287 relations: A Dialogue Concerning Oratorical Partitions, Aedile, Alan Napier, Allobroges, Amelia, Umbria, Anatolia, Ancient Greek philosophy, Ancient Rome, André Morell, Anglicisation, Anthony Everitt, Antiochus of Ascalon, Apollonius Molon, Ariobarzanes III of Cappadocia, Arpino, Asiatic style, Assassination of Julius Caesar, Athens, Atticism, Augur, Augustine of Hippo, Augustus, Aulus Caecina Severus (writer), Aulus Cluentius Habitus, Aulus Licinius Archias, Battle of Actium, Battle of Forum Gallorum, Battle of Mutina, Battle of Pharsalus, Ben Jonson, Bogomilism, Brindisi, Brutus (Cicero), Caecilia Metella (daughter of Metellus Celer), Cambridge University Press, Camille Desmoulins, Capitoline Museums, Cappadocia, Cassius Dio, Catiline, Catiline Orations, Cato Institute, Cato Maior de Senectute, Cato the Younger, Chalcedonian Christianity, Character assassination, Chickpea, Church Fathers, Cicero Minor, Ciceronianus, ..., Cilicia (Roman province), Cisalpine Gaul, Classical antiquity, Clausula (rhetoric), Cleopatra (1963 film), Cognomen, Colleen McCullough, College of Pontiffs, Consolatio (Cicero), Constitution of the Roman Republic, Cornelius Nepos, Cratippus of Pergamon, Cursus honorum, Dark Ages (historiography), David Bamber, David Hume, De Divinatione, De fato, De finibus bonorum et malorum, De Imperio Cn. Pompei, De Inventione, De Legibus, De Natura Deorum, De Officiis, De Oratore, De re publica, Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, Decimus Junius Silanus (consul), Decimus Junius Silanus (translator of Mago), Decius Metellus, Deiotarus, Demosthenes, Dictator (Harris novel), Dowry, Eclecticism, Edmund Burke, Elizabeth Rawson, Enemy of the state, Epidamnos, Epistulae ad Atticum, Epistulae ad Brutum, Epistulae ad Familiares, Epistulae ad Quintum Fratrem, Equites, Erasmus, Ernst Badian, Esse quam videri, Fabia (gens), Farsala, Ferdinand II of the Two Sicilies, First Triumvirate, Flaccus, Formia, Founding Fathers of the United States, Freedman, French Revolution, Friedrich Engels, Fulvia, Gaius Antonius Hybrida, Gaius Asinius Pollio (consul 40 BC), Gaius Lutatius Catulus, Gaius Marcius Figulus (consul 64 BC), Gaius Marius, Gaius Rabirius Postumus, Gallia Narbonensis, Greece, Gutenberg Bible, Haruspex, Hicetas, Hortensius (Cicero), Howard Hayes Scullard, Humanitas, Ides of March, Imperator, Imperium, Imperium (Harris novel), In Verrem, Institutio Oratoria, Jerome, Jim Powell (historian), John Adams, John Locke, John Maddox Roberts, John William Mackail, Judiciary, Julio-Claudian dynasty, Julius Caesar, Julius Caesar (1953 film), Julius Caesar (1970 film), Julius Caesar (play), Laelius de Amicitia, Latin, Leges Clodiae, Legislature, Lentulus, Libertas, List of patricides, List of Roman civil wars and revolts, List of Roman consuls, List of Rome characters, Litter (vehicle), Lost work, Lucca Conference, Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus (consul 58 BC), Lucius Cornelius Balbus (consul), Lucius Cornelius Chrysogonus, Lucius Julius Caesar, Lucius Julius Caesar (consul 64 BC), Lucius Licinius Murena, Lustrum (novel), Mamertine Prison, Manius Acilius Glabrio (consul 67 BC), Marcantonius Majoragio, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (triumvir), Marcus Aemilius Scaurus (consul 115 BC), Marcus Caelius Rufus, Marcus Junius Brutus the Younger, Marcus Licinius Crassus, Marcus Terentius Varro, Marcus Tullius Tiro, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Mark Antony, Martial law, Martin Luther, Masters of Rome, Michael Grant (classicist), Michael Hordern, Michael Parenti, Middle Platonism, Modena, Montesquieu, Mortimer Sellers, Municipium, Natural law, Neologism, Nicolaus Copernicus, Nobiles, Novus homo, Nur Mountains, Nymphaeum, Optimates, Opus quadratum, Orator (Cicero), Otium, Palatine Hill, Paradoxa Stoicorum, Parthian Empire, Parvenu, Pater Patriae, Patrician (ancient Rome), Peripatetic school, Petrarch, Philippicae, Philo of Larissa, Piso, Plato, Plebs, Plutarch, Politician, Pompeii, Pompeius Strabo, Pompey, Pomponia Caecilia Attica, Praetor, Pro Archia Poeta, Pro Caecina, Pro Caelio, Pro Cluentio, Pro Ligario, Pro Marcello, Pro Milone, Pro Quinctio, Pro Roscio Amerino, Proconsul, Promagistrate, Proscription, Publius Clodius Pulcher, Publius Cornelius Lentulus Sura, Publius Cornelius Sulla, Quaestor, Quintilian, Quintus Hortensius, Quintus Ligarius, Quintus Mucius Scaevola Augur, Quintus Tullius Cicero, Rabiria gens, Renaissance, Renaissance humanism, Res publica, Rhetoric, Rhodes, Robert Harris (novelist), Roma Sub Rosa, Roman consul, Roman Forum, Roman governor, Roman province, Roman Republic, Roman Senate, Roman tribe, Rome (TV series), Rostra, SAGE Publications, Second Catilinarian conspiracy, Second Triumvirate, Senatus consultum ultimum, Servilius Rullus, Servius Sulpicius Rufus, Sestertius, Sextus Roscius, Sicilia (Roman province), Social War (91–88 BC), SPQR, SPQR series, Steven Saylor, Sulla, Syria, Tadeusz Stefan Zieliński, Taylor Caldwell, Temple of Jupiter Stator (8th century BC), Terentia, The Latin Library, Thessaloniki, Titus Annius Milo, Titus Pomponius Atticus, Trebonius, Tribune of the Plebs, Tullia (daughter of Cicero), Tusculanae Disputationes, Tyrant, Verres, Vestal Virgin, Virtuous pagan, Walter Miller (philologist), Ward (law), William Shakespeare, William Warde Fowler. 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A Dialogue Concerning Oratorical Partitions (also called De Partitione Oratoria Dialogus, Partitiones Oratoriae, or De Partitionbus Oratoriae, translated to be "On the subdivisions of oratory") is a rhetorical treatise, written by Cicero.
Aedile (aedīlis, from aedes, "temple edifice") was an office of the Roman Republic.
Alan William Napier-Clavering (7 January 1903 – 8 August 1988), better known as Alan Napier, was an English actor.
The Allobroges (Άλλόβριγες, Άλλόβρυγες, Άλλόβρoγες) were a Gallic tribe of ancient Gaul, located between the Rhône River and Lake Geneva in what later became Savoy, Dauphiné, and Vivarais.
Amelia is a town and comune of the province of Terni, in the Umbria region of central Italy.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Cecil André Mesritz (20 August 1909 – 28 November 1978), known professionally as André Morell, was an English actor.
Anglicisation (or anglicization, see English spelling differences), occasionally anglification, anglifying, englishing, refers to modifications made to foreign words, names and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English.
Anthony Everitt (born 31 January 1940), Who's Who 2014, A & C Black, 2014; online edn, Oxford University Press, 2014 is a British academic.
Antiochus of Ascalon (Άντίοχος ὁ Ἀσκαλώνιος; c. 125 – c. 68 BC) was an Academic philosopher.
Apollonius Molon or Molo of Rhodes (or simply Molon; Ἀπολλώνιος ὁ Μόλων), was a Greek rhetorician.
Ariobarzanes III, surnamed Eusebes Philorhomaios, "Pious and Friend of the Romans" (Ἀριοβαρζάνης Εὐσεβής Φιλορώμαιος, Ariobarzánēs Eusebḗs Philorōmaíos), was the king of Cappadocia from ca.
Arpino (Campanian: Arpinë) is a comune (municipality) in the province of Frosinone, in the Latin Valley, region of Lazio in central Italy, about 100 km SE of Rome.
The Asiatic style or Asianism (genus orationis Asiaticum, Cicero, Brutus 325) refers to an Ancient Greek rhetorical tendency (though not an organized school) that arose in the third century BC, which, although of minimal relevance at the time, briefly became an important point of reference in later debates about Roman oratory.
The assassination of Julius Caesar was the result of a conspiracy by many Roman senators led by Gaius Cassius Longinus, Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, and Marcus Junius Brutus.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
Atticism (meaning "favouring Attica", the region that includes Athens in Greece) was a rhetorical movement that began in the first quarter of the 1st century BC; it may also refer to the wordings and phrasings typical of this movement, in contrast with various contemporary forms of Koine Greek (both literary and vulgar), which continued to evolve in directions guided by the common usages of Hellenistic Greek.
An augur was a priest and official in the classical Roman world.
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
Aulus Caecina the son of Aulus Caecina, was an Ancient Roman writer.
Aulus Cluentius Habitus, a wealthy citizen of Larinum in Samnium, and subject of a Roman cause célèbre.
Aulus Licinius Archias (Ἀρχίας; fl. c. 120 – 61 BC) was a Greek poet.
The Battle of Actium was the decisive confrontation of the Final War of the Roman Republic, a naval engagement between Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra on 2 September 31 BC, on the Ionian Sea near the promontory of Actium, in the Roman province of Epirus Vetus in Greece.
The Battle of Forum Gallorum was fought on 14 April 43 BCE near a village in northern Italy (perhaps near modern-day Castelfranco Emilia) between the forces of Mark Antony and legions loyal to the Roman Senate under the overall command of consul Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus, aided by his fellow consul Aulus Hirtius and the untested Caesar Octavian (the future Augustus).
The Battle of Mutina took place on 21 April 43 BC between the forces loyal to the Senate under consuls Gaius Vibius Pansa and Aulus Hirtius, supported by the legions of Caesar Octavian, and the Caesarian legions of Mark Antony who were besieging the troops of Decimus Brutus.
The Battle of Pharsalus was a decisive battle of Caesar's Civil War.
Benjamin Jonson (c. 11 June 1572 – 6 August 1637) was an English playwright, poet, actor, and literary critic, whose artistry exerted a lasting impact upon English poetry and stage comedy.
Bogomilism (Богомилство, Bogumilstvo/Богумилство) was a Christian neo-Gnostic or dualist sect founded in the First Bulgarian Empire by the priest Bogomil during the reign of Tsar Peter I in the 10th century.
Brindisi (Brindisino: Brìnnisi; Brundisium; translit; Brunda) is a city in the region of Apulia in southern Italy, the capital of the province of Brindisi, on the coast of the Adriatic Sea.
Cicero's Brutus (also known as De claris oratibus) is a history of Roman oratory.
Caecilia Metella was daughter of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer by his wife, the notorious Clodia.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Lucie-Simplice-Camille-Benoît Desmoulins (2 March 17605 April 1794) was a journalist and politician who played an important role in the French Revolution.
The Capitoline Museums (Italian: Musei Capitolini) are a single museum containing a group of art and archaeological museums in Piazza del Campidoglio, on top of the Capitoline Hill in Rome, Italy.
Cappadocia (also Capadocia; Καππαδοκία, Kappadokía, from Katpatuka, Kapadokya) is a historical region in Central Anatolia, largely in the Nevşehir, Kayseri, Kırşehir, Aksaray, and Niğde Provinces in Turkey.
Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius (c. 155 – c. 235) was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek origin.
Lucius Sergius Catilina, known in English as Catiline (108–62 BC), was a Roman Senator of the 1st century BC best known for the second Catilinarian conspiracy, an attempt to overthrow the Roman Republic and, in particular, the power of the aristocratic Senate.
The Catiline or Catilinarian Orations is a set of speeches to the Roman Senate given by Marcus Tullius Cicero, one of the year's consuls, accusing a Senator, Lucius Sergius Catilina (Catiline), of leading a plot to overthrow the Roman government.
The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.
On Old Age is an essay written by Cicero in 44 BC on the subject of aging and death.
Marcus Porcius Cato Uticensis (95 BC – April 46 BC), commonly known as Cato the Younger (Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather (Cato the Elder), was a statesman in the late Roman Republic, and a follower of the Stoic philosophy.
Chalcedonian Christianity is the Christian denominations adhering to christological definitions and ecclesiological resolutions of the Council of Chalcedon, the Fourth Ecumenical Council held in 451.
Character assassination is a deliberate and sustained process that destroys the credibility and reputation of a person, institution, organization, social group, or nation.
The chickpea or chick pea (Cicer arietinum) is a legume of the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae.
The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church are ancient and influential Christian theologians and writers.
Marcus Tullius Cicero Minor (Minor Latin for ‘the younger’), or Cicero the Younger, was born in 65 BC.
Ciceronianus ("The Ciceronian") is a treatise written by Desiderius Erasmus and published in 1528.
Cilicia was an early Roman province, located on what is today the southern (Mediterranean) coast of Turkey.
Cisalpine Gaul (Gallia Cisalpina), also called Gallia Citerior or Gallia Togata, was the part of Italy inhabited by Celts (Gauls) during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
In Roman rhetoric, a clausula /'klɔːzi̯ʊlə/ (Latin "little close or conclusion"; plural clausulae /'klɔːzi̯ʊli/) was a rhythmic figure used to add finesse and finality to the end of a sentence or phrase.
Cleopatra is a 1963 American epic historical drama film chronicling the struggles of Cleopatra, the young Queen of Egypt, to resist the imperial ambitions of Rome.
A cognomen (Latin plural cognomina; from con- "together with" and (g)nomen "name") was the third name of a citizen of ancient Rome, under Roman naming conventions.
Colleen Margaretta McCullough (married name Robinson, previously Ion-Robinson;. Retrieved 2 February 2015 1 June 193729 January 2015) was an Australian author known for her novels, her most well-known being The Thorn Birds and The Ladies of Missalonghi, the latter of which was involved in a plagiarism controversy.
The College of Pontiffs (Latin: Collegium Pontificum; see collegium) was a body of the ancient Roman state whose members were the highest-ranking priests of the state religion.
Consolatio (Consolation) is a lost work written by Marcus Tullius Cicero in the year 45 BC.
The constitution of the Roman Republic was a set of unwritten norms and customs, which together with various written laws, guided the manner by which the Roman Republic was governed.
Cornelius Nepos (c. 110 BC – c. 25 BC) was a Roman biographer.
Cratippus of Pergamon (Κράτιππος), was a leading Peripatetic philosopher of the 1st century BC who taught at Mytilene and Athens.
The cursus honorum (Latin: "course of offices") was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Roman Empire.
The "Dark Ages" is a historical periodization traditionally referring to the Middle Ages, that asserts that a demographic, cultural, and economic deterioration occurred in Western Europe following the decline of the Roman Empire.
David James Bamber (born 19 September 1954) is an English actor.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
Cicero's De Divinatione (Latin, "Concerning Divination") is a philosophical treatise in two books written in 44 BC.
Cicero's De fato (Latin, "Concerning Fate") is a partially lost philosophical treatise written in 44 BC.
De finibus bonorum et malorum ("On the ends of good and evil") is a philosophical work by the Roman orator, politician and philosopher Marcus Tullius Cicero.
De Imperio Cn.
De Inventione is a handbook for orators that Cicero composed when he was still a young man.
The De Legibus (On the Laws) is a dialogue written by Marcus Tullius Cicero during the last years of the Roman Republic.
De Natura Deorum (On the Nature of the Gods) is a philosophical dialogue by Roman orator Cicero written in 45 BC.
De Officiis (On Duties or On Obligations) is a treatise by Marcus Tullius Cicero divided into three books, in which Cicero expounds his conception of the best way to live, behave, and observe moral obligations.
De Oratore (On the Orator; not to be confused with Orator) is a dialogue written by Cicero in 55 BCE.
De re publica (On the Commonwealth; see below) is a dialogue on Roman politics by Cicero, written in six books between 54 and 51 BC.
Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus (born April 27, ca. 85–81 BC, died 43 BC) was a Roman politician and general of the 1st century BC and one of the leading instigators of Julius Caesar's assassination.
Decimus Junius M. f. D. n. Silanus (fl. 70 BC-62 BC) was a consul of the Roman Republic.
Decimus Junius Silanus was an ancient Roman of the 2nd century BC.
Decius Caecilius Metellus the Younger is a fictional character created by author John Maddox Roberts, the protagonist of Roberts's ''SPQR'' series of historical mystery novels.
Deiotarus of Galatia (in Galatian and Greek Deiotaros, surnamed Philoromaios; 42 BC, 41 BC or 40 BC) was a Chief Tetrarch of the Tolistobogii in western Galatia, Asia Minor, and a King of Galatia ("Gallo-Graecia").
Demosthenes (Δημοσθένης Dēmosthénēs;; 384 – 12 October 322 BC) was a Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens.
Dictator is a historical novel by British author Robert Harris, published in 2015, which concludes his trilogy about the life of the Roman lawyer, politician and orator Cicero (106–43 BC).
A dowry is a transfer of parental property, gifts or money at the marriage of a daughter.
Eclecticism is a conceptual approach that does not hold rigidly to a single paradigm or set of assumptions, but instead draws upon multiple theories, styles, or ideas to gain complementary insights into a subject, or applies different theories in particular cases.
Edmund Burke (12 January 17309 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman born in Dublin, as well as an author, orator, political theorist and philosopher, who after moving to London in 1750 served as a member of parliament (MP) between 1766 and 1794 in the House of Commons with the Whig Party.
Elizabeth Donata Rawson (13 April 1934 – 10 December 1988The Cambridge Ancient History (Cambridge University Press, 1994), vol. 9, preface, p. xvii.) was a classical scholar known primarily for her work in the intellectual history of the Roman Republic and her biography of Cicero.
An enemy of the State is a person accused of certain crimes against the state, such as treason.
The ancient Greek city of Epidamnos or Epidamnus (Ἐπίδαμνος), later the Roman Dyrrachium (modern Durrës, Albania, c. 30 km W of Tirana) was founded in 627 BC in Illyria by a group of colonists from Corinth and Corcyra (modern Corfu).
Epistulae ad Atticum (Latin for "Letters to Atticus") is a collection of letters from Roman politician and orator Marcus Tullius Cicero to his close friend Titus Pomponius Atticus.
Epistulae ad Brutum (Letters to Brutus) is a collection of letters between Roman politician and orator Marcus Tullius Cicero and fellow politician, and conspirator against Julius Caesar, Marcus Junius Brutus.
Epistulae ad Familiares (Letters to Friends) is a collection of letters between Roman politician and orator Marcus Tullius Cicero and various public and private figures.
Epistulae ad Quintum Fratrem (Letters to brother Quintus) is a collection of letters from Roman politician and orator Marcus Tullius Cicero to his younger brother Quintus.
The equites (eques nom. singular; sometimes referred to as "knights" in modern times) constituted the second of the property-based classes of ancient Rome, ranking below the senatorial class.
Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (28 October 1466Gleason, John B. "The Birth Dates of John Colet and Erasmus of Rotterdam: Fresh Documentary Evidence," Renaissance Quarterly, The University of Chicago Press on behalf of the Renaissance Society of America, Vol. 32, No. 1 (Spring, 1979), pp. 73–76; – 12 July 1536), known as Erasmus or Erasmus of Rotterdam,Erasmus was his baptismal name, given after St. Erasmus of Formiae.
Ernst Badian (August 8, 1925 – February 1, 2011) was an Austrian-born classical scholar who served as a professor at Harvard University, United States, from 1971 to 1998.
Esse quam videri is a Latin phrase meaning "To be, rather than to seem".
The gens Fabia was one of the most ancient patrician families at Rome.
Farsala (Φάρσαλα), known in Antiquity as Pharsalos (Φάρσαλος, Pharsalus), is a city in southern Thessaly, in Greece.
Ferdinand II (Ferdinando Carlo; Ferdinannu Carlu; 12 January 1810 – 22 May 1859) was King of the Two Sicilies from 1830 until his early death in 1859.
The First Triumvirate is a term historians use for an informal political alliance of three prominent men between 59 and 53 BC, during the late Roman Republic: Gaius Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great), and Marcus Licinius Crassus.
Flaccus was a cognomen of the ancient Roman plebeian family Fulvius, considered one of the most illustrious gentes of the city.
Formia is a city and comune in the province of Latina, on the Mediterranean coast of Lazio (Italy).
The Founding Fathers of the United States led the American Revolution against the Kingdom of Great Britain.
A freedman or freedwoman is a former slave who has been released from slavery, usually by legal means.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Friedrich Engels (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.;, sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist and businessman.
Fulvia (c. 83 BC – 40 BC) was an aristocratic Roman woman who lived during the Late Roman Republic.
Gaius Antonius Hybrida (flourished 1st century BC) was a politician of the Roman Republic.
Gaius Asinius Pollio (sometimes wrongly called Pollius or Philo; 75 BC – AD 4) was a Roman soldier, politician, orator, poet, playwright, literary critic and historian, whose lost contemporary history provided much of the material used by the historians Appian and Plutarch.
Gaius Lutatius Catulus (Latin: C·LVTATIVS·C·F·CATVLVS) was a Roman statesman and naval commander in the First Punic War.
Gaius Marcius Figulus (fl. 1st century BC) was a consul of the Roman Republic in 64 BC.
Gaius MariusC·MARIVS·C·F·C·N is how Marius was termed in official state inscriptions in Latin: "Gaius Marius, son of Gaius, grandson of Gaius" (157 BC – January 13, 86 BC) was a Roman general and statesman.
Gaius Rabirius Postumus, defended by Cicero (54 BC) in the extant speech Pro Rabirio Postumo, when charged with extortion in Egypt and complicity with Aulus Gabinius.
Gallia Narbonensis (Latin for "Gaul of Narbonne", from its chief settlement) was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France.
The Gutenberg Bible (also known as the 42-line Bible, the Mazarin Bible or the B42) was the first major book printed using mass-produced movable metal type in Europe.
In the religion of Ancient Rome, a haruspex (plural haruspices; also called aruspex) was a person trained to practice a form of divination called haruspicy (haruspicina), the inspection of the entrails (exta—hence also extispicy (extispicium)) of sacrificed animals, especially the livers of sacrificed sheep and poultry.
Hicetas (Ἱκέτας or Ἱκέτης; c. 400 – c. 335 BC) was a Greek philosopher of the Pythagorean School.
Hortensius or On Philosophy is a lost dialogue written by Marcus Tullius Cicero in the year 45 BC.
Howard Hayes Scullard (February 9, 1903 – March 31, 1983) FBA, FSA was a British historian specializing in ancient history, notable for editing the Oxford Classical Dictionary and for his many books.
Humanitas is a Latin noun meaning human nature, civilization, and kindness.
The Ides of March (Idus Martiae, Late Latin: Idus Martii) is a day on the Roman calendar that corresponds to 15 March.
The Latin word imperator derives from the stem of the verb imperare, meaning ‘to order, to command’.
Imperium is a Latin word that, in a broad sense, translates roughly as 'power to command'.
Imperium is a 2006 novel by English author Robert Harris.
In Verrem ("Against Verres") is a series of speeches made by Cicero in 70 BC, during the corruption and extortion trial of Gaius Verres, the former governor of Sicily.
Institutio Oratoria (English: Institutes of Oratory) is a twelve-volume textbook on the theory and practice of rhetoric by Roman rhetorician Quintilian.
Jerome (Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus; Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος; c. 27 March 347 – 30 September 420) was a priest, confessor, theologian, and historian.
Jim Powell is Senior Fellow at a libertarian think tank, the Cato Institute in Washington, D.C., with which he has been associated since 1988.
John Adams (October 30 [O.S. October 19] 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the first Vice President (1789–1797) and second President of the United States (1797–1801).
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Maddox Roberts (born June 25, 1947 in Ohio) is an American author of science fiction and fantasy novels, including historical fiction, such as the ''SPQR'' series and Hannibal's Children.
John William Mackail (26 August 1859 – 13 December 1945) was a Scottish man of letters and socialist, now best remembered as a Virgil scholar.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
The Julio-Claudian dynasty was the first Roman imperial dynasty, consisting of the first five emperors—Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero—or the family to which they belonged.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
Julius Caesar is a 1953 epic Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer film adaptation of the play by Shakespeare, directed by Joseph L. Mankiewicz, who also wrote the uncredited screenplay, and produced by John Houseman.
Julius Caesar is a 1970 British independent film adaptation of William Shakespeare's play of the same name, directed by Stuart Burge from a screenplay by Robert Furnival.
The Tragedy of Julius Caesar is a history play and tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in 1599.
Laelius de Amicitia (or simply De Amicitia) is a treatise on friendship by the Roman statesman and author Marcus Tullius Cicero, written in 44 BC.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Leges Clodiae ("Clodian Laws") were a series of laws (plebiscites) passed by the Plebeian Council of the Roman Republic under the tribune Publius Clodius Pulcher in 58 BC.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Lentulus, the name of a Roman patrician family of the Cornelian gens, derived from lentes (lentils), which its oldest members were fond of cultivating (according to Pliny, Nat. Hist. xviii. 3, 10).
Libertas (Latin for Liberty) is the Roman goddess and embodiment of liberty.
Patricide is (i) the act of killing one's father, or (ii) a person who kills his or her father.
This is a list of civil wars and organized civil unrest in ancient Rome (753 BC – AD 476).
This is a list of consuls known to have held office, from the beginning of the Roman Republic to the latest use of the title in Imperial times, together with those magistrates of the Republic who were appointed in place of consuls, or who superseded consular authority for a limited period.
This is a list of characters from the HBO series Rome.
The litter is a class of wheelless vehicles, a type of human-powered transport, for the transport of persons.
A lost work is a document, literary work, or piece of multimedia produced some time in the past of which no surviving copies are known to exist.
At the Luca Conference, in 56 BC, (named for the town of Luca — modern Lucca — in Cisalpine Gaul) Caesar met with his political partners, Pompey and Crassus.
Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus (c. 100 BC – 43 BC) was a Roman senator and the father-in-law of Julius Caesar through his daughter Calpurnia.
Lucius Cornelius Balbus (called Major—"the Elder"—to distinguish him from his nephew) was born in Gades early in the first century BC.
Lucius Cornelius Chrysogonus (died 80 BC) was a Greek freedman of Lucius Cornelius Sulla whom Sulla put in charge of the proscriptions of 82 BC.
Lucius Julius Caesar was the name of several men of the gens Julia at ancient Rome.
Lucius Julius Caesar (fl. 1st century BC) was a Roman politician and senator who was elected consul of the Roman Republic in 64 BC.
Lucius Licinius Murena was the name of a father and son who lived in the late Roman Republic.
Lustrum (US: Conspirata; 2009) is a historical novel by British author Robert Harris.
The Mamertine Prison (Carcere Mamertino), in antiquity the Tullianum, was a prison (carcer) located in the Comitium in ancient Rome.
Manius Acilius Glabrio, Roman statesman and general, grandson of the jurist P. Mucius Scaevola.
Marcantonius Majoragio (1514–1555(info retrieved additionally 2015-05-24)) was a Christian within Italy during the Renaissance period.
Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (c. 89 or 88 BC – late 13 or early 12 BC) was a Roman patrician who was a part of the Second Triumvirate alongside Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (the future Augustus) and Marcus Antonius, and the last Pontifex Maximus of the Roman Republic.
Marcus Aemilius Scaurus (born ca. 163 BC – died 89 BC) was a Roman statesman who served as consul in 115 BC.
Marcus Caelius Rufus (28 May 82 BC – after 48 BC) was an orator and politician in the late Roman Republic.
Marcus Junius Brutus (the Younger) (85 BC – 23 October 42 BC), often referred to as Brutus, was a politician of the late Roman Republic.
Marcus Licinius Crassus (c. 115 – 6 May 53 BC) was a Roman general and politician who played a key role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
Marcus Terentius Varro (116 BC – 27 BC) was an ancient Roman scholar and writer.
Marcus Tullius Tiro (died c. 4 BC) was first a slave, then a freedman of Cicero.
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (64/62 BC – 12 BC) was a Roman consul, statesman, general and architect.
Marcus Antonius (Latin:; 14 January 1 August 30 BC), commonly known in English as Mark Antony or Marc Antony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.
Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public.
Martin Luther, (10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk, and a seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation.
Masters of Rome is a series of historical novels by Australian author Colleen McCullough, set in ancient Rome during the last days of the old Roman Republic; it primarily chronicles the lives and careers of Gaius Marius, Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Pompeius Magnus, Gaius Julius Caesar, and the early career of Caesar Augustus.
Michael Grant CBE (21 November 1914 – 4 October 2004) was an English classicist, numismatist, and author of numerous popular books on ancient history.
Sir Michael Murray Hordern, CBE (3 October 19112 May 1995)Morley, Sheridan.
Michael John Parenti (born 1933) is an American political scientist and cultural critic who writes on scholarly and popular subjects.
Middle Platonism is the modern name given to a stage in the development of Platonic philosophy, lasting from about 90 BC – when Antiochus of Ascalon rejected the scepticism of the New Academy – until the development of Neoplatonism under Plotinus in the 3rd century.
Modena (Mutna; Mutina; Modenese: Mòdna) is a city and comune (municipality) on the south side of the Po Valley, in the Province of Modena in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy.
Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, and political philosopher.
Mortimer Newlin Stead Sellers (M.N.S. Sellers) (born 1959) is Regents Professor of the University System of Maryland, Professor of Law at the University of Baltimore School of Law, and President of the.
Municipium (pl. municipia) was the Latin term for a town or city.
Natural law (ius naturale, lex naturalis) is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature, endowed by nature—traditionally by God or a transcendent source—and that these can be understood universally through human reason.
A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.
Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.
During the Roman Republic, nobilis ("noble," plural nobiles) was a descriptive term of social rank, usually indicating that a member of the family had achieved the consulship.
Homo novus (or: novus homo, Latin for "new man"; plural homines novi) was the term in ancient Rome for a man who was the first in his family to serve in the Roman Senate or, more specifically, to be elected as consul.
The Nur Mountains (Nur Dağları, "Mountains of Holy Light"), formerly known as Alma-Dağ or the ancient Amanus (Ἁμανός), is a mountain range in the Hatay Province of south-central Turkey, which runs roughly parallel to the Gulf of İskenderun.
A nymphaeum or nymphaion (νυμφαῖον), in ancient Greece and Rome, was a monument consecrated to the nymphs, especially those of springs.
The Optimates (optimates, "best ones", singular; also known as boni, "good men") were the traditionalist Senatorial majority of the late Roman Republic.
Opus quadratum is an ancient Roman construction technique, in which squared blocks of stone of the same height were set in parallel courses, most often without the use of mortar.
Orator was written by Marcus Tullius Cicero in the latter part of the year 46 B.C. It is his last work on rhetoric, three years before his death.
Otium, a Latin abstract term, has a variety of meanings, including leisure time in which a person can enjoy eating, playing, resting, contemplation and academic endeavors.
The Palatine Hill (Collis Palatium or Mons Palatinus; Palatino) is the centremost of the Seven Hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city.
The Paradoxa Stoicorum (Stoic Paradoxes) is a work by Cicero in which he attempts to explain six famous Stoic sayings that appear to go against common knowledge.
The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.
A parvenu is a person who is a relative newcomer to a socioeconomic class.
Pater Patriae (plural Patres Patriae), also seen as Parens Patriae, is a Latin honorific meaning "Father of the Country", or more literally, "Father of the Fatherland".
The patricians (from patricius) were originally a group of ruling class families in ancient Rome.
The Peripatetic school was a school of philosophy in Ancient Greece.
Francesco Petrarca (July 20, 1304 – July 18/19, 1374), commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was a scholar and poet of Renaissance Italy who was one of the earliest humanists.
The Philippicae or Philippics are a series of 14 speeches Cicero gave condemning Mark Antony in 44 and 43 BC.
Philo of Larissa (Φίλων ὁ Λαρισσαῖος Philon ho Larissaios; 154/3–84/3 BC) was a Greek philosopher.
The Piso family of ancient Rome was a prominent plebeian branch of the gens Calpurnia, descended from Calpus the son of Numa Pompilius.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
The plebs were, in ancient Rome, the general body of free Roman citizens who were not patricians, as determined by the census.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
A politician is a person active in party politics, or a person holding or seeking office in government.
Pompeii was an ancient Roman city near modern Naples in the Campania region of Italy, in the territory of the comune of Pompei.
Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo (135–87 BC) was a Roman general and politician, who served as consul in 89 BC.
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic.
Pomponia Caecilia Attica or Caecilia Pomponia Attica (born 51 BC) was the daughter of Cicero's Epicurean friend and eques, knight, Titus Pomponius Atticus.
Praetor (also spelled prætor) was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army (in the field or, less often, before the army had been mustered); or, an elected magistratus (magistrate), assigned various duties (which varied at different periods in Rome's history).
Cicero's oration Pro Archia Poeta is the published literary form of his defense of Aulus Licinius Archias, a poet accused of not being a Roman citizen.
The Pro Aulo Caecina is a speech made by Marcus Tullius Cicero on behalf of his friend Aulus Caecina.
Pro Caelio is a speech given on April 4, 56 BC, by the famed Roman orator Marcus Tullius Cicero in defence of Marcus Caelius Rufus, who had once been Cicero's student but more recently was a political rival.
Pro Cluentio is a speech by the Roman orator Cicero given in defense of a man named Aulus Cluentius Habitus Minor.
Cicero's oration Pro Ligario is the published literary form of his defense of Quintus Ligarius before Julius Caesar in 46 BC.
Pro Marcello is a speech by Marcus Tullius Cicero.
The Pro Tito Annio Milone ad iudicem oratio (Pro Milone) is a speech made by Marcus Tullius Cicero on behalf of his friend Titus Annius Milo.
The speech Pro Quinctio was given by Marcus Tullius Cicero on behalf of Publius Quintius.
The speech Pro Roscio Amerino was given by Marcus Tullius Cicero on behalf of Roscius of Ameria.
A proconsul was an official of ancient Rome who acted on behalf of a consul.
In ancient Rome a promagistrate (pro magistratu) was an ex consul or ex praetor whose imperium (the power to command an army) was extended at the end of his annual term of office or later.
Proscription (proscriptio) is, in current usage, a "decree of condemnation to death or banishment" (OED) and can be used in a political context to refer to state-approved murder or banishment.
Publius Clodius Pulcher (c. December 93 BC – 52 BC, on January 18 of the pre-Julian calendar) was a Roman politician.
Publius Cornelius Lentulus, nicknamed Sura (114 BC – 5 December 63 BC), was one of the chief figures in the Catilinarian conspiracy and also a stepfather of Mark Antony.
Publius Cornelius Sulla (died 45 BC) was a politician of the late Roman Republic and the nephew of Lucius Cornelius Sulla.
A quaestor (investigator) was a public official in Ancient Rome.
Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (35 – 100 AD) was a Roman rhetorician from Hispania, widely referred to in medieval schools of rhetoric and in Renaissance writing.
Quintus Hortensius Hortalus (114 BC50 BC) was a Roman Optimate, and orator.
Quintus Ligarius (1st century BC) was a Roman soldier who was one of the members of the conspiracy to assassinate Julius Caesar.
Quintus Mucius Scaevola Augur (c. 159 – 88 BCE) was a politician of the Roman Republic and an early authority on Roman law.
Quintus Tullius Cicero (102 BC – 43 BC) was a Roman statesman and military leader, the younger brother of Marcus Tullius Cicero.
The gens Rabiria was a minor plebeian family at Ancient Rome.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Renaissance humanism is the study of classical antiquity, at first in Italy and then spreading across Western Europe in the 14th, 15th, and 16th centuries.
Res publica is a Latin phrase, loosely meaning 'public affair'.
Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.
Rhodes (Ρόδος, Ródos) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands of Greece in terms of land area and also the island group's historical capital.
Robert Dennis Harris (born 7 March 1957) is an English novelist.
Roma Sub Rosa is the title of the series of historical mystery novels by Steven Saylor set in ancient Rome and populated by noteworthy denizens thereof.
A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (509 to 27 BC), and ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum (an ascending sequence of public offices to which politicians aspired).
The Roman Forum, also known by its Latin name Forum Romanum (Foro Romano), is a rectangular forum (plaza) surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome.
A Roman governor was an official either elected or appointed to be the chief administrator of Roman law throughout one or more of the many provinces constituting the Roman Empire.
In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
The Roman Senate (Senatus Romanus; Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome.
A tribus, or tribe, was a division of the Roman people, constituting the voting units of a legislative assembly of the Roman Republic.
Rome is a British-American-Italian historical drama television series created by John Milius, William J. MacDonald, and Bruno Heller.
The Rostra (Rostri) was a large platform built in the city of Rome that stood during the republican and imperial periods.
SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.
The second Catilinarian conspiracy, also known simply as the Catiline conspiracy, was a plot, devised by the Roman senator Lucius Sergius Catilina (or Catiline), with the help of a group of fellow aristocrats and disaffected veterans of Lucius Cornelius Sulla, to overthrow the consulship of Marcus Tullius Cicero and Gaius Antonius Hybrida.
The Second Triumvirate is the name historians have given to the official political alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (Caesar Augustus), Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony), and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, formed on 27 November 43 BC with the enactment of the Lex Titia, the adoption of which some view as marking the end of the Roman Republic, whilst others argue the Battle of Actium or Octavian becoming Caesar Augustus in 27 BC.
Senatus consultum ultimum ("final decree of the Senate" or Final Act, often abbreviated SCU), more properly senatus consultum de re publica defendenda ("decree of the Senate about defending the Republic") is the modern term (based on Caesar's wording at Bell. Civ. 1.5) given to a decree of the Roman Senate during the late Roman Republic passed in times of emergency.
Publius Servilius Rullus was plebeian tribune of the Roman Republic in 63 BC.
Servius Sulpicius Rufus (c. 106 BC – 43 BC), was a Roman orator and jurist and the father of the poet Sulpicia, the only Roman female poet whose poetry survives.
The sestertius (plural sestertii), or sesterce (plural sesterces), was an ancient Roman coin.
Sextus Roscius (often referred to as Sextus Roscius the Younger to differentiate him from his father) was a Roman citizen farmer during the latter days of the Roman Republic.
Sicilia was the first province acquired by the Roman Republic.
The Social War (from socii ("allies"), thus Bellum Sociale; also called the Italian War, the War of the Allies or the Marsic War) was a war waged from 91 to 88 BC between the Roman Republic and several of the other cities in Italy, which prior to the war had been Roman allies for centuries.
SPQR is an initialism of a phrase in ("The Roman Senate and People", or more freely as "The Senate and People of Rome"), referring to the government of the ancient Roman Republic, and used as an official emblem of the modern-day comune (municipality) of Rome.
The SPQR series is a collection of historical mystery stories by John Maddox Roberts, published between 1990 and 2010, and set in the time of the Roman Republic.
Steven Saylor (born March 23, 1956) is an American author of historical novels.
Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (c. 138 BC – 78 BC), known commonly as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Tadeusz Stefan Zieliński (Фадде́й Фра́нцевич Зели́нский; near Uman, Kiev Governorate, Russian Empire, September 14, 1859 – May 8, 1944, Schondorf, Upper Bavaria) was a prominent Polish classical philologist, historian, translator of Sophocles, Euripides and other classical authors into Russian.
Janet Miriam Holland Taylor Caldwell (September 7, 1900August 30, 1985) was an Anglo-American novelist and prolific author of popular fiction, also known by the pen names Marcus Holland and Max Reiner, and by her married name of J. Miriam Reback.
The Temple of Jupiter Stator was a sanctuary on the slope of the Capitoline Hill.
Terentia (98 BC – 6 AD) was the wife of the renowned orator Marcus Tullius Cicero.
The Latin Library is a website that collects public domain Latin texts.
Thessaloniki (Θεσσαλονίκη, Thessaloníki), also familiarly known as Thessalonica, Salonica, or Salonika is the second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, and the capital of Greek Macedonia, the administrative region of Central Macedonia and the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace.
Titus Annius Milo Papianus was a Roman political agitator.
Titus Pomponius Atticus (– 31 March 32 BC; also known as Quintus Caecilius Pomponianus) is best known for his correspondence and close friendship with prominent Roman statesman Marcus Tullius Cicero.
Gaius Trebonius (c. 92 BC – January 43 BC) was a military commander and politician of the late Roman Republic, who became suffect consul in 45 BC.
Tribunus plebis, rendered in English as tribune of the plebs, tribune of the people, or plebeian tribune, was the first office of the Roman state that was open to the plebeians, and throughout the history of the Republic, the most important check on the power of the Roman Senate and magistrates.
Tullia, sometimes referred to affectionately as Tulliola ("Little Tullia", 5 August 79 or 78 BC – February 45 BC), was the first child and only daughter of Roman orator and politician Marcus Tullius Cicero, by his first marriage to Terentia.
The Tusculanae Disputationes (also Tusculanae Quaestiones; English: Tusculanes or Tusculan Disputations) is a series of five books written by Cicero, around 45 BC, attempting to popularise Greek philosophy in Ancient Rome, including Stoicism.
A tyrant (Greek τύραννος, tyrannos), in the modern English usage of the word, is an absolute ruler unrestrained by law or person, or one who has usurped legitimate sovereignty.
Gaius Verres (ca. 120 BC – 43 BC) was a Roman magistrate, notorious for his misgovernment of Sicily.
In ancient Rome, the Vestals or Vestal Virgins (Latin: Vestālēs, singular Vestālis) were priestesses of Vesta, goddess of the hearth.
Virtuous pagan is a concept in Christian theology that addressed the problem of pagans who were never evangelized and consequently during their lifetime had no opportunity to recognize Christ, but nevertheless led virtuous lives, so that it seemed objectionable to consider them damned.
Samuel Walter Miller, LL.
In law, a ward is someone placed under the protection of a legal guardian.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
William Warde Fowler (16 May 1847 – 15 June 1921) was an English historian and ornithologist, and tutor at Lincoln College, Oxford.
Cicero (Marcus Tullius), Cicero and the Roman Republic, Cicero, Marcus Tullius, Ciceronian, Ciceronic, Ciciero, Cisero, Cissero, Kickero, M. Tullius Cicero, Marcus Cicero, Marcus Tullius Cicero, Roman orator Cicero, Sissero, Tullian, Tullius Cicero.