104 relations: A (Cyrillic), Affricate consonant, Agglutination, Agreement (linguistics), Alveolar consonant, Alyutor language, Anglicisation, Animacy, Antipassive voice, Aorist, Apostrophe, Approximant consonant, Be (Cyrillic), Bilabial consonant, Business, Cambridge University Press, Che (Cyrillic), Chukchi people, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Chukotkan languages, Chukotko-Kamchatkan languages, Cyrillic script, De (Cyrillic), Direct–inverse language, E (Cyrillic), Ef (Cyrillic), El (Cyrillic), El with hook, Elementary school, Em (Cyrillic), En with hook, Endangered language, Er (Cyrillic), Ergative–absolutive language, Es (Cyrillic), Eskimo–Aleut languages, Finite verb, Fricative consonant, Ge (Cyrillic), Gerund, Glottal consonant, Hard sign, I (Cyrillic), Incorporation (linguistics), Itelmen language, Ka (Cyrillic), Ka with hook, Kamchadals, Kerek language, Kha (Cyrillic), ..., Koryak language, Koryaks, Language family, Latin script, Lingua franca, Lists of endangered languages, Nasal consonant, O (Cyrillic), Palatal consonant, Pe (Cyrillic), Perfect (grammar), Polysynthetic language, Preposition and postposition, Radio, Red Book of Endangered Languages, Reindeer herding, Research, Retroflex consonant, Russia, Russian alphabet, Russian Census (2002), Russian language, Schwa, Sha (Cyrillic), Shcha, Short I, Siberia, Soft sign, Stop consonant, Subject–object–verb, Supine, Syntax, Te (Cyrillic), Television, Tenevil, Tse (Cyrillic), Tungusic languages, U (Cyrillic), UNESCO, Uvular consonant, Ve (Cyrillic), Velar consonant, Vigesimal, Vladimir Bogoraz, Vowel, Vowel harmony, Ya (Cyrillic), Ye (Cyrillic), Yery, Yo (Cyrillic), Yu (Cyrillic), Yuri Rytkheu, Ze (Cyrillic), Zhe (Cyrillic). Expand index (54 more) » « Shrink index
A (А а; italics: А а) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
Agglutination is a linguistic process pertaining to derivational morphology in which complex words are formed by stringing together morphemes without changing them in spelling or phonetics.
Agreement or concord (abbreviated) happens when a word changes form depending on the other words to which it relates.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
Alyutor or Alutor is a language of Russia that belongs to the Chukotkan branch of the Chukotko-Kamchatkan languages.
Anglicisation (or anglicization, see English spelling differences), occasionally anglification, anglifying, englishing, refers to modifications made to foreign words, names and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English.
Animacy is a grammatical and semantic principle expressed in language based on how sentient or alive the referent of a noun is.
The antipassive voice (abbreviated or) is a type of grammatical voice that either does not include the object or includes the object in an oblique case.
Aorist (abbreviated) verb forms usually express perfective aspect and refer to past events, similar to a preterite.
The apostrophe ( ' or) character is a punctuation mark, and sometimes a diacritical mark, in languages that use the Latin alphabet and some other alphabets.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Be (Б б italics: Б б б) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.
Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (goods and services).
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Che or Cha (Ч ч; italics: Ч ч) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The Chukchi, or Chukchee (Чукчи, sg. Чукча), are an indigenous people inhabiting the Chukchi Peninsula and the shores of the Chukchi Sea and the Bering Sea region of the Arctic Ocean within the Russian Federation.
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (p; Chukchi: Чукоткакэн автономныкэн округ, Chukotkaken avtonomnyken okrug) or Chukotka (Чуко́тка) is a federal subject (an autonomous okrug) of Russia.
Chukotkan (Chukotian, Chukotic) is a dialect cluster that forms one branch of the Chukotko-Kamchatkan language family.
The Chukotko-Kamchatkan or Chukchi–Kamchatkan languages are a language family of extreme northeastern Siberia.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
De (Д д; italics: Д д) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The definition of a direct–inverse language is a matter under research, but it is widely understood to involve different grammar for transitive predications according to the relative positions of their "subject" and their "object" on a person hierarchy, which, in turn, is some combination of saliency and animacy specific to a given language.
E (Э э; italics:; also known as backwards e, from Russian э оборо́тное, e oborótnoye) is a letter found in two Slavic languages: Russian and Belarusian.
Ef (Ф ф; italics: Ф ф) is a Cyrillic letter, commonly representing the voiceless labiodental fricative, like the pronunciation of in "fill".
El (Л л; italics: Л л) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
El with hook (Ԓ ԓ; italics: Ԓ ԓ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Elementary school is a school for students in their first school years, where they get primary education before they enter secondary education.
Em (М м; italics: М м) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
En with hook (Ӈ ӈ; italics: Ӈ ӈ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
An endangered language, or moribund language, is a language that is at risk of falling out of use as its speakers die out or shift to speaking another language.
Er (Р р; italics: Р р) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Ergative–absolutive languages, or ergative languages are languages that share a certain distinctive pattern relating to the subjects (technically, arguments) of verbs.
Es (С с; italics: С с) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The Eskimo–Aleut languages, Eskaleut languages, or Inuit-Yupik-Unangan languages are a language family native to Alaska, the Canadian Arctic (Nunavut and Inuvialuit Settlement Region), Nunavik, Nunatsiavut, Greenland and the Chukchi Peninsula, on the eastern tip of Siberia.
A finite verb is a form of a verb that has a subject (expressed or implied) and can function as the root of an independent clause; an independent clause can, in turn, stand alone as a complete sentence.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Ghe or Ge (Г г; italics: Г г) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
A gerund (abbreviated) is any of various nonfinite verb forms in various languages, most often, but not exclusively, one that functions as a noun.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
The letter Ъ (italics Ъ, ъ) of the Cyrillic script, also spelled jer or er, is known as the hard sign (твёрдый знак tvjórdyj znak) in the modern Russian and Rusyn alphabets, as er golyam (ер голям, "big er") in the Bulgarian alphabet, and as debelo jer (дебело їер, "fat yer") in pre-reform Serbian orthography.
I (И и; italics: И и) is a letter used in almost all Cyrillic alphabets.
Incorporation is a phenomenon by which a grammatical category, such as a verb, forms a compound with its direct object (object incorporation) or adverbial modifier, while retaining its original syntactic function.
Itelmen (autonym: itənmən) or Western Itelmen, formerly known as Western Kamchadal, is a language of the Chukotko-Kamchatkan family spoken on the western coast of the Kamchatka Peninsula.
Ka (К к; italics: К к) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Ka with hook (Ӄ ӄ; italics: Ӄ ӄ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The Kamchadals (камчадалы) are native people of Kamchatka, Russia.
Kerek (Керекский язык) is an extinct language of Russia of the northern branch of the Chukotko-Kamchatkan languages.
Kha or Ha (Х х; italics: Х х) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Koryak is a Chukotko-Kamchatkan language spoken by about 1,700 people in the easternmost extremity of Siberia, mainly in Koryak Okrug.
Koryaks (or Koriak) are an indigenous people of the Russian Far East, who live immediately north of the Kamchatka Peninsula in Kamchatka Krai and inhabit the coastlands of the Bering Sea.
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
The following lists of endangered languages are mainly based on the definitions used by UNESCO.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
O (О о; italics: О о) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
Pe (П п; italics: П п) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The perfect tense or aspect (abbreviated or) is a verb form that indicates that an action or circumstance occurred earlier than the time under consideration, often focusing attention on the resulting state rather than on the occurrence itself.
In linguistic typology, polysynthetic languages are highly synthetic languages, i.e. languages in which words are composed of many morphemes (word parts that have independent meaning but may or may not be able to stand alone).
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
The Red Book of Endangered Languages was published by UNESCO and collected a comprehensive list of the world's endangered languages.
Reindeer herding is when reindeer are herded by people in a limited area.
Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.
A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian alphabet (ˈruskʲɪj ɐɫfɐˈvʲit̪) uses letters from the Cyrillic script.
The Russian Census of 2002 (Всеросси́йская пе́репись населе́ния 2002 го́да) was the first census of the Russian Federation since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, carried out on October 9 through October 16, 2002.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (rarely or; sometimes spelled shwa) is the mid central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position.
Sha (Ш ш; italics: Ш ш) is a letter of the Glagolitic and Cyrillic script.
Shcha (Щ щ; italics: Щ щ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Short I or Yot (Й й; italics: Й й) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
The soft sign (Ь, ь, italics Ь, ь; Russian: мягкий знак) also known as the front yer or front er, is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order.
In grammar, a supine is a form of verbal noun used in some languages.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
Te (Т т; italics: Т т) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.
Tenevil (Теневиль) (ca. 1890–1943?) was a Chukchi reindeer herder, living in the tundra near the settlement of Ust-Belaya in Russian province of Chukotka.
Tse (Ц ц; italics: Ц ц) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The Tungusic languages (also known as Manchu-Tungus, Tungus) form a language family spoken in Eastern Siberia and northeast China by Tungusic peoples.
U (У у; italics: У у) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.
Ve (В в; italics: В в) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
The vigesimal or base 20 numeral system is based on twenty (in the same way in which the decimal numeral system is based on ten).
Vladimir Germanovich Bogoraz (Влади́мир Ге́рманович Богора́з), who was born Natan Mendelevich Bogoraz (Ната́н Ме́нделевич Богора́з) and used the literary pseudonym N. A. Tan (Н.) (— May 10, 1936), was a Russian revolutionary, writer and anthropologist, especially known for his studies of the Chukchi people in Siberia.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
Vowel harmony is a type of long-distance assimilatory phonological process involving vowels that occurs in some languages.
Ya (Я я; italics: Я я) is a letter of the Cyrillic script, the civil script variant of Old Cyrillic Little Yus.
Ye (Е е; italics: Е е) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Yery, Yeru, Ery or Eru (Ы ы; italics: Ы ы, usually called "Ы" in modern Russian or "еры" yerý historically and in modern Church Slavonic) is a letter in the Cyrillic script.
Yo (Ё ё; italics: Ё ё) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Yu (Ю ю; italics: Ю ю) is a letter of the Cyrillic script used in East Slavic and Bulgarian alphabets.
Yuri Sergeyevich Rytkheu (Ю́рий Серге́евич Рытхэ́у,, Chukchi: Ю́рий Серге́евич Рытгэ́в, 8 March 1930 – 14 May 2008) was a Chukchi writer, who wrote in both his native Chukchi and in Russian.
Ze (З з; italics: З з) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Zhe (Ж ж; italics: Ж ж) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.