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Christmas traditions

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Christmas traditions vary from country to country. [1]

502 relations: A Charlie Brown Christmas, A Charlie Brown Christmas (soundtrack), A Christmas Carol, A House to Let, A Mighty Fortress Is Our God, A Visit from St. Nicholas, Ackee, Advent, Advent calendar, Advent wreath, Agnone, Akihito, Akubra, Aladdin, All-night vigil, Ancient Church of the East, Apostles, Armenians in Lebanon, Artificial Christmas tree, Aspic, Assyrian Church of the East, Assyrian people, Badnjak (Serbian), Bandung, Bank holiday, Bannock (food), Basil of Caesarea, Basque Country (autonomous community), Batam, Bavaria, Befana, Bethlehem, Biblical Magi, Björneborgarnas marsch, Black Friday (shopping), Black Nazarene, Boko Haram, Boletus, Bolo-rei, Bonfire, Borscht, Boxing Day, Boys' choir, Bulgarian budnik, Cabbage, Calendar of saints, Canada Post, Canada–United States border, Candy cane, Canzone Napoletana, ..., Carp, Carpathian Ruthenia, Casserole, Cathedral, Catholic Church, Cavalcade, Cavalcade of Lights Festival, Censer, Central Kalimantan, Central Sulawesi, 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A Charlie Brown Christmas

A Charlie Brown Christmas is a 1965 animated television special based on the comic strip Peanuts, by Charles M. Schulz.

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A Charlie Brown Christmas (soundtrack)

A Charlie Brown Christmas is a 1965 studio album by American composer/conductor Vince Guaraldi (later credited to the jazz group the Vince Guaraldi Trio).

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A Christmas Carol

A Christmas Carol in Prose, Being a Ghost-Story of Christmas, commonly known as A Christmas Carol, is a novella by Charles Dickens, first published in London by Chapman & Hall in 1843; the first edition was illustrated by John Leech.

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A House to Let

"A House to Let" is a short story by Charles Dickens, Wilkie Collins, Elizabeth Gaskell and Adelaide Anne Procter.

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A Mighty Fortress Is Our God

"A Mighty Fortress Is Our God" (German: "Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott") is one of the best known hymns by the reformer Martin Luther, a prolific hymnodist.

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A Visit from St. Nicholas

"A Visit from St.

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Ackee

The ackee, also known as achee, ackee apple or ayee (Blighia sapida) is a fruit, which is the member of the Sapindaceae (soapberry family), as are the lychee and the longan.

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Advent

Advent is a season observed in many Christian churches as a time of expectant waiting and preparation for the celebration of the Nativity of Jesus at Christmas as well as the return of Jesus at the second coming.

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Advent calendar

An Advent calendar is a special calendar used to count the days of Advent in anticipation of Christmas.

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Advent wreath

The Advent wreath, or Advent crown, is a Christian tradition that symbolizes the passage of the four weeks of Advent in the liturgical calendar of the Western church.

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Agnone

Agnone is a comune in the province of Isernia, in the Molise region of southern Italy.

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Akihito

is the current Emperor of Japan.

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Akubra

Akubra is an Australian hat manufacturer.

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Aladdin

Aladdin (علاء الدين) is a folk tale of Middle Eastern origin.

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All-night vigil

The All-night vigil is a service of the Eastern Orthodox Church (and Eastern Catholic Church) consisting of an aggregation of the three canonical hours of Vespers, Matins, and the First Hour.

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Ancient Church of the East

The Ancient Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܥܬܝܩܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ʿĒdtā ʿAttīqtā d'Maḏnəḥā, كنيسة المشرق القديمة, Kanīsa al-Mašriq al-Qadīma), officially the Ancient Holy Apostolic Catholic Church of the East, is an Eastern Christian denomination founded by Thoma Darmo in 1968.

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Apostles

In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity.

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Armenians in Lebanon

The Armenians in Lebanon (Լիբանանահայեր lipananahayer, اللبنانيون الأرمن) (Libano-Arméniens) are Lebanese citizens of Armenian descent.

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Artificial Christmas tree

An artificial Christmas trees is an artificial pine and fir tree manufactured for the specific purpose of use as a Christmas tree.

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Aspic

Aspic is a dish in which ingredients are set into a gelatin made from a meat stock or consommé.

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Assyrian Church of the East

The Assyrian Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܖ̈ܝܐ ʻĒdtā d-Madenḥā d-Ātorāyē), officially the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East (ʻEdtā Qaddīštā wa-Šlīḥāitā Qātolīqī d-Madenḥā d-Ātorāyē), is an Eastern Christian Church that follows the traditional christology and ecclesiology of the historical Church of the East.

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Assyrian people

Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), or Syriacs (see terms for Syriac Christians), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East.

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Badnjak (Serbian)

The badnjak (Cyrillic: бадњак), also called veseljak (весељак,, literally "jovial one" in Serbian), is a tree branch or young tree brought into the house and placed on the fire on the evening of Christmas Eve, a central tradition in Serbian Christmas celebrations.

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Bandung

Bandung (Sundanese:, Bandung, formerly Dutch: Bandoeng), is the capital of West Java province in Indonesia and Greater Bandung made up of 2 municipalities and 38 districts, making it Indonesia's 2nd largest metropolitan area with over 8.5 millions inhabitants listed in the 2015 Badan Pusat Statistik data.

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Bank holiday

A bank holiday is a public holiday in the United Kingdom, some Commonwealth countries, Hong Kong and the Republic of Ireland.

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Bannock (food)

Bannock is a variety of flat quick bread or any large, round article baked or cooked from grain.

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Basil of Caesarea

Basil of Caesarea, also called Saint Basil the Great (Ἅγιος Βασίλειος ὁ Μέγας, Ágios Basíleios o Mégas, Ⲡⲓⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ Ⲃⲁⲥⲓⲗⲓⲟⲥ; 329 or 330 – January 1 or 2, 379), was the bishop of Caesarea Mazaca in Cappadocia, Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey).

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Basque Country (autonomous community)

The Basque Country (Euskadi; País Vasco; Pays Basque), officially the Basque Autonomous Community (Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoa, EAE; Comunidad Autónoma Vasca, CAV) is an autonomous community in northern Spain.

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Batam

Batam is the largest city (kota) of Riau Islands Province of Indonesia as well the name of an island.

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Bavaria

Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.

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Befana

In Italian folklore, Befana is an old woman who delivers gifts to children throughout Italy on Epiphany Eve (the night of January 5) in a similar way to St Nicholas or Santa Claus.

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Bethlehem

Bethlehem (بيت لحم, "House of Meat"; בֵּית לֶחֶם,, "House of Bread";; Bethleem; initially named after Canaanite fertility god Lehem) is a Palestinian city located in the central West Bank, Palestine, about south of Jerusalem.

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Biblical Magi

The biblical Magi (or; singular: magus), also referred to as the (Three) Wise Men or (Three) Kings, were, in the Gospel of Matthew and Christian tradition, a group of distinguished foreigners who visited Jesus after his birth, bearing gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh.

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Björneborgarnas marsch

Björneborgarnas marsch (original Swedish title; Porilaisten marssi in Finnish; in English 'March of the Björneborgers' or 'March of the Pori Regiment') is the honorary march of the Finnish Defence Forces since 1918, composed by an unknown composer in the 18th century.

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Black Friday (shopping)

Black Friday is an informal name for the day following Thanksgiving Day in the United States, the fourth Thursday of November, which has been regarded as the beginning of the country's Christmas shopping season since 1952.

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Black Nazarene

The Black Nazarene (El Nazareno Negro, Nuestro Padre Jesús Nazareno, Poóng Itím na Nazareno, Hesus Nazareno) is a life-sized image of a dark-skinned, kneeling Jesus Christ carrying the Cross enshrined in the Minor Basilica of the Black Nazarene in the Quiapo district of the City of Manila, Philippines.

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Boko Haram

The Islamic State in West Africa (abbreviated as ISWA or ISWAP), formerly known as Jamā'at Ahl as-Sunnah lid-Da'wah wa'l-Jihād (جماعة أهل السنة للدعوة والجهاد, "Group of the People of Sunnah for Preaching and Jihad") and commonly known as Boko Haram until March 2015, is a jihadist militant organization based in northeastern Nigeria, also active in Chad, Niger and northern Cameroon.

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Boletus

Boletus is a genus of mushroom-producing fungi, comprising over 100 species.

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Bolo-rei

Bolo-rei, is a traditional Portuguese cake that is usually eaten around Christmas, from December 25 until Epiphany (Dia de Reis in Portuguese, literally "Kings' Day," a reference to the Three Wise Men), on the 6th of January.

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Bonfire

A bonfire is a large but controlled outdoor fire, used either for informal disposal of burnable waste material or as part of a celebration.

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Borscht

Borscht is a sour soup popular in several Eastern European cuisines, including Ukrainian, Russian, Polish, Lithuanian, Belarusian, Romanian, Ashkenazi Jewish and Armenian cuisines.

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Boxing Day

Boxing Day is a holiday celebrated on the day after Christmas Day.

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Boys' choir

A boys' choir is a choir primarily made up of choirboys who have yet to begin puberty or are in the early to middle stages of puberty and so retain their more highly pitched childhood voice type.

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Bulgarian budnik

Budnik (transliterated), (Бъдник), refers to a log brought into the house and placed on the fire on the evening of Christmas Eve, a central tradition in Slavic Christmas celebrations in Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia, and Montenegro, much like a yule log in other European traditions (in the Bulgarian, Croatian, and Serbian languages, the name for Christmas Eve is derived from the term badnjak or budnik) as well as the Bulgarian name for Christmas Eve (bg:Бъдни вечер).

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Cabbage

Cabbage or headed cabbage (comprising several cultivars of Brassica oleracea) is a leafy green, red (purple), or white (pale green) biennial plant grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads.

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Calendar of saints

The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a liturgical year by associating each day with one or more saints and referring to the day as the feast day or feast of said saint.

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Canada Post

Canada Post Corporation (Société Canadienne des Postes), known more simply as Canada Post (Postes Canada), is a Crown corporation which functions as the primary postal operator in Canada.

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Canada–United States border

The Canada–United States border, officially known as the International Boundary, is the longest international border in the world between two countries.

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Candy cane

A candy cane is a cane-shaped stick candy often associated with Christmastide, as well as Saint Nicholas Day.

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Canzone Napoletana

Canzone napoletana, sometimes referred to as Neapolitan song, is a generic term for a traditional form of music sung in the Neapolitan language, ordinarily for the male voice singing solo, although well represented by female soloists as well, and expressed in familiar genres such as the lover's complaint or the serenade.

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Carp

Carp are various species of oily freshwater fish from the family Cyprinidae, a very large group of fish native to Europe and Asia.

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Carpathian Ruthenia

Carpathian Ruthenia, Carpatho-Ukraine or Zakarpattia (Rusyn and Карпатська Русь, Karpats'ka Rus' or Закарпаття, Zakarpattja; Slovak and Podkarpatská Rus; Kárpátalja; Transcarpatia; Zakarpacie; Karpatenukraine) is a historic region in the border between Central and Eastern Europe, mostly located in western Ukraine's Zakarpattia Oblast, with smaller parts in easternmost Slovakia (largely in Prešov Region and Košice Region) and Poland's Lemkovyna.

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Casserole

A casserole (French: diminutive of casse, from Provençal cassa "pan") is a large, deep dish used both in the oven and as a serving vessel.

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Cathedral

A cathedral is a Christian church which contains the seat of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, conference, or episcopate.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Cavalcade

A cavalcade is a procession or parade on horseback, or a mass trail ride by a company of riders.

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Cavalcade of Lights Festival

Cavalcade of Lights is an annual event highlighting the lighting of the official City of Toronto Christmas tree at Nathan Phillips Square in Toronto.

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Censer

A censer, incense burner or perfume burner (these may be hyphenated) is a vessel made for burning incense or perfume in some solid form.

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Central Kalimantan

Central Kalimantan (Kalimantan Tengah), is a province of Indonesia.

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Central Sulawesi

Central Sulawesi (Indonesian: Sulawesi Tengah) is a province of Indonesia located at the centre of the island of Sulawesi.

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Chaldean Catholic Church

The Chaldean Catholic Church (ܥܕܬܐ ܟܠܕܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝܬܐ, ʿīdtha kaldetha qāthuliqetha; Arabic: الكنيسة الكلدانية al-Kanīsa al-kaldāniyya; translation) is an Eastern Catholic particular church (sui juris) in full communion with the Holy See and the rest of the Catholic Church, with the Chaldean Patriarchate having been originally formed out of the Church of the East in 1552.

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Champagne

Champagne is sparkling wine or, in EU countries, legally only that sparkling wine which comes from the Champagne region of France.

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Chestnut

The chestnut (Castanea) group is a genus of eight or nine species of deciduous trees and shrubs in the beech family Fagaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere.

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Chichilaki

The chichilaki (ჩიჩილაკი) is a Georgian traditional Christmas tree made from dried hazelnut or walnut branches that are shaved to form a small coniferous tree.

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Chiquinquirá

Chiquinquirá is a town and municipality in the Colombian Department of Boyacá, part of the subregion of the Western Boyacá Province.

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Chokha

A chokha (ჩოხა or ტალავარი; akʷymzhʷy; tsiya; czugha; choukha; çuxa; ҫoqib; tsei; chukha; cuqqa; cherkeska; cherkeska) is a woolen coat with a high neck that is part of the traditional male dress of the peoples of the Caucasus.

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Christ Child

The Christ Child, also known as Divine Infant, Baby Jesus, Infant Jesus, Child Jesus, the Holy Child, and Santo Niño, refers to Jesus Christ from his nativity to age 12.

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Christianity in China

Christianity in China appeared in the 7th century, during the Tang dynasty, but did not take root until it was reintroduced in the 16th century by Jesuit missionaries.

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Christianity in India

Christianity is India's third most followed religion according to the census of 2011, with approximately 28 million followers, constituting 2.3 percent of India's population. It is traditionally believed that Christianity was introduced to India by Thomas the Apostle, who supposedly landed in Kerala in 52 AD. There is a general scholarly consensus that Christianity was definitely established in India by the 6th century AD. including some communities who used Syriac liturgies, and it is possible that the religion's existence extends as far back as the purported time of St.Thomas's arrival. Christians are found all across India and in all walks of life, with major populations in parts of South India and the south shore, the Konkan Coast, and Northeast India. Indian Christians have contributed significantly to and are well represented in various spheres of national life. They include former and current chief ministers, governors and chief election commissioners. Indian Christians have the highest ratio of women to men among the various religious communities in India. Christians are the second most educated religious group in India after Jains. Christianity in India has different denominations. The state of Kerala is home to the Saint Thomas Christian community, an ancient body of Christians, who are now divided into several different churches and traditions. They are East Syriac Saint Thomas Christian churches: the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church and the Chaldean Syrian Church. The Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, Malankara Jacobite Syrian Church, Mar Thoma Syrian Church, Syro-Malankara Catholic Church, and the Malabar Independent Syrian Church are West Syriac Saint Thomas Christian Churches. Since the 19th century Protestant churches have also been present; major denominations include the Baptists, Church of South India (CSI), Evangelical Church of India (ECI), St. Thomas Evangelical Church of India, Believers Eastern Church, the Church of North India (CNI), the Presbyterian Church of India, Pentecostal Church, Apostolics, Lutherans, Traditional Anglicans and other evangelical groups. The Christian Church runs thousands of educational institutions and hospitals which have contributed significantly to the development of the nation. Roman Catholicism was first introduced to India by Portuguese, Italian and Irish Jesuits in the 16th century to preach the gospel of Jesus Christ among Indians. Most Christian schools, hospitals, primary care centres originated through the Roman Catholic missions brought by the trade of these countries. Evangelical Protestantism was later spread to India by the efforts of British, American, German, Scottish missionaries. These Protestant missions were also responsible for introducing English education in India for the first time and were also accountable in the first early translations of the Holy Bible in various Indian languages (including Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu, Hindi, Urdu and others). Even though Christians are a significant minority, they form a major religious group in three states of India - Meghalaya, Mizoram, and Nagaland with plural majority in Manipur and Arunachal Pradesh and other states with significant Christian population include Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Christianity is widespread across India and is present in all states with major populations in South India.

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Christianity in Indonesia

Christianity is Indonesia's second-largest religion, after Islam.

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Christianity in Japan

Christianity in Japan is among the nation's minority religions.

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Christianity in Pakistan

Christians make up one of the two largest (non-Muslim) religious minorities in Pakistan, along with Hindus.

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Christina, Queen of Sweden

Christina (– 19 April 1689) reigned as Queen of Sweden from 1632 until her abdication in 1654.

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Christkind

The Christkind (German "Christ-child", pronounced) is the traditional Christmas gift-bringer in Austria, Switzerland, Germany (in the south and west), the Czech Republic, Slovenia, Croatia, Italy (however only the South Tirol area), Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Portugal, Slovakia, Hungary, parts of northeastern France, Upper Silesia in Poland, parts of Hispanic America, in certain areas of southern Brazil and in the Acadiana region of Louisiana.

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas cake

Christmas cake is a type of fruitcake served at Christmas time in many countries.

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Christmas card

A Christmas card is a greeting card sent as part of the traditional celebration of Christmas in order to convey between people a range of sentiments related to the Christmas and holiday season.

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Christmas carol

A Christmas carol (also called a noël, from the French word meaning "Christmas") is a carol (song or hymn) whose lyrics are on the theme of Christmas, and which is traditionally sung on Christmas itself or during the surrounding holiday season.

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Christmas cookie

Christmas cookies or Christmas biscuits are traditionally sugar cookies or biscuits (though other flavours may be used based on family traditions and individual preferences) cut into various shapes related to Christmas.

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Christmas cracker

Christmas crackers—also known as bon-bons in some regions of Australia—are part of Christmas celebrations primarily in the United Kingdom, Ireland and Commonwealth countries such as Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa.

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Christmas dinner

Christmas dinner is a meal traditionally eaten at Christmas.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas flowers

Christmas flowers are the popular flowers used during the festive season of Christmas.

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Christmas gift

A Christmas gift or Christmas present is a gift given in celebration of Christmas.

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Christmas ham

A Christmas ham or Yule ham is a traditional dish associated with modern Christmas and historical Yule.

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Christmas in Iceland

Jól is the term used for the Christmas holiday season in Iceland and the Faroe Islands and was originally an Old Norse religious festival, also called Yule.

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Christmas lights in Medellín

Christmas lights in Medellín, known in Spanish simply as the "Lighting" (El Alumbrado) or more officially the EPM Lights (Alumbrados EPM), is a traditional seasonal event in Medellín, Colombia, where the city hangs millions of Christmas lights and holds light shows and other cultural events.

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Christmas market

A Christmas market, also known as Christkindlmarkt (literally: Baby Jesus Market), Christkindlesmarkt, Christkindlmarket, Christkindlimarkt, and Weihnachtsmarkt, is a street market associated with the celebration of Christmas during the four weeks of Advent.

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Christmas music

Christmas music comprises a variety of genres of music normally performed or heard around the Christmas season.

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Christmas ornament

Christmas ornaments, baubles or "christmas balls" are decorations (usually made of glass, metal, wood, or ceramics) that are used to festoon a Christmas tree.

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Christmas Peace

Christmas Peace (joulurauha, julfrid) is a tradition based on old Scandinavian legislation created by Birger Jarl in the 13th century, extending the tradition of the Truce of God.

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Christmas pudding

Christmas pudding is a type of pudding traditionally served as part of the Christmas dinner in the UK, Ireland and in other countries where it has been brought by British emigrants.

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Christmas pyramid

Christmas pyramids (Weihnachtspyramide) are Christmas decorations that have their roots in the folklore and customs of the Ore Mountain region of Germany, but which have become popular internationally.

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Christmas stocking

A Christmas stocking is an empty sock or sock-shaped bag that is hung on Christmas Eve so that Santa Claus (or Father Christmas) can fill it with small toys, candy, fruit, coins or other small gifts when he arrives.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Christmas tree

A Christmas tree is a decorated tree, usually an evergreen conifer such as spruce, pine, or fir or an artificial tree of similar appearance, associated with the celebration of Christmas.

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Christmas tree production in Canada

Christmas tree production in Canada totals from 3 to 6 million trees annually.

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Christmas tree production in the United States

While the first Christmas tree farm may have appeared as early as 1901, Christmas tree production in the United States was largely limited to what could be harvested from natural forests until the 1950s.

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Christmas wafer

Christmas wafer (opłatek, plural opłatki; kalėdaitis, plural kalėdaičiai) is a central European Christian Christmas tradition celebrated in Poland, Lithuania and in some parts of Slovakia during Wigilia, or the Christmas Eve Vigil.

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Christmas window

A Christmas window is a special window display prepared for the Christmas shopping season at department stores and other retailers.

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Church bell

A church bell in the Christian tradition is a bell which is rung in a church for a variety of church purposes, and can be heard outside the building.

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Church of Scotland

The Church of Scotland (The Scots Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba), known informally by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national church of Scotland.

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Church service

A church service (also called a service of worship, or simply a service) is a formalized period of communal worship in Christian tradition.

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Churro

A churro is a fried-dough pastry—predominantly choux—based snack.

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Cinnamon

Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum.

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Commonwealth of Nations

The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.

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Compote

Compote is a dessert originating from medieval Europe, made of whole or pieces of fruit in sugar syrup.

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County Cork

County Cork (Contae Chorcaí) is a county in Ireland.

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County Kerry

County Kerry (Contae Chiarraí) is a county in Ireland.

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Cranberry sauce

Cranberry sauce or cranberry jelly is a sauce or relish made out of cranberries, commonly served as a condiment with Thanksgiving dinner in North America and Christmas dinner in the United Kingdom.

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Crown colony

Crown colony, dependent territory and royal colony are terms used to describe the administration of United Kingdom overseas territories that are controlled by the British Government.

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Cuccìa

Cuccìa is a traditional, primarily Sicilian dish containing boiled wheatberries and sugar, which is eaten on December 13, the feast day of Saint Lucy, the patron saint of Syracuse.

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Curry goat

Curry goat is a curry dish prepared with goat meat.

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Dalmatia

Dalmatia (Dalmacija; see names in other languages) is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia and Istria.

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Date palm

Phoenix dactylifera, commonly known as date or date palm, is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit.

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Day of the Little Candles

Little Candles Day (Día de las velitas) is one of the most observed traditional holidays in Colombia.

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Ded Moroz

Ded Moroz (Дед Мороз, Ded Moroz; Дзед Мароз, Dzyed Maróz; Дід Мороз, Did Moróz; Russian diminutive Дедушка Мороз, Dédushka Moróz; Montenegrin: Đed Mraz (Ђед Мраз)) is a Slavic fictional character similar to that of Father Christmas.

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Demilitarized zone

A demilitarized zone, DMZ or DZ is an area in which treaties or agreements between nations, military powers or contending groups forbid military installations, activities or personnel.

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Department store

A department store is a retail establishment offering a wide range of consumer goods in different product categories known as "departments".

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Deutsche Post

The Deutsche Post AG, operating under the trade name Deutsche Post DHL Group, is a German postal service and international courier service company, the world's largest.

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Dinner for One

Dinner for One, also known as The 90th Birthday (Der 90.), is a two-hander comedy sketch written by British author Lauri Wylie for the theatre.

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Dionysus

Dionysus (Διόνυσος Dionysos) is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility, theatre and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth.

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Divine Liturgy

Divine Liturgy (Theia Leitourgia; Bozhestvena liturgiya; saghmrto lit'urgia; Sfânta Liturghie; 'Bozhestvennaya liturgiya; Sveta Liturgija; Surb Patarag;, and Boska Liturgia Świętego, Božská liturgie) is the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine Rite which is the Rite of The Great Church of Christ and was developed from the Antiochene Rite of Christian liturgy.

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Domestic turkey

The domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo domesticus) is a large fowl, one of the two species in the genus Meleagris and the same as the wild turkey.

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Dress-up

Dress-up is a game played mainly by children.

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East Nusa Tenggara

East Nusa Tenggara (Nusa Tenggara Timur – NTT) is the southernmost province of Indonesia.

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East Slavs

The East Slavs are Slavic peoples speaking the East Slavic languages.

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East Timor

East Timor or Timor-Leste (Tetum: Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (República Democrática de Timor-Leste, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is a sovereign state in Maritime Southeast Asia.

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Easter

Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary 30 AD.

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Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.

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Edam cheese

Edam (Edammer) is a semi-hard cheese that originated in the Netherlands, and is named after the town of Edam in the province of North Holland.

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Edinburgh

Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.

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Eggnog

Eggnog, egg nog or egg-nog, historically also known (when alcoholic beverages are added) as milk punch or egg milk punch, is a rich, chilled, sweetened, dairy-based beverage.

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Electric fireplace

An electric fireplace is an electric heater that mimics a fireplace burning coal, wood, or natural gas.

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Engelskirchen

Engelskirchen is a municipality in Oberbergischer Kreis, Germany in North Rhine-Westphalia, about east of Cologne.

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Epiphany (holiday)

Epiphany, also Theophany, Little Christmas, or Three Kings' Day, is a Christian feast day that celebrates the revelation of God incarnate as Jesus Christ.

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Escargot

The escargot (plural escargots,, French for snail) is a delicacy consisting of cooked land snails.

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Ethiopian calendar

The Ethiopian calendar (የኢትዮጵያ ዘመን አቆጣጠር; yä'Ityoṗṗya zämän aḳoṭaṭär) is the principal calendar used in Ethiopia and also serves as the liturgical year for Christians in Eritrea and Ethiopia belonging to the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Eastern Catholic Churches and Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria.

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Exile (Japanese band)

Exile is a 19-member Japanese boy group.

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Family cookbooks

Family cookbooks are collections of recipes, sometimes including family history and photos of the family members.

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Fast day

Fast Day was a holiday observed in some parts of the United States between 1670 and 1991.

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Fasting

Fasting is the willing abstinence or reduction from some or all food, drink, or both, for a period of time.

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Father Christmas

Father Christmas is the traditional English name for the personification of Christmas.

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Feast of the Immaculate Conception

The Feast of the Immaculate Conception celebrates the solemn celebration of belief in the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

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Feast of the Seven Fishes

The Feast of the Seven Fishes (Italian: Festa dei sette pesci), also known as The Vigil (Italian: La Vigilia), is an Italian-American celebration of Christmas Eve with dishes of fish and other seafood.

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Federal government of the United States

The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.

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Federal holidays in the United States

In the United States, a federal holiday is an authorized holiday which has been recognized by the US government.

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Finnish Navy

The Finnish Navy (Merivoimat, Marinen) is one of the branches of the Finnish Defence Forces.

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Firecracker

A firecracker (cracker, noise maker, banger, or bunger) is a small explosive device primarily designed to produce a large amount of noise, especially in the form of a loud bang; any visual effect is incidental to this goal.

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Fireplace

A fireplace is a structure made of brick, stone or metal designed to contain a fire.

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Fireplace mantel

The fireplace mantel or mantelpiece, also known as a chimneypiece, originated in medieval times as a hood that projected over a fire grate to catch the smoke.

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Fireworks

Fireworks are a class of low explosive pyrotechnic devices used for aesthetic and entertainment purposes.

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Fish soup

Fish soup is a food made by combining fish or seafood with vegetables and stock, juice, water, or another liquid.

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Flip-flops

Flip-flops are a type of sandal, typically worn as a form of casual wear.

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Foie gras

Foie gras (French for "fat liver") is a luxury food product made of the liver of a duck or goose that has been specially fattened.

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Fondue

Fondue is a Swiss dish of melted cheese served in a communal pot (caquelon or fondue pot) over a portable stove (réchaud) heated with a candle or spirit lamp, and eaten by dipping bread into the cheese using long-stemmed forks.

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Francis of Assisi

Saint Francis of Assisi (San Francesco d'Assisi), born Giovanni di Pietro di Bernardone, informally named as Francesco (1181/11823 October 1226), was an Italian Catholic friar, deacon and preacher.

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Francis Xavier

Francis Xavier, S.J. (born Francisco de Jasso y Azpilicueta, in Latin Franciscus Xaverius, Basque: Frantzisko Xabierkoa, Spanish: Francisco Javier; 7 April 15063 December 1552), was a Navarrese Basque Roman Catholic missionary, born in Javier (Xavier in Navarro-Aragonese or Xabier in Basque), Kingdom of Navarre (present day Spain), and a co-founder of the Society of Jesus.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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French toast

French toast is a dish made of bread soaked in eggs and milk, then fried.

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Fritule

Fritule is a festive Croatian pastry made particularly for Christmas.

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From All of Us to All of You

From All of Us to All of You is an animated television Christmas special, produced by Walt Disney Productions and first presented on December 19, 1958 on ABC as part of the Walt Disney Presents anthology series.

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Fufu

Fufu (variants of the name include foofoo, fufuo, foufou) is a staple food common in many countries in Africa such as Ghana, Liberia and Nigeria.

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Gaita zuliana

Gaita is a style of Venezuelan folk music from Maracaibo in Zulia State.

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Gävle goat

The Gävle Goat (Gävlebocken) is a traditional Christmas display erected annually at Slottstorget (Castle Square) in central Gävle, Sweden.

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Georgian dialects

Georgian (ქართული, Kartuli) is a Kartvelian language spoken by about 4.1 million people, primarily in Georgia but also in Russia, northern Turkey, in previously Georgian-controlled territories and the diaspora, such as in Iran, Azerbaijan and Europe.

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Ghost of Christmas Present

The Ghost of Christmas Present or The Spirit of Christmas Present is a fictional character in the work A Christmas Carol by novelist Charles Dickens.

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Gingerbread

Gingerbread refers to a broad category of baked goods, typically flavored with ginger, cloves, nutmeg or cinnamon and sweetened with honey, sugar or molasses.

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Gingerbread man

A gingerbread man is a biscuit or cookie made of gingerbread, usually in the shape of a stylized human, although other shapes, especially seasonal themes (Christmas, Halloween, Easter, etc.) and characters, are common.

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Glögi

Glögi, also called Glühwein, is a spiced, usually alcoholic drink, served warm.

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Gołąbki

Gołąbki is the Polish name of a dish popular in cuisines of Central and Eastern Europe, made from boiled cabbage leaves wrapped around a filling of minced pork or beef, chopped onions, and rice or barley.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America

The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America, headquartered in New York City, is an eparchy of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.

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Guadalupe-Reyes Marathon

Guadalupe-Reyes Marathon is a concept typical of Mexican culture.

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Guarapuava

Guarapuava (population: 180,364) is a city in the mid south of Paraná state in Brazil.

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Guinness

Guinness is an Irish dry stout that originated in the brewery of Arthur Guinness (1725–1803) at St. James's Gate brewery in the capital city of Dublin, Ireland.

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Hallaca

In Latin American cuisine, an hallaca (alt. spelling, hayaca and ayaca) is corn dough stuffed with a stew of beef, pork, and chicken, fish or other seafoods in some places, and it is "adorned" with raisins, capers, olives and wedges of fowl meat.

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Halloween

Halloween or Hallowe'en (a contraction of All Hallows' Evening), also known as Allhalloween, All Hallows' Eve, or All Saints' Eve, is a celebration observed in a number of countries on 31 October, the eve of the Western Christian feast of All Hallows' Day.

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Ham

Ham is pork from a leg cut that has been preserved by wet or dry curing, with or without smoking.

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Hanukkah

Hanukkah (חֲנֻכָּה, Tiberian:, usually spelled rtl, pronounced in Modern Hebrew, or in Yiddish; a transliteration also romanized as Chanukah or Ḥanukah) is a Jewish holiday commemorating the rededication of the Holy Temple (the Second Temple) in Jerusalem at the time of the Maccabean Revolt against the Seleucid Empire.

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Herod the Great

Herod (Greek:, Hērōdēs; 74/73 BCE – c. 4 BCE/1 CE), also known as Herod the Great and Herod I, was a Roman client king of Judea, referred to as the Herodian kingdom.

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Herring

Herring are forage fish, mostly belonging to the family Clupeidae.

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Himmelpforten

Himmelpforten (Low Saxon: Himmelpoorten) is a municipality west of Hamburg (Germany) in the district of Stade in Lower Saxony.

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Hogmanay

Hogmanay is the Scots word for the last day of the year and is synonymous with the celebration of the New Year (Gregorian calendar) in the Scottish manner.

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Horchata

Horchata, or orxata, is the name of several kinds of beverages, made of ground rice.

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Hors d'oeuvre

An hors d'oeuvre (hors d'œuvre), appetizer or starter is a small dish served before a meal.

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Hot chocolate

Hot chocolate, also known as Chocolate tea, drinking chocolate or just cocoa is a heated beverage consisting of shaved chocolate, melted chocolate or cocoa powder, heated milk or water, and usually a sweetener.

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House of Hanover

The House of Hanover (or the Hanoverians; Haus Hannover) is a German royal dynasty that ruled the Electorate and then the Kingdom of Hanover, and also provided monarchs of Great Britain and Ireland from 1714 to 1800 and ruled the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from its creation in 1801 until the death of Queen Victoria in 1901.

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Ignatius of Antioch

Ignatius of Antioch (Greek: Ἰγνάτιος Ἀντιοχείας, Ignátios Antiokheías; c. 35 – c. 107), also known as Ignatius Theophorus (Ιγνάτιος ὁ Θεοφόρος, Ignátios ho Theophóros, lit. "the God-bearing") or Ignatius Nurono (lit. "The fire-bearer"), was an early Christian writer and bishop of Antioch.

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Indonesia

Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.

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Innes Review

The Innes Review is a biannual academic journal, published by Edinburgh University Press on behalf of the Scottish Catholic Historical Association in May and November of each year.

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Innsbruck

Innsbruck is the capital city of Tyrol in western Austria and the fifth-largest city in Austria.

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Irish language

The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.

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Jakarta

Jakarta, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta (Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia.

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Jamón

Jamón (pl. jamones) is the Spanish word for ham.

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Janssons frestelse

Janssons frestelse (Jansson's temptation) is a traditional Swedish casserole made of potatoes, onions, pickled sprats, bread crumbs and cream.

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Japanese New Year

The is an annual festival with its own customs.

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Jasličkári

Jasličkári, jaslickare (English:The Infant) or betlehemci (English: The Bethlehemers) is a Christmas tradition within the Catholic communities of Slovakia where a troupe of young men visit the homes of their neighbors and perform recitations and songs to commemorate the story of the birth of Jesus Christ.

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Jänschwalde

Jänschwalde (Sorbian: Janšojce) is a municipality in the district of Spree-Neiße in Brandenburg in East Germany.

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Jesus

Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.

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Jollof rice

Jollof rice or just jollof, also called Benachin (Wolof: "one pot"), is a one-pot rice dish popular in many West African countries.

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Joulupöytä

Joulupöytä (translated "Yule table") is the traditional assortment of foods served at Christmas in Finland, similar to the Swedish julbord.

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Joulupukki

Joulupukki is a Finnish Christmas figure.

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Julemanden

Julemanden can be directly translated to "The Yule-Man" or "The Christmas-man".

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Julian calendar

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.

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Julmust

Julmust (jul "Yule" and must "not yet fermented juice of fruit or berries", though there is no such juice in julmust) is a soft drink that is mainly consumed in Sweden around Christmas.

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Julotta

A Julotta is a service within the Church of Sweden that celebrates the time of birth of Jesus Christ.

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Junkanoo

Junkanoo is a street parade with music, dance, and costumes of Akan origin in many islands across the Bahamas every Boxing Day (December 26) and New Year's Day (January 1), the same as "Kakamotobi" or the Fancy Dress Festival.

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Kakure Kirishitan

Kakure Kirishitan is a modern term for a member of the Japanese Catholic Church during the Edo period that went underground after the Shimabara Rebellion in the 1630s.

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Kale

Kale or leaf cabbage are certain cultivars of cabbage (Brassica oleracea) grown for their edible leaves.

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Kangaroo

The kangaroo is a marsupial from the family Macropodidae (macropods, meaning "large foot").

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Kasha

In the English language, kasha is a term for the pseudocereal buckwheat.

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Kastoria

Kastoria (Καστοριά, Kastoriá) is a city in northern Greece in the region of West Macedonia.

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KFC

KFC, until 1991 known as Kentucky Fried Chicken, is an American fast food restaurant chain that specializes in fried chicken.

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Kingdom of Scotland

The Kingdom of Scotland (Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843.

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Knäck

Knäck or Christmas Butterscotch is a traditional Swedish toffee prepared at Christmas.

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Knecht Ruprecht

Knecht Ruprecht (English: Farmhand Rupert or Servant Rupert) is a companion of Saint Nicholas as described in the folklore of Germany.

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Koledari

Koledari are Slavic traditional performers of a ceremony called koleduvane.

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Koliada

Koliada or koleda (Cyrillic: коляда, коледа, колада, коледе) is an ancient pre-Christian Slavic winter festival.

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Kompot

Kompot is a non-alcoholic sweet beverage of Slavic origin, that may be served hot or cold, depending on tradition and season.

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Krampus

In folklore, Krampus is a horned, anthropomorphic figure described as "half-goat, half-demon",Basu, Tanya (19 December 2013) National Geographic Magazine who, during the Christmas season, punishes children who have misbehaved, in contrast with Saint Nicholas, who rewards the well-behaved with gifts.

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Kwanzaa

Kwanzaa is a celebration held in the United States and in other nations of the African diaspora in the Americas and lasts a week.

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Lamb and mutton

Lamb, hogget, and mutton are the meat of domestic sheep (species Ovis aries) at different ages.

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Las Posadas

Las Posadas is a novenario (nine days of religious observance) celebrated chiefly in Latin America, Mexico, Guatemala, Cuba, and by Hispanics in the United States, beginning 16 December and ending 24 December.

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Last Christmas

"Last Christmas" is a song by English pop duo Wham!, released on Epic Records in December 1984, on a double A-side with "Everything She Wants".

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Lechon

Lechón in Spanish or Leitão in Portuguese is a pork dish in several regions of the world, most specifically in Bairrada, Portugal and Spain and its former colonial possessions throughout the world.

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Lisbon

Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.

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List of Christmas and winter gift-bringers by country

This is a list of Christmas and winter gift-bringer figures from around the world.

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List of Christmas dishes

This page is a list of Christmas dishes as eaten around the world.

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List of islands of Greece

Greece has a large number of islands, with estimates ranging from somewhere around 1,200 to 6,000, depending on the minimum size to take into account.

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List of multinational festivals and holidays

A very wide variety of multinational festivals and holidays are celebrated around the world, whether within particular religions, cultures, or otherwise.

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List of sovereign states and dependent territories in North America

This is an alphabetical list of sovereign states and dependent territories in North America.

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Little Christmas

Little Christmas (lit) is one of the traditional names in Ireland for 6 January, which is also known in other parts of the world as the Feast of the Epiphany.

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Little Red Riding Hood

"Little Red Riding Hood" is a European fairy tale about a young girl and a Big Bad Wolf.

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Lobster

Lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans.

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Los Angeles Lakers

The Los Angeles Lakers are an American professional basketball team based in Los Angeles.

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Lutefisk

Lutefisk (Norwegian) or lutfisk (Swedish) (pronounced in Northern and Central Norway, in Southern Norway, in Sweden and in Finland (lipeäkala)) is a traditional dish of some Nordic countries.

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Maamme

"Maamme" ("our land") or "Vårt land" is Finland's national anthem.

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Malta

Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Maluku (province)

Maluku (English: Moluccas) is a province of Indonesia. It comprises the central and southern regions of the Maluku Islands. The main city and capital of Maluku province is Ambon on the small Ambon Island. The province had a population of at the 2010 Census, and the latest estimate (for January 2014) is 1,708,190. All the Maluku Islands were part of a single province from 1950 until 1999. In 1999 the northern part of Maluku (then comprising the Maluku Utara Regency, the Halmahera Tengah Regency and the City of Ternate) were split off to form a separate province of North Maluku (Indonesian: Maluku Utara).

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Manger

A manger, or feeding trough, is a structure or feeder used to hold food for animals.

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Mani Peninsula

Mani | conventional_long_name.

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Marina Bay, Singapore

Marina Bay is a bay located in the Central Area of Singapore surrounded by the perimeter of four other planning areas, the Downtown Core, Marina East, Marina South and Straits View.

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Martin Luther

Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.

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Martyr

A martyr (Greek: μάρτυς, mártys, "witness"; stem μάρτυρ-, mártyr-) is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party.

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Mary, mother of Jesus

Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.

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Marzipan

Marzipan is a confection consisting primarily of sugar or honey and almond meal (ground almonds), sometimes augmented with almond oil or extract.

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Mass (liturgy)

Mass is a term used to describe the main eucharistic liturgical service in many forms of Western Christianity.

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Massacre of the Innocents

The Massacre of the Innocents is the biblical account of infanticide by Herod the Great, the Roman-appointed King of the Jews.

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Mecklenburg

Mecklenburg (locally, Low German: Mękel(n)borg) is a historical region in northern Germany comprising the western and larger part of the federal-state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.

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Meiji period

The, also known as the Meiji era, is a Japanese era which extended from October 23, 1868, to July 30, 1912.

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Melomakarono

The melomakarono (μελομακάρονο plural: μελομακάρονα, melomakarona) is an egg-shaped Greek dessert made mainly from flour, olive oil, and honey.

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Messiah (Handel)

Messiah (HWV 56) is an English-language oratorio composed in 1741 by George Frideric Handel, with a scriptural text compiled by Charles Jennens from the King James Bible, and from the version of the Psalms included with the Book of Common Prayer.

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Metrosideros excelsa

Metrosideros excelsa, with common names pōhutukawa, New Zealand pohutukawa, New Zealand Christmas tree, New Zealand Christmas bush, and iron tree, is a coastal evergreen tree in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae, that produces a brilliant display of red (or occasionally orange, yellow or white) flowers made up of a mass of stamens.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Midnight Mass

In many Western Christian traditions Midnight Mass is the first liturgy of Christmastide that is celebrated on the night of Christmas Eve, traditionally beginning at midnight when Christmas Eve gives way to Christmas Day.

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Mikulás

Mikulás (or Szent Miklós) is the Hungarian version of Saint Nicholas, and a similar figure to Santa Claus.

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Milan

Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.

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Milkfish

The milkfish (Chanos chanos) is the sole living species in the family Chanidae.

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Mince pie

A mince pie is a sweet pie of British origin, filled with a mixture of dried fruits and spices called "mincemeat", that is traditionally served during the Christmas season in the English-speaking world, excluding the USA.

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Minneapolis

Minneapolis is the county seat of Hennepin County, and the larger of the Twin Cities, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States.

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Misa de Gallo

Misa del Gallo (Spanish for "rooster's mass", also Misa de los Pastores, "shepherd's mass;" Portuguese: Missa do Galo) is a name for the Roman Catholic Mass celebrated around midnight of Christmas Eve and sometimes in the days immediately preceding Christmas.

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Mkhare

A mkhare (მხარე, mxare) is a type of administrative division in the country of Georgia.

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Molise

Molise is a region of Southern Italy.

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Monarchy of Canada

The monarchy of Canada is at the core of both Canada's federal structure and Westminster-style of parliamentary and constitutional democracy.

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Mont Blanc (dessert)

A Mont Blanc (or Mont-Blanc aux marrons) is a dessert of puréed, sweetened chestnuts filled mostly with whipped cream.

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Montenegro

Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.

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Montreal

Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.

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Mormon Tabernacle Choir

The Mormon Tabernacle Choir, sometimes colloquially referred to as MoTab or Tab Choir, is a 360-member choir.

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Mulled wine

Mulled wine is a beverage usually made with red wine along with various mulling spices and sometimes raisins.

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Mummers play

Mummers' Plays are folk plays performed by troupes of amateur actors, traditionally all male, known as mummers or guisers (also by local names such as rhymers, pace-eggers, soulers, tipteerers, wrenboys, and galoshins).

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Museum of Science and Industry (Chicago)

The Museum of Science and Industry (MSI) is located in Chicago, Illinois, in Jackson Park, in the Hyde Park neighborhood between Lake Michigan and The University of Chicago.

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Mythology

Mythology refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths.

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National anthem

A national anthem (also state anthem, national hymn, national song, etc.) is generally a patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nation's government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people.

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National Basketball Association

The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a men's professional basketball league in North America; composed of 30 teams (29 in the United States and 1 in Canada).

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Nativity Fast

The Nativity Fast is a period of abstinence and penance practiced by the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and Eastern Catholic Churches, in preparation for the Nativity of Jesus (December 25).

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Nativity of Jesus

The nativity of Jesus or birth of Jesus is described in the gospels of Luke and Matthew.

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Nativity play

A Nativity play or Christmas pageant is a play which recounts the story of the Nativity of Jesus.

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Nativity scene

In the Christian tradition, a nativity scene (also known as a manger scene, crib, crèche (or, or in Italian presepio or presepe) is the special exhibition, particularly during the Christmas season, of art objects representing the birth of Jesus.Berliner, R. The Origins of the Creche. Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 30 (1946), p. 251. While the term "nativity scene" may be used of any representation of the very common subject of the Nativity of Jesus in art, it has a more specialized sense referring to seasonal displays, either using model figures in a setting or reenactments called "living nativity scenes" (tableau vivant) in which real humans and animals participate. Nativity scenes exhibit figures representing the infant Jesus, his mother, Mary, and her husband, Joseph. Other characters from the nativity story, such as shepherds, sheep, and angels may be displayed near the manger in a barn (or cave) intended to accommodate farm animals, as described in the Gospel of Luke. A donkey and an ox are typically depicted in the scene, and the Magi and their camels, described in the Gospel of Matthew, are also included. Several cultures add other characters and objects that may or may not be Biblical. Saint Francis of Assisi is credited with creating the first live nativity scene in 1223 in order to cultivate the worship of Christ. He himself had recently been inspired by his visit to the Holy Land, where he'd been shown Jesus's traditional birthplace. The scene's popularity inspired communities throughout Catholic countries to stage similar pantomimes. Distinctive nativity scenes and traditions have been created around the world, and are displayed during the Christmas season in churches, homes, shopping malls, and other venues, and occasionally on public lands and in public buildings. Nativity scenes have not escaped controversy, and in the United States their inclusion on public lands or in public buildings has provoked court challenges.

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NBA Finals

The NBA Finals is the annual championship series of the National Basketball Association (NBA).

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Ndocciata

Ndocciata is an ancient Christmas festival celebrated in Molise, southern Italy, specifically in the city of Agnone.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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Newfoundland and Labrador

Newfoundland and Labrador (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador; Akamassiss; Newfoundland Irish: Talamh an Éisc agus Labradar) is the most easterly province of Canada.

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Nisse (folklore)

A 'nisse', tomte, tomtenisse or 'tonttu' is a mythological creature from Nordic folklore today typically associated with the winter solstice and the Christmas season.

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Nochebuena

Nochebuena is a Spanish word referring to the night of Christmas Eve and celebrated on December 24 every year.

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North Kalimantan

North Kalimantan (Kalimantan Utara) is a province of Indonesia.

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North Sulawesi

North Sulawesi (Sulawesi Utara) is a province of Indonesia.

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North Sumatra

North Sumatra (Sumatera Utara) is a province of Indonesia.

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Nova Scotia

Nova Scotia (Latin for "New Scotland"; Nouvelle-Écosse; Scottish Gaelic: Alba Nuadh) is one of Canada's three maritime provinces, and one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada.

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Novena

A novena (from Latin: novem, "nine") is an ancient tradition of devotional praying in Christianity, consisting of private or public prayers repeated for nine successive days or weeks.

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Nut roll

A nut roll is a pastry consisting of a sweet yeast dough (usually using milk) that is rolled out very thin, spread with a nut paste made from ground nuts and a sweetener like honey, then rolled up into a log shape.

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Nutmeg

Nutmeg is the seed or ground spice of several species of the genus Myristica.

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October Revolution

The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Olentzero

Olentzero (sometimes Olentzaro or Olantzaro) is a character in Basque Christmas tradition.

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Orchard Road

Orchard Road is a 2.2 kilometre-long major road in the Central Area of Singapore.

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Orchestra

An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble typical of classical music, which mixes instruments from different families, including bowed string instruments such as violin, viola, cello and double bass, as well as brass, woodwinds, and percussion instruments, each grouped in sections.

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Our Lady of Guadalupe

Our Lady of Guadalupe (Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe), also known as the Virgin of Guadalupe (Virgen de Guadalupe), is a Catholic title of the Blessed Virgin Mary associated with a venerated image enshrined within the Minor Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico City.

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Our Lady of the Rosary of Chiquinquirá

Our Lady of the Rosary of Chiquinquirá or the Virgin of Chiquinquirá is a Marian title of the Blessed Virgin Mary associated with a venerated image in the northern Andes region.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Oyster

Oyster is the common name for a number of different families of salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats.

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Palm wine

Palm wine is an alcoholic beverage created from the sap of various species of palm tree such as the palmyra, date palms, and coconut palms.

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Pan (god)

In ancient Greek religion and mythology, Pan (Πάν, Pan) is the god of the wild, shepherds and flocks, nature of mountain wilds, rustic music and impromptus, and companion of the nymphs.

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Pandesal

Pandesal or pan de sal (Spanish for "salt bread") is a common bread roll in the Philippines made of flour, eggs, yeast, sugar, and salt.

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Pandoro

Pandoro is a traditional Italian sweet yeast bread, most popular around Christmas and New Year.

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Panettone

Panettone (pronounced) is an Italian type of sweet bread loaf originally from Milan (in Milanese dialect of the Lombard language it is called paneton), usually prepared and enjoyed for Christmas and New Year in Western, Southern and Southeastern Europe as well as in the Horn of Africa, and to a lesser extent in former French, Spanish and Portuguese colonies.

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Panforte

Panforte is a traditional chewy Italian dessert containing fruits and nuts.

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Pantomime

Pantomime (informally panto) is a type of musical comedy stage production designed for family entertainment.

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Papua Island

Papua Island is a small circular island lying 4 nautical miles (7 km) west of Boreal Point, off the north coast of Joinville Island.

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Parol

A parol is an ornamental, star-shaped Christmas lantern from the Philippines.

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Parranda

Parranda, of Parranda de aguinaldo, is an Afro-Indigenous musical form played in various Caribbean countries including Puerto Rico, Cuba, Trinidad, and the coastal area of the states Aragua and Carabobo in Venezuela.

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Pasterka

Pasterka is a Midnight mass celebrated by Roman Catholics during Christmas between 24 and 25 December across Poland.

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Pastry

Pastry is a dough of flour, water and shortening (solid fats, including butter) that may be savoury or sweetened.

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Patras

Patras (Πάτρα, Classical Greek and Katharevousa: Πάτραι (pl.),, Patrae (pl.)) is Greece's third-largest city and the regional capital of Western Greece, in the northern Peloponnese, west of Athens.

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Père Noël

Père Noël, "Father Christmas", sometimes called Papa Noël ("Daddy Christmas"), is a legendary gift-bringer at Christmas in France and other French-speaking areas, identified with the Father Christmas and/or Santa Claus of English-speaking territories.

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Peter the Great

Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.

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Philippine languages

In linguistics, the Philippine languages are a proposal by Zorc (1986) and Robert Blust (1991) that all the languages of the Philippines and northern Sulawesi—except Sama–Bajaw (languages of the "Sea Gypsies") and a few languages of Palawan—form a subfamily of Austronesian languages.

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Piñata

A piñata is a container often made of papier-mâché, pottery, or cloth; it is decorated, and filled with small toys or candy, or both, and then broken as part of a ceremony or celebration.

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Pickled herring

Pickled herring is a delicacy in Europe, and has become a part of Baltic (marineeritud heeringas, marinēta siļķe, marinuota silkė), inlagd sill, silli, zure haring, Bismarckhering, zavináč, śledzie w occie, Eastern Slavic, Scottish, and Ashkenazi Jewish cuisine.

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Pierogi

Pierogi (singular pieróg), also known as varenyky, are filled dumplings of Eastern European origin made by wrapping unleavened dough around a savory or sweet filling and cooking in boiling water.

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Pine

A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus,, of the family Pinaceae.

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Pineapple

The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant with an edible multiple fruit consisting of coalesced berries, also called pineapples, and the most economically significant plant in the family Bromeliaceae.

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Pineapple tart

Pineapple tarts or nanas tart are small, bite-size pastries filled with or topped with pineapple jam found in different parts of Asia.

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Pinnekjøtt

In Norway, Pinnekjøtt, lit: Stick Meat, is a main course dinner dish of lamb or mutton.

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Pita

Pita in Greek, sometimes spelled pitta (mainly UK), also known as Arabic bread, Lebanese bread, or Syrian bread, is a soft, slightly leavened flatbread baked from wheat flour, which originated in Western Asia, most probably Mesopotamia around 2500 BC.

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Plygain

Plygain is a traditional Welsh Christmas service which takes place in a church between three and six o'clock in the morning, traditionally on Christmas morning.

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Polvorón

A polvorón (From polvo, the Spanish word for powder, or dust; Cebuano: polboron; pulburón) is a type of heavy, soft, and very crumbly Spanish shortbread made of flour, sugar, milk, and nuts (especially almonds).

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Pomerania

Pomerania (Pomorze; German, Low German and North Germanic languages: Pommern; Kashubian: Pòmòrskô) is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea in Central Europe, split between Germany and Poland.

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Poppy seed

Poppy seed is an oilseed obtained from the poppy (Papaver somniferum).

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Poppy seed roll

The poppy seed roll is a pastry consisting of a roll of sweet yeast bread (a viennoiserie) with a dense, rich, bittersweet filling of poppy seed.

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Porto

Porto (also known as Oporto in English) is the second-largest city in Portugal after Lisbon and one of the major urban areas of the Iberian Peninsula.

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Postal codes in Canada

A Canadian postal code is a six-character string that forms part of a postal address in Canada.

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Presbyterianism

Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.

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Protestantism

Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.

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Provence

Provence (Provençal: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River to the west to the Italian border to the east, and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south.

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Public holidays in Armenia

Official Holidays and remembrance days in Armenia: Other traditional, international and professional holidays, as well as religious holidays, are also celebrating in Armenia.

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Public holidays in Australia

Public holidays in Australia are declared on a state and territory basis.

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Public holidays in Brazil

In Brazil, public holidays may be legislated at the federal, statewide and municipal levels.

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Public holidays in Canada

Public holidays in Canada, known as statutory holidays, stat holidays, or simply stats, consist of a variety of cultural, nationalistic, and religious holidays that are legislated in Canada at the federal or provincial and territorial levels.

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Public holidays in Colombia

Colombia has 18 holidays (12 Catholic holidays and 6 Civic holidays), plus Palm and Easter Sunday.

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Public holidays in Eritrea

There are approximately sixteen nationally recognized public holidays in Eritrea, a country in the Horn of Africa.

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Public holidays in Estonia

All official holidays in Estonia are established by acts of Parliament.

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Public holidays in Finland

All official holidays in Finland are established by acts of Parliament.

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Public holidays in France

There are 11 official public holidays in France.

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Public holidays in Georgia

No description.

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Public holidays in Greece

According to Greek Law every Sunday of the year is a public holiday.

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Public holidays in Hong Kong

Public holidays and statutory holidays in Hong Kong are holidays designated by the Government of Hong Kong.

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Public holidays in India

India, being a culturally diverse and fervent society, celebrates various holidays and festivals.

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Public holidays in Indonesia

The following table indicates declared Indonesian government national holidays for the year 2018 only—cultural variants also provide opportunity for holidays tied to local events.

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Public holidays in Italy

The following days are public holidays in Italy: In addition each city or town celebrates a public holiday on the occasion of the festival of the local patron saint: for example, Rome - 29 June (SS. Peter and Paul), Milan - 7 December (S. Ambrose).

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Public holidays in Macau

The following is a list of the public holidays in Macau (Macao), as set by the Ordem Executiva nº 60/2000 (Executive Order no. 60/2000).

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Public holidays in Malaysia

There are two types of public holidays in Malaysia, those at national and state levels.

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Public holidays in Malta

Malta is the country with the most holidays in the European Union.

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Public holidays in Mexico

In Mexico there are three major kinds of public holidays.

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Public holidays in Moldova

Public holidays in the Republic of Moldova are the celebrated non-working days established by the Government of the Republic of Moldova and valid for the whole territory of the country.

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Public holidays in New Zealand

Public holidays in New Zealand (also known as statutory holidays) consist of a variety of cultural, nationalistic, and religious holidays that are legislated in New Zealand.

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Public holidays in Nigeria

Nigeria has many public holidays.

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Public holidays in Portugal

Public holidays celebrated in Portugal are a mix of religious (Roman Catholic), town, city, national holidays and holidays of the Autonomous regions of Portugal.

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Public holidays in Romania

Following is a list of holidays in Romania.

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Public holidays in Russia

The following is the list of official public holidays recognized by the Government of Russia.

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Public holidays in Singapore

There are eleven public holidays in Singapore.

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Public holidays in Slovakia

National holidays in Slovakia See also Remembrance days in Slovakia.

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Public holidays in South Korea

Public holidays in South Korea each belong to one or more of three categories.

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Public holidays in Spain

Public holidays celebrated in Spain include a mix of religious (Roman Catholic), national and regional observances.

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Public holidays in Sweden

Public holidays in Sweden (helgdagar) in Sweden are established by acts of Parliament (the Riksdag).

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Public holidays in the Czech Republic

Public holidays in the Czech Republic.

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Public holidays in the Philippines

This is a list of public holidays in the Philippines.

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Public holidays in the Republic of Ireland

These are the public holidays observed in Ireland.

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Public holidays in the United Kingdom

Public holidays in the United Kingdom are days on which most businesses and non-essential services are closed, although an increasing number of retail businesses (especially the larger ones) do open on some of the public holidays.

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Public holidays in the United States

The schedule of public holidays in the United States is largely influenced by the schedule of federal holidays, but is controlled by private sector employers who employ 62% of the total U.S. population with paid time off.

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Putri salju

Putri salju cookie (kue putri salju) is a kind of kue kering (cookie) from Indonesia which is crescent-shaped and coated with powdered sugar covered like snow.

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Putti Plutti Pott and Santa's Beard

Putti Plutti Pott and Santa's Beard (original Norwegian title: Putti Plutti Pott og Julenissens Skjegg) is a Norwegian children's musical written by Per Asplin.

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Quebec

Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.

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Queen Victoria

Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.

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Quempas

"Quempas" is the shortened title of the Latin Christmas carol "Quem pastores laudavere" ("He whom the shepherds praised"), popular in Germany in the sixteenth century, and used as a generic term for Christmas songs in a German caroling tradition.

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Qurabiya

Qurabiya (قورابیه Qurabiyə, Kurabiye, غرّيبة, Kurabie, Bosnian Gurabija, κουραμπιές, курабия, قرابیه), is a soft meringue-type biscuit originating from Tabriz (one of the major cities in North-West of Iran), usually made with ground almonds.

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Raclette

Raclette is a semi-hard cow's milk cheese that is usually fashioned into a wheel of about 6 kg (13 lb).

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Réveillon

In Belgium, France, Brazil, in the Canadian provinces of Quebec, Ontario and New Brunswick, the city of New Orleans, and some other French-speaking places, a réveillon is a long dinner held on the evenings preceding Christmas Day and New Year's Day.

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Reformation

The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.

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Regional cuisine

Regional cuisine is cuisine based upon national, state or local regions.

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Religion in Nigeria

Nigeria, the most populous African country (with a population of over 182 million in 2015), is nearly equally divided between Christianity and Islam, though the exact ratio is uncertain.

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Republic of Macedonia

Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Rice pudding

Rice pudding is a dish made from rice mixed with water or milk and other ingredients such as cinnamon and raisins.

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Rizal Day

Rizal Day is a Philippine national holiday commemorating the life and works of José Rizal, one of the Philippines' national heroes.

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Roast beef

Roast beef is a dish of beef which is roasted in an oven.

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Rockefeller Center

Rockefeller Center is a large complex consisting of 19 commercial buildings covering between 48th and 51st Streets, facing Fifth Avenue, in New York City.

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Rolf Harris

Rolf Harris (born 30 March 1930) is an Australian entertainer whose career has encompassed work as a musician, singer-songwriter, composer, comedian, actor, painter and television personality.

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Roman candle (firework)

A Roman candle is a traditional type of firework that ejects one or more stars or exploding shells.

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Romandy

Romandy (la Romandie)Before World War I, the term French Switzerland (Suisse française) was. is the French-speaking part of western Switzerland. In 2010, about 1.9 million people, or 24.4% of the Swiss population, lived in Romandy. The bulk of romand population lives in the Arc Lémanique region along Lake Geneva, connecting Geneva, Vaud and the Lower Valais.

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Royal Christmas Message

The Queen's Christmas Message (also known as The King's Christmas Message in the reign of a male monarch, formally as Her Majesty's Most Gracious Speech) is a broadcast made by the sovereign of the Commonwealth realms to the Commonwealth of Nations each Christmas.

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Royal family

A royal family is the immediate family of a king or queen regnant, and sometimes his or her extended family.

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Royal Hours

The Royal Hours is a particularly solemn celebration of the Little Hours in the Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic Churches.

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Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer

Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer, popularly known as "Santa's ninth reindeer", is a fabled reindeer created by Robert Lewis May.

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Sachertorte

Sachertorte is a specific type of chocolate cake, or torte, invented by Austrian Franz Sacher in 1832 for Prince Wenzel von Metternich in Vienna, Austria.

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Saffron bun

A saffron bun, Cornish tea treat bun or revel bun, Swedish lussebulle or lussekatt, Norwegian lussekatt, is a rich, spiced yeast-leavened sweet bun that is flavoured with saffron and cinnamon or nutmeg and contains currants similar to a teacake.

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Sagan om Karl-Bertil Jonssons julafton

Sagan om Karl-Bertil Jonssons julafton (Christopher's Christmas Mission) is a 1975 Swedish animated short film directed by Per Åhlin, adapted from Tage Danielsson's short story of the same name, telling the tale of a boy who steals Christmas gifts from the wealthy to give to the poor people of Stockholm while working in a post office on Christmas Eve.

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Saint Joseph

Joseph (translit) is a figure in the Gospels who was married to Mary, Jesus' mother, and, in the Christian tradition, was Jesus's legal father.

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Saint Lucy

Lucia of Syracuse (283–304), also known as Saint Lucy or Saint Lucia (Sancta Lucia), was a Christian martyr who died during the Diocletianic Persecution.

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Saint Lucy's Day

Saint Lucia's Day, also called the Feast of Saint Lucia, is a Christian feast day celebrated on 13 December in Advent, commemorating Saint Lucia, a 3rd-century martyr under the Diocletianic Persecution, who according to legend brought "food and aid to Christians hiding in the catacombs" using a candle-lit wreath to "light her way and leave her hands free to carry as much food as possible".

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Saint Nicholas

Saint Nicholas (Ἅγιος Νικόλαος,, Sanctus Nicolaus; 15 March 270 – 6 December 343), also called Nikolaos of Myra or Nicholas of Bari, was Bishop of Myra, in Asia Minor (modern-day Demre, Turkey), and is a historic Christian saint.

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Saint Nicholas Day

Saint Nicholas' Day, observed on December 6 in Western Christian countries and Romania, December 5 in the Netherlands and December 19 in Eastern Christian countries, is the feast day of Saint Nicholas.

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Saint Stephen

Stephen (Στέφανος Stéphanos, meaning "wreath, crown" and by extension "reward, honor", often given as a title rather than as a name), (c. AD 5 – c. AD 34) traditionally venerated as the protomartyr or first martyr of Christianity,, St.

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Saint Stephen's Day

Saint Stephen's Day, or the Feast of Saint Stephen, is a Christian saint's day to commemorate Saint Stephen, the first Christian martyr or protomartyr, celebrated on 26 December in the Latin Church and 27 December in Eastern Christianity.

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Salzburg

Salzburg, literally "salt fortress", is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of Salzburg state.

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Santa Claus

Santa Claus, also known as Saint Nicholas, Kris Kringle, Father Christmas, or simply Santa, is a legendary figure originating in Western Christian culture who is said to bring gifts to the homes of well-behaved ("good" or "nice") children on Christmas Eve (24 December) and the early morning hours of Christmas Day (25 December).

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Santa Claus's reindeer

In traditional festive legend, Santa Claus's reindeer pull a sleigh through the night sky to help Santa Claus deliver gifts to children on Christmas Eve.

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Santa Lucia

"Santa Lucia" is a traditional Neapolitan song.

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Santo Niño de Cebú

The Santo Niño de Cebú (Balaang Bata sa Sugbo, Batang Banal ng Cebu, Santo Niño de Cebú, Santo Nino kan Cebu) is a Roman Catholic title and religious image of the Child Jesus widely venerated as miraculous by Filipino Catholics.

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Sarma (food)

Sarma (from Turkish word "sarmak", meaning "to roll") is a dish of grape, cabbage, monk's rhubarb or chard leaves rolled around a filling usually based on minced meat, or a sweet dish of filo dough wrapped around a filling often of various kinds of chopped nuts.

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Satyr

In Greek mythology, a satyr (σάτυρος satyros) is the member of a troop of ithyphallic male companions of Dionysus; they usually have horse-like ears and tails, as well as permanent, exaggerated erections.

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Sauna

A sauna, or sudatory, is a small room or building designed as a place to experience dry or wet heat sessions, or an establishment with one or more of these facilities.

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Schleswig-Holstein

Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig.

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Scotland in the early modern period

Scotland in the early modern period refers, for the purposes of this article, to Scotland between the death of James IV in 1513 and the end of the Jacobite risings in the mid-eighteenth century.

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Scotland in the Late Middle Ages

Scotland in the Late Middle Ages, between the deaths of Alexander III in 1286 and James IV in 1513, established its independence from England under figures including William Wallace in the late 13th century and Robert Bruce in the 14th century.

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Secularity

Secularity (adjective form secular, from Latin saeculum meaning "worldly", "of a generation", "temporal", or a span of about 100 years) is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion.

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Seiffen

The town of Seiffen is located in the district of Erzgebirgskreis, which is in the central south of the Free State of Saxony in Germany.

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Serbia

Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.

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Serbian Cyrillic alphabet

The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet (српска ћирилица/srpska ćirilica, pronounced) is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script for the Serbian language, developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić.

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Serbian language

Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.

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Serbian Orthodox Church

The Serbian Orthodox Church (Српска православна црква / Srpska pravoslavna crkva) is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Christian Churches.

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Sherry

Sherry (Jerez or) is a fortified wine made from white grapes that are grown near the city of Jerez de la Frontera in Andalusia, Spain.

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Sicily

Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Sign of the cross

The sign of the cross (signum crucis), or blessing oneself or crossing oneself, is a ritual blessing made by members of most branches of Christianity.

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Sinterklaas

Sinterklaas or Sint-Nicolaas is a legendary figure based on Saint Nicholas, patron saint of children.

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Sled

A sled, sledge, or sleigh is a land vehicle with a smooth underside or possessing a separate body supported by two or more smooth, relatively narrow, longitudinal runners that travels by sliding across a surface.

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Smörgåsbord

Smörgåsbord is a type of Scandinavian meal, originating in Sweden, served buffet-style with multiple hot and cold dishes of various foods on a table.

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Snaps

Snaps is a Swedish and Danish word for a small shot of a strong alcoholic beverage taken during the course of a meal.

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Snegurochka

Snegurochka (diminutive) or Snegurka (p), or The Snow Maiden, is a character in Russian fairy tales.

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Society of Christian Doctrine

The Society of Christian Doctrine (Societas Doctrinæ Christianæ, Società della Dottrina Cristiana, Soċjetà Duttrina Nisranija; abbreviated SDC), better known as M.U.S.E.U.M., is a society of Catholic lay volunteers, made of men and women, teaching catechism in the Christian faith formation of children and adults.

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Soft drink

A soft drink (see terminology for other names) typically contains carbonated water (although some lemonades are not carbonated), a sweetener, and a natural or artificial flavoring.

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Sorbs

Sorbs (Serbja, Serby, Sorben), known also by their former autonyms Lusatians and Wends, are a West Slavic ethnic group predominantly inhabiting their homeland in Lusatia, a region divided between Germany (the states of Saxony and Brandenburg) and Poland (the provinces of Lower Silesia and Lubusz).

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Spare ribs

Spare ribs (also side ribs or spareribs) are a variety of pork ribs cooked and eaten in various cuisines around the world.

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Sparkling wine

Sparkling wine is a wine with significant levels of carbon dioxide in it, making it fizzy.

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Spruce

A spruce is a tree of the genus Picea, a genus of about 35 species of coniferous evergreen trees in the family Pinaceae, found in the northern temperate and boreal (taiga) regions of the Earth.

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Stanley Park

Stanley Park is a public park that borders the downtown of Vancouver in British Columbia, Canada and is almost entirely surrounded by waters of Vancouver Harbour and English Bay.

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Star of Bethlehem

The Star of Bethlehem, or Christmas Star, appears only in the nativity story of the Gospel of Matthew, where "wise men from the East" (Magi) are inspired by the star to travel to Jerusalem.

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Steak tartare

Steak tartare is a meat dish made from raw ground meat (beef or horsemeat).

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Strudel

A strudel is a type of layered pastry with a filling that is usually sweet.

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Struffoli

Struffoli (struffule) is a Neapolitan dish made of deep fried balls of dough about the size of marbles.

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Stuffing

Stuffing, filling, or dressing, is an edible substance or mixture, often a starch, used to fill a cavity in another food item while cooking.

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Sunday roast

The Sunday roast is a traditional British main meal that is typically served on Sunday (hence the name), consisting of roasted meat, roast potato, and accompaniments such as Yorkshire pudding, stuffing, vegetables and gravy.

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Surabaya

Surabaya (formerly Dutch: Soerabaia and later Surabaja) is a port city and the capital of East Java (Jawa Timur) province of Indonesia.

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Svensson, Svensson

Svensson, Svensson is a Swedish sitcom.

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SVT1

SVT1 (SVT Ett) is the primary television station of the Swedish public service broadcaster Sveriges Television in Sweden.

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Syracuse, Sicily

Syracuse (Siracusa,; Sarausa/Seragusa; Syrācūsae; Συράκουσαι, Syrakousai; Medieval Συρακοῦσαι) is a historic city on the island of Sicily, the capital of the Italian province of Syracuse.

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Syriac Orthodox Church

The Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch (ʿĪṯo Suryoyṯo Trišaṯ Šubḥo; الكنيسة السريانية الأرثوذكسية), or Syriac Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East, is an Oriental Orthodox Church with autocephalous patriarchate established in Antioch in 518, tracing its founding to St. Peter and St. Paul in the 1st century, according to its tradition.

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Tangerang

Tangerang (Sundanese:, Chinese: 丹格朗) is a city in the province of Banten, Indonesia.

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Tři oříšky pro Popelku

Tři oříšky pro Popelku, also known as Three Wishes for Cinderella and broadcast in the UK under the title Three Gifts for Cinderella) is a Czechoslovak/East German fairy-tale film from 1973. It was directed by Václav Vorlíček in co-production between DEFA-Studio für Spielfilme and Barrandov Studios. The story was based on a fairy tale written by Božena Němcová (a Bohemian variation of the classic Cinderella fairytale). The film had its international premiere in East Berlin in 1973.

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Thanksgiving (United States)

Thanksgiving, or Thanksgiving Day, is a public holiday celebrated on the fourth Thursday of November in the United States.

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The New Year (band)

The New Year is an American indie rock band that formed in 1999.

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The Nutcracker

The Nutcracker (Щелкунчик, Балет-феерия / Shchelkunchik, Balet-feyeriya; Casse-Noisette, ballet-féerie) is a two-act ballet, originally choreographed by Marius Petipa and Lev Ivanov with a score by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (op. 71).

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The Snow Maiden

The Snow Maiden (subtitle: A Spring Fairy Tale) (italic) is an opera in four acts with a prologue by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, composed during 1880–1881. The Russian libretto, by the composer, is based on the like-named play by Alexander Ostrovsky (which had premiered in 1873 with incidental music by Tchaikovsky). The first performance of Rimsky-Korsakov's opera took place at the Mariinsky Theatre, Saint Petersburg on 29 January 1882 (OS; 10 February NS) conducted by Eduard Nápravník. By 1898 it was revised in the edition known today. It remained the composer's own favorite work.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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The Winter's Tale

The Winter's Tale is a play by William Shakespeare originally published in the First Folio of 1623.

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Thessaloniki

Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη, Thessaloníki), also familiarly known as Thessalonica, Salonica, or Salonika is the second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, and the capital of Greek Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.

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Toronto

Toronto is the capital city of the province of Ontario and the largest city in Canada by population, with 2,731,571 residents in 2016.

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Tourtière

Tourtière (Quebec French: is a Canadian meat pie dish originating from the province of Quebec, usually made with minced pork, veal or beef and potatoes. Wild game is often added to enhance the taste of the pie. A traditional part of the Christmas réveillon and New Year's Eve meal in Quebec, it is also popular in New Brunswick, and is sold in grocery stores across the rest of Canada, all year long. Tourtière is not exclusive to Quebec. It is a traditional French-Canadian dish served by generations of French-Canadian families throughout Canada and the bordering areas of the United States. In the New England region of the U.S., especially in Maine, Rhode Island, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts (e.g., Chicopee and Attleboro), late 19th and early 20th century immigrants from Quebec introduced the dish. There is no one correct filling; the meat depends on what is regionally available. In coastal areas, fish such as salmon is commonly used, whereas pork, beef, rabbit and game are often included inland. The name derives from the vessel in which it was originally cooked, a tourtière. Tourtière has become the traditional and iconic dish of the region of Saguenay, Quebec since the Second World War, and It has undergone several metamorphoses according to the culinary history. The first recipe for what we consider today as pies was documented back to 1600 BCE. After that around 400 CE, some evidence proved the existence of patina (the prototype of tourtière), which was slightly different from the pie we have today in terms of the pie crust and composition. In the Middle Ages, patina and artocreas reappeared in some European countries. In Italy, the pie was named as “pasticcio”, “timballo” or “timpano de macaroni”. Something similar also occurred in England which was named “battle pies” and also the“tourte parmenienne” in France. During the 18th Century, a dish named “sea pie” became popular among French and British colonists. Jean-Pierre Lemasson (2009) described sea pie as “the direct forerunner of the tourtière of Lac-Saint-Jean”(p. 109).

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Trafalgar Square

Trafalgar Square is a public square in the City of Westminster, Central London, built around the area formerly known as Charing Cross.

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Train operating company

A train operating company (TOC) is a business operating passenger trains on the railway system of Great Britain under the collective National Rail brand.

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Tree of life (biblical)

The tree of life (עֵץ הַחַיִּים, Standard) is a term used in the Hebrew Bible that is a component of the world tree motif.

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Treviso

Treviso (Venetian: Trevixo) is a city and comune in the Veneto region of northern Italy.

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Trinitarian formula

The trinitarian formula is the phrase "in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit" (original Greek εἰς τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ Πατρὸς καὶ τοῦ Υἱοῦ καὶ τοῦ Ἁγίου Πνεύματος,, or in Latin in nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti), or words to that form and effect referring to the three persons of the Christian Trinity.

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Trinity

The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (from Greek τριάς and τριάδα, from "threefold") holds that God is one but three coeternal consubstantial persons or hypostases—the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit—as "one God in three Divine Persons".

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Troparion

A troparion (Greek τροπάριον, plural: troparia, τροπάρια; Georgian: ტროპარი, "tropari" Church Slavonic: тропа́рь, tropar) in Byzantine music and in the religious music of Eastern Orthodox Christianity is a short hymn of one stanza, or organised in more complex forms as series of stanzas.

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Truffle

A truffle is the fruiting body of a subterranean Ascomycete fungus, predominantly one of the many species of the genus Tuber.

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Turkey as food

Turkey meat, commonly referred to as just turkey, is the meat from turkeys, typically domesticated turkeys.

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Turku

Turku (Åbo) is a city on the southwest coast of Finland at the mouth of the Aura River, in the region of Southwest Finland.

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Turrón

Turrón), or torrone, is a southern European nougat confection, typically made of honey, sugar, and egg white, with toasted almonds or other nuts, and usually shaped into either a rectangular tablet or a round cake. It is frequently consumed as a traditional Christmas dessert in Spain and Italy as well as countries formerly under the Spanish Empire, particularly in Latin America.

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Twelve-dish Christmas Eve supper

A twelve-dish Christmas Eve supper is traditionally prepared in many Central European and Northern European cultures, especially those that were formerly part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, including Polish, Lithuanian, Ukrainian and Belarusian.

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Twente

Twente (Twenthe, Twente, Tweants dialect: Tweante) is a non-administrative region in the eastern Netherlands.

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Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church

The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (UGCC) (Ecclesia Graeco-Catholica Ucrainae) is a Byzantine Rite Eastern Catholic Church in full communion with the Holy See.

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Ukrainian Orthodox Church (disambiguation)

Ukrainian Orthodox Church may refer to.

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Uszka

Uszka (meaning "little ears" in Polish) are small dumplings (a very small and twisted version of pierogi) usually filled with flavoursome wild forest mushrooms and/or minced meat.

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Ute (vehicle)

A ute – originally an abbreviation for "utility" or "coupé utility" – is a term used in Australia and New Zealand to describe trayback vehicles, that can be driven with a regular driver's license.

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Vancouver

Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia.

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Vespers

Vespers is a sunset evening prayer service in the Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Eastern Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran liturgies of the canonical hours.

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Vicia sativa

Vicia sativa, known as the common vetch, garden vetch, tare or simply vetch, is a nitrogen-fixing leguminous plant in the family Fabaceae.

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Victoria Harbour

Victoria Harbour is a natural landform harbour situated between Hong Kong Island and Kowloon in Hong Kong.

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Vienna

Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.

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Vigil

A vigil, from the Latin vigilia meaning wakefulness (Greek: pannychis, παννυχίς or agrypnia ἀγρυπνία), is a period of purposeful sleeplessness, an occasion for devotional watching, or an observance.

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Villancico

The villancico (vilancete in Portuguese) was a common poetic and musical form of the Iberian Peninsula and Latin America popular from the late 15th to 18th centuries.

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Volos

Volos (Βόλος) is a coastal port city in Thessaly situated midway on the Greek mainland, about north of Athens and south of Thessaloniki.

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Vulture

A vulture is a scavenging bird of prey.

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West Kalimantan

West Kalimantan (Kalimantan Barat, Malay: كليمنتان بارت,; Hakka: Sî-Kâ-lí-màn-tân; Teochew: Sai-Gia-li-man-dang) is a province of Indonesia.

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West Sulawesi

West Sulawesi (Sulawesi Barat) is a province of Indonesia.

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Wigilia

Wigilia is the traditional Christmas Eve vigil supper in Poland, held on December 24.

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William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.

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Winter solstice

The winter solstice (or hibernal solstice), also known as midwinter, is an astronomical phenomenon marking the day with the shortest period of daylight and the longest night of the year.

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Winter War

The Winter War was a military conflict between the Soviet Union (USSR) and Finland.

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Wooden toymaking in the Ore Mountains

The history of wooden toymaking in the Ore Mountains is closely bound to regional circumstances.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Yamaguchi Prefecture

is a prefecture of Japan in the Chūgoku region of the main island of Honshu.

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Yorkshire pudding

Yorkshire pudding is a common British side dish baked pudding made from batter consisting of eggs, flour, and milk or water.

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Yule

Yule or Yuletide ("Yule time") was and is a festival observed by the historical Germanic peoples.

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Yule Goat

The Yule goat is a Scandinavian and Northern European Yule and Christmas symbol and tradition.

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Yule Lads

The Yuletide-lads, Yule Lads, or Yulemen (jólasveinarnir or jólasveinar), are figures from Icelandic folklore, portrayed as being mischievous pranksters, but who have in modern times also been depicted as taking on a more benevolent role similar to Santa Claus (Father Christmas).

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Yule log

The Yule log, Yule clog, or Christmas block is a specially selected log burnt on a hearth as a Christmas tradition in a number of countries in Europe.

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Yule log (cake)

A "Yule log" (or bûche de Noël) is a traditional dessert served near Christmas, especially in Belgium, France, Lebanon, Switzerland, Quebec, and several former French colonies.

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Yule Log (TV program)

The Yule Log is a television program originating in the United States, which is broadcast traditionally on Christmas Eve or Christmas morning.

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1960–61 NBA season

The 1960–61 NBA season was the 15th season of the National Basketball Association.

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2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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Christmas around the world, Christmas celebrations, Christmas customs, Christmas customs by country, Christmas customs in the United Kingdom, Christmas in Asia, Christmas in Brazil, Christmas in China, Christmas in Colombia, Christmas in Guatemala, Christmas in India, Christmas in Japan, Christmas in el salvador, Christmas in guatemala, Christmas in indonesia, Christmas in the United States, Christmas tradition, Christmas worldwide, Geography of Christmas.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christmas_traditions

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