scotland.
Nobility is a social class in aristocracy, normally ranked immediately under royalty, that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society and with membership thereof typically being hereditary.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
Northern England, also known simply as the North, is the northern part of England, considered as a single cultural area.
A novice is a person or creature who is new to a field or activity.
A nun is a member of a religious community of women, typically living under vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience in the enclosure of a monastery.
Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.
Oenology (enology) is the science and study of wine and winemaking; distinct from viticulture, the agricultural endeavours of vine-growing and of grape-harvesting.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
The Olivetans, or the Order of Our Lady of Mount Olivet, are a monastic order formally recognised in 1344.
The Order of Ecumenical Franciscans (OEF) is a group of men and women devoted to following the examples of Saint Francis of Assisi and Saint Clare of Assisi in their life and understanding of the Christian gospel: sharing a love for creation and for those who have been marginalized.
The Order of Saint Benedict (OSB; Latin: Ordo Sancti Benedicti), also known as the Black Monksin reference to the colour of its members' habitsis a Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict.
The Order of Saint Luke (OSL) is a religious order begun within the United Methodist Church that is dedicated to sacramental and liturgical scholarship, education, and practice.
The Order of Saint Paul the First Hermit (Ordo Fratrum Sancti Pauli Primi Eremitae, Red svetog Pavla prvog pustinjaka – pavlini, Řád paulínů, Pauliner, Szent Pál első remete szerzeteseinek rendje, Paulini – Zakon Świętego Pawła Pierwszego Pustelnika, Rád Svätého Pavla Prvého Pustovníka), known also simply as Pauline Fathers, is a monastic order of the Roman Catholic Church, founded in Hungary during the 13th century.
The Order of The Holy Paraclete (OHP) is an Anglican religious community.
The Order of the Visitation of Holy Mary (Latin: Ordo Visitationis Beatissimae Mariae Virginis, V.H.M.) or the Visitation Order is an enclosed Roman Catholic religious order for women.
The Order of Watchers ("Ordre des Veilleurs" in French) is a community of hermits in the French Protestant tradition founded in 1923 by the theologian Wilfred Monod.
Orthodoxy (from Greek ὀρθοδοξία orthodoxía "right opinion") is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion.
Oswald (c 604 – 5 August 641/642Bede gives the year of Oswald's death as 642, however there is some question as to whether what Bede considered 642 is the same as what would now be considered 642. R. L. Poole (Studies in Chronology and History, 1934) put forward the theory that Bede's years began in September, and if this theory is followed (as it was, for instance, by Frank Stenton in his notable history Anglo-Saxon England, first published in 1943), then the date of the Battle of Heavenfield (and the beginning of Oswald's reign) is pushed back from 634 to 633. Thus, if Oswald subsequently reigned for eight years, he would have actually been killed in 641. Poole's theory has been contested, however, and arguments have been made that Bede began his year on 25 December or 1 January, in which case Bede's years would be accurate as he gives them.) was King of Northumbria from 634 until his death, and is venerated as a saint, of whom there was a particular cult in the Middle Ages.
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.
The Oxford Movement was a movement of High Church members of the Church of England which eventually developed into Anglo-Catholicism.
Oxford is a village in Oakland County in the U.S. state of Michigan.
Saint Pachomius (Παχώμιος, ca. 292–348), also known as Pachome and Pakhomius, is generally recognized as the founder of Christian cenobitic monasticism.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
Pacifism is opposition to war, militarism, or violence.
Padarn (Paternus, Padarnus) (? – 550 AD) was an early 6th century sanctified British Christian abbot-bishop who founded St Padarn's Church in Ceredigion, Wales.
Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.
Palladius of Galatia was bishop of Helenopolis in Bithynia, and a devoted disciple of Saint John Chrysostom.
Paul Aurelian (known in Breton as Paol Aorelian or Saint Pol de Léon and in Latin as Paulinus Aurelianus) was a 6th-century Welshman who became first bishop of the See of Léon and one of the seven founder saints of Brittany.
Paul of Thebes, commonly known as Paul or in Egyptian Arabic as Amba Bola, the First Hermit or Paul the Anchorite,; (d. c. 341) is regarded as the first Christian hermit; who lived alone in the desert from the age of sixteen to one hundred thirteen years of his age.
A penitential is a book or set of church rules concerning the Christian sacrament of penance, a "new manner of reconciliation with God" that was first developed by Celtic monks in Ireland in the sixth century AD.
The persecution of Christians can be historically traced from the first century of the Christian era to the present day.
A phalanstère (or phalanstery) was a type of building designed for a self-contained utopian community, ideally consisting of 500–2000 people working together for mutual benefit, and developed in the early 19th century by Charles Fourier.
Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing and dispensing drugs.
Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).
The Philokalia (φιλοκαλία "love of the beautiful, the good", from φιλία philia "love" and κάλλος kallos "beauty") is "a collection of texts written between the 4th and 15th centuries by spiritual masters" of the Eastern Orthodox Church mystical hesychast tradition.
Plymouth is a city situated on the south coast of Devon, England, approximately south-west of Exeter and west-south-west of London.
Poitiers is a city on the Clain river in west-central France.
Pope Celestine V (Caelestinus V; 1215 – 19 May 1296), born Pietro Angelerio (according to some sources Angelario, Angelieri, Angelliero, or Angeleri), also known as Pietro da Morrone, Peter of Morrone, and Peter Celestine, was pope for five months from 5 July to 13 December 1294, when he resigned.
Portland is the largest city in the U.S. state of Oregon and the seat of Multnomah County.
A poustinia (пустынь) is a small sparsely furnished cabin or room where one goes to pray and fast alone in the presence of God.
Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.
A prayer rope (κομποσκοίνι - komboskini; чётки - chotki (most common term) or вервица - vervitsa (literal translation); misbaḥa; Romanian: metanii / metanier; Serbian: бројаница / brojanica - broyanitsa; броеница - broyenitsa; Coptic: ⲙⲉⲕⲩⲧⲁⲣⲓⲁ - mequetaria/mequtaria) is a loop made up of complex woven knots formed in a cross pattern, usually out of wool or silk.
Prefect (from the Latin praefectus, substantive adjectival form of praeficere: "put in front", i.e., in charge) is a magisterial title of varying definition, but which, basically, refers to the leader of an administrative area.
The ministerial orders of the Catholic Church (for similar but different rules among Eastern Catholics see Eastern Catholic Church) are those of bishop, presbyter (more commonly called priest in English), and deacon.
Primogeniture is the right, by law or custom, of the paternally acknowledged, firstborn son to inherit his parent's entire or main estate, in preference to daughters, elder illegitimate sons, younger sons and collateral relatives; in some cases the estate may instead be the inheritance of the firstborn child or occasionally the firstborn daughter.
Priory of St Wigbert (Priorat Sankt Wigberti) is an ecumenical Benedictine monastery for men, belonging to the Lutheran Church of Thuringia.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The Puritans were English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to "purify" the Church of England from its "Catholic" practices, maintaining that the Church of England was only partially reformed.
The quadrivium (plural: quadrivia) is the four subjects, or arts, taught after teaching the trivium.
Reuben Archer Torrey (28 January 1856 – 26 October 1928) was an American evangelist, pastor, educator, and writer.
A recluse is a person who lives in voluntary seclusion from the public and society.
A refectory (also frater, frater house, fratery) is a dining room, especially in monasteries, boarding schools, and academic institutions.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
Rehburg-Loccum is a town 50 km north west of Hanover in the district of Nienburg in Lower Saxony, Germany.
A religious habit is a distinctive set of religious clothing worn by members of a religious order.
Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.
Saint Robert of Molesme (1028 – 17 April 1111) was an abbot, one of the founders of the Cistercian Order and is honored as a Christian saint.
The former French Catholic Archbishopric of Arles had its episcopal see in the city of Arles, in southern France.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Tours (Latin: Archidioecesis Turonensis; French: Archidiocèse de Tours) is an archdiocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
The Rule of Saint Benedict (Regula Benedicti) is a book of precepts written by Benedict of Nursia (AD 480–550) for monks living communally under the authority of an abbot.
The Rule of St.
The Regula Magistri or Rule of the Master is an anonymous sixth-century collection of monastic precepts.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Sabbathday Lake Shaker Village is a Shaker village near New Gloucester and Poland, Maine, in the United States.
A sacrament is a Christian rite recognized as of particular importance and significance.
The Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation (commonly called Penance, Reconciliation, or Confession) is one of the seven sacraments of the Catholic Church (called sacred mysteries in the Eastern Catholic Churches), in which the faithful obtain absolution for the sins committed against God and neighbour and are reconciled with the community of the Church.
A saint (also historically known as a hallow) is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God.
Saint Brigid of Kildare Monastery is a double monastery of The United Methodist Church located in the American city of Saint Joseph, Minnesota.
Saint Catherine's Monastery (دير القدّيسة كاترين; Μονὴ τῆς Ἁγίας Αἰκατερίνης), officially "Sacred Monastery of the God-Trodden Mount Sinai" (Ιερά Μονή του Θεοβαδίστου Όρους Σινά), lies on the Sinai Peninsula, at the mouth of a gorge at the foot of Mount Sinai, near the town of Saint Catherine, Egypt.
Saint David (Dewi Sant; Davidus; 500 589) was a Welsh bishop of Mynyw (now St Davids) during the 6th century; he was later regarded as a saint.
Kentigern (Cyndeyrn Garthwys; Kentigernus), known as Mungo, was an apostle of the Scottish Kingdom of Strathclyde in the late 6th century, and the founder and patron saint of the city of Glasgow.
Saint Teilo (Teliarus or Teliavus; TeliauWainewright, John. "" in The Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. XIV. Robert Appleton Co. (New York), 1912. Accessed 20 Jul 2013. or Telo; Télo or Théleau; – 9 February), also known by his Cornish name Eliud, was a British Christian monk, bishop, and founder of monasteries and churches from Penalun (Penally) near Tenby in Pembrokeshire, south Wales.
Saint Samson of Dol (also Samsun; born late 5th century) was a Christian religious figure who is counted among the seven founder saints of Brittany with Pol Aurelian, Tugdual or Tudwal, Brieuc, Malo, Patern (Paternus) and Corentin.
The scapular (from Latin scapulae, "shoulders") is a Christian garment suspended from the shoulders.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Scriptorium, literally "a place for writing", is commonly used to refer to a room in medieval European monasteries devoted to the writing, copying and illuminating of manuscripts by monastic scribes.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
The United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing, more commonly known as the Shakers, is a millenarian restorationist Christian sect founded in the 18th century in England.
A Skete (from Coptic ϣⲓ(ϩ)ⲏⲧ via Greek σκήτη) is a monastic community in Eastern Christianity that allows relative isolation for monks, but also allows for communal services and the safety of shared resources and protection.
A skufia (also skufiya, skoufia or skoufos; σκούφια or σκούφος) is an item of clerical clothing worn by Orthodox Christian and Eastern Catholic monastics (in which case it is black) or awarded to clergy as a mark of honor (in which case it is usually red or purple).
Soutra Aisle, (the present structure lies just within the boundary of the Scottish Borders from Midlothian) not far from Fala, is the remains of the House of the Holy Trinity, a church that was part of a complex comprising a hospital and a friary.
Sparkling wine is a wine (usually white) that becomes carbonated, either through fermentation or by addition of carbon dioxide.
St Asaph (Llanelwy) is a city and community on the River Elwy in Denbighshire, Wales.
St Davids Cathedral (Eglwys Gadeiriol Tyddewi) is situated in St Davids in the county of Pembrokeshire, on the most westerly point of Wales.
St Michael's Mount (Karrek Loos yn Koos, meaning "hoar rock in woodland") is a small tidal island in Mount's Bay, Cornwall, England, United Kingdom.
A starets (p; fem. стáрица) is an elder of a Russian Orthodox monastery who functions as venerated adviser and teacher.
In Christianity, the term state is used in various senses by theologians and spiritual writers.
Subiaco is a town and comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome, in Lazio, central Italy, from Tivoli alongside the river Aniene.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
The Swiss Reformed Church (Evangelisch-reformierte Kirchen der Schweiz, "Evangelical Reformed Churches of Switzerland") refers to the Reformed branch of Protestantism in Switzerland started in Zürich by Huldrych Zwingli (1484–1531) and spread within a few years to Basel (Johannes Oecolampadius), Bern (Berchtold Haller and Niklaus Manuel), St. Gallen (Joachim Vadian), to cities in southern Germany and via Alsace (Martin Bucer) to France.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Syriac Christianity (ܡܫܝܚܝܘܬܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܬܐ / mšiḥāiūṯā suryāiṯā) refers to Eastern Christian traditions that employs Syriac language in their liturgical rites.
Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.
Tabenna (Tabennae, Tabennisi) is considered the first cenobitic monastery.
The Taizé Community is an ecumenical Christian monastic community in Taizé, Saône-et-Loire, Burgundy, France.
The Ladder of Divine Ascent, or Ladder of Paradise (Κλίμαξ; Scala or Climax Paradisi), is an important ascetical treatise for monasticism in Eastern Christianity written by John Climacus in ca.
The Thebaid or Thebais (Θηβαΐς, Thēbaïs) was a region of ancient Egypt, which comprised the thirteen southernmost nomes of Upper Egypt, from Abydos to Aswan.
Theodelinda, queen of the Lombards, (570-628 AD) was the daughter of duke Garibald I of Bavaria.
Theodore the Studite (also known as Theodorus Studita, St. Theodore of Stoudios, and St. Theodore of Studium; 759–826) was a Byzantine Greek monk and abbot of the Stoudios Monastery in Constantinople.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
The Therapeutae were a Jewish sect which flourished in Alexandria and other parts of the Diaspora of Hellenistic Judaism in the final years of the Second Temple period.
Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη, Thessaloníki), also familiarly known as Thessalonica, Salonica, or Salonika is the second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, and the capital of Greek Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.
Sir Thomas More (7 February 14786 July 1535), venerated in the Catholic Church as Saint Thomas More, was an English lawyer, social philosopher, author, statesman, and noted Renaissance humanist.
Thomas O'Loughlin (born 1958, Dublin) is Professor of Historical Theology at the University of Nottingham.
Tonsure is the practice of cutting or shaving some or all of the hair on the scalp, as a sign of religious devotion or humility.
Trappist beer is a beer brewed by Trappist breweries.
The Order of Cistercians of the Strict Observance (OCSO: Ordo Cisterciensis Strictioris Observantiae) is a Catholic religious order of cloistered contemplative monastics who follow the Rule of St. Benedict.
The trivium is the lower division of the seven liberal arts and comprises grammar, logic, and rhetoric (input, process, and output).
Saint Tysilio (also known as/confused with Saint Suliac; Tysilius, Suliacus; died 640 AD) was a Welsh bishop, prince and scholar, son of the reigning King of Powys, Brochwel Ysgithrog, maternal nephew of the great Abbot Dunod of Bangor Iscoed and an ecclesiastic who took a prominent part in the affairs of Wales during the distressful period at the opening of the 7th century.
Uelzen (officially the Hanseatic Town of Uelzen, German: Hansestadt Uelzen,, Low German Ülz’n) is a town in northeast Lower Saxony, Germany, and capital of the county of Uelzen.
The United Methodist Church (UMC) is a mainline Protestant denomination and a major part of Methodism.
A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.
A utopia is an imagined community or society that possesses highly desirable or nearly perfect qualities for its citizens.
The Vallumbrosan Order (or Vallombrosians) is a Roman Catholic religious order, technically a Benedictine congregation, which derives its name from the motherhouse, Vallombrosa (Latin Vallis umbrosa, 'shady valley'), situated c. 30 km from Florence on the northwest slope of Monte Secchieta in the Pratomagno chain.
Virginity is the state of a person who has never engaged in sexual intercourse.
The Visigothic Kingdom or Kingdom of the Visigoths (Regnum Gothorum) was a kingdom that occupied what is now southwestern France and the Iberian Peninsula from the 5th to the 8th centuries.
The Vow of Obedience in Catholicism concerns one of the three counsels of perfection.
Whitby is a seaside town, port and civil parish in the Borough of Scarborough and English county of North Yorkshire.
Whithorn (Taigh Mhàrtainn in Gaelic) is a former royal burgh in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, about ten miles south of Wigtown.
Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.
Chrisitan monks, Christian monastic, Christian monastic orders, Christian monastics, Christian monk, Medieval monks, Monastic life, Monasticism in Christianity, Monasticism, Eastern, Monasticism, Western, Western Monasticism, Western monasticism.