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Christmas Eve

Index Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus. [1]

180 relations: Advent wreath, Afterfeast, Albert, Prince Consort, Alcoholic drink, Aleksander Brückner, All-night vigil, Angel, Anglicanism, Apollo 8, Apostles, Armenian Apostolic Church, Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem, Astronaut, Atheism, Baptism of the Lord, BBC World Service, Biblical Magi, Bob chorba, Book of Genesis, Borscht, British Army, British royal family, Byzantine Rite, Cabbage, Canon (hymnography), Carl Larsson, Catholic Church, Central Germany (cultural area), Chinese restaurant, Choir, Christ Child, Christendom, Christian denomination, Christian liturgy, Christian prayer, Christianity, Christkind, Christmas, Christmas and holiday season, Christmas carol, Christmas gift-bringer, Christmas lights, Christmas traditions, Christmas truce, Christmastide, Church bell, Church of Scotland, Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Church of the Nativity, Church service, ..., Communion table, Compline, Coulter (agriculture), Croatian language, Crucifixion of Jesus, Czech language, Dismissal (liturgy), Divine Liturgy, Earthrise, Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodox theology, Epiphany (holiday), Epistle, Establishment Clause, Eucharist, Fasting, Father Christmas, Feast of the Seven Fishes, Fish, Frank Borman, Genesis creation narrative, German Army (German Empire), German Empire, Good Friday, Gospel, Great feasts in the Eastern Orthodox Church, Hay, Hogmanay, Holy See, Hymn, I.B. Tauris, Icon, Incarnation (Christianity), It's a Wonderful Life, Italian Americans, Ježíšek, Jesus, Jesus in Christianity, Jewish Federation, Jim Lovell, Joulupukki, Kūčios, King's College, Cambridge, Kiss of peace, Knecht Ruprecht, Kontakion, Korovai, Kutia, Leavening agent, Light of the World, Lutheranism, Madalyn Murray O'Hair, Magi, Manger, Mary, mother of Jesus, Mass (liturgy), Massacre of the Innocents, Matins, Matzo Ball, Methodism, Midnight, Midnight Mass, Misa de Gallo, Nativity Fast, Nativity of Jesus, Nativity play, New Year's Eve, Nine Lessons and Carols, Nisse (folklore), Nittel Nacht, No man's land, Nut (fruit), Old Testament, Oriental Orthodoxy, Parity (mathematics), Pasterka, Phaseolus, Philippine Standard Time, Philippines, Pierogi, Plowshare, Pope Benedict XV, Pope Benedict XVI, Prime (liturgy), Protestantism, Psalm 23, Public holiday, Queen Victoria, Quempas, Rakia, Réveillon, Reformation, Resurrection of Jesus, Royal Hours, Russian Empire, Saint Nicholas, Saint Nicholas Day, Santa Claus, Sarma (food), Sauerkraut, Słownik etymologiczny języka polskiego, Scott catalogue, Serbian Christmas traditions, Shepherd, Shroud, Silent Night, Simbang Gabi, Sinterklaas, Sirius, Slovak language, Star of Bethlehem, Stuffed peppers, Supreme Court of the United States, Swaddling, Synaxis, Theotokos, Trench warfare, Troparion, Twelve Days of Christmas, Twelve-dish Christmas Eve supper, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United States Postal Service, Vespers, Watercolor painting, Western Christianity, Western world, Wigilia, William Anders, World War I, Ypres. Expand index (130 more) »

Advent wreath

The Advent wreath, or Advent crown, is a Christian tradition that symbolizes the passage of the four weeks of Advent in the liturgical calendar of the Western church.

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An Afterfeast is a period of celebration attached to one of the Great Feasts celebrated by the Orthodox Christian and Eastern Catholic Churches (somewhat analogous to what in the West would be called an Octave).

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Albert, Prince Consort

Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Francis Albert Augustus Charles Emmanuel; 26 August 1819 – 14 December 1861) was the husband and consort of Queen Victoria.

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Alcoholic drink

An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.

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Aleksander Brückner

Aleksander Brückner (29 January 1856 – 24 May 1939) was a Polish scholar of Slavic languages and literatures (Slavistics), philologist, lexicographer and historian of literature.

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All-night vigil

The All-night vigil is a service of the Eastern Orthodox Church (and Eastern Catholic Church) consisting of an aggregation of the three canonical hours of Vespers, Matins, and the First Hour.

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An angel is generally a supernatural being found in various religions and mythologies.

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Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.

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Apollo 8

Apollo 8, the second manned spaceflight mission in the United States Apollo space program, was launched on December 21, 1968, and became the first manned spacecraft to leave Earth orbit, reach the Earth's Moon, orbit it and return safely to Earth.

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In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity.

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Armenian Apostolic Church

The Armenian Apostolic Church (translit) is the national church of the Armenian people.

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Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem

The Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem also known as the Armenian Patriarchate of Sts.

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An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.

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Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.

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Baptism of the Lord

The Baptism of the Christ (or the Baptism of Christ) is the feast day commemorating the baptism of Jesus in the Jordan River by John the Baptist.

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BBC World Service

The BBC World Service, the world's largest international broadcaster, broadcasts radio and television news, speech and discussions in over 30 languages to many parts of the world on analogue and digital shortwave platforms, Internet streaming, podcasting, satellite, DAB, FM and MW relays.

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Biblical Magi

The biblical Magi (or; singular: magus), also referred to as the (Three) Wise Men or (Three) Kings, were, in the Gospel of Matthew and Christian tradition, a group of distinguished foreigners who visited Jesus after his birth, bearing gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh.

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Bob chorba

Bob chorba (боб чорба) is a national Bulgarian dish.

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Book of Genesis

The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek "", meaning "Origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, "Bərēšīṯ", "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Old Testament.

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Borscht is a sour soup popular in several Eastern European cuisines, including Ukrainian, Russian, Polish, Lithuanian, Belarusian, Romanian, Ashkenazi Jewish and Armenian cuisines.

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British Army

The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.

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British royal family

The British royal family comprises Queen Elizabeth II and her close relations.

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Byzantine Rite

The Byzantine Rite, also known as the Greek Rite or Constantinopolitan Rite, is the liturgical rite used by the Eastern Orthodox Church as well as by certain Eastern Catholic Churches; also, parts of it are employed by, as detailed below, other denominations.

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Cabbage or headed cabbage (comprising several cultivars of Brassica oleracea) is a leafy green, red (purple), or white (pale green) biennial plant grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads.

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Canon (hymnography)

A canon is a structured hymn used in a number of Eastern Orthodox services.

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Carl Larsson

Carl Larsson (28 May 1853 – 22 January 1919) was a Swedish painter representative of the Arts and Crafts movement.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Central Germany (cultural area)

Central Germany (Mitteldeutschland) is an economic and cultural region in Germany.

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Chinese restaurant

A Chinese restaurant is an establishment that serves Chinese cuisine outside China.

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A choir (also known as a quire, chorale or chorus) is a musical ensemble of singers.

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Christ Child

The Christ Child, also known as Divine Infant, Baby Jesus, Infant Jesus, Child Jesus, the Holy Child, and Santo Niño, refers to Jesus Christ from his nativity to age 12.

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Christendom has several meanings.

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Christian denomination

A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organisation, leadership and doctrine.

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Christian liturgy

Christian liturgy is a pattern for worship used (whether recommended or prescribed) by a Christian congregation or denomination on a regular basis.

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Christian prayer

Prayer is an important activity in Christianity, and there are several different forms of Christian prayer.

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ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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The Christkind (German "Christ-child", pronounced) is the traditional Christmas gift-bringer in Austria, Switzerland, Germany (in the south and west), the Czech Republic, Slovenia, Croatia, Italy (however only the South Tirol area), Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Portugal, Slovakia, Hungary, parts of northeastern France, Upper Silesia in Poland, parts of Hispanic America, in certain areas of southern Brazil and in the Acadiana region of Louisiana.

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Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas carol

A Christmas carol (also called a noël, from the French word meaning "Christmas") is a carol (song or hymn) whose lyrics are on the theme of Christmas, and which is traditionally sung on Christmas itself or during the surrounding holiday season.

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Christmas gift-bringer

A number of Midwinter or Christmas traditions in European folklore involve gift-bringers.

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Christmas lights

Christmas lights (also known as fairy lights) are lights used for decoration in celebration of Christmas, often on display throughout the Christmas season including Advent and Christmastide.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Christmas truce

The Christmas truce (Weihnachtsfrieden; Trêve de Noël) was a series of widespread but unofficial ceasefires along the Western Front of World War I around Christmas 1914.

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Christmastide (also Christmas Time or the Christmas season) is a season of the liturgical year in most Christian churches.

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Church bell

A church bell in the Christian tradition is a bell which is rung in a church for a variety of church purposes, and can be heard outside the building.

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Church of Scotland

The Church of Scotland (The Scots Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba), known informally by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national church of Scotland.

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Church of the Holy Sepulchre

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre (كَنِيسَةُ ٱلْقِيَامَة Kanīsatu al-Qiyāmah; Ναὸς τῆς Ἀναστάσεως Naos tes Anastaseos; Սուրբ Հարության տաճար Surb Harut'yan tač̣ar; Ecclesia Sancti Sepulchri; כנסיית הקבר, Knesiyat ha-Kever; also called the Church of the Resurrection or Church of the Anastasis by Orthodox Christians) is a church in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem.

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Church of the Nativity

The Church of the Nativity, also Basilica of the Nativity (كَنِيسَةُ ٱلْمَهْد; Βασιλική της Γεννήσεως; Սուրբ Ծննդյան տաճար; Basilica Nativitatis) is a basilica located in Bethlehem in the West Bank.

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Church service

A church service (also called a service of worship, or simply a service) is a formalized period of communal worship in Christian tradition.

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Communion table

Communion table or Lord's table are terms used by many Protestant churches—particularly from Reformed, Baptist and low church Anglican and Methodist bodies—for the table used for preparation of Holy Communion (a sacrament also called the Eucharist).

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Compline, also known as Complin, Night Prayer, or the Prayers at the End of the Day, is the final church service (or office) of the day in the Christian tradition of canonical hours.

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Coulter (agriculture)

A coulter or colter is a vertically mounted component of many plows that cuts an edge about deep ahead of a plowshare.

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Croatian language

Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.

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Crucifixion of Jesus

The crucifixion of Jesus occurred in 1st-century Judea, most likely between AD 30 and 33.

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Czech language

Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.

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Dismissal (liturgy)

The Dismissal (απόλυσις; Slavonic: otpust) is the final blessing said by a Christian priest or minister at the end of a religious service.

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Divine Liturgy

Divine Liturgy (Theia Leitourgia; Bozhestvena liturgiya; saghmrto lit'urgia; Sfânta Liturghie; 'Bozhestvennaya liturgiya; Sveta Liturgija; Surb Patarag;, and Boska Liturgia Świętego, Božská liturgie) is the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine Rite which is the Rite of The Great Church of Christ and was developed from the Antiochene Rite of Christian liturgy.

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Earthrise is a photograph of the Earth and parts of the Moon's surface taken from lunar orbit by astronaut Bill Anders in 1968, during the Apollo 8 mission.

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Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.

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Eastern Orthodox theology

Eastern Orthodox theology is the theology particular to the Eastern Orthodox Church (officially the Orthodox Catholic Church).

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Epiphany (holiday)

Epiphany, also Theophany, Little Christmas, or Three Kings' Day, is a Christian feast day that celebrates the revelation of God incarnate as Jesus Christ.

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An epistle (Greek ἐπιστολή, epistolē, "letter") is a writing directed or sent to a person or group of people, usually an elegant and formal didactic letter.

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Establishment Clause

In United States law, the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, together with that Amendment's Free Exercise Clause, form the constitutional right of freedom of religion.

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The Eucharist (also called Holy Communion or the Lord's Supper, among other names) is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches and an ordinance in others.

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Fasting is the willing abstinence or reduction from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time.

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Father Christmas

Father Christmas is the traditional English name for the personification of Christmas.

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Feast of the Seven Fishes

The Feast of the Seven Fishes (Italian: Festa dei sette pesci), also known as The Vigil (Italian: La Vigilia), is an Italian-American celebration of Christmas Eve with dishes of fish and other seafood.

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Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.

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Frank Borman

Frank Frederick Borman II (born March 14, 1928), (Col, USAF, Ret.), is a retired United States Air Force pilot, aeronautical engineer, test pilot, and NASA astronaut, best remembered as the Commander of Apollo 8, the first mission to fly around the Moon, making him, along with crew mates Jim Lovell and Bill Anders, the first of only 24 humans to do so.

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Genesis creation narrative

The Genesis creation narrative is the creation myth of both Judaism and Christianity.

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German Army (German Empire)

The Imperial German Army (Deutsches Heer) was the name given to the combined land and air forces of the German Empire (excluding the Marine-Fliegerabteilung maritime aviation formations of the Imperial German Navy).

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German Empire

The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.

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Good Friday

Good Friday is a Christian holiday celebrating the crucifixion of Jesus and his death at Calvary.

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Gospel is the Old English translation of Greek εὐαγγέλιον, evangelion, meaning "good news".

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Great feasts in the Eastern Orthodox Church

In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the feast of the Resurrection of Jesus, called Pascha (Easter), is the greatest of all holy days and as such it is called the "feast of feasts".

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Hay is grass, legumes, or other herbaceous plants that have been cut, dried, and stored for use as animal fodder, particularly for grazing animals such as cattle, horses, goats, and sheep.

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Hogmanay is the Scots word for the last day of the year and is synonymous with the celebration of the New Year (Gregorian calendar) in the Scottish manner.

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Holy See

The Holy See (Santa Sede; Sancta Sedes), also called the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.

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A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification.

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I.B. Tauris

I.B. Tauris (usually typeset as I.B.Tauris) was an independent publishing house with offices in London and New York City.

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An icon (from Greek εἰκών eikōn "image") is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, from the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, and certain Eastern Catholic churches.

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Incarnation (Christianity)

In Christian theology, the doctrine of the Incarnation holds that Jesus, the preexistent divine Logos (Koine Greek for "Word") and the second hypostasis of the Trinity, God the Son and Son of the Father, taking on a human body and human nature, "was made flesh" and conceived in the womb of Mary the Theotokos (Greek for "God-bearer"). The doctrine of the Incarnation, then, entails that Jesus Christ is fully God and fully human, his two natures joined in hypostatic union.

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It's a Wonderful Life

It's a Wonderful Life is a 1946 American Christmas fantasy comedy-drama film produced and directed by Frank Capra, based on the short story and booklet The Greatest Gift, which Philip Van Doren Stern wrote in 1939 and published privately in 1945.

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Italian Americans

Italian Americans (italoamericani or italo-americani) are an ethnic group consisting of Americans who have ancestry from Italy.

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Ježíšek (the Baby Jesus) is a cultural Christmas figure popular in the Czech Republic.

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Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.

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Jesus in Christianity

In Christianity, Jesus is believed to be the Messiah (Christ) and through his crucifixion and resurrection, humans can be reconciled to God and thereby are offered salvation and the promise of eternal life.

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Jewish Federation

A Jewish Federation (Jfed) is the secular primary Jewish nonprofit organization found within most metropolitan areas (or sometimes states) in North America that host a substantial Jewish community.

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Jim Lovell

James Arthur Lovell Jr. (born March 25, 1928) is a former NASA astronaut, Naval Aviator, and retired Navy captain.

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Joulupukki is a Finnish Christmas figure.

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Kūčios or Kūtės (Samogitian Dialect) is the traditional Christmas Eve dinner in Lithuania, held on the twenty fourth of December.

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King's College, Cambridge

King's College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England.

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Kiss of peace

The kiss of peace is an ancient traditional Christian greeting, sometimes also called the "holy kiss", "brother kiss" (among men), or "sister kiss" (among women).

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Knecht Ruprecht

Knecht Ruprecht (English: Farmhand Rupert or Servant Rupert) is a companion of Saint Nicholas as described in the folklore of Germany.

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The kontakion (κοντάκιον, also transliterated as kondakion and kontakio; plural κοντάκια, kontakia) is a form of hymn performed in the Orthodox and the Eastern Catholic liturgical traditions.

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The korovai (коровай, korowaj), karavai (каравай) or kravai (кравай) is a traditional Bulgarian, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and Polish bread, most often used at weddings, where it has great symbolic meaning, and has remained part of the wedding tradition in Belarus, Russia, Ukraine and by the Ukrainian diaspora.

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Kutia or kutya is a cereal dish, traditionally served in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia.

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Leavening agent

A leaven, often called a leavening agent (and also known as a raising agent), is any one of a number of substances used in doughs and batters that cause a foaming action (gas bubbles) that lightens and softens the mixture.

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Light of the World

Light of the World (Phṓs tou kósmou) is a phrase Jesus used to describe himself and his disciples in the New Testament.

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Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar, ecclesiastical reformer and theologian.

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Madalyn Murray O'Hair

Madalyn Murray O'Hair (née Mays; April 13, 1919 – September 29, 1995), was an American activist, founder of American Atheists, and the organization's president from 1963 to 1986.

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Magi (singular magus; from Latin magus) denotes followers of Zoroastrianism or Zoroaster.

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A manger, or feeding trough, is a structure or feeder used to hold food for animals.

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Mary, mother of Jesus

Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.

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Mass (liturgy)

Mass is a term used to describe the main eucharistic liturgical service in many forms of Western Christianity.

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Massacre of the Innocents

The Massacre of the Innocents is the biblical account of infanticide by Herod the Great, the Roman-appointed King of the Jews.

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Matins is the monastic nighttime liturgy, ending at dawn, of the canonical hours.

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Matzo Ball

The Matzo Ball is an annual Christmas Eve nightlife event and party held in a number of major cities in the United States and Canada targeted primarily at young Jewish singles and organized by the Society of Young Jewish Professionals.

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Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England.

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Midnight is the transition time from one day to the next – the moment when the date changes.

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Midnight Mass

In many Western Christian traditions Midnight Mass is the first liturgy of Christmastide that is celebrated on the night of Christmas Eve, traditionally beginning at midnight when Christmas Eve gives way to Christmas Day.

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Misa de Gallo

Misa del Gallo (Spanish for "rooster's mass", also Misa de los Pastores, "shepherd's mass;" Portuguese: Missa do Galo) is a name for the Roman Catholic Mass celebrated around midnight of Christmas Eve and sometimes in the days immediately preceding Christmas.

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Nativity Fast

The Nativity Fast is a period of abstinence and penance practiced by the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and Eastern Catholic Churches, in preparation for the Nativity of Jesus (December 25).

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Nativity of Jesus

The nativity of Jesus or birth of Jesus is described in the gospels of Luke and Matthew.

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Nativity play

A Nativity play or Christmas pageant is a play which recounts the story of the Nativity of Jesus.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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Nine Lessons and Carols

The Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols is a service of Christian worship celebrating the birth of Jesus that is traditionally followed at Christmas.

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Nisse (folklore)

A 'nisse', tomte, tomtenisse or 'tonttu' is a mythological creature from Nordic folklore today typically associated with the winter solstice and the Christmas season.

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Nittel Nacht

Nittel Nacht is a name given to Christmas Eve by Jewish scholars in the 17th century, although Rabbi Samuel Eidels already observed the day by the late 16th century.

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No man's land

No man's land is land that is unoccupied or is under dispute between parties who leave it unoccupied due to fear or uncertainty.

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Nut (fruit)

A nut is a fruit composed of an inedible hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible.

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Old Testament

The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.

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Oriental Orthodoxy

Oriental Orthodoxy is the fourth largest communion of Christian churches, with about 76 million members worldwide.

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Parity (mathematics)

In mathematics, parity is the property of an integer's inclusion in one of two categories: even or odd.

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Pasterka is a Midnight mass celebrated by Roman Catholics during Christmas between 24 and 25 December across Poland.

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Phaseolus (bean, wild bean) is a genus in the family Fabaceae containing about 70 plant species, all native to the Americas, primarily Mesoamerica.

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Philippine Standard Time

Philippine Standard Time (Pamantayang Oras ng Pilipinas, abbreviated PST or PhST), also known as Philippine Time (PHT), is the official name for the time in the Philippines.

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The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

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Pierogi (singular pieróg), also known as varenyky, are filled dumplings of Eastern European origin made by wrapping unleavened dough around a savory or sweet filling and cooking in boiling water.

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In agriculture, a plowshare (US) or ploughshare (UK) is a component of a plow (or plough).

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Pope Benedict XV

Pope Benedict XV (Latin: Benedictus; Benedetto), born Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista della Chiesa (21 November 1854 – 22 January 1922), was head of the Catholic Church from 3 September 1914 until his death in 1922.

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Pope Benedict XVI

Pope Benedict XVI (Benedictus XVI; Benedetto XVI; Benedikt XVI; born Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger;; 16 April 1927) served as Pope and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 2005 until his resignation in 2013.

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Prime (liturgy)

Prime, or the First Hour, is a fixed time of prayer of the traditional Divine Office (Canonical Hours), said at the first hour of daylight (approximately 6:00 a.m.), between the morning Hour of Lauds and the 9 a.m. Hour of Terce.

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Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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Psalm 23

Psalm 23 is the 23rd psalm of the Book of Psalms, generally known in English by its first verse, in the King James Version, "The Lord is my Shepherd".

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Public holiday

A public holiday, national holiday or legal holiday is a holiday generally established by law and is usually a non-working day during the year.

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Queen Victoria

Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.

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"Quempas" is the shortened title of the Latin Christmas carol "Quem pastores laudavere" ("He whom the shepherds praised"), popular in Germany in the sixteenth century, and used as a generic term for Christmas songs in a German caroling tradition.

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Rakia or Rakija is the collective term for fruit brandy popular in the Balkans.

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In Belgium, France, Brazil, in the Canadian provinces of Quebec, Ontario and New Brunswick, the city of New Orleans, and some other French-speaking places, a réveillon is a long dinner held on the evenings preceding Christmas Day and New Year's Day.

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The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.

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Resurrection of Jesus

The resurrection of Jesus or resurrection of Christ is the Christian religious belief that, after being put to death, Jesus rose again from the dead: as the Nicene Creed expresses it, "On the third day he rose again in accordance with the Scriptures".

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Royal Hours

The Royal Hours is a particularly solemn celebration of the Little Hours in the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Saint Nicholas

Saint Nicholas (Ἅγιος Νικόλαος,, Sanctus Nicolaus; 15 March 270 – 6 December 343), also called Nikolaos of Myra or Nicholas of Bari, was Bishop of Myra, in Asia Minor (modern-day Demre, Turkey), and is a historic Christian saint.

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Saint Nicholas Day

Saint Nicholas' Day, observed on December 6 in Western Christian countries and Romania, December 5 in the Netherlands and December 19 in Eastern Christian countries, is the feast day of Saint Nicholas.

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Santa Claus

Santa Claus, also known as Saint Nicholas, Kris Kringle, Father Christmas, or simply Santa, is a legendary figure originating in Western Christian culture who is said to bring gifts to the homes of well-behaved ("good" or "nice") children on Christmas Eve (24 December) and the early morning hours of Christmas Day (25 December).

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Sarma (food)

Sarma (from Turkish word "sarmak", meaning "to roll") is a dish of grape, cabbage, monk's rhubarb or chard leaves rolled around a filling usually based on minced meat, or a sweet dish of filo dough wrapped around a filling often of various kinds of chopped nuts.

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Sauerkraut is finely cut cabbage that has been fermented by various lactic acid bacteria.

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Słownik etymologiczny języka polskiego

Słownik etymologiczny języka polskiego (Etymological Dictionary of the Polish Language) is an etymological dictionary first published in 1927.

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Scott catalogue

The Scott Catalogue of postage stamps, published by Scott Publishing Co, a subsidiary of Amos Media, is updated annually and lists all the stamps of the entire world which its editors recognize as issued for postal purposes.

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Serbian Christmas traditions

Serbian Christmas traditions are customs and practices of the Serbs associated with Christmas and a period encompassing it, between the third Sunday before Christmas Day and Epiphany.

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A shepherd or sheepherder is a person who tends, herds, feeds, or guards herds of sheep.

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Shroud usually refers to an item, such as a cloth, that covers or protects some other object.

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Silent Night

"Silent Night" (italic) is a popular Christmas carol, composed in 1818 by Franz Xaver Gruber to lyrics by Joseph Mohr in the small town of Oberndorf bei Salzburg, Austria.

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Simbang Gabi

Simbáng Gabi (Filipino for "Night Mass") is a devotional nine-day series of Masses practiced by Roman Catholics and Aglipayans in the Philippines in anticipation of Christmas and to honor the Blessed Virgin Mary.

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Sinterklaas or Sint-Nicolaas is a legendary figure based on Saint Nicholas, patron saint of children.

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Sirius (a romanization of Greek Σείριος, Seirios,."glowing" or "scorching") is a star system and the brightest star in the Earth's night sky.

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Slovak language

Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).

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Star of Bethlehem

The Star of Bethlehem, or Christmas Star, appears only in the nativity story of the Gospel of Matthew, where "wise men from the East" (Magi) are inspired by the star to travel to Jerusalem.

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Stuffed peppers

Stuffed peppers is a dish which exists in different names and forms around the world.

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Supreme Court of the United States

The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.

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Swaddling is an age-old practice of wrapping infants in blankets or similar cloths so that movement of the limbs is tightly restricted.

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In Eastern Christianity (the Orthodox Church and those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Byzantine Rite), a Synaxis (Σύναξις; Slavonic: Собор, Sobor) is an assembly for liturgical purposes, generally through the celebration of Vespers, Matins, Little Hours, and the Divine Liturgy.

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Theotokos (Greek Θεοτόκος) is a title of Mary, mother of God, used especially in Eastern Christianity.

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Trench warfare

Trench warfare is a type of land warfare using occupied fighting lines consisting largely of military trenches, in which troops are well-protected from the enemy's small arms fire and are substantially sheltered from artillery.

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A troparion (Greek τροπάριον, plural: troparia, τροπάρια; Georgian: ტროპარი, "tropari" Church Slavonic: тропа́рь, tropar) in Byzantine music and in the religious music of Eastern Orthodox Christianity is a short hymn of one stanza, or organised in more complex forms as series of stanzas.

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Twelve Days of Christmas

The Twelve Days of Christmas, also known as Twelvetide, is a festive Christian season celebrating the Nativity of Jesus Christ.

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Twelve-dish Christmas Eve supper

A twelve-dish Christmas Eve supper is traditionally prepared in many Central European and Northern European cultures, especially those that were formerly part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, including Polish, Lithuanian, Ukrainian and Belarusian.

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United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.

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United States Postal Service

The United States Postal Service (USPS; also known as the Post Office, U.S. Mail, or Postal Service) is an independent agency of the United States federal government responsible for providing postal service in the United States, including its insular areas and associated states.

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Vespers is a sunset evening prayer service in the Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Eastern Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran liturgies of the canonical hours.

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Watercolor painting

Watercolor (American English) or watercolour (British English; see spelling differences), also aquarelle (French, diminutive of Latin aqua "water"), is a painting method in which the paints are made of pigments suspended in a water-based solution.

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Western Christianity

Western Christianity is the type of Christianity which developed in the areas of the former Western Roman Empire.

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Western world

The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.

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Wigilia is the traditional Christmas Eve vigil supper in Poland, held on December 24.

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William Anders

William Alison "Bill" Anders (born October 17, 1933), (Maj Gen, USAFR, Ret.), is a former United States Air Force officer, electrical engineer, nuclear engineer, NASA astronaut, and businessman.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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Ypres (Ieper) is a Belgian municipality in the province of West Flanders.

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Redirects here:

Christmas eve, Christmas night, Julafton, Paramony, Vigil of Christmas, X-mas Eve, Xmas Eve.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christmas_Eve

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