240 relations: Allopatric speciation, Ancient Greek, Aneuploidy, Aphid, Apoptosis, Arabidopsis thaliana, Archaea, Asexual reproduction, Autosome, Bacteria, Barr body, Base pair, Bombyx mori, Borrelia burgdorferi, Boveri–Sutton chromosome theory, Bread, Buchnera (bacterium), Cancer, Cat, Cat eye syndrome, Cattle, Cell (biology), Cell cycle, Cell division, Cell membrane, Cell nucleus, Centromere, Chaperone (protein), Chicken, Chimpanzee, Chromatid, Chromatin, Chromosomal crossover, Chromosomal inversion, Chromosomal translocation, Chromosome (genetic algorithm), Chromosome 1, Chromosome 10, Chromosome 11, Chromosome 12, Chromosome 13, Chromosome 14, Chromosome 15, Chromosome 16, Chromosome 17, Chromosome 18, Chromosome 19, Chromosome 2, Chromosome 20, Chromosome 21, ..., Chromosome 22, Chromosome 3, Chromosome 4, Chromosome 5, Chromosome 6, Chromosome 7, Chromosome 8, Chromosome 9, Chromosome segregation, Circular bacterial chromosome, Colchicine, Common wheat, Cornu aspersum, Cri du chat syndrome, Cultivar, Cytogenetics, Cytoplasm, Deletion (genetics), DNA, DNA condensation, DNA replication, DNA sequencing, Dog, Domestic pig, Domestic pigeon, Donkey, Down syndrome, Drosophila melanogaster, Durum, Dye, Dyslexia, Earthworm, Edmund Beecher Wilson, Edwards syndrome, Einkorn wheat, Elephant, Endosymbiont, Ensembl genome database project, Epulopiscium fishelsoni, Ernst Mayr, Euchromatin, Eukaryote, Extrachromosomal DNA, Fertilisation, French language, Gamete, Gene, Gene prediction, Genealogical DNA test, Genetic algorithm, Genetic counseling, Genetic disorder, Genetic genealogy, Genetic load, Genetic recombination, Genome, Genus, Germline, Golden hamster, Goldfish, Gorilla, Greek language, Gregor Mendel, Guinea pig, Guppy, Gynecomastia, Hare, Hedgehog, Heinrich Wilhelm Gottfried von Waldeyer-Hartz, Heredity, Heterochromatin, Histone, Histone octamer, Histone-like nucleoid-structuring protein, Hominidae, Homologous chromosome, Horizontal gene transfer, Horse, Human, Human genome, Human Genome Project, Huntington's Disease Outreach Project for Education at Stanford, In vitro, Indian muntjac, Interphase, Intron, Isodicentric 15, Jacobsen syndrome, Joe Hin Tjio, Kinetochore, Kingfisher, Klinefelter syndrome, Laboratory mouse, Laboratory rat, Lampbrush chromosome, List of organisms by chromosome count, Locus (genetics), Lyme disease, Maize, Matthias Jakob Schleiden, Meiosis, Metaphase, Microchromosome, Microscope, Microtubule, Mitochondrial DNA, Mitochondrion, Mitosis, Mitotic catastrophe, Mosaic (genetics), Neochromosome, Nettie Stevens, Nicotiana tabacum, Nondisjunction, Nucleobase, Nucleoid, Nucleosome, Offspring, Oogonium, Operon, Ophioglossum, Optical microscope, Origin of replication, Otto Bütschli, Pallister–Killian syndrome, Parasitic chromosome, Paris-Trousseau syndrome, Pasta, Patau syndrome, Pill millipede, Plasmid, Ploidy, Polymorphism (biology), Polyploid, Polytene chromosome, Prokaryote, Protein, Rabbit, Race (human categorization), Red blood cell, Repeated sequence (DNA), Richard Goldschmidt, Rudolf Virchow, Rye, S phase, Sex chromosome, Sex-determination system, Sexual reproduction, Sheep, Sister chromatids, Small supernumerary marker chromosome, Soma (biology), Somatic cell, Sorangium cellulosum, Species, Speech delay, Spermatogonium, Spirochaete, Symbiosis, Synteny, Telomere, Theodor Boveri, Theophilus Painter, Thomas Hunt Morgan, Tibetan sand fox, Tobacco, Tonicity, Transcription (biology), Triple X syndrome, Trypanosoma brucei, Turner syndrome, Vector (molecular biology), Vertebrate and Genome Annotation Project, Virus, Walter Sutton, Walther Flemming, Wellcome Sanger Institute, Wheat, Wilhelm Johannsen, Wilhelm Roux, William Bateson, Wolf–Hirschhorn syndrome, X chromosome, X-inactivation, X0 sex-determination system, XY sex-determination system, XYY syndrome, Y chromosome, Y-chromosomal Aaron, Y-chromosomal Adam. Expand index (190 more) » « Shrink index
Allopatric speciation (from the ancient Greek allos, meaning "other", and patris, meaning "fatherland"), also referred to as geographic speciation, vicariant speciation, or its earlier name, the dumbbell model, is a mode of speciation that occurs when biological populations of the same species become isolated from each other to an extent that prevents or interferes with genetic interchange.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Aneuploidy is the presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell, for example a human cell having 45 or 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46.
Aphids are small sap-sucking insects and members of the superfamily Aphidoidea.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Arabidopsis thaliana, the thale cress, mouse-ear cress or arabidopsis, is a small flowering plant native to Eurasia and Africa.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.
An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (a sex chromosome).
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
A Barr body (named after discoverer Murray Barr) is the inactive X chromosome in a female somatic cell, rendered inactive in a process called lyonization, in those species in which sex is determined by the presence of the Y (including humans) or W chromosome rather than the diploidy of the X. The Lyon hypothesis states that in cells with multiple X chromosomes, all but one are inactivated during mammalian embryogenesis.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
The silkworm is the larva or caterpillar or imago of the domestic silkmoth, Bombyx mori (Latin: "silkworm of the mulberry tree").
Borrelia burgdorferi is a bacterial species of the spirochete class of the genus Borrelia.
The Boveri–Sutton chromosome theory (also known as the chromosome theory of inheritance or the Sutton–Boveri theory) is a fundamental unifying theory of genetics which identifies chromosomes as the carriers of genetic material.
Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking.
Buchnera aphidicola, a member of the Proteobacteria, is the primary endosymbiont of aphids, and has been studied in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus) is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal.
Cat eye syndrome (CES), or Schmid–Fraccaro syndrome, is a rare condition caused by the short arm (p) and a small section of the long arm (q) of human chromosome 22 being present three (trisomic) or four times (tetrasomic) instead of the usual two times.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
The centromere is the specialized DNA sequence of a chromosome that links a pair of sister chromatids (a dyad).
In molecular biology, molecular chaperones are proteins that assist the covalent folding or unfolding and the assembly or disassembly of other macromolecular structures.
The chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a type of domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the red junglefowl.
The taxonomical genus Pan (often referred to as chimpanzees or chimps) consists of two extant species: the common chimpanzee and the bonobo.
A chromatid (Greek khrōmat- 'color' + -id) is one copy of a newly copied chromosome which is still joined to the original chromosome by a single centromere.
Chromatin is a complex of macromolecules found in cells, consisting of DNA, protein, and RNA.
Chromosomal crossover (or crossing over) is the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes that results in recombinant chromosomes during sexual reproduction.
An inversion is a chromosome rearrangement in which a segment of a chromosome is reversed end to end.
In genetics, a chromosome translocation is a chromosome abnormality caused by rearrangement of parts between nonhomologous chromosomes.
In genetic algorithms, a chromosome (also sometimes called a genotype) is a set of parameters which define a proposed solution to the problem that the genetic algorithm is trying to solve.
Chromosome 1 is the designation for the largest human chromosome.
Chromosome 10 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Chromosome 11 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Chromosome 12 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Chromosome 13 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Chromosome 14 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Chromosome 15 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Chromosome 16 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Chromosome 17 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Chromosome 18 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Chromosome 19 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Chromosome 2 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Chromosome 20 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Chromosome 21 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Chromosome 22 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in human cells.
Chromosome 3 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Chromosome 4 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Chromosome 5 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Chromosome 6 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Chromosome 7 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Chromosome 8 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Chromosome 9 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.
Chromosome segregation is the process in eukaryotes by which two sister chromatids formed as a consequence of DNA replication, or paired homologous chromosomes, separate from each other and migrate to opposite poles of the nucleus.
A circular bacterial chromosome is a bacterial chromosome in the form of a molecule of circular DNA.
Colchicine is a medication most commonly used to treat gout.
Common wheat (Triticum aestivum), also known as bread wheat, is a cultivated wheat species.
Cornu aspersum, known by the common name garden snail, is a species of land snail.
Cri du chat syndrome, also known as chromosome 5p deletion syndrome, 5p− syndrome (pronounced "five P minus") or Lejeune's syndrome, is a rare genetic disorder due to chromosome deletion on chromosome 5.
The term cultivarCultivar has two denominations as explained in Formal definition.
Cytogenetics is a branch of genetics that is concerned with how the chromosomes relate to cell behaviour, particularly to their behaviour during mitosis and meiosis.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
In genetics, a deletion (also called gene deletion, deficiency, or deletion mutation) (sign: Δ) is a mutation (a genetic aberration) in which a part of a chromosome or a sequence of DNA is lost during DNA replication.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo.
In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.
The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the gray wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore.
The domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus or only Sus domesticus), often called swine, hog, or simply pig when there is no need to distinguish it from other pigs, is a large, even-toed ungulate.
The domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica) is a pigeon subspecies that was derived from the rock dove (also called the rock pigeon).
The donkey or ass (Equus africanus asinus) is a domesticated member of the horse family, Equidae.
Down syndrome (DS or DNS), also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21.
Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae.
Durum wheat, also called pasta wheat or macaroni wheat (Triticum durum or Triticum turgidum subsp. durum), is a tetraploid species of wheat.
A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.
Dyslexia, also known as reading disorder, is characterized by trouble with reading despite normal intelligence.
An earthworm is a tube-shaped, segmented worm found in the phylum Annelida.
Edmund Beecher Wilson (19 October 1856 – 3 March 1939) was a pioneering American zoologist and geneticist.
Edwards syndrome, also known as trisomy 18, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all, or part of a third copy of chromosome 18.
Einkorn wheat (from German Einkorn, literally "single grain") can refer either to the wild species of wheat, Triticum boeoticum, or to the domesticated form, Triticum monococcum.
Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea.
An endosymbiont or endobiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism in a symbiotic relationship with the host body or cell, often but not always to mutual benefit.
Ensembl genome database project is a joint scientific project between the European Bioinformatics Institute and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, which was launched in 1999 in response to the imminent completion of the Human Genome Project.
Epulopiscium fishelsoni, or "epulo" for short, is a species of Gram-positive bacteria that have a symbiotic relationship with surgeonfish.
Ernst Walter Mayr (5 July 1904 – 3 February 2005) was one of the 20th century's leading evolutionary biologists.
Euchromatin is a lightly packed form of chromatin (DNA, RNA, and protein) that is enriched in genes, and is often (but not always) under active transcription.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Extrachromosomal DNA is any DNA that is found outside the nucleus of a cell.
Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
In computational biology, gene prediction or gene finding refers to the process of identifying the regions of genomic DNA that encode genes.
A genealogical DNA test is a DNA-based test which looks at specific locations of a person's genome in order to determine ancestral ethnicity and genealogical relationships.
In computer science and operations research, a genetic algorithm (GA) is a metaheuristic inspired by the process of natural selection that belongs to the larger class of evolutionary algorithms (EA).
Genetic counseling is the process by which the patients or relatives at risk of an inherited disorder (or may be carrying a child at risk) are advised of the consequences and nature of the disorder, the probability of developing or transmitting it, and the options open to them in management and family planning.
A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.
Genetic genealogy is the use of DNA testing in combination with traditional genealogical methods to infer relationships between individuals and find ancestors.
Genetic load is the difference between the fitness of an average genotype in a population and the fitness of some reference genotype, which may be either the best present in a population, or may be the theoretically optimal genotype.
Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
In biology and genetics, the germline in a multicellular organism is the population of its bodily cells that are so differentiated or segregated that in the usual processes of reproduction they may pass on their genetic material to the progeny.
The golden hamster or Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a rodent in the subfamily Cricetinae, the hamsters.
The goldfish (Carassius auratus) is a freshwater fish in the family Cyprinidae of order Cypriniformes.
Gorillas are ground-dwelling, predominantly herbivorous apes that inhabit the forests of central Sub-Saharan Africa.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Gregor Johann Mendel (Řehoř Jan Mendel; 20 July 1822 – 6 January 1884) was a scientist, Augustinian friar and abbot of St. Thomas' Abbey in Brno, Margraviate of Moravia.
The guinea pig or domestic guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), also known as cavy or domestic cavy, is a species of rodent belonging to the family Caviidae and the genus Cavia.
The guppy (Poecilia reticulata), also known as millionfish and rainbow fish, is one of the world's most widely distributed tropical fish, and one of the most popular freshwater aquarium fish species.
Gynecomastia is an endocrine system disorder in which a noncancerous increase in the size of male breast tissue occurs.
Hares and jackrabbits are leporids belonging to the genus Lepus.
A hedgehog is any of the spiny mammals of the subfamily Erinaceinae, in the eulipotyphlan family Erinaceidae.
Heinrich Wilhelm Gottfried von Waldeyer-Hartz (6 October 1836 – 23 January 1921) was a German anatomist, famous for consolidating the neuron theory of organization of the nervous system and for naming the chromosome.
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
Heterochromatin is a tightly packed form of DNA or condensed DNA, which comes in multiple varieties.
In biology, histones are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes.
A histone octamer is the eight protein complex found at the center of a nucleosome core particle.
In molecular biology, the histone-like nucleoid-structuring (H-NS) protein belongs to a family of bacterial proteins that play a role in the formation of nucleoid structure and affect gene expression under certain conditions.
The Hominidae, whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and its extinct relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal), and ancestors, such as Homo erectus.
A couple of homologous chromosomes, or homologs, are a set of one maternal and one paternal chromosome that pair up with each other inside a cell during meiosis.
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring.
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
The human genome is the complete set of nucleic acid sequences for humans, encoded as DNA within the 23 chromosome pairs in cell nuclei and in a small DNA molecule found within individual mitochondria.
The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the sequence of nucleotide base pairs that make up human DNA, and of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and a functional standpoint.
The Huntington’s disease Outreach Project for Education at Stanford (HOPES) is a student-run project at Stanford University dedicated to making scientific information about Huntington's disease (HD) more readily accessible to patients and the public.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
The Indian muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak), also called red muntjac and barking deer, is a common muntjac deer species in South and Southeast Asia.
Interphase is the phase of the cell cycle in which a typical cell spends most of its life.
An intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing during maturation of the final RNA product.
Isodicentric 15, also called idic(15), partial tetrasomy 15q, or inverted duplication 15 (inv dup 15), is a chromosome abnormality in which a child is born with extra genetic material from chromosome 15.
Jacobsen syndrome is a rare chromosomal disorder resulting from deletion of genes from chromosome 11 that includes band 11q24.1.
Joe Hin Tjio (2 November 1919 – 27 November 2001), was an Indonesian-born American cytogeneticist.
A kinetochore is a disc-shaped protein structure, found at the centromere of a chromatid, to which microtubules attach during cell division.
Kingfishers or Alcedinidae are a family of small to medium-sized, brightly colored birds in the order Coraciiformes.
Klinefelter syndrome (KS) also known as 47,XXY or XXY, is the set of symptoms that result from two or more X chromosomes in males.
The laboratory mouse is a small mammal of the order Rodentia which is bred and used for scientific research.
A laboratory rat or lab rat is a rat of the species Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) which is bred and kept for scientific research.
Lampbrush chromosomes are a special form of chromosome found in the growing oocytes (immature eggs) of most animals, except mammals.
The list of organisms by chromosome count describes ploidy or numbers of chromosomes in the cells of various plants, animals, protists, and other living organisms.
A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).
Lyme disease, also known as Lyme borreliosis, is an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the Borrelia type which is spread by ticks.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Matthias Jakob Schleiden (5 April 1804 23 June 1881) was a German botanist and co-founder of cell theory, along with Theodor Schwann and Rudolf Virchow.
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
Metaphase (from the Greek μετά, "adjacent" and φάσις, "stage") is a stage of mitosis in the eukaryotic cell cycle in which chromosomes are at their second-most condensed and coiled stage (they are at their most condensed in anaphase).
A microchromosome is a type of very small chromosome which is a typical component of the karyotype of birds, some reptiles, fish, and amphibians; they tend to be absent in mammals.
A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.
Microtubules are tubular polymers of tubulin that form part of the cytoskeleton that provides the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and some bacteria with structure and shape.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.
Mitotic catastrophe refers to a mechanism of delayed mitosis-linked cell death, a sequence of events resulting from premature or inappropriate entry of cells into mitosis that can be caused by chemical or physical stresses.
In genetics, a mosaic, or mosaicism, involves the presence of two or more populations of cells with different genotypes in one individual, who has developed from a single fertilized egg.
A neochromosome is a chromosome that is not normally found in nature.
Nettie Maria Stevens (July 7, 1861 – May 4, 1912) was an early American geneticist.
Nicotiana tabacum, or cultivated tobacco, is an annually-grown herbaceous plant.
Nondisjunction is the failure of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate properly during cell division.
Nucleobases, also known as nitrogenous bases or often simply bases, are nitrogen-containing biological compounds that form nucleosides, which in turn are components of nucleotides, with all of these monomers constituting the basic building blocks of nucleic acids.
The nucleoid (meaning nucleus-like) is an irregularly shaped region within the cell of a prokaryote that contains all or most of the genetic material, called genophore.
A nucleosome is a basic unit of DNA packaging in eukaryotes, consisting of a segment of DNA wound in sequence around eight histone protein cores.
In biology, offspring are the young born of living organisms, produced either by a single organism or, in the case of sexual reproduction, two organisms.
An oogonium (plural oogonia) is a small diploid cell which upon maturation forms a primordial follicle in a female fetus or the female (haploid or diploid) gametangium of certain thallophytes.
In genetics, an operon is a functioning unit of DNA containing a cluster of genes under the control of a single promoter.
Ophioglossum, the adder's-tongue ferns, is a genus of about 25–30 species of ferns in the family Ophioglossaceae, of the order Ophioglossales.
The optical microscope, often referred to as the light microscope, is a type of microscope that uses visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images of small subjects.
The origin of replication (also called the replication origin) is a particular sequence in a genome at which replication is initiated.
Johann Adam Otto Bütschli (3 May 1848 – 2 February 1920) was a German zoologist and professor at the University of Heidelberg.
Pallister–Killian syndrome (also tetrasomy 12p mosaicism or Pallister mosaic aneuploidy syndrome) is an extremely rare genetic disorder occurring in humans.
Parasitic chromosomes are ¨selfish¨ chromosomes that propagate throughout cell divisions, even if they have no benefit to the overall organism's survival.
Paris-Trousseau syndrome (PTS) is an inherited disorder characterized by mild hemorrhagic tendency associated with 11q chromosome deletion.
Pasta is a staple food of traditional Italian cuisine, with the first reference dating to 1154 in Sicily.
Patau syndrome is a syndrome caused by a chromosomal abnormality, in which some or all of the cells of the body contain extra genetic material from chromosome 13.
Pill millipedes are any members of two living (and one extinct) orders of millipedes, often grouped together into a single superorder, Oniscomorpha.
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.
Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.
Polymorphism in biology and zoology is the occurrence of two or more clearly different morphs or forms, also referred to as alternative phenotypes, in the population of a species.
Polyploid cells and organisms are those containing more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes.
Polytene chromosomes are large chromosomes which have thousands of DNA strands.
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha (along with the hare and the pika).
A race is a grouping of humans based on shared physical or social qualities into categories generally viewed as distinct by society.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
Repeated sequences (also known as repetitive elements, or repeats) are patterns of nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) that occur in multiple copies throughout the genome.
Richard Benedict Goldschmidt (April 12, 1878 – April 24, 1958) was a German-born American geneticist.
Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow (13 October 1821 – 5 September 1902) was a German physician, anthropologist, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist, writer, editor, and politician, known for his advancement of public health.
Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop.
S phase (synthesis phase) is the part of the cell cycle in which DNA is replicated, occurring between G1 phase and G2 phase.
An allosome (also referred to as a sex chromosome, heterotypical chromosome, heterochromosome, or idiochromosome) is a chromosome that differs from an ordinary autosome in form, size, and behavior.
A sex-determination system is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism.
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.
A sister chromatid refers to the identical copies (chromatids) formed by the replication of a chromosome, with both copies joined together by a common centromere.
Humans typically have 22 pairs of autosomal chromosomes in their cells, and a pair of sex chromosomes.
The soma (pl. somata or somas), perikaryon (pl. perikarya), neurocyton, or cell body is the bulbous, non-process portion of a neuron or other brain cell type, containing the cell nucleus.
A somatic cell (from the Greek σῶμα sôma, meaning "body") or vegetal cell is any biological cell forming the body of an organism; that is, in a multicellular organism, any cell other than a gamete, germ cell, gametocyte or undifferentiated stem cell.
Sorangium cellulosum is a soil-dwelling Gram-negative bacterium of the group myxobacteria.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Speech delay, also known as alalia, refers to a delay in the development or use of the mechanisms that produce speech.
A spermatogonium (plural: spermatogonia) is an undifferentiated male germ cell.
A spirochaete or spirochete is a member of the phylum Spirochaetes, which contains distinctive diderm (double-membrane) bacteria, most of which have long, helically coiled (corkscrew-shaped or spiraled, hence the name) cells.
Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.
In classical genetics, synteny describes the physical co-localization of genetic loci on the same chromosome within an individual or species.
A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes.
Theodor Heinrich Boveri (12 October 1862 – 15 October 1915) was a German biologist.
Theophilus Shickel Painter (August 22, 1889 – October 5, 1969) was an American zoologist best-known for his work on the structure and function of chromosomes, especially the sex-determination genes X and Y in humans.
Thomas Hunt Morgan (September 25, 1866 – December 4, 1945) was an American evolutionary biologist, geneticist, embryologist, and science author who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1933 for discoveries elucidating the role that the chromosome plays in heredity.
The Tibetan sand fox (Vulpes ferrilata) is a species of true fox endemic to the high Tibetan Plateau, Ladakh plateau, Nepal, China, Sikkim, and Bhutan, up to altitudes of about 5300 m. It is classed as of "least concern" for extinction by the IUCN, on account of its widespread range in the Tibetan Plateau's steppes and semi-deserts.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
Tonicity is a measure of the effective osmotic pressure gradient, as defined by the water potential of two solutions separated by a semipermeable membrane.
Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.
Triple X syndrome, also known as trisomy X and 47,XXX, is characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome in each cell of a female.
Trypanosoma brucei is a species of parasitic kinetoplastid belonging to the genus Trypanosoma.
Turner syndrome (TS), also known as 45,X or 45,X0, is a condition in which a female is partly or completely missing an X chromosome.
In molecular cloning, a vector is a DNA molecule used as a vehicle to artificially carry foreign genetic material into another cell, where it can be replicated and/or expressed (e.g.- plasmid, cosmid, Lambda phages).
The Vertebrate Genome Annotation (VEGA) database is a biological database dedicated to assisting researchers in locating specific areas of the genome and annotating genes or regions of vertebrate genomes.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Walter Stanborough Sutton (April 5, 1877 – November 10, 1916) was an American geneticist and physician whose most significant contribution to present-day biology was his theory that the Mendelian laws of inheritance could be applied to chromosomes at the cellular level of living organisms.
Walther Flemming (21 April 1843 – 4 August 1905) was a German biologist and a founder of cytogenetics.
The Wellcome Sanger Institute, previously known as The Sanger Centre and Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, is a non-profit British genomics and genetics research institute, primarily funded by the Wellcome Trust.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
Wilhelm Johannsen (3 February 1857 – 11 November 1927) was a Danish botanist, plant physiologist, and geneticist.
Wilhelm Roux (9 June 1850 – 15 September 1924) was a German zoologist and pioneer of experimental embryology.
William Bateson (8 August 1861 – 8 February 1926) was an English biologist who was the first person to use the term genetics to describe the study of heredity, and the chief populariser of the ideas of Gregor Mendel following their rediscovery in 1900 by Hugo de Vries and Carl Correns.
Wolf–Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS), also known as chromosome deletion Dillan 4p syndrome, Pitt–Rogers–Danks syndrome (PRDS) or Pitt syndrome, is a chromosomal deletion syndrome resulting from a partial deletion from the short arm of chromosome 4 (del(4p16.3)).
The X chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes (allosomes) in many organisms, including mammals (the other is the Y chromosome), and is found in both males and females.
X-inactivation (also called lyonization) is a process by which one of the copies of the X chromosome present in female mammals is inactivated.
The X0 sex-determination system is a system that determines the sex of offspring among.
The XY sex-determination system is the sex-determination system found in humans, most other mammals, some insects (Drosophila), some snakes, and some plants (Ginkgo).
XYY syndrome is a genetic condition in which a male has an extra Y chromosome.
The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals.
Y-chromosomal Aaron is the name given to the hypothesized most recent common ancestor of the majority of the patrilineal Jewish priestly caste known as Kohanim (singular "Kohen", also spelled "Cohen").
In human genetics, the Y-chromosomal most recent common ancestor (Y-MRCA, informally known as Y-chromosomal Adam) is the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) from whom all currently living men are descended patrilineally.