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A chromosome (''chromo-'' + ''-some'') is a packaged and organized structure containing most of the DNA of a living organism. [1]

235 relations: Allopatric speciation, Allosome, Aneuploidy, Aphid, Apoptosis, Arabidopsis thaliana, Archaea, Asexual reproduction, Autosome, Bacteria, Barr body, Base pair, Bombyx mori, Borrelia burgdorferi, Boveri–Sutton chromosome theory, Bread, Buchnera (bacterium), Cancer, Cat, Cat eye syndrome, Cattle, Cell (biology), Cell cycle, Cell division, Cell membrane, Cell nucleus, Centromere, Chicken, Chimpanzee, Chloroplast, Chromatid, Chromatin, Chromosomal crossover, Chromosomal inversion, Chromosomal translocation, Chromosome (genetic algorithm), Chromosome 1 (human), Chromosome 10 (human), Chromosome 11 (human), Chromosome 12 (human), Chromosome 13 (human), Chromosome 14 (human), Chromosome 15 (human), Chromosome 16 (human), Chromosome 17 (human), Chromosome 18 (human), Chromosome 19 (human), Chromosome 2 (human), Chromosome 20 (human), Chromosome 21 (human), ..., Chromosome 22 (human), Chromosome 3 (human), Chromosome 4 (human), Chromosome 5 (human), Chromosome 6 (human), Chromosome 7 (human), Chromosome 8 (human), Chromosome 9 (human), Circular bacterial chromosome, Classical compound, Colchicine, Common wheat, Cornu aspersum, Cri du chat, Cultivar, Cytogenetics, Cytoplasm, Deletion (genetics), DNA, DNA replication, DNA sequencing, Dog, Domestic pig, Domestic pigeon, Donkey, Down syndrome, Drosophila melanogaster, Durum, Dye, Dyslexia, Earthworm, Edmund Beecher Wilson, Edwards syndrome, Einkorn wheat, Elephant, Endosymbiont, Ensembl, Epulopiscium fishelsoni, Ernst Mayr, Euchromatin, Eukaryote, Extrachromosomal DNA, Fertilisation, French language, Gamete, Gene, Gene prediction, Genealogical DNA test, Genetic algorithm, Genetic counseling, Genetic disorder, Genetic genealogy, Genetic load, Genus, Germline, Golden hamster, Goldfish, Gorilla, Greek language, Gregor Mendel, Guinea pig, Guppy, Gynecomastia, Hare, Hedgehog, Heinrich Wilhelm Gottfried von Waldeyer-Hartz, Heredity, Heterochromatin, Histone, Histone-like nucleoid-structuring protein, Hominidae, Homologous chromosome, Horizontal gene transfer, Horse, Human, Human genome, Human Genome Project, Huntington's Disease Outreach Project for Education at Stanford, In vitro, Interphase, Intron, Isodicentric 15, Jacobsen syndrome, Joe Hin Tjio, Kinetochore, Kingfisher, Klinefelter syndrome, Laboratory mouse, Laboratory rat, Lampbrush chromosome, List of organisms by chromosome count, Locus (genetics), Lyme disease, Maize, Maternal influence on sex determination, Meiosis, Metaphase, Microchromosome, Microscope, Microscopy, Microtubule, Mitochondrial DNA, Mitochondrion, Mitosis, Mitotic catastrophe, Mosaic (genetics), Neochromosome, Nicotiana tabacum, Noncoding DNA, Nucleobase, Nucleoid, Nucleosome, Offspring, Oogonium, Operon, Ophioglossum, Organism, Origin of replication, Otto Bütschli, Pallister–Killian syndrome, Paris-Trousseau syndrome, Pasta, Patau syndrome, Pill millipede, Plasmid, Ploidy, Polymorphism (biology), Polyploid, Polytene chromosome, Prokaryote, Protein, Rabbit, Race (human categorization), Red blood cell, Regulatory sequence, Repeated sequence (DNA), Richard Goldschmidt, Rudolf Virchow, Rye, Schleiden, Sex-determination system, Sexual reproduction, Sheep, Sister chromatids, Small supernumerary marker chromosome, Soma, Somatic cell, Sorangium cellulosum, Species, Speech delay, Spermatogonium, Spindle apparatus, Spirochaete, Symbiosis, Synteny, Telomere, Theodor Boveri, Theophilus Painter, Thomas Hunt Morgan, Tibetan sand fox, Tobacco, Tonicity, Transcription (genetics), Triple X syndrome, Trypanosoma brucei, Turner syndrome, Vector (molecular biology), Vertebrate and Genome Annotation Project, Virus, Walter Sutton, Walther Flemming, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wheat, Wilhelm Johannsen, Wilhelm Roux, William Bateson, Wolf–Hirschhorn syndrome, X chromosome, X-inactivation, X0 sex-determination system, XY sex-determination system, XYY syndrome, Y chromosome, Y-chromosomal Aaron, Y-chromosomal Adam. Expand index (185 more) »

Allopatric speciation (from the ancient Greek allos, "other" + Greek patris, "fatherland") or geographic speciation is speciation that occurs when biological populations of the same species become vicariant, or isolated from each other to an extent that prevents or interferes with genetic interchange.

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An allosome (also referred to as a sex chromosome, heterotypical chromosome, heterochromosome, or idiochromosome) is a chromosome that differs from an ordinary autosome in form, size, and behavior.

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Aneuploidy is the presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell, such as having 45 or 47 chromosomes when 46 is expected.

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Aphids, also known as plant lice and in Britain and the Commonwealth as greenflies, blackflies, or whiteflies (not to be confused with "jumping plant lice" or true whiteflies), are small sap-sucking insects, and members of the superfamily Aphidoidea.

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Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπό apo, "by, from, of, since, than" and πτῶσις ptōsis, "fall") is the process of programmed cell death that may occur in multicellular organisms.

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Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress, mouse-ear cress or arabidopsis) is a small flowering plant native to Eurasia.

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The Archaea (or or; singular archaeon) constitute a domain or kingdom of single-celled microorganisms.

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Asexual reproduction is a mode of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.

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An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (i.e., not a sex chromosome).

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Bacteria (singular: bacterium) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms.

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A Barr body (named after discoverer Murray Barr) is the inactive X chromosome in a female somatic cell, rendered inactive in a process called lyonization, in those species in which sex is determined by the presence of the Y (including humans) or W chromosome rather than the diploidy of the X or Z. The Lyon hypothesis states that in cells with multiple X chromosomes, all but one are inactivated during mammalian embryogenesis.

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Base pairs (unit: bp), which form between specific nucleobases (also termed nitrogenous bases), are the building blocks of the DNA double helix and contribute to the folded structure of both DNA and RNA.

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The silkworm is the larva or caterpillar of the domesticated silkmoth, Bombyx mori (Latin: "silkworm of the mulberry tree").

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Borrelia burgdorferi is a bacterial species of the spirochete class of the genus Borrelia.

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The Boveri–Sutton chromosome theory (also known as the chromosome theory of inheritance or the Sutton–Boveri theory) is a fundamental unifying theory of genetics which identifies chromosomes as the carriers of genetic material.

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Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking.

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Buchnera aphidicola, a member of the Proteobacteria, is the primary endosymbiont of aphids, and has been studied in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.

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Cancer, also known as a malignant tumor or malignant neoplasm, is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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The domestic cat (Felis catus or Felis silvestris catus) is a small, usually furry, domesticated, and carnivorous mammal.

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Cat eye syndrome (CES), or Schmid–Fraccaro syndrome, is a rare condition caused by the short arm (p) and a small section of the long arm (q) of human Chromosome 22 being present three (trisomic) or four times (tetrasomic)(usually 3 times) instead of the usual two times.

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Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.

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The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication (replication) that produces two daughter cells.

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Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.

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The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment.

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In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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The centromere (''centro-'' + ''-mere'') is the part of a chromosome that links sister chromatids.

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The chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the red junglefowl.

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Chimpanzees, colloquially called chimps, are two extant hominid species of apes in the genus Pan.

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Chloroplasts are organelles, specialized subunits, in plant and algal cells.

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A chromatid (Greek khrōmat- 'color' + -id) is one copy of a newly replicated chromosome, which typically is joined to the other copy by a single centromere.

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Chromatin is a complex of macromolecules found in cells, consisting of DNA, protein and RNA.

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Chromosomal crossover (or crossing over) is the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes that results in recombinant chromosomes during sexual reproduction.

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An inversion is a chromosome rearrangement in which a segment of a chromosome is reversed end to end.

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In genetics, a chromosome translocation is a chromosome abnormality caused by rearrangement of parts between nonhomologous chromosomes.

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In genetic algorithms, a chromosome (also sometimes called a genotype) is a set of parameters which define a proposed solution to the problem that the genetic algorithm is trying to solve.

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Chromosome 1 is the designation for the largest human chromosome.

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Chromosome 10 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.

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Chromosome 11 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.

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Chromosome 12 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.

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Chromosome 13 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.

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Chromosome 14 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.

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Chromosome 15 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.

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Chromosome 16 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.

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Chromosome 17 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.

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Chromosome 18 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.

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Chromosome 19 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.

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Chromosome 2 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.

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Chromosome 20 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.

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Chromosome 21 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.

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Chromosome 22 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in human cells.

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Chromosome 3 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.

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Chromosome 4 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.

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Chromosome 5 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.

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Chromosome 6 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.

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Chromosome 7 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.

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Chromosome 8 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.

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Chromosome 9 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.

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A circular bacterial chromosome is a bacterial chromosome in the form of a molecule of circular DNA.

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Classical compounds and neoclassical compounds are compound words composed from combining forms (which act as affixes or stems) derived from classical Latin or ancient Greek roots.

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Colchicine is a medication most commonly used to treat gout.

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Common wheat (Triticum aestivum), also known as bread wheat, is a cultivated wheat species.

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Cornu aspersum, known by the common name garden snail, is a species of land snail.

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Cri du chat syndrome, also known as chromosome 5p deletion syndrome, 5p− (said minus) syndrome or Lejeune’s syndrome, is a rare genetic disorder due to a missing part (deletion) of chromosome 5.

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A cultivarCultivar has two meanings as explained under Formal definition. When used in reference to a taxon, the word does not apply to an individual plant but to all those plants sharing the unique characteristics that define the cultivar.

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Cytogenetics is a branch of genetics that is concerned with the study of the structure and function of the cell, especially the chromosomes.

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The cytoplasm comprises cytosol (the gel-like substance enclosed within the cell membrane) – and the organelles – the cell's internal sub-structures.

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In genetics, a deletion (also called gene deletion, deficiency, or deletion mutation) (sign: Δ) is a mutation (a genetic aberration) in which a part of a chromosome or a sequence of DNA is lost during DNA replication.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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DNA replication is the process of producing two identical replicas from one original DNA molecule.

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DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.

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The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris or Canis familiaris) is a domesticated canid which has been selectively bred for millennia for various behaviors, sensory capabilities, and physical attributes.

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The domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus or Sus domesticus), often called swine or hog, is a large, even-toed ungulate; it is variously considered a subspecies of the wild boar, or a distinct species.

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The domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica) is a pigeon that was derived from the rock pigeon.

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The donkey or ass (Equus africanus asinus), is a domesticated member of the horse family, Equidae.

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Down syndrome (DS or DNS) or Down's syndrome, also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21.

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Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae.

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Durum wheat or macaroni wheat (Triticum durum or Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) is the only tetraploid species of wheat of commercial importance that is widely cultivated today.

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A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.

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Dyslexia, also known as reading disorder, is a learning disability characterized by trouble with reading despite normal intelligence.

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An earthworm is a tube-shaped, segmented worm found in the phylum Annelida.

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Edmund Beecher Wilson (19 October 1856 – 3 March 1939) was a pioneering American zoologist and geneticist.

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Edwards syndrome (also known as trisomy 18) is a chromosomal abnormality caused by the presence of all, or part of, an extra 18th chromosome.

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Einkorn wheat (from German Einkorn, literally "single grain") can refer either to the wild species of wheat, Triticum baeoticum, or to the domesticated form, Triticum monococcum.

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Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea.

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An endosymbiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism, i.e. forming an endosymbiosis (Greek: ἔνδον endon "within", σύν syn "together" and βίωσις biosis "living").

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Ensembl is a joint scientific project between the European Bioinformatics Institute and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, which was launched in 1999 in response to the imminent completion of the Human Genome Project.

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Epulopiscium fishelsoni, or "epulo" for short, is a species of Gram-positive bacteria that have a symbiotic relationship with surgeonfish.

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Ernst Walter Mayr (5 July 1904 – 3 February 2005) was one of the 20th century's leading evolutionary biologists.

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Euchromatin is a lightly packed form of chromatin (DNA, RNA and protein) that is rich in gene concentration, and is often (but not always) under active transcription.

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A eukaryote (or or) is any organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes.

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Extrachromosomal DNA is any DNA that is found outside of the nucleus of a cell.

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Fertilisation (also known as conception, fecundation and syngamy) is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.

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French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language, belonging to the Indo-European family.

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A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete "wife") is a cell that fuses with another cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.

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A gene is a locus (or region) of DNA that encodes a functional RNA or protein product, and is the molecular unit of heredity.

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In computational biology gene prediction or gene finding refers to the process of identifying the regions of genomic DNA that encode genes.

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A genealogical DNA test looks at a person's genome at specific locations.

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In the field of artificial intelligence, a genetic algorithm (GA) is a search heuristic that mimics the process of natural selection.

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Genetic counseling is the process by which the patients or relatives at risk of an inherited disorder are advised of the consequences and nature of the disorder, the probability of developing or transmitting it, and the options open to them in management and family planning.

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A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome, especially a condition that is present from birth (congenital).

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Genetic genealogy is the use of DNA testing in combination with traditional genealogy and traditional genealogical and historical records to infer relationships between individuals.

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Genetic load is the difference between the fitness of the theoretically optimal genotype and the fitness of the observed average genotype in a population.

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In biology, a genus (plural: genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms.

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In biology and genetics, the germline in a multicellular organism is that population of its bodily cells that are so differentiated or segregated that in the usual processes of reproduction they may pass on their genetic material to the progeny.

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The golden hamster or Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), is a member of the subfamily Cricetinae, the hamsters.

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The goldfish (Carassius auratus) is a freshwater fish in the family Cyprinidae of order Cypriniformes.

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Gorillas are ground-dwelling, predominantly herbivorous apes that inhabit the forests of central Africa.

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Greek or Hellenic (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to the southern Balkans, the Aegean Islands, western Asia Minor, parts of northern and Eastern Anatolia and the South Caucasus, southern Italy, Albania and Cyprus.

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Gregor Johann Mendel (20 July 1822 – 6 January 1884) was a German-speaking Moravian scientist and Augustinian friar who gained posthumous fame as the founder of the modern science of genetics.

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The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), also called the cavy, is a species of rodent belonging to the family Caviidae and the genus Cavia.

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The guppy (Poecilia reticulata), also known as millionfish and rainbow fish, is one of the world's most widely distributed tropical fish, and one of the most popular freshwater aquarium fish species.

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Gynecomastia is a common disorder of the endocrine system in which there is a non-cancerous increase in the size of breast tissue in males.

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Hares and jackrabbits are leporids belonging to the genus Lepus.

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A hedgehog is any of the spiny mammals of the subfamily Erinaceinae, in the order Erinaceomorpha.

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Heinrich Wilhelm Gottfried von Waldeyer-Hartz (6 October 1836 – 23 January 1921) was a German anatomist, famous for consolidating the neuron theory of organization of the nervous system and for naming the chromosome.

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Heredity is the passing of phenotypic traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction.

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Heterochromatin is a tightly packed form of DNA, which comes in multiple varieties.

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In biology, histones are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes.

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In molecular biology, the histone-like nucleoid-structuring (H-NS) protein belongs to a family of bacterial proteins that play a role in the formation of nucleoid structure and affect gene expression under certain conditions.

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The Hominidae, also known as great apes"Great ape" is a common name rather than a taxonomic label, and there are differences in usage.

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A couple of homologous chromosomes are a set of one maternal and one paternal chromosome that pair up with each other inside a cell during meiosis.

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Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) refers to the transfer of genes between organisms in a manner other than traditional reproduction.

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The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.

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Modern humans (Homo sapiens, primarily ssp. Homo sapiens sapiens) are the only extant members of the hominin clade (or human clade), a branch of the great apes; they are characterized by erect posture and bipedal locomotion, manual dexterity and increased tool use, and a general trend toward larger, more complex brains and societies.

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The human genome is the complete set of nucleic acid sequence for humans (Homo sapiens), encoded as DNA within the 23 chromosome pairs in cell nuclei and in a small DNA molecule found within individual mitochondria.

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The Human Genome Project (HGP) is an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the sequence of chemical base pairs which make up human DNA, and of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and functional standpoint.

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The Huntington’s disease Outreach Project for Education at Stanford (HOPES) is a student-run project at Stanford University dedicated to making scientific information about Huntington's disease (HD) more readily accessible to patients and the public.

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Studies that are in vitro (in glass; often not italicized in English) are performed with cells or biological molecules studied outside their normal biological context; for example proteins are examined in solution, or cells in artificial culture medium.

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Interphase is the phase of the cell cycle in which a typical cell spends most of its life.

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An intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing during maturation of the final RNA product.

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Isodicentric 15, also called idic(15), partial tetrasomy 15q, or inverted duplication 15 (inv dup 15), is a chromosome abnormality in which a child is born with extra genetic material from chromosome 15.

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Jacobsen Syndrome, also known as 11q deletion disorder, is a rare congenital disorder resulting from deletion of a terminal region of chromosome 11 that includes band 11q24.1.

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Joe Hin Tjio (2 November 1919 – 27 November 2001), was an Indonesian-American cytogeneticist renowned as the first person to recognize the normal number of human chromosomes.

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The kinetochore is the protein structure on chromatids where the spindle fibers attach during cell division to pull sister chromatids apart.

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Kingfishers are a group of small to medium-sized brightly colored birds in the order Coraciiformes.

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Klinefelter syndrome or Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) also known as 47,XXY or XXY, is the set of symptoms that result from two or more X chromosome in males.

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The laboratory mouse is a small mammal of the order Rodentia which is bred and kept for scientific research.

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A laboratory rat is a rat of the species Rattus norvegicus (brown rat) which is bred and kept for scientific research.

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Lampbrush chromosomes are a special form of chromosome found in the growing oocytes (immature eggs) of most animals, except mammals.

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The list of organisms by chromosome count describes ploidy or numbers of chromosomes in the cells of various plants, animals, protists, and other living organisms.

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A locus (plural loci) is the specific location or position of a gene, DNA sequence, on a chromosome, in the field of genetics.

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Lyme disease, also known as Lyme borreliosis, is an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the Borrelia type.

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Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), known in some English-speaking countries as corn, is a large grain plant domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times.

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In humans and many other species of animals, the father determines the sex of the child.

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Meiosis is a specialized type of cell division which reduces the chromosome number by half.

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Metaphase (from the Greek μετά, "adjacent" and φάσις, "stage") is a stage of mitosis in the eukaryotic cell cycle in which chromosomes are at their most condensed and coiled stage.

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A microchromosome is a type of very small chromosome which is a typical component of the karyotype of birds, some reptiles, fish, and amphibians; they tend to be absent in mammals.

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A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small for the naked eye.

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Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).

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Microtubules (micro- + tube + -ule) are a component of the cytoskeleton, found throughout the cytoplasm.

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Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.

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Mitosis is a part of the cell cycle in which chromosomes in a cell nucleus are separated into two identical sets of chromosomes, each in its own nucleus.

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Mitotic catastrophe is an event in which a cell is destroyed during mitosis.

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In genetics, a mosaic or mosaicism denotes the presence of two or more populations of cells with different genotypes in one individual who has developed from a single fertilized egg.

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A neochromosome is a chromosome that is not normally found in nature.

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Nicotiana tabacum, or cultivated tobacco, is an annually-grown herbaceous plant.

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In genomics and related disciplines, noncoding DNA sequences are components of an organism's DNA that do not encode protein sequences.

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Nucleobases are nitrogen-containing biological compounds (nitrogenous bases) found linked to a sugar within nucleosides—the basic building blocks of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA).

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The nucleoid (meaning nucleus-like) is an irregularly-shaped region within the cell of a prokaryote that contains all or most of the genetic material, called genophore.

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A nucleosome is a basic unit of DNA packaging in eukaryotes, consisting of a segment of DNA wound in sequence around eight histone protein cores.

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In biology, offspring is the product of reproduction of a new organism produced by one or, in the case of sexual reproduction, two parents.

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An oogonium (plural oogonia) is a small diploid cell which on maturation forms a primordial follicle in a female fetus or the female gametangium of certain thallophytes.

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In genetics, an operon is a functioning unit of genomic DNA containing a cluster of genes under the control of a single promoter.

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Ophioglossum, the adder's-tongue ferns, is a genus of about 25-30 species of ferns in the family Ophioglossaceae, of the order Ophioglossales.

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In biology, an organism is any contiguous living system, such as an animal, plant or bacterium.

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The origin of replication (also called the replication origin) is a particular sequence in a genome at which replication is initiated.

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Johann Adam Otto Bütschli (3 May 1848 – 2 February 1920) was a German zoologist and professor at the University of Heidelberg.

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Pallister–Killian syndrome (also tetrasomy 12p mosaicism or Pallister mosaic aneuploidy syndrome) is an extremely rare genetic disorder occurring in humans.

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Paris-Trousseau syndrome (PTS) is an inherited disorder characterized by mild hemorrhagic tendency associated with 11q chromosome deletion.

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Pasta is a staple food of traditional Italian cuisine, with the first reference dating to 1154 in Sicily.

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Patau syndrome is a syndrome caused by a chromosomal abnormality, in which some or all of the cells of the body contain extra genetic material from chromosome 13.

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Pill millipedes are any members of two living (and one extinct) orders of millipedes, often grouped together into a single superorder, Oniscomorpha.

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A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.

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Ploidy is the number of sets of chromosomes in a cell.

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Polymorphism in biology is said to occur when two or more clearly different phenotypes exist in the same population of a species—in other words, the occurrence of more than one form or morph.

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Polyploid cells and organisms are those containing more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes.

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Polytene chromosomes are over-sized chromosomes which have developed from standard chromosomes and are commonly found in the salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster. Specialized cells undergo repeated rounds of DNA replication without cell division (endomitosis), to increase cell volume, forming a giant polytene chromosome.

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A prokaryote is a single-celled organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus (karyon), mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha, found in several parts of the world.

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Race, as a social construct, is a group of people who share similar and distinct physical characteristics.

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Red blood cells (RBCs), also called erythrocytes, are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate organism's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.

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A regulatory sequence is a segment of a nucleic acid molecule which is capable of increasing or decreasing the expression of specific genes within an organism.

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Repeated sequences (aka. repetitive elements, or repeats) are patterns of nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) that occur in multiple copies throughout the genome.

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Richard Benedict Goldschmidt (April 12, 1878 – April 24, 1958) was a German-born American geneticist.

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Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow (13 October 1821 – 5 September 1902) was a German doctor, anthropologist, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist, writer, editor, and politician, known for his advancement of public health.

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Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and as a forage crop.

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Schleiden is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

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A sex-determination system is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism.

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Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.

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Sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammals typically kept as livestock.

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A sister chromatid refers to either of the two identical copies (chromatids) formed by the replication of a single chromosome, with both copies joined together by a common centromere.

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Humans typically have 22 pairs of autosomal chromosomes in their cells, and a pair of sex chromosomes.

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Soma (Sanskrit: sóma) or Haoma (Avestan), from Proto-Indo-Iranian *sauma-, was a Vedic ritual drink of importance among the early Indo-Iranians, and the subsequent Greater Indian and Greater Iranian cultures.

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A somatic (Greek: σὠμα/soma.

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Sorangium cellulosum is a soil-dwelling Gram-negative bacterium of the group myxobacteria.

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In biology, a species (abbreviated sp., with the plural form species abbreviated spp.) is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank.

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Speech delay, also known as alalia, refers to a delay in the development or use of the mechanisms that produce speech.

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A spermatogonium (plural: spermatogonia) is an undifferentiated male germ cell, originating in a seminiferous tubule and dividing into two primary spermatocytes (a kind of germ cell) in the production of spermatozoa.

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In cell biology, spindle apparatus refers to the subcellular structure of eukaryotic cells that separates chromosomes between daughter cells during cell division.

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Spirochaetes (also spelled spirochetes) belong to a phylum of distinctive diderm (double-membrane) bacteria, most of which have long, helically coiled (corkscrew-shaped) cells.

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Symbiosis (from Greek σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is close and often long-term interaction between two different biological species.

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In classical genetics, synteny describes the physical co-localization of genetic loci on the same chromosome within an individual or species.

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A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromatid, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes.

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Theodor Heinrich Boveri (12 October 1862 – 15 October 1915) was a German biologist.

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Theophilus Shickel Painter (August 22, 1889 – October 5, 1969) was an American zoologist known for his work in identifying genes in fruit flies (Drosophila).

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Thomas Hunt Morgan (September 25, 1866 – December 4, 1945) was an American evolutionary biologist, geneticist, embryologist, and science author who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1933 for discoveries elucidating the role that the chromosome plays in heredity.

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The Tibetan sand fox (Vulpes ferrilata) is a species of true fox endemic to the high Tibetan Plateau and Ladakh plateau in Nepal, China, Sikkim, and Bhutan, up to altitudes of about 5300 m. It is classed as Least Concern for extinction by the IUCN, on account of its widespread range in the Tibetan Plateau's steppes and semi-deserts.

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Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.

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Tonicity is a measure of the effective osmotic pressure gradient (as defined by the water potential of the two solutions) of two solutions separated by a semipermeable membrane.

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Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.

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Triple X syndrome (also known as triplo-X, trisomy X, XXX syndrome, 47,XXX aneuploidy) is a form of chromosomal variation characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome in each cell of a human female.

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Trypanosoma brucei (gambiense) is a species of salivary trypanosome which causes African trypanosomiasis, known also as sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in animals.

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Turner syndrome (TS) also known as Ullrich–Turner syndrome, gonadal dysgenesis, and 45,X, is a condition in which a female is partly or completely missing an X chromosome.

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In molecular cloning, a vector is a DNA molecule used as a vehicle to artificially carry foreign genetic material into another cell, where it can be replicated and/or expressed.

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The Vertebrate and Genome Annotation (VEGA) project is a biological database dedicated to assisting researchers in locating specific areas of the genome and annotating genes or regions of vertebrate genomes.

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A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

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Walter Stanborough Sutton (April 5, 1877 – November 10, 1916) was an American geneticist and physician whose most significant contribution to present-day biology was his theory that the Mendelian laws of inheritance could be applied to chromosomes at the cellular level of living organisms.

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Walther Flemming (21 April 1843 – 4 August 1905) was a German biologist and a founder of cytogenetics.

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The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (previously known as 'The Sanger Centre') is a non-profit, British genomics and genetics research institute, primarily funded by the Wellcome Trust.

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Wheat (Triticum spp.) is a cereal grain, originally from the Levant region of the Near East but now cultivated worldwide.

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Wilhelm Johannsen (3 February 1857 – 11 November 1927) was a Danish botanist, plant physiologist, and geneticist.

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Wilhelm Roux (9 June 1850 – 15 September 1924) was a German zoologist and pioneer of experimental embryology.

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William Bateson (8 August 1861 – 8 February 1926) was an English biologist who was the first person to use the term genetics to describe the study of heredity, and the chief populariser of the ideas of Gregor Mendel following their rediscovery in 1900 by Hugo de Vries and Carl Correns.

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Wolf–Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS), also known as chromosome deletion Dillan 4p syndrome, Pitt-Rogers-Danks syndrome (PRDS) or Pitt syndrome, was first described in 1961 by Americans Herbert L. Cooper and Kurt Hirschhorn and, thereafter, gained worldwide attention by publications by the German Ulrich Wolf, and Hirschhorn and their co-workers, specifically their articles in the German scientific magazine Humangenetik.

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The X chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes (allosomes) in many animal species, including mammals (the other is the Y chromosome), and is found in both males and females.

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X-inactivation (also called lyonization) is a process by which one of the two copies of the X chromosome present in female mammals is inactivated.

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The X0 sex-determination system is a system that determines the sex of offspring among grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches, and some other insects.

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The XY sex-determination system is the sex-determination system found in humans, most other mammals, some insects (Drosophila), and some plants (Ginkgo).

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XYY syndrome is a genetic condition in which a human male has an extra male (Y) chromosome, giving a total of 47 chromosomes instead of the more usual 46.

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The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals.

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Y-chromosomal Aaron is the name given to the hypothesized most recent common ancestor of many of the patrilineal Jewish priestly caste known as Kohanim (singular "Kohen", "Cohen", or Kohane).

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In human genetics, Y-chromosomal most recent common ancestor (Y-MRCA; informally also known as Y-chromosomal Adam) refers to the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) from whom all currently living people are descended patrilineally.

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Bacterial chromosome, Chromosom, Chromosomal, Chromosomes, Chromosone, Chromsome, DNA packaging, Human chromosome, Kromosom, Kromosome.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromosome

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