270 relations: Acronym, Al-Andalus, Alemanni, Anastasius of Constantinople, Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain, Anglo-Saxons, Anthemius, Anti-paganism policies of the early Byzantine Empire, Apostles, Apostolic Fathers, Aramaic language, Arianism, Arsacid dynasty of Armenia, Asparuh of Bulgaria, Augustine of Canterbury, Aztecs, Balkans, Baltic Sea, Basil I, Battle of Covadonga, Battle of the Frigidus, Bede, Belarus, Benedict of Nursia, Bergen, Bessi, Boris I of Bulgaria, Bulgaria, Bulgarian language, Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Bulgars, Byzantine Empire, Byzantine Greeks, Capitulatio de partibus Saxoniae, Catholic Church, Celtic Christianity, Census, Charlemagne, Chersonesus, Christian cross, Christian mission, Christianisation of Anglo-Saxon England, Christianization of Bulgaria, Christianization of Goa, Christianization of Iberia, Christianization of Iceland, Christianization of Kievan Rus', Christianization of Lithuania, Christianization of Poland, Christianization of Scandinavia, ..., Christianization of the Rus' Khaganate, Church (building), Church of the Tithes, Circumcision, Clovis I, Colonial India, Columba, Conquistador, Constantine the Great, Constantine the Great and Christianity, Constantine VII, Constantinople, Conversio Bagoariorum et Carantanorum, Conversion to Christianity, Council of Jerusalem, Crusades, Cyrillic script, Dalmatia, De Administrando Imperio, Decline of Greco-Roman polytheism, Dionysus, Druid, Dublin, Dubrovnik, Duchy of Bohemia, Early Middle Ages, Eastern Orthodox Church, Ecclesiastical History of the English People, Ecclesiastical province, Edda, Edict of Milan, Edict of Thessalonica, Eparchy of Raška and Prizren, Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Eugenius, European colonization of the Americas, European Russia, Evangelism, Feeding the multitude, Filipinos, First Council of Nicaea, First Swedish Crusade, Fourth Council of Constantinople (Eastern Orthodox), Francia, Franks, Gaul, Géza, Grand Prince of the Hungarians, Gentile, Germanic Christianity, Germanic peoples, Gildas, Glagolitic script, Goa Inquisition, Gospel, Goths, Gratian, Grave goods, Great Commission, Great Famine (Ireland), Great Moravia, Gregorian mission, Gyula II, Hebrew language, Hellenistic Judaism, Heptarchy, Historicity, History of Christian thought on persecution and tolerance, History of Ireland (400–800), Hof (Germanic temple), Iberian Peninsula, Iceland, Ichthys, Illyricum (Roman province), Immaculate Conception, Inca Empire, Inculturation, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Interpretatio Christiana, Iona, Ireland, Irminsul, Islamization, James Edward Quigley, Jesus, Jewish Christian, Judaization, Julian (emperor), Kali, Károly Kerényi, Kievan Rus', King James Version, Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Kent, Kingdom of Northumbria, Konavle, Labarum, Late antiquity, Latin, Leo I the Thracian, Leo III the Isaurian, List of Frankish kings, List of rulers of Lithuania, Lithuania, Livonian Brothers of the Sword, Lombards, Lovön, Marcellinus (magister militum), Marcian, Martin of Tours, Massacre of Verden, Mellitus, Melusine, Middle Ages, Mieszko I of Poland, Military order (monastic society), Minerva, Missionaries in India, Missionary, Mithraism, Mojmir I of Moravia, Monk, Monte Cassino, Moors, Muslim, Mutimir of Serbia, Nicetas of Remesiana, Niketas Ooryphas, Nitra, Norse mythology, Odin, Old Church Slavonic, Original sin, Paganism, Pavle of Serbia, Persecution of Christians, Petar of Serbia, Picts, Pliska, Pomorje, Pontifex maximus, Pope Gregory I, Pope John VIII, Pope Pius X, Pope Sylvester II, Portuguese Empire, Portuguese Inquisition, Pribina, Principality of Nitra, Proselyte, Protestantism, Rastislav of Moravia, Reconquista, Reginhar, Bishop of Passau, Reims, Religion, Remesiana, Roman Empire, Romano-British culture, Romantic nationalism, Rome, Ronald Lee, Runic inscriptions, Sacred, Sacred grove, Sacred language, Saint, Saint Eustace, Saint Patrick, Saint Sarah, Saints Cyril and Methodius, Sami people, Samogitia, Santa Maria sopra Minerva, Saracen, Sarolt, Saxon Wars, Saxons, Scramble for Africa, Serbs, Siege of Lisbon, Simeon I of Bulgaria, Sirmium, Slavs, Slovakia, Southern Europe, Spanish Empire, Spanish Inquisition, Stari Ras, State religion, Stefan Mutimirović, Stephen I of Hungary, Stilicho, Stockholm, Sulpicius Severus, Syncretism, Taiping Rebellion, Tengrism, Teutonic Order, The Conquest of Granada, Theodosius I, Thor, Thracians, Travunija, Trinity, Ukraine, Umayyad conquest of Hispania, University of California Press, University of Pennsylvania Press, Valkyrie, Veliki Preslav, Viking expansion, Vladimir of Bulgaria, Vladimir the Great, Vytautas, Wales, Władysław II Jagiełło, West Slavs, Wiching, William Henry O'Connell, Zachlumia. Expand index (220 more) » « Shrink index
An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux).
Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
The Alemanni (also Alamanni; Suebi "Swabians") were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the Upper Rhine River.
Anastasios (Greek: Αναστάσιος), (? – January 754) was the patriarch of Constantinople from 730 to 754.
The Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain describes the process which changed the language and culture of most of what became England from Romano-British to Germanic.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
Anthemius (Latin: Procopius Anthemius Augustus) (c. 420 – 11 July 472) was Western Roman Emperor from 467 to 472.
The anti-paganism policies of the early Byzantine Empire ranged from 395 till 476.
In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity.
The Apostolic Fathers were Christian theologians who lived in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD, who are believed to have personally known some of the Twelve Apostles, or to have been significantly influenced by them.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
Arianism is a nontrinitarian Christological doctrine which asserts the belief that Jesus Christ is the Son of God who was begotten by God the Father at a point in time, a creature distinct from the Father and is therefore subordinate to him, but the Son is also God (i.e. God the Son).
The Arsacid dynasty, known natively as the Arshakuni dynasty (Արշակունի Aršakuni), ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from 54 to 428.
Asparukh (also Ispor; Asparuh or (rarely) Isperih) was а ruler of Bulgars in the second half of the 7th century and is credited with the establishment of the First Bulgarian Empire in 680/681.
Augustine of Canterbury (born first third of the 6th century – died probably 26 May 604) was a Benedictine monk who became the first Archbishop of Canterbury in the year 597.
The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
Basil I, called the Macedonian (Βασίλειος ὁ Μακεδών, Basíleios ō Makedṓn; 811 – August 29, 886) was a Byzantine Emperor who reigned from 867 to 886.
The Battle of Covadonga was the first victory by Christian military forces in Iberia since the Islamic conquest of Hispania in 711–718.
The Battle of the Frigidus, also called the Battle of the Frigid River, was fought between 5–6 September 394, between the army of the Eastern Emperor Theodosius I and the army of Western Roman ruler Eugenius.
Bede (italic; 672/3 – 26 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, Venerable Bede, and Bede the Venerable (Bēda Venerābilis), was an English Benedictine monk at the monastery of St.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Benedict of Nursia (Benedictus Nursiae; Benedetto da Norcia; Vulgar Latin: *Benedecto; Benedikt; 2 March 480 – 543 or 547 AD) is a Christian saint, who is venerated in the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Churches, the Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Anglican Communion and Old Catholic Churches.
Bergen, historically Bjørgvin, is a city and municipality in Hordaland on the west coast of Norway.
The Bessi (Βῆσσοι or Βέσσοι) were an independent Thracian tribe who lived in a territory ranging from Moesia to Mount Rhodope in southern Thrace, but are often mentioned as dwelling about Haemus, the mountain range that separates Moesia from Thrace and from Mount Rhodope to the northern part of Hebrus.
Boris I, also known as Boris-Mikhail (Michael) and Bogoris (Борис I / Борис-Михаил; died 2 May 907), was the ruler of the First Bulgarian Empire in 852–889.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
The Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Българска православна църква, Balgarska pravoslavna tsarkva) is an autocephalous Orthodox Church.
The Bulgars (also Bulghars, Bulgari, Bolgars, Bolghars, Bolgari, Proto-Bulgarians) were Turkic semi-nomadic warrior tribes that flourished in the Pontic-Caspian steppe and the Volga region during the 7th century.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Byzantine Greeks (or Byzantines) were the Greek or Hellenized people of the Byzantine Empire (or Eastern Roman Empire) during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages who spoke medieval Greek and were Orthodox Christians.
Capitulatio de partibus Saxoniae (Latin, variously translated as 'Ordinances concerning Saxony' or the 'Saxon Capitularies')For example, Pierre Riché (1993:105) renders the Latin as 'Ordinances concerning Saxony', whereas Ingrid Rembold translates the phrase as 'Saxon Capitularies' (Rembold 2018: 25) was a legal code issued by Charlemagne and promulgated amongst the Saxons during the Saxon Wars.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Celtic Christianity or Insular Christianity refers broadly to certain features of Christianity that were common, or held to be common, across the Celtic-speaking world during the Early Middle Ages.
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population.
Charlemagne or Charles the Great (Karl der Große, Carlo Magno; 2 April 742 – 28 January 814), numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, and Holy Roman Emperor from 800.
Chersonesus (Khersónēsos; Chersonesus; modern Russian and Ukrainian: Херсонес, Khersones; also rendered as Chersonese, Chersonesos), in medieval Greek contracted to Cherson (Χερσών; Old East Slavic: Корсунь, Korsun) is an ancient Greek colony founded approximately 2,500 years ago in the southwestern part of the Crimean Peninsula.
The Christian cross, seen as a representation of the instrument of the crucifixion of Jesus, is the best-known symbol of Christianity.
A Christian mission is an organized effort to spread Christianity.
The Christianisation of Anglo-Saxon England was a process spanning the 7th century.
The Christianization of Bulgaria was the process by which 9th-century medieval Bulgaria converted to Christianity.
The indigenous population of the erstwhile Portuguese colony of Goa underwent a large-scale conversion from Hinduism to Christianity after its conquest and occupation by the Portuguese Empire, led by admiral Afonso de Albuquerque in 1510.
The Christianization of Iberia (ქართლის გაქრისტიანება kartlis gakrist'ianeba) refers to the spread of Christianity in an early 4th century by the sermon of Saint Nino in an ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli, known as Iberia in Classical antiquity, which resulted in declaring it as a state religion by then-pagan King Mirian III of Iberia.
Iceland was Christianized in the year 1000 AD, when Christianity became the religion by law.
The Christianization of Kievan Rus' took place in several stages.
The Christianization of Lithuania (Lietuvos krikštas) occurred in 1387, initiated by King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania Władysław II Jagiełło and his cousin Vytautas the Great.
The Christianization of Poland (Polish: chrystianizacja Polski) refers to the introduction and subsequent spread of Christianity in Poland.
The Christianization of Scandinavia as well as other Nordic countries and the Baltic countries, took place between the 8th and the 12th centuries.
The Christianization of the Rus' people is supposed to have begun in the 860s and was the first stage in the process of Christianization of the East Slavs which continued well into the 11th century.
A church building or church house, often simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities, particularly for worship services.
The Church of the Tithes or Church of the Dormition of the Virgin (Десятинна Церква., Desiatynna Tserkva; Десятинная Церковь, Desyatinnaya Tserkov') was the first stone church in Kiev.
Male circumcision is the removal of the foreskin from the human penis.
Clovis (Chlodovechus; reconstructed Frankish: *Hlōdowig; 466 – 27 November 511) was the first king of the Franks to unite all of the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the form of leadership from a group of royal chieftains to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs.
Colonial India was the part of the Indian subcontinent which was under the jurisdiction of European colonial powers, during the Age of Discovery.
Saint Columba (Colm Cille, 'church dove'; Columbkille; 7 December 521 – 9 June 597) was an Irish abbot and missionary credited with spreading Christianity in what is today Scotland at the start of the Hiberno-Scottish mission.
Conquistadors (from Spanish or Portuguese conquistadores "conquerors") is a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire or the Portuguese Empire in a general sense.
Constantine the Great (Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus; Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February 272 ADBirth dates vary but most modern historians use 272". Lenski, "Reign of Constantine" (CC), 59. – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD.
During the reign of the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great (AD 306–337), Christianity began to transition to the dominant religion of the Roman Empire.
Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos or Porphyrogenitus ("the Purple-born", that is, born in the purple marble slab-paneled imperial bed chambers; translit; 17–18 May 905 – 9 November 959) was the fourth Emperor of the Macedonian dynasty of the Byzantine Empire, reigning from 913 to 959.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
The Conversio Bagoariorum et Carantanorum ("The Conversion of the Bavarians and the Carantanians") is a Latin history written in Salzburg in the 870s.
Conversion to Christianity is a process of religious conversion in which a previously non-Christian person converts to Christianity.
The Council of Jerusalem or Apostolic Council was held in Jerusalem around AD 50.
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
Dalmatia (Dalmacija; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia and Istria.
De Administrando Imperio ("On the Governance of the Empire") is the Latin title of a Greek work written by the 10th-century Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine VII.
Religion in the Greco-Roman world at the time of the Constantinian shift mostly comprised three main currents.
Dionysus (Διόνυσος Dionysos) is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility, theatre and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth.
A druid (derwydd; druí; draoidh) was a member of the high-ranking professional class in ancient Celtic cultures.
Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.
Dubrovnik (historically Ragusa) is a Croatian city on the Adriatic Sea.
The Duchy of Bohemia, also referred to as the Czech Duchy, (České knížectví) was a monarchy and a principality in Central Europe during the Early and High Middle Ages.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
The Ecclesiastical History of the English People (Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum), written by the Venerable Bede in about AD 731, is a history of the Christian Churches in England, and of England generally; its main focus is on the conflict between the pre-Schism Roman Rite and Celtic Christianity.
An ecclesiastical province is one of the basic forms of jurisdiction in Christian Churches with traditional hierarchical structure, including Western Christianity and Eastern Christianity.
"Edda" (Old Norse Edda, plural Eddur) is an Old Norse term that has been attributed by modern scholars to the collective of two Medieval Icelandic literary works: what is now known as the Prose Edda and an older collection of poems without an original title now known as the Poetic Edda.
The Edict of Milan (Edictum Mediolanense) was the February 313 AD agreement to treat Christians benevolently within the Roman Empire.
The Edict of Thessalonica (also known as Cunctos populos), issued on 27 February AD 380 by three reigning Roman Emperors, made Nicene Christianity the state religion of the Roman Empire.
Eparchy of Raška and Prizren or Serbian Orthodox Eparchy of Raška-Prizren and Kosovo-Metohija (Епархија рашко-призренска и косовско-метохијска, Eparhija raško-prizrenska i kosovsko-metohijska, Eparkia Rashkë - Prizren) is one of the oldest eparchies of the Serbian Orthodox Church, featuring the seat of the Serbian Orthodox Church, the Serbian Patriarchal Monastery of Peć, as well as Serbian Orthodox Monastery of Visoki Dečani, which together are part of the UNESCO World Heritage sites of Serbia.
The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (የኢትዮጵያ:ኦርቶዶክስ:ተዋሕዶ:ቤተ:ክርስቲያን; Yäityop'ya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is the largest of the Oriental Orthodox Christian Churches.
Flavius Eugenius (died 6 September 394) was a usurper in the Western Roman Empire (392–394) against Emperor Theodosius I. Though himself a Christian, he was the last Emperor to support Roman polytheism.
The European colonization of the Americas describes the history of the settlement and establishment of control of the continents of the Americas by most of the naval powers of Europe.
European Russia is the western part of Russia that is a part of Eastern Europe.
In Christianity, Evangelism is the commitment to or act of publicly preaching of the Gospel with the intention of spreading the message and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Feeding the multitude is a term used to refer to two separate miracles of Jesus reported in the Gospels.
Filipinos (Mga Pilipino) are the people who are native to, or identified with the country of the Philippines.
The First Council of Nicaea (Νίκαια) was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea (now İznik, Bursa province, Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325.
The First Swedish Crusade was a mythical military expedition in 1150s to Southwest Finland by Swedish King Eric IX and English Bishop Henry of Uppsala.
The Fourth Council of Constantinople was held in 879–880.
Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
Géza (940 – 997), also Gejza, was Grand Prince of the Hungarians from the early 970s.
Gentile (from Latin gentilis, by the French gentil, feminine: gentille, meaning of or belonging to a clan or a tribe) is an ethnonym that commonly means non-Jew.
The Germanic peoples underwent gradual Christianization in the course of late antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Gildas (Breton: Gweltaz; c. 500 – c. 570) — also known as Gildas the Wise or Gildas Sapiens — was a 6th-century British monk best known for his scathing religious polemic De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, which recounts the history of the Britons before and during the coming of the Saxons.
The Glagolitic script (Ⰳⰾⰰⰳⱁⰾⰹⱌⰰ Glagolitsa) is the oldest known Slavic alphabet.
The Goa Inquisition was a colonial era Portuguese institution established by the Roman Catholic Holy Office between the 16th- and 19th-century to stop and punish heresy against Christianity in South Asia.
Gospel is the Old English translation of Greek εὐαγγέλιον, evangelion, meaning "good news".
The Goths (Gut-þiuda; Gothi) were an East Germanic people, two of whose branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire through the long series of Gothic Wars and in the emergence of Medieval Europe.
Gratian (Flavius Gratianus Augustus; Γρατιανός; 18 April/23 May 359 – 25 August 383) was Roman emperor from 367 to 383.
Grave goods, in archaeology and anthropology, are the items buried along with the body.
In Christianity, the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples to spread his teachings to all the nations of the world.
The Great Famine (an Gorta Mór) or the Great Hunger was a period of mass starvation, disease, and emigration in Ireland between 1845 and 1849.
Great Moravia (Regnum Marahensium; Μεγάλη Μοραβία, Megálī Moravía; Velká Morava; Veľká Morava; Wielkie Morawy), the Great Moravian Empire, or simply Moravia, was the first major state that was predominantly West Slavic to emerge in the area of Central Europe, chiefly on what is now the territory of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland (including Silesia), and Hungary.
The Gregorian missionJones "Gregorian Mission" Speculum p. 335 or Augustinian missionMcGowan "Introduction to the Corpus" Companion to Anglo-Saxon Literature p. 17 was a Christian mission sent by Pope Gregory the Great in 596 to convert Britain's Anglo-Saxons.
Gyula II was a Hungarian tribal leader in the middle of the 10th century.
Hellenistic Judaism was a form of Judaism in the ancient world that combined Jewish religious tradition with elements of Greek culture.
The Heptarchy is a collective name applied to the seven petty kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England from the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain in 5th century until their unification into the Kingdom of England in the early 10th century.
Historicity is the historical actuality of persons and events, meaning the quality of being part of history as opposed to being a historical myth, legend, or fiction.
This article gives a historical overview of Christian positions on Persecution of Christians, persecutions by Christians, religious persecution and toleration.
The early medieval history of Ireland, often called Early Christian Ireland, spans the 5th to 8th centuries, from the gradual emergence out of the protohistoric period (Ogham inscriptions in Primitive Irish, mentions in Greco-Roman ethnography) to the beginning of the Viking Age.
A heathen hof or Germanic pagan temple was a temple building of Germanic religion; a few have also been built for use in modern heathenry.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
The ichthys or ichthus, from the Greek ikhthýs (ἰχθύς 1st cent. AD Koine Greek, "fish") is a symbol consisting of two intersecting arcs, the ends of the right side extending beyond the meeting point so as to resemble the profile of a fish.
Illyricum was a Roman province that existed from 27 BC to sometime during the reign of Vespasian (69–79 AD).
The Immaculate Conception is the conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary free from original sin by virtue of the merits of her son Jesus Christ.
The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, "The Four Regions"), also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America, and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century.
In Christianity, inculturation is the adaptation of the way Church teachings are presented to non-Christian cultures and, in turn, the influence of those cultures on the evolution of these teachings.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Interpretatio christiana (Latin for Christian interpretation, also Christian reinterpretation) is adaptation of non-Christian elements of culture or historical facts to the worldview of Christianity.
Iona (Ì Chaluim Chille) is a small island in the Inner Hebrides off the Ross of Mull on the western coast of Scotland.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
An Irminsul (Old Saxon, probably "great/mighty pillar" or "arising pillar") was a sacral pillar-like object attested as playing an important role in the Germanic paganism of the Saxon people.
Islamization (also spelled Islamisation, see spelling differences; أسلمة), Islamicization or Islamification is the process of a society's shift towards Islam, such as found in Sudan, Pakistan, Iran, Malaysia, or Algeria.
James Edward Quigley (October 15, 1854 – July 10, 1915) was a Canadian-born prelate of the Roman Catholic Church.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Jewish Christians, also Hebrew Christians or Judeo-Christians, are the original members of the Jewish movement that later became Christianity.
Judaization (לְגַיֵּיר, translit. legayer) or Judaification is a process of cultural assimilation in which a person or a demographic group acquires Jewish cultural and religious beliefs and values.
Julian (Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus; Φλάβιος Κλαύδιος Ἰουλιανὸς Αὔγουστος; 331/332 – 26 June 363), also known as Julian the Apostate, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363, as well as a notable philosopher and author in Greek.
(काली), also known as (कालिका), is a Hindu goddess.
Károly (Carl, Karl) Kerényi (Kerényi Károly,; 19 January 1897 – 14 April 1973) was a Hungarian scholar in classical philology and one of the founders of modern studies of Greek mythology.
Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.
The King James Version (KJV), also known as the King James Bible (KJB) or simply the Version (AV), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the twentieth century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920).
The Kingdom of the Kentish (Cantaware Rīce; Regnum Cantuariorum), today referred to as the Kingdom of Kent, was an early medieval kingdom in what is now South East England.
The Kingdom of Northumbria (Norþanhymbra rīce) was a medieval Anglian kingdom in what is now northern England and south-east Scotland.
Konavle is a small region and municipality located southeast of Dubrovnik, Croatia.
The labarum (λάβαρον) was a vexillum (military standard) that displayed the "Chi-Rho" symbol ☧, a christogram formed from the first two Greek letters of the word "Christ" (ΧΡΙΣΤΟΣ, or Χριστός) — Chi (χ) and Rho (ρ).
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Leo I (Flavius Valerius Leo Augustus; 401 – 18 January 474) was an Eastern Roman Emperor from 457 to 474.
Leo III the Isaurian, also known as the Syrian (Leōn III ho Isauros; 675 – 18 June 741), was Byzantine Emperor from 717 until his death in 741.
The Franks were originally led by dukes (military leaders) and reguli (petty kings).
The following is a list of rulers over Lithuania—grand dukes, kings, and presidents—the heads of authority over historical Lithuanian territory.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Fratres militiæ Christi Livoniae, Schwertbrüderorden, Ordre des Chevaliers Porte-Glaive) was a Catholic military order established by Albert, the third bishop of Riga (or possibly by Theoderich von Treyden), in 1202.
The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi, Longobardi, Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.
Lovön is an island located in the Swedish Lake Mälaren in Ekerö Municipality of Stockholm County.
Marcellinus (died August 468) was a Roman general and patrician who ruled over the region of Dalmatia in the Western Roman Empire and held sway with the army there from 454 until his death.
Marcian (Flavius Marcianus Augustus; Μαρκιανός; 392 – 26 January 457) was the Eastern Roman Emperor from 450 to 457.
Saint Martin of Tours (Sanctus Martinus Turonensis; 316 or 336 – 8 November 397) was Bishop of Tours, whose shrine in France became a famous stopping-point for pilgrims on the road to Santiago de Compostela in Spain.
The Massacre of Verden was an event during the Saxon Wars where the Frankish king Charlemagne ordered the death of 4,500 Saxons in October 782.
Mellitus (died 24 April 624) was the first Bishop of London in the Saxon period, the third Archbishop of Canterbury, and a member of the Gregorian mission sent to England to convert the Anglo-Saxons from their native paganism to Christianity.
Melusine or Melusina is a figure of European folklore and mythology (mostly Celtic), a female spirit of fresh water in a sacred spring or river.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Mieszko I (– 25 May 992) was the ruler of the Polans from about 960 until his death.
A military order (Militaris ordinis) is a chivalric order with military elements.
Minerva (Etruscan: Menrva) was the Roman goddess of wisdom and strategic warfare, although it is noted that the Romans did not stress her relation to battle and warfare as the Greeks would come to, and the sponsor of arts, trade, and strategy.
Missionaries in India is a 1996 nonfiction book by Arun Shourie.
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize and/or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.
Mithraism, also known as the Mithraic mysteries, was a mystery religion centered around the god Mithras that was practised in the Roman Empire from about the 1st to the 4th century CE.
Mojmir I, Moimir I or Moymir I (Latin: Moimarus, Moymarus, Czech and Slovak: Mojmír I.) was the first known ruler of the Moravian Slavs (820s/830s–846) and eponym of the House of Mojmir.
A monk (from μοναχός, monachos, "single, solitary" via Latin monachus) is a person who practices religious asceticism by monastic living, either alone or with any number of other monks.
Monte Cassino (sometimes written Montecassino) is a rocky hill about southeast of Rome, in the Latin Valley, Italy, to the west of the town of Cassino and altitude.
The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta during the Middle Ages.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Mutimir of Serbia (Мутимир, Μουντιμῆρος) was Prince of the Serbs from ca.
Saint Nicetas (ca. 335–414) was Bishop of Remesiana, present-day Bela Palanka in the Pirot District of modern Serbia, which was then in the Roman province of Dacia Mediterranea.
Niketas Oryphas or Oöryphas (Νικήτας ὁ Ὀρύφας or Ὠορυφᾶς, fl. 860–873).
Nitra (also known by other alternative names) is a city in western Slovakia, situated at the foot of Zobor Mountain in the valley of the river Nitra.
Norse mythology is the body of myths of the North Germanic people stemming from Norse paganism and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia and into the Scandinavian folklore of the modern period.
In Germanic mythology, Odin (from Óðinn /ˈoːðinː/) is a widely revered god.
Old Church Slavonic, also known as Old Church Slavic (or Ancient/Old Slavonic often abbreviated to OCS; (autonym словѣ́ньскъ ѩꙁꙑ́къ, slověnĭskŭ językŭ), not to be confused with the Proto-Slavic, was the first Slavic literary language. The 9th-century Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius are credited with standardizing the language and using it in translating the Bible and other Ancient Greek ecclesiastical texts as part of the Christianization of the Slavs. It is thought to have been based primarily on the dialect of the 9th century Byzantine Slavs living in the Province of Thessalonica (now in Greece). It played an important role in the history of the Slavic languages and served as a basis and model for later Church Slavonic traditions, and some Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches use this later Church Slavonic as a liturgical language to this day. As the oldest attested Slavic language, OCS provides important evidence for the features of Proto-Slavic, the reconstructed common ancestor of all Slavic languages.
Original sin, also called "ancestral sin", is a Christian belief of the state of sin in which humanity exists since the fall of man, stemming from Adam and Eve's rebellion in Eden, namely the sin of disobedience in consuming the forbidden fruit from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
Pavle (Павле, Παῦλος; 870–921) was the Prince of the Serbs from 917 to 921.
The persecution of Christians can be historically traced from the first century of the Christian era to the present day.
Petar Gojniković or Peter of Serbia (Петар Гојниковић, Πέτρος; ca. 870 – 917) was Prince of the Serbs from 892 to 917.
The Picts were a tribal confederation of peoples who lived in what is today eastern and northern Scotland during the Late Iron Age and Early Medieval periods.
Pliska (Пльсковъ, romanized: Plĭskovŭ) is the name of both the first capital of the First Bulgarian Empire and a small town situated 20 km Northeast of the provincial capital Shumen.
Serbian Pomorje (Српско Поморје,Srpsko Pomorje) or Serbian Primorje (Српско Приморје,Srpsko Primorje) is a term (literary meaning: maritime, littoral or coastland) used in historical contexts to designate one of the two main geographical regions of Medieval Serbia.
The Pontifex Maximus or pontifex maximus (Latin, "greatest priest") was the chief high priest of the College of Pontiffs (Collegium Pontificum) in ancient Rome.
Pope Saint Gregory I (Gregorius I; – 12 March 604), commonly known as Saint Gregory the Great, Gregory had come to be known as 'the Great' by the late ninth century, a title which is still applied to him.
Pope John VIII (Ioannes VIII; died 16 December 882) was Pope from 14 December 872 to his death in 882.
Pope Saint Pius X (Pio), born Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto, (2 June 1835 – 20 August 1914) was head of the Catholic Church from August 1903 to his death in 1914.
Pope Sylvester II or Silvester II (– 12 May 1003) was Pope from 2 April 999 to his death in 1003.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
The Portuguese Inquisition (Portuguese: Inquisição Portuguesa) was formally established in Portugal in 1536 at the request of its king, John III.
Pribina (c. 800861) was a Slavic prince whose adventurous career, recorded in the Conversion of the Bavarians and the Carantanians (a historical work written in 870), illustrates the political volatility of the Franco–Slavic frontiers of his time.
The Principality of Nitra (Nitrianske kniežatstvo, Nitriansko), also known as the Duchy of Nitra, was a West Slavic polity encompassing a group of settlements that developed in the 9th century around Nitra in present-day Slovakia.
The biblical term "proselyte" is an anglicization of the Koine Greek term προσήλυτος (proselytos), as used in the Septuagint (Greek Old Testament) for "stranger", i.e. a "newcomer to Israel"; a "sojourner in the land", and in the Greek New Testament for a first century convert to Judaism, generally from Ancient Greek religion.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Rastislav or Rostislav, also known as St.
The Reconquista (Spanish and Portuguese for the "reconquest") is a name used to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492.
Bistumswappen of Passau.Reginhar (also Reginar, † 838) was the 9th Bishop of Passau.
Reims (also spelled Rheims), a city in the Grand Est region of France, lies east-northeast of Paris.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
Remesiana was an ancient Roman city and former bishopric, which remains a Latin Catholic titular see, located around and under the modern city of Bela Palanka, okrug (district) of Pirot, in Serbia.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Romano-British culture is the culture that arose in Britain under the Roman Empire following the Roman conquest in AD 43 and the creation of the province of Britannia.
Romantic nationalism (also national romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of the unity of those it governs.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Ronald Lee (born 1934) is a Romani Canadian writer, linguist and activist.
A runic inscription is an inscription made in one of the various runic alphabets.
Sacred means revered due to sanctity and is generally the state of being perceived by religious individuals as associated with divinity and considered worthy of spiritual respect or devotion; or inspiring awe or reverence among believers.
A sacred grove or sacred woods are any grove of trees that are of special religious importance to a particular culture.
A sacred language, "holy language" (in religious context) or liturgical language is any language that is cultivated and used primarily in religious service or for other religious reasons by people who speak another, primary language in their daily life.
A saint (also historically known as a hallow) is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God.
Saint Eustace, also known as Eustachius or Eustathius in Latin, is revered as a Christian martyr and soldier saint.
Saint Patrick (Patricius; Pádraig; Padrig) was a fifth-century Romano-British Christian missionary and bishop in Ireland.
Saint Sarah, also known as Sara-la-Kali ("Sara the Black", Sara e Kali), is the patron saint of the Romani people.
Saints Cyril and Methodius (826–869, 815–885; Κύριλλος καὶ Μεθόδιος; Old Church Slavonic) were two brothers who were Byzantine Christian theologians and Christian missionaries.
The Sami people (also known as the Sámi or the Saami) are a Finno-Ugric people inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses large parts of Norway and Sweden, northern parts of Finland, and the Murmansk Oblast of Russia.
Samogitia or Žemaitija (Samogitian: Žemaitėjė; Žemaitija; see below for alternate and historical names) is one of the five ethnographic regions of Lithuania. Žemaitija is located in northwestern Lithuania. Its largest city is Šiauliai. Žemaitija has a long and distinct cultural history, reflected in the existence of the Samogitian dialect.
Santa Maria sopra Minerva (Saint Mary above Minerva, Sancta Maria supra Minervam) is one of the major churches of the Roman Catholic Order of Preachers (better known as the Dominicans) in Rome, Italy.
Saracen was a term widely used among Christian writers in Europe during the Middle Ages.
Sarolt (c. 950 – c. 1008) was wife of Géza, Grand Prince of the Hungarians.
The Saxon Wars, also called the Saxon War or Saxon Uprising (not to be confused with the Saxon Rebellion of 1073-75), were the campaigns and insurrections of the more than thirty years from 772, when Charlemagne first entered Saxony with the intent to conquer, to 804, when the last rebellion of disaffected tribesmen was crushed.
The Saxons (Saxones, Sachsen, Seaxe, Sahson, Sassen, Saksen) were a Germanic people whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, Saxonia) near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany.
The Scramble for Africa was the occupation, division, and colonization of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914.
The Serbs (Срби / Srbi) are a South Slavic ethnic group that formed in the Balkans.
The Siege of Lisbon, from 1 July to 25 October, 1147, was the military action that brought the city of Lisbon under definitive Portuguese control and expelled its Moorish overlords.
Simeon (also Symeon) I the Great (Симеон I Велики, transliterated Simeon I Veliki) ruled over Bulgaria from 893 to 927,Lalkov, Rulers of Bulgaria, pp.
Sirmium was a city in the Roman province of Pannonia.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
Southern Europe is the southern region of the European continent.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition (Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición), commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition (Inquisición española), was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile.
Ras (Arsa), known in modern Serbian historiography as Stari Ras (meaning Old Ras), is a medieval fortress located in the vicinity of former market-place of Staro Trgovište, some 11 km west of modern day city of Novi Pazar in Serbia.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
Stefan Mutimirović (Стефан Мутимировић, Στέφανος) was a 9th-century Serbian royal member of the ruling dynasty, the Vlastimirović.
Stephen I, also known as King Saint Stephen (Szent István király; Sanctus Stephanus; Štefan I. or Štefan Veľký; 975 – 15 August 1038 AD), was the last Grand Prince of the Hungarians between 997 and 1000 or 1001, and the first King of Hungary from 1000 or 1001 until his death in 1038.
Flavius Stilicho (occasionally written as Stilico; c. 359 – 22 August 408) was a high-ranking general (magister militum) in the Roman army who became, for a time, the most powerful man in the Western Roman Empire.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
Sulpicius Severus (c. 363 – c. 425) was a Christian writer and native of Aquitania in modern-day France.
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
The Taiping Rebellion, also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion or total civil war in China that was waged from 1850 to 1864 between the established Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom under Hong Xiuquan.
Tengrism, also known as Tengriism or Tengrianism, is a Central Asian religion characterized by shamanism, animism, totemism, poly- and monotheismMichael Fergus, Janar Jandosova,, Stacey International, 2003, p.91.
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.
The Conquest of Granada is a Restoration era stage play, a two-part tragedy written by John Dryden that was first acted in 1670 and 1671 and published in 1672.
Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Αʹ; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from AD 379 to AD 395, as the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the empire. His resources were not equal to destroy them, and by the treaty which followed his modified victory at the end of the Gothic War, they were established as Foederati, autonomous allies of the Empire, south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders. He was obliged to fight two destructive civil wars, successively defeating the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius, not without material cost to the power of the empire. He also issued decrees that effectively made Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire."Edict of Thessalonica": See Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2 He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. After his death, Theodosius' young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the east and west halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united, though Eastern Roman emperors after Zeno would claim the united title after Julius Nepos' death in 480 AD.
In Norse mythology, Thor (from Þórr) is the hammer-wielding god of thunder, lightning, storms, oak trees, strength, the protection of mankind, in addition to hallowing, and fertility.
The Thracians (Θρᾷκες Thrāikes; Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.
Travunija or Travunia (Травунија / Travunija; Τερβουνία, Terbounía, modern pronunciation Tervounía), was a medieval principality that was part of Medieval Serbia (850–1371), and later the Bosnian Kingdom (1373–1482).
The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (from Greek τριάς and τριάδα, from "threefold") holds that God is one but three coeternal consubstantial persons or hypostases—the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit—as "one God in three Divine Persons".
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The Umayyad conquest of Hispania was the initial expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate over Hispania, largely extending from 711 to 788.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Pennsylvania Press (or Penn Press) is a university press affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
In Norse mythology, a valkyrie (from Old Norse valkyrja "chooser of the slain") is one of a host of female figures who choose those who may die in battle and those who may live.
The modern Veliki Preslav or Great Preslav (Велики Преслав), former Preslav (until 1993), is a city and the seat of government of the Veliki Preslav Municipality (Great Preslav Municipality, new Bulgarian: obshtina), which in turn is part of Shumen Province.
Viking expansion is the process by which the Vikings sailed most of the North Atlantic, reaching south to North Africa and east to Russia, Constantinople and the Middle East as looters, traders, colonists and mercenaries.
Vladimir-Rasate was the ruler of the First Bulgarian Empire from 889 to 893.
Vladimir the Great (also (Saint) Vladimir of Kiev; Володимѣръ Свѧтославичь, Volodiměrъ Svętoslavičь, Old Norse Valdamarr gamli; c. 958 – 15 July 1015, Berestove) was a prince of Novgorod, grand prince of Kiev, and ruler of Kievan Rus' from 980 to 1015.
Vytautas (c. 1350 – October 27, 1430), also known as Vytautas the Great (Lithuanian:, Вітаўт Кейстутавіч (Vitaŭt Kiejstutavič), Witold Kiejstutowicz, Rusyn: Vitovt, Latin: Alexander Vitoldus) from the 15th century onwards, was a ruler of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which chiefly encompassed the Lithuanians and Ruthenians.
Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.
Jogaila (later Władysław II JagiełłoHe is known under a number of names: Jogaila Algirdaitis; Władysław II Jagiełło; Jahajła (Ягайла). See also: Names and titles of Władysław II Jagiełło. (c. 1352/1362 – 1 June 1434) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania (1377–1434) and then the King of Poland (1386–1434), first alongside his wife Jadwiga until 1399, and then sole King of Poland. He ruled in Lithuania from 1377. Born a pagan, in 1386 he converted to Catholicism and was baptized as Władysław in Kraków, married the young Queen Jadwiga, and was crowned King of Poland as Władysław II Jagiełło. In 1387 he converted Lithuania to Christianity. His own reign in Poland started in 1399, upon the death of Queen Jadwiga, and lasted a further thirty-five years and laid the foundation for the centuries-long Polish–Lithuanian union. He was a member of the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland that bears his name and was previously also known as the Gediminid dynasty in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The dynasty ruled both states until 1572,Anna Jagiellon, the last member of royal Jagiellon family, died in 1596. and became one of the most influential dynasties in late medieval and early modern Central and Eastern Europe. During his reign, the Polish-Lithuanian state was the largest state in the Christian world. Jogaila was the last pagan ruler of medieval Lithuania. After he became King of Poland, as a result of the Union of Krewo, the newly formed Polish-Lithuanian union confronted the growing power of the Teutonic Knights. The allied victory at the Battle of Grunwald in 1410, followed by the Peace of Thorn, secured the Polish and Lithuanian borders and marked the emergence of the Polish–Lithuanian alliance as a significant force in Europe. The reign of Władysław II Jagiełło extended Polish frontiers and is often considered the beginning of Poland's Golden Age.
The West Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the West Slavic languages.
Wiching or Viching was the first bishop of Nitra, in present-day Slovakia.
William Henry O'Connell (December 8, 1859 – April 22, 1944) was an American cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church.
Zachlumia or Zachumlia (Zahumlje / Захумље), also Hum, was a medieval principality located in the modern-day regions of Herzegovina and southern Dalmatia (today parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia, respectively).
Christianisation, Christianise, Christianised, Christianises, Christianising, Christianization of Europe, Christianization of Rome, Christianization of ancient Rome, Christianization of the Roman Empire, Christianization of the Roman empire, Christianize, Christianized, Christianizes, Christianizing, Converted to Christianity.