209 relations: Aclidinium bromide, Acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Air pollution, Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency, Alpha-1 antitrypsin, American Thoracic Society, Amoxicillin, Anti-inflammatory, Antibiotic, Anticholinergic, Antimicrobial resistance, Anxiety disorder, Arterial blood gas test, Asthma, Asthma spacer, Azithromycin, Barrel chest, Beta blocker, Beta-Carotene, Beta2-adrenergic agonist, Biofuel, Black carbon, Blood gas tension, BODE index, Body mass index, Breathing, Bronchial hyperresponsiveness, Bronchiolitis obliterans, Bronchodilator, Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, Bupropion, Cadmium, Cannabis (drug), Charles Badham (physician), Chemotaxis, Chest radiograph, Cilomilast, Coal mining, Common cold, Complete blood count, Confusion, Connective tissue, Cook stove, Coronary artery disease, Corticosteroid, Cotton, Cough, Cough medicine, Crackles, CT scan, ..., Cutaneous condition, Cyanosis, Cytotoxic T cell, Department of Health and Social Care, Developed country, Developing country, Diabetes mellitus, Disability-adjusted life year, Disease surveillance, DLCO, Doxycycline, End stage pulmonary disease, Eosinophil, Erythromycin, Exhaust gas, Fatigue, Feces, FEV1/FVC ratio, Fiberglass, Fixation (histology), Formoterol, Gas exchange, Genetics, George Waldbott, Giovanni Battista Morgagni, Gold mining, Greek language, Gross pathology, Health and Safety Executive, Heart failure, Hib vaccine, HIV/AIDS, Home care, Horse, Hypercapnia, Hypertension, Hypoxemia, Indacaterol, Indoor air quality, Inflammation, Infliximab, Influenza vaccine, Inhalation, Ipratropium bromide, Isocyanate, Isoprenaline, John Hutchinson (surgeon), Jugular venous pressure, Long-acting beta-adrenoceptor agonist, Lung cancer, Lung transplantation, Lymphocyte, Macrolide, Macrophage, Major depressive disorder, Malnutrition, Matthew Baillie, Mechanical ventilation, Medical Research Council (United Kingdom), Medical sign, Metered-dose inhaler, Mold, Morphine, Mucokinetics, Muscarinic antagonist, Muscles of respiration, Nail clubbing, National Health Service (England), National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, Nebulizer, Neutrophil, Nicotine replacement therapy, Novartis, Obstructive lung disease, Ogg, Osteoporosis, Oxidative stress, Oxygen therapy, Pack-year, Palliative care, Palpitations, Parasympathetic nervous system, Passive smoking, Peak expiratory flow, Peripheral edema, Perspiration, Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor, Placebo, Pneumococcal vaccine, Pneumonia, Pneumothorax, Poverty, Pregnancy, Pro re nata, Progressive disease, Protease, Protease inhibitor (biology), Pulmonary artery, Pulmonary edema, Pulmonary embolism, Pulmonary function testing, Pulmonary heart disease, Pulmonary hypertension, Pulmonary rehabilitation, Pulmonology, Pursed lip breathing, Quality of life, Quinolone antibiotic, Radical (chemistry), Recurrent airway obstruction, René Laennec, Respirator, Respiratory failure, Respiratory tract infection, Rib fracture, Risk factor, Roflumilast, Salbutamol, Salmeterol, Screening (medicine), Sexual dysfunction, Shortness of breath, Silicon dioxide, Silicosis, Smoking, Smoking ban, Smoking cessation, Solar cooker, Spirometer, Spirometry, Sputum, Stem cell, Steroid, Stethoscope, Stroke, Sub-Saharan Africa, Syncope (medicine), Syrup of ipecac, Tachycardia, Tachypnea, Tai chi, Telehealth, Terbutaline, Theophylline, Thoracic diaphragm, Tiotropium bromide, Tobacco smoking, Tremor, Tripod position, Tuberculosis, Umeclidinium bromide, Vaccination, Varenicline, Vasoconstriction, Vital capacity, Welding, Wheeze, Xanthine. Expand index (159 more) » « Shrink index
Aclidinium bromide (INN) is a long-acting, inhaled muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) approved in the US on July 24, 2012 as a maintenance treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Acute exacerbation of COPD also known as acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB) is a sudden worsening of COPD symptoms (shortness of breath, quantity and color of phlegm) that typically lasts for several days.
Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (A1AD or AATD) is a genetic disorder that may result in lung disease or liver disease.
Alpha-1-antitrypsin or α1-antitrypsin (A1AT, A1A, or AAT) is a protein belonging to the serpin superfamily.
The American Thoracic Society (ATS) is a nonprofit organization focused on improving care for pulmonary diseases, critical illnesses and sleep-related breathing disorders.
Amoxicillin, also spelled amoxycillin, is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
Anti-inflammatory, or antiinflammatory, refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation or swelling.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
An anticholinergic agent is a substance that blocks the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and the peripheral nervous system.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.
An arterial-blood gas (ABG) test measures the amounts of arterial gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
A spacer is a device used to increase the ease of administering aerosolized medication from a metered-dose inhaler (MDI).
Azithromycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
Barrel chest generally refers to a broad, deep chest found on a man.
Beta blockers, also written β-blockers, are a class of medications that are particularly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).
β-Carotene is an organic, strongly colored red-orange pigment abundant in plants and fruits.
β2 (beta2) adrenergic receptor agonists, also known as adrenergic β2 receptor agonists, are a class of drugs that act on the β2 adrenergic receptor.
A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.
Chemically, black carbon (BC) is a component of fine particulate matter (PM ≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter).
Blood gas tension refers to the partial pressure of gases in blood.
The BODE index, for '''B'''ody-mass index, airflow '''O'''bstruction, '''D'''yspnea, and '''E'''xercise, is a multidimensional scoring system and capacity index used to test patients who have been diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to predict long-term outcomes for them.
The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of an individual.
Breathing (or respiration, or ventilation) is the process of moving air into and out of the lungs to facilitate gas exchange with the internal environment, mostly by bringing in oxygen and flushing out carbon dioxide.
Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (or other combinations with airway or hyperreactivity) is a state characterised by easily triggered bronchospasm (contraction of the bronchioles or small airways).
Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO), informally known as popcorn lung, is a disease that results in obstruction of the smallest airways of the lungs (bronchioles) due to inflammation.
A bronchodilator is a substance that dilates the bronchi and bronchioles, decreasing resistance in the respiratory airway and increasing airflow to the lungs.
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD; formerly chronic lung disease of infancy) is a chronic lung disease in which premature infants, usually those who were treated with supplemental oxygen, require long-term oxygen.
Bupropion, sold under the brand names Wellbutrin and Zyban among others, is a medication primarily used as an antidepressant and smoking cessation aid.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.
Charles Badham, FRS (17 April 1780 – 10 November 1845) was a physician from London, England who gave bronchitis its name.
Chemotaxis (from chemo- + taxis) is the movement of an organism in response to a chemical stimulus.
A chest radiograph, colloquially called a chest X-ray (CXR), or chest film, is a projection radiograph of the chest used to diagnose conditions affecting the chest, its contents, and nearby structures.
Cilomilast (INN, codenamed SB-207,499, proposed trade name Ariflo) is a drug which was developed for the treatment of respiratory disorders such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Coal mining is the process of extracting coal from the ground.
The common cold, also known simply as a cold, is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract that primarily affects the nose.
A complete blood count (CBC), also known as a complete blood cell count, full blood count (FBC), or full blood exam (FBE), is a blood panel requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood, such as the cell count for each cell type and the concentrations of various proteins and minerals.
Confusion (from Latin confusĭo, -ōnis, from confundere: "to pour together;" "to mingle together;" "to confuse") is the state of being bewildered or unclear in one’s mind about something.
Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.
A biomass cook stove is heated by burning wood, charcoal, animal dung or crop residue.
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
A cough is a sudden and often repetitively occurring, protective reflex, which helps to clear the large breathing passages from fluids, irritants, foreign particles and microbes.
Cough medicines are medications used in those with coughing and related conditions.
Crackles, crepitations, or rales are the clicking, rattling, or crackling noises that may be made by one or both lungs of a human with a respiratory disease during inhalation.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
A cutaneous condition is any medical condition that affects the integumentary system—the organ system that encloses the body and includes skin, hair, nails, and related muscle and glands.
Cyanosis is defined as the bluish or purplish discolouration of the skin or mucous membranes due to the tissues near the skin surface having low oxygen saturation.
A cytotoxic T cell (also known as TC, cytotoxic T lymphocyte, CTL, T-killer cell, cytolytic T cell, CD8+ T-cell or killer T cell) is a T lymphocyte (a type of white blood cell) that kills cancer cells, cells that are infected (particularly with viruses), or cells that are damaged in other ways.
The Department of Health and Social Care (DHSC) is a department of Her Majesty's Government, responsible for government policy on health and adult social care matters in England, along with a few elements of the same matters which are not otherwise devolved to the Scottish Government, Welsh Government or Northern Ireland Executive.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) is a measure of overall disease burden, expressed as the number of years lost due to ill-health, disability or early death.
Disease surveillance is an epidemiological practice by which the spread of disease is monitored in order to establish patterns of progression.
DLCO or TLCO ('''d'''iffusing capacity or transfer factor of the '''l'''ung for carbon monoxide (CO)) is the extent to which oxygen passes from the air sacs of the lungs into the blood.
Doxycycline is an antibiotic that is used in the treatment of a number of types of infections caused by bacteria and protozoa.
End stage lung disease (ESLD) or end stage pulmonary disease (ESPD) is the end result of chronic progressive lung diseases like COPD, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, or systemic progressive diseases that affect the lungs such as cystic fibrosis or granulomatosis with polyangiitis.
Eosinophils sometimes called eosinophiles or, less commonly, acidophils, are a variety of white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for combating multicellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates. Along with mast cells and basophils, they also control mechanisms associated with allergy and asthma. They are granulocytes that develop during hematopoiesis in the bone marrow before migrating into blood, after which they are terminally differentiated and do not multiply. These cells are eosinophilic or "acid-loving" due to their large acidophilic cytoplasmic granules, which show their affinity for acids by their affinity to coal tar dyes: Normally transparent, it is this affinity that causes them to appear brick-red after staining with eosin, a red dye, using the Romanowsky method. The staining is concentrated in small granules within the cellular cytoplasm, which contain many chemical mediators, such as eosinophil peroxidase, ribonuclease (RNase), deoxyribonucleases (DNase), lipase, plasminogen, and major basic protein. These mediators are released by a process called degranulation following activation of the eosinophil, and are toxic to both parasite and host tissues. In normal individuals, eosinophils make up about 1–3% of white blood cells, and are about 12–17 micrometres in size with bilobed nuclei. While they are released into the bloodstream as neutrophils are, eosinophils reside in tissue They are found in the medulla and the junction between the cortex and medulla of the thymus, and, in the lower gastrointestinal tract, ovary, uterus, spleen, and lymph nodes, but not in the lung, skin, esophagus, or some other internal organs under normal conditions. The presence of eosinophils in these latter organs is associated with disease. For instance, patients with eosinophilic asthma have high levels of eosinophils that lead to inflammation and tissue damage, making it more difficult for patients to breathe. Eosinophils persist in the circulation for 8–12 hours, and can survive in tissue for an additional 8–12 days in the absence of stimulation. Pioneering work in the 1980s elucidated that eosinophils were unique granulocytes, having the capacity to survive for extended periods of time after their maturation as demonstrated by ex-vivo culture experiments.
Erythromycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
Exhaust gas or flue gas is emitted as a result of the combustion of fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, petrol, biodiesel blends, diesel fuel, fuel oil, or coal.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
The FEV1/FVC ratio, also called Tiffeneau-Pinelli index, is a calculated ratio used in the diagnosis of obstructive and restrictive lung disease.
Fiberglass (US) or fibreglass (UK) is a common type of fiber-reinforced plastic using glass fiber.
In the fields of histology, pathology, and cell biology, fixation is the preservation of biological tissues from decay due to autolysis or putrefaction.
Formoterol (INN) or eformoterol (former BAN) is a long-acting β2 agonist (LABA) used in the management of asthma and COPD.
Gas exchange is the physical process by which gases move passively by diffusion across a surface.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
George L. Waldbott, M.D. (January 14, 1898 – July 17, 1982), was an American physician, scientist, and leading activist against water fluoridation.
Giovanni Battister Morgagni (25 February 1682 – 6 December 1771) was an Italian anatomist, generally regarded as the father of modern anatomical pathology, who taught thousands of medical students from many countries during his 56 years as Professor of Anatomy at the University of Padua.
Gold mining is the resource extraction of gold by mining.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities.
The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is the body responsible for the encouragement, regulation and enforcement of workplace health, safety and welfare, and for research into occupational risks in Great Britain.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
The Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine, often called Hib vaccine, is a vaccine used to prevent Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infection.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Home care (also referred to as domiciliary care, social care, or in-home care) is supportive care provided in the home.
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
Hypercapnia, also known as hypercarbia and CO2 retention, is a condition of abnormally elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) levels in the blood.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hypoxemia (or hypoxaemia in British English) is an abnormally low level of oxygen in the blood.
Indacaterol (INN) is an ultra-long-acting beta-adrenoceptor agonist developed by Novartis.
Indoor air quality (IAQ) is a term which refers to the air quality within and around buildings and structures, especially as it relates to the health and comfort of building occupants.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Infliximab (trade names Remicade among others) is a chimeric monoclonal antibody biologic drug that works against tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and is used to treat autoimmune diseases.
Influenza vaccines, also known as flu shots or flu jabs, are vaccines that protect against infection by Influenza viruses.
Inhalation (also known as inspiration) happens when oxygen from the air enters the lungs.
Ipratropium bromide, sold under the trade name Atrovent among others, is a medication which opens up the medium and large airways in the lungs.
Isocyanate is the functional group with the formula R–N.
Isoprenaline, or isoproterenol, is a medication used for the treatment of bradycardia (slow heart rate), heart block, and rarely for asthma.
John Hutchinson (1811–1861) invented the spirometer, a device for measuring lung capacity.
The jugular venous pressure (JVP, sometimes referred to as jugular venous pulse) is the indirectly observed pressure over the venous system via visualization of the internal jugular vein.
Long-acting β adrenoceptor agonists (LABAs, more specifically, long-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonists) are usually prescribed for moderate-to-severe persistent asthma patients or patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
Lung transplantation or pulmonary transplantation is a surgical procedure in which a patient's diseased lungs are partially or totally replaced by lungs which come from a donor.
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.
The macrolides are a class of natural products that consist of a large macrocyclic lactone ring to which one or more deoxy sugars, usually cladinose and desosamine, may be attached.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
Matthew Baillie FRS FRSE FRCP FRCSE FRSE (27 October 1761 – 23 September 1823, Duntisbourne, Gloucestershire, England) was a Scottish-born physician and pathologist.
Mechanical ventilation is the medical term for artificial ventilation where mechanical means is used to assist or replace spontaneous breathing. This may involve a machine called a ventilator or the breathing may be assisted by an anesthesiologist, certified registered nurse anesthetist, physician, physician assistant, respiratory therapist, paramedic, EMT, or other suitable person compressing a bag or set of bellows. Mechanical ventilation is termed "invasive" if it involves any instrument penetrating the trachea through the mouth, such as an endotracheal tube or the skin, such as a tracheostomy tube. There are two main types: positive pressure ventilation, where air (or another gas mix) is pushed into the trachea, and negative pressure ventilation, where air is, in essence, sucked into the lungs. There are many modes of mechanical ventilation, and their nomenclature has been revised over the decades as the technology has continually developed.
The Medical Research Council (MRC) is responsible for co-coordinating and funding medical research in the United Kingdom.
A medical sign is an objective indication of some medical fact or characteristic that may be detected by a patient or anyone, especially a physician, before or during a physical examination of a patient.
A metered-dose inhaler (MDI) is a device that delivers a specific amount of medication to the lungs, in the form of a short burst of aerosolized medicine that is usually self-administered by the patient via inhalation.
A mold or mould (is a fungus that grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals.
Mucokinetics are a class of drugs which aid in the clearance of mucus from the airways, lungs, bronchi, and trachea.
A muscarinic receptor antagonist (MRA) is a type of anticholinergic agent that blocks the activity of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.
The muscles of respiration are those muscles that contribute to inhalation and exhalation, by aiding in the expansion and contraction of the thoracic cavity.
Nail clubbing, also known as digital clubbing, is a deformity of the finger or toe nails associated with a number of diseases, mostly of the heart and lungs.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the publicly funded national healthcare system for England and one of the four National Health Services for each constituent country of the United Kingdom.
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) is the third largest Institute of the National Institutes of Health, located in Bethesda, Maryland, United States.
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health in the United Kingdom, which publishes guidelines in four areas.
In medicine, a nebulizer or nebuliser (see spelling differences) is a drug delivery device used to administer medication in the form of a mist inhaled into the lungs.
Neutrophils (also known as neutrocytes) are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant (40% to 70%) type of white blood cells in most mammals.
Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is a medically-approved way to take nicotine by means other than tobacco.
Novartis International AG is a Swiss multinational pharmaceutical company based in Basel, Switzerland.
Obstructive lung disease is a category of respiratory disease characterized by airway obstruction.
Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.
Osteoporosis is a disease where increased bone weakness increases the risk of a broken bone.
Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between the systemic manifestation of reactive oxygen species and a biological system's ability to readily detoxify the reactive intermediates or to repair the resulting damage.
Oxygen therapy, also known as supplemental oxygen, is the use of oxygen as a medical treatment.
A pack-year is a quantification of cigarette smoking.
Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to specialized medical and nursing care for people with life-limiting illnesses.
Palpitations are the perceived abnormality of the heartbeat characterized by awareness of cardiac muscle contractions in the chest: hard, fast and/or irregular beats.
The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system (a division of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)), the other being the sympathetic nervous system.
Passive smoking is the inhalation of smoke, called second-hand smoke (SHS), or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), by persons other than the intended "active" smoker.
The peak expiratory flow (PEF), also called peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) is a person's maximum speed of expiration, as measured with a peak flow meter, a small, hand-held device used to monitor a person's ability to breathe out air.
Peripheral edema is edema (accumulation of fluid causing swelling) in tissues perfused by the peripheral vascular system, usually in the lower limbs.
Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
A phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor, commonly referred to as a PDE4 inhibitor, is a drug used to block the degradative action of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP).
A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.
Pneumococcal vaccines are vaccines against the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
A pneumothorax is an abnormal collection of air in the pleural space between the lung and the chest wall.
Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Pro re nata is a Latin phrase meaning in the circumstances or as the circumstance arises (literally "for the thing born").
Progressive disease or progressive illness is a disease or physical ailment whose course in most cases is the worsening, growth, or spread of the disease.
A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that performs proteolysis: protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
In biology and biochemistry, protease inhibitors are molecules that inhibit the function of proteases (enzymes that aid the breakdown of proteins).
A pulmonary artery is an artery in the pulmonary circulation that carries deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs.
Pulmonary edema is fluid accumulation in the tissue and air spaces of the lungs.
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).
Pulmonary function test (PFT) is a complete evaluation of the respiratory system including patient history, physical examinations, and tests of pulmonary function.
Pulmonary heart disease, also known as cor pulmonale, is the enlargement and failure of the right ventricle of the heart as a response to increased vascular resistance (such as from pulmonic stenosis) or high blood pressure in the lungs.
Pulmonary hypertension (PH or PHTN) is a condition of increased blood pressure within the arteries of the lungs.
Pulmonary rehabilitation, also known as respiratory rehabilitation, is an important part of the management and health maintenance of people with chronic respiratory disease who remain symptomatic or continue to have decreased function despite standard medical treatment.
Pulmonology is a medical speciality that deals with diseases involving the respiratory tract.
Pursed lip breathing (PLB) is a breathing technique that consists of exhaling through tightly pressed (pursed) lips and inhaling through the nose with the mouth closed.
Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.
A quinolone antibiotic is any member of a large group of broad-spectrum bactericides that share a bicyclic core structure related to the compound 4-quinolone.
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
Recurrent airway obstruction, also known as broken wind, heaves, wind-broke horse, or sometimes by the term usually reserved for humans, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or disorder (COPD) – it is a respiratory disease or chronic condition of horses involving an allergic bronchitis characterised by wheezing, coughing and laboured breathing.
René-Théophile-Hyacinthe Laennec (17 February 1781 – 13 August 1826) was a French physician.
A respirator is a device designed to protect the wearer from inhaling particulate matter, including airborne microorganisms, fumes, vapours and gases.
Respiratory failure results from inadequate gas exchange by the respiratory system, meaning that the arterial oxygen, carbon dioxide or both cannot be kept at normal levels.
Respiratory tract infection (RTI) refers to any of a number of infectious diseases involving the respiratory tract.
A rib fracture is a break in a rib bone.
In epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection.
Roflumilast (trade names Daxas, Daliresp) is a drug that acts as a selective, long-acting inhibitor of the enzyme phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE-4).
Salbutamol, also known as albuterol and marketed as Ventolin among other names, is a medication that opens up the medium and large airways in the lungs.
Salmeterol is a long-acting β2 adrenergic receptor agonist (LABA) used in the maintenance and prevention of asthma symptoms and maintenance of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) symptoms.
Screening, in medicine, is a strategy used in a population to identify the possible presence of an as-yet-undiagnosed disease in individuals without signs or symptoms.
Sexual dysfunction (or sexual malfunction or sexual disorder) is difficulty experienced by an individual or a couple during any stage of a normal sexual activity, including physical pleasure, desire, preference, arousal or orgasm.
Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Silicosis (also known as miner's phthisis, grinder's asthma, potter's rot and other occupation-related names, or by the invented name pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis) is a form of occupational lung disease caused by inhalation of crystalline silica dust, and is marked by inflammation and scarring in the form of nodular lesions in the upper lobes of the lungs.
Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream.
Smoking bans (or smoke-free laws) are public policies, including criminal laws and occupational safety and health regulations, that prohibit tobacco smoking in workplaces and other public spaces.
Smoking cessation (also known as quitting smoking or simply quitting) is the process of discontinuing tobacco smoking.
A solar cooker is a device which uses the energy of direct sunlight to heat, cook or pasteurise drink and other food materials.
A spirometer is an apparatus for measuring the volume of air inspired and expired by the lungs.
Spirometry (meaning the measuring of breath) is the most common of the pulmonary function tests (PFTs).
Sputum is mucus and is the name used for the coughed-up material (phlegm) from the lower airways (trachea and bronchi).
Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
The stethoscope is an acoustic medical device for auscultation, or listening to the internal sounds of an animal or human body.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
Syncope, also known as fainting, is a loss of consciousness and muscle strength characterized by a fast onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery.
Syrup of ipecac, commonly referred to as ipecac, is a drug that was once widely used as an expectorant (in low doses) and a rapid-acting emetic (in higher doses).
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
Tachypnea or tachypnoea is abnormally rapid breathing.
Tai chi (taiji), short for T'ai chi ch'üan, or Taijiquan (pinyin: tàijíquán; 太极拳), is an internal Chinese martial art practiced for both its defense training and its health benefits.
Telehealth involves the distribution of health-related services and information via electronic information and telecommunication technologies.
Terbutaline (trade names "Bronclyn",Brethine, Bricanyl, Brethaire, or Terbulin) is a β2 adrenergic receptor agonist, used as a "reliever" inhaler in the management of asthma symptoms and as a tocolytic (anti-contraction medication) to delay preterm labor for up to 48 hours.
Theophylline, also known as 1,3-dimethylxanthine, is a methylxanthine drug used in therapy for respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma under a variety of brand names.
For other uses, see Diaphragm (disambiguation). The thoracic diaphragm, or simply the diaphragm (partition), is a sheet of internal skeletal muscle in humans and other mammals that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity.
Tiotropium bromide, originally marketed as Spiriva, is a long-acting, 24-hour, anticholinergic bronchodilator used in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).
A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.
The tripod position is a physical stance often assumed by people experiencing respiratory distress (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients) or who are simply out of breath (such as a person who has just run a sprint).
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Umeclidinium bromide (trade name Incruse Ellipta) is a long-acting muscarinic antagonist approved for the maintenance treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.
Varenicline (trade name Chantix and Champix), is a prescription medication used to treat nicotine addiction.
Vasoconstriction is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles.
Vital capacity (VC) is the maximum amount of air a person can expel from the lungs after a maximum inhalation.
Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing fusion, which is distinct from lower temperature metal-joining techniques such as brazing and soldering, which do not melt the base metal.
A wheeze (formally called "sibilant rhonchi" in medical terminology) is a continuous, coarse, whistling sound produced in the respiratory airways during breathing.
Xanthine (or; archaically xanthic acid) (3,7-dihydropurine-2,6-dione), is a purine base found in most human body tissues and fluids and in other organisms.
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