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Index Cider

Cider is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of apples. [1]

242 relations: A. Le Coq, Acetic acid, Acid, Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, Alcohol by volume, Alcoholic drink, Alcopop, Ale, Alps, Ancient Rome, Anthocyanin, Apéritif and digestif, Apfelwein, Apicius, Apple cider, Apple cider vinegar, Apple juice, Applejack (drink), Appy Fizz, Asturias, Autumn, Łódź Voivodeship, Babycham, Basque cider, Basque Country (autonomous community), Basque Country (greater region), Beer, Bergen, Beta-glucosidase, Black Velvet (beer cocktail), Blackcurrant, Blackthorn Cider, Brettanomyces, Brittany, C&C Group, Calvados, Campaign for Real Ale, Candida (fungus), Cantabria, Carbon dioxide, Carbonation, Carlsberg Group, Cascade hop, Champagne, Cherry, Chicha, Christmas, Cider apple, Cider house, Cidona, ..., Citric acid, Clonmel, Coca-Cola, Cocktail, Colonial Chile, Commonwealth of Nations, County Tipperary, Cranberry, Crème de cassis, Crêpe, Dabinett, DB Breweries, Denmark, Western Australia, Department (country subdivision), Distell Group Limited, Distillation, Early Middle Ages, East Anglia, Economy of Italy under fascism, Entre-Douro-e-Minho Province, Ethanol, Ethanol fermentation, Farm, Fassbrause, FEMSA, Fermentation in food processing, Filtration, Fizz (cocktail), Flocculation, Fractional freezing, Frankfurt, French Basque Country, Friuli, Fuji (apple), Gala (apple), Galicia (Spain), Gaul, Gauls, Gipuzkoa, Golden Delicious, Golden Russet, Granny Smith, Grape, Greymouth, H. P. Bulmer, Hanseniaspora, Hard soda, Hardanger, Heineken, Herrljunga Cider, Hesse, Heuriger, Hibiscus, Hops, Household Cyclopedia, Ice cider, Ice wine, Italian wine, Italy, Janusz Piechociński, Jillz, John Molson, Jonagold, Kent, Killer yeast, Kingston Black, Kir (cocktail), Kivik, Kopparbergs Brewery, Krakow Post, Lactic acid, Lactic acid fermentation, Lager, Latin, Lemonade, Lier, Norway, Lift (soft drink), Lion (Australasian company), Liqueur, List of cider brands, List of drinks, List of hop varieties, Lower Austria, Lower Normandy, Madeira, Magners, Malic acid, Manzanita Sol, Margaret River, Western Australia, Marquette (grape), Masovian Voivodeship, McIntosh (apple), Mead, Merzig, Metschnikowia, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Monteith's, Mostviertel, Mouthfeel, Murree Brewery, Navarre, Neckar, Nelson, New Zealand, New Year's Eve, Nonvolatile acid, Normandy, Norte Region, Portugal, Northern Italy, Odenwald, Orchard, Orne, Pasteurization, Pear, Pemberton, Western Australia, PepsiCo, Perry, Phenolic content in wine, Phenols, Phloretin, Pichia, Pichia membranifaciens, Piedmont, Pink Pearl (apple), Polygalacturonase, Pomace, Pome, Pommeau, Pomology, Procyanidin B2, Pub, Quebec, Quebec cider, Quince, Raspberry, Rekorderlig, Rhineland-Palatinate, Rioja (wine), Romandy, Roxbury Russet, Saar (river), Saarburg, Saarland, Saccharomyces, Saccharomyces bayanus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces pastorianus, Sagardotegi, Savanna Dry, Sidral Mundet, Siphon, Snakebite (drink), Soft drink, Somersby cider, Somerset County Council, Sparkling wine, Sparkling wine production, Speight's, Sprite (drink), Stella Artois, Strabo, Strongbow (cider), Styria, Swabia, Tannin, Tasmania, Temperance movement, Terroir, Tooheys Brewery, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Traditional method, Trentino, Trier, Txakoli, Upper Austria, Vinegar, Vinmonopolet, Volatile organic compound, Wassailing, West Country, Western Australia, Weston's Cider, Wetterau, Wine, Wine tasting descriptors, World Health Organization, Xylan 1,4-b-xylosidase, Yeast, Yule, Zona Sur, Zonhoven, Zygosaccharomyces, 4-Ethylphenol. Expand index (192 more) »

A. Le Coq


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Acetic acid

Acetic acid, systematically named ethanoic acid, is a colourless liquid organic compound with the chemical formula CH3COOH (also written as CH3CO2H or C2H4O2).

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An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).

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Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau

The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, statutorily named the Tax and Trade Bureau and frequently shortened to TTB, is a bureau of the United States Department of the Treasury, which regulates and collects taxes on trade and imports of alcohol, tobacco, and firearms within the United States.

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Alcohol by volume

Alcohol by volume (abbreviated as ABV, abv, or alc/vol) is a standard measure of how much alcohol (ethanol) is contained in a given volume of an alcoholic beverage (expressed as a volume percent).

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Alcoholic drink

An alcoholic drink (or alcoholic beverage) is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar.

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An alcopop (or cooler, spirit cooler in South African English, or malternative in American slang) is a term describing certain flavored alcoholic beverages with relatively low alcohol content (e.g., 3–7% alcohol by volume), including.

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Ale is a type of beer brewed using a warm fermentation method, resulting in a sweet, full-bodied and fruity taste.

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The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Anthocyanins (also anthocyans; from Greek: ἄνθος (anthos) "flower" and κυάνεος/κυανοῦς kyaneos/kyanous "dark blue") are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that, depending on their pH, may appear red, purple, or blue.

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Apéritif and digestif

Apéritifs and digestifs are drinks, typically alcoholic, that are normally served before (apéritif) or after (digestif) a meal.

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Apfelwein (Germany, apple wine), or Viez (Moselfranken, Saarland, Trier, vice) or Most (Austria, Switzerland, South Germany, must) are German words for cider.

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Apicius is a collection of Roman cookery recipes, usually thought to have been compiled in the 1st century AD and written in a language that is in many ways closer to Vulgar than to Classical Latin; later recipes using Vulgar Latin (such as ficatum, bullire) were added to earlier recipes using Classical Latin (such as iecur, fervere).

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Apple cider

Apple cider (also called sweet cider or soft cider or simply cider) is the name used in the United States and parts of Canada for an unfiltered, unsweetened, non-alcoholic beverage made from apples.

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Apple cider vinegar

Apple cider vinegar is a vinegar made from apples, sugar and yeast.

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Apple juice

Apple juice is a fruit juice made by the maceration and pressing of an apple.

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Applejack (drink)

Applejack is a strong apple-flavored alcoholic drink produced from apples, popular in the American colonial period.

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Appy Fizz

Appy Fizz is a product by Parle Agro, introduced in India in 2005.

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Asturias (Asturies; Asturias), officially the Principality of Asturias (Principado de Asturias; Principáu d'Asturies), is an autonomous community in north-west Spain.

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Autumn, also known as fall in American and Canadian English, is one of the four temperate seasons.

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Łódź Voivodeship

Łódź Voivodeship (also known as Łódź Province, or by its Polish name, województwo łódzkie) is a province (voivodeship) in central Poland.

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Babycham is the trade name of a light, sparkling perry invented by Francis Showering, a brewer in Shepton Mallet in Somerset, England; the name is now owned by Accolade Wines.

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Basque cider

Basque cider is an apple cider from the Basque region of Europe served at sagardotegi (cider houses).

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Basque Country (autonomous community)

The Basque Country (Euskadi; País Vasco; Pays Basque), officially the Basque Autonomous Community (Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoa, EAE; Comunidad Autónoma Vasca, CAV) is an autonomous community in northern Spain.

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Basque Country (greater region)

The Basque Country (Euskal Herria; Pays basque; Vasconia, País Vasco) is the name given to the home of the Basque people.

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Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.

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Bergen, historically Bjørgvin, is a city and municipality in Hordaland on the west coast of Norway.

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Beta-glucosidase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the glycosidic bonds to terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides and oligosaccharides, with release of glucose.

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Black Velvet (beer cocktail)

The Black Velvet is a beer cocktail made from a stout (often Guinness) and white, sparkling wine, traditionally Champagne.

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The blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum) is a woody shrub in the family Grossulariaceae grown for its piquant berries.

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Blackthorn Cider

Blackthorn Cider is a cider produced by Gaymer Cider Company, a subsidiary of C&C Group.

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Brettanomyces is a non-spore forming genus of yeast in the family Saccharomycetaceae, and is often colloquially referred to as "Brett".

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Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.

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C&C Group

C&C Group plc (known prior to its flotation as Cantrell & Cochrane Limited) is a manufacturer, marketer and distributor of alcoholic drinks, particularly cider.

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Calvados is an apple brandy from the Normandy region in France.

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Campaign for Real Ale

The Campaign for Real Ale (CAMRA) is an independent voluntary consumer organisation headquartered in St Albans, England, which promotes real ale, real cider and the traditional British pub.

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Candida (fungus)

Candida is a genus of yeasts and is the most common cause of fungal infections worldwide.

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Cantabria is a historic Spanish community and autonomous community with Santander as its capital city.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Carbonation refers to reactions of carbon dioxide to give carbonates, bicarbonates, and carbonic acid.

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Carlsberg Group

Carlsberg A/S is a global brewer.

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Cascade hop

Cascade is one of the many varieties of hops.

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Champagne is sparkling wine or, in EU countries, legally only that sparkling wine which comes from the Champagne region of France.

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A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit).

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In South and Central America, chicha is a fermented (alcoholic) or non-fermented beverage usually derived from grains, maize, or fruit.

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Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Cider apple

Cider apples are a group of apple cultivars grown for their use in the production of cider (referred to as "hard cider" in the United States).

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Cider house

A cider house is an establishment that sells alcoholic cider for consumption on the premises.

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Cidona is an apple-based soft drink that has been on sale since 1955.

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Citric acid

Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula.

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Clonmel is the county town and largest settlement of County Tipperary, Ireland.

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Coca-Cola, or Coke (also Pemberton's Cola at certain Georgian vendors), is a carbonated soft drink produced by The Coca-Cola Company.

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When used to refer to any generic alcoholic mixed drink, cocktail may mean any beverage that contains three or more ingredients if at least one of those ingredients contains alcohol.

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Colonial Chile

In Chilean historiography, Colonial Chile (la colonia) is the period from 1600 to 1810, beginning with the Destruction of the Seven Cities and ending with the onset of the Chilean War of Independence.

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Commonwealth of Nations

The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.

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County Tipperary

County Tipperary (Contae Thiobraid Árann) is a county in Ireland.

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Cranberries are a group of evergreen dwarf shrubs or trailing vines in the subgenus Oxycoccus of the genus Vaccinium.

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Crème de cassis

Crème de cassis (also known as Cassis Liqueur) is a sweet, dark red liqueur made from blackcurrants.

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A crêpe or crepe (or,, Quebec French) is a type of very thin pastry.

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'Dabinett' is an apple cultivar, customarily used in Somerset for making cider.

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DB Breweries

DB Breweries is a New Zealand-based brewing company, owned by Heineken Asia Pacific.

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Denmark, Western Australia

Denmark is a coastal town located on Wilson Inlet in the Great Southern region of Western Australia, south-south-east of the state capital of Perth.

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Department (country subdivision)

A department is an administrative or political subdivision in many countries.

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Distell Group Limited

Distell Group Limited, commonly referred to as Distell, is a multinational brewing and beverage company, based in South Africa.

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Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by selective boiling and condensation.

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Early Middle Ages

The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.

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East Anglia

East Anglia is a geographical area in the East of England.

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Economy of Italy under fascism

The economy of Italy under fascism refers to the economy in Italy between 1922 and 1943 when the fascists were in control.

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Entre-Douro-e-Minho Province

Entre Douro e Minho is one of the historical provinces of Portugal which encompassed the country's northern Atlantic seaboard between the Douro and Minho rivers.

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Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.

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Ethanol fermentation

Ethanol fermentation, also called alcoholic fermentation, is a biological process which converts sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose into cellular energy, producing ethanol and carbon dioxide as by-products.

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A farm is an area of land that is devoted primarily to agricultural processes with the primary objective of producing food and other crops; it is the basic facility in food production.

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Fassbrause, literally "keg soda", is a non-alcoholic or alcoholic (depending on the brand) German drink made from fruit and spices and malt extract, traditionally stored in a keg.

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Fomento Económico Mexicano, S.A.B. de C.V., doing business as FEMSA, is a Mexican multinational beverage and retail company headquartered in Monterrey, Mexico.

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Fermentation in food processing

Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions.

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Filtration is any of various mechanical, physical or biological operations that separate solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by adding a medium through which only the fluid can pass.

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Fizz (cocktail)

A "fizz" is a mixed drink variation on the older sours family of cocktail.

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Flocculation, in the field of chemistry, is a process wherein colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc or flake, either spontaneously or due to the addition of a clarifying agent.

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Fractional freezing

Fractional freezing is a process used in process engineering and chemistry to separate substances with different melting points.

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Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.

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French Basque Country

The French Basque Country, or Northern Basque Country (Iparralde (i.e. 'the Northern Region'), Pays basque français, País Vasco francés) is a region lying on the west of the French department of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques.

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Friuli is an area of Northeast Italy with its own particular cultural and historical identity.

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Fuji (apple)

The Fuji apple is an apple hybrid developed by growers at Tohoku Research Station (農林省園芸試験場東北支場) in Fujisaki, Aomori, Japan, in the late 1930s, and brought to market in 1962.

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Gala (apple)

Gala is a clonally propagated apple cultivar with a mild and sweet flavor.

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Galicia (Spain)

Galicia (Galician: Galicia, Galiza; Galicia; Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law.

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Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.

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The Gauls were Celtic people inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD).

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Gipuzkoa (in Guipúzcoa) is a province of Spain and a historical territory of the autonomous community of the Basque Country.

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Golden Delicious

The Golden Delicious is a cultivar of apple with a yellow color, not closely related to the Red Delicious apple.

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Golden Russet

Golden Russet is an old American cultivar of domesticated apple which is excellent for fresh eating as well as for apple cider production.

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Granny Smith

The Granny Smith is a tip-bearing apple cultivar, which originated in Australia in 1868.

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A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis.

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Greymouth (Māori: Māwhera) is the largest town in the West Coast region in the South Island of New Zealand, and the seat of the Grey District Council.

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H. P. Bulmer

H.P. Bulmer is an English cider-making company founded in 1887 in Hereford, England.

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Hanseniaspora is a genus of yeasts.

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Hard soda

Hard soda, also referred to as flavored beer, is a type of alcoholic beverage and craft beer that is manufactured in the style of a soft drink.

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Hardanger is a traditional district in the western part of Norway, dominated by the Hardangerfjord and its inner branches of the Sørfjorden and the Eid Fjord.

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Heineken Lager Beer (Heineken Pilsener), or simply Heineken is a pale lager beer with 5% alcohol by volume produced by the Dutch brewing company Heineken International.

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Herrljunga Cider

Herrljunga Cider is a low-alcohol cider produced by Herrljunga Brewery in Sweden.

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Hesse or Hessia (Hessen, Hessian dialect: Hesse), officially the State of Hesse (German: Land Hessen) is a federal state (''Land'') of the Federal Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants.

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Heuriger (Austrian dialect pronunciation: Heiriga) is the name given to a tavern in Eastern Austria, where a local winemaker serves his or her new wine under a special licence in alternate months during the growing season.

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Hibiscus is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family, Malvaceae.

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Hops are the flowers (also called seed cones or strobiles) of the hop plant Humulus lupulus. They are used primarily as a flavouring and stability agent in beer, to which they impart bitter, zesty, or citric flavours; though they are also used for various purposes in other beverages and herbal medicine.

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Household Cyclopedia

The Household Cyclopedia was an American guide to housekeeping published in 1881.

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Ice cider

Ice cider (also apple icewine or cidre de glace in French; sold as ice apple wine in the United States) is the cider equivalent of ice wine: a fermented beverage made from the frozen juice of apples.

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Ice wine

Ice wine (or icewine; Eiswein) is a type of dessert wine produced from grapes that have been frozen while still on the vine.

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Italian wine

Italy is home to some of the oldest wine-producing regions in the world, and Italian wines are known worldwide for their broad variety.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Janusz Piechociński

Janusz Piechociński (born 15 March 1960 in Studzianki) is a Polish politician, Minister of the Economy and Deputy Prime Minister of Poland from 6 December 2012 to 16 November 2015.

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Jillz, (formerly known as Charli) is a mix of cider, barley and water with a fruity flavor.

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John Molson

John Molson (December 28, 1763 – January 11, 1836) was an English-born brewer and entrepreneur in colonial Quebec and Lower Canada.

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Jonagold is a cultivar of apple which was developed in 1953 in New York State Agricultural Experiment Station of Cornell University's College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, a cross between the crisp Golden Delicious and the blush-crimson Jonathan.

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Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties.

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Killer yeast

A killer yeast is a yeast, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is able to secrete one of a number of toxic proteins which are lethal to susceptible cells.

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Kingston Black

The Kingston Black, also known as "Black Taunton", is a cultivar of apple originating from the United Kingdom and used in making cider.

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Kir (cocktail)

Kir is a popular French cocktail made with a measure of crème de cassis (blackcurrant liqueur) topped up with white wine.

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Kivik is a locality situated in Simrishamn Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden with 960 inhabitants in 2010.

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Kopparbergs Brewery

Kopparbergs Brewery is a Swedish brewery and cider company based in Bergslagen.

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Krakow Post

The Krakow Post is an English-language newspaper based in Krakow, Poland.

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Lactic acid

Lactic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH(OH)COOH.

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Lactic acid fermentation

Lactic acid fermentation is a metabolic process by which glucose and other six-carbon sugars (also, disaccharides of six-carbon sugars, e.g. sucrose or lactose) are converted into cellular energy and the metabolite lactate, which is lactic acid in solution.

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Lager is a type of beer conditioned at low temperatures.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Lemonade can be any one of a variety of sweetened beverages found throughout the world, but which are all characterized by a lemon flavor.

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Lier, Norway

Lier is a municipality in Buskerud county, Norway.

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Lift (soft drink)

Lift is a range of soft drinks produced by The Coca-Cola Company that has been available in Australia, New Zealand, Latin America, Germany, Austria, Philippines and Eastern Europe since the 1970s, which is carbonated and flavored with fruit juice.

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Lion (Australasian company)

Lion is a beverage and food company that operates in Australia and New Zealand.

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A liqueur is an alcoholic beverage made from a distilled spirit that has been flavored with either fruit, cream, herbs, spices, flowers or nuts, and is bottled with added sugars and other sweeteners (such as high-fructose corn syrup).

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List of cider brands

This is a list of cider brands.

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List of drinks

Drinks are liquids that can be consumed.

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List of hop varieties

This is a list of varieties of hop (Humulus lupulus).

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Lower Austria

Lower Austria (Niederösterreich; Dolní Rakousy; Dolné Rakúsko) is the northeasternmost state of the nine states in Austria.

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Lower Normandy

Lower Normandy (Basse-Normandie,; Basse-Normaundie) is a former administrative region of France.

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Madeira is a Portuguese archipelago situated in the north Atlantic Ocean, southwest of Portugal.

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Bulmers Irish Cider, branded as Magners Irish Cider outside the Republic of Ireland, is a brand of cider produced in County Tipperary in Ireland by the C&C Group.

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Malic acid

Malic acid is an organic compound with the molecular formula C4H6O5.

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Manzanita Sol

Manzanita Sol is a brand of apple-flavored soft drinks owned by PepsiCo and is predominant in Mexico.

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Margaret River, Western Australia

Margaret River is a town in the South West of Western Australia, located in the valley of the eponymous Margaret River, south of Perth, the state capital.

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Marquette (grape)

Marquette is an inter-specific hybrid red wine grape variety.

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Masovian Voivodeship

Mazovian Voivodeship or Mazovia Province (województwo mazowieckie) is the largest and most populous of the 16 Polish provinces, or voivodeships, created in 1999.

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McIntosh (apple)

The McIntosh, McIntosh Red, or colloquially the Mac, is an apple cultivar, the national apple of Canada.

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Mead (archaic and dialectal meath or meathe, from Old English medu) is an alcoholic beverage created by fermenting honey with water, sometimes with various fruits, spices, grains, or hops.

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Merzig is the capital of the district Merzig-Wadern, in Saarland, Germany.

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Metschnikowia is a genus of yeast in the family Metschnikowiaceae.

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Metschnikowia pulcherrima

Metschnikowia pulcherrima is a ubiquitous species of yeast, with numerous strains, belonging to the family Metschnikowiaceae, and found on grapes, cherries, flowers, spoiled fruit and consequently carried by fruit flies.

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Monteith's Brewery Company was originally a family-owned brewing company until it was bought by DB Breweries.

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Mostviertel (English: Must Quarter) is the southwestern quarter of the four quarters of Lower Austria (the northeast state of the 9 states in Austria).

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Mouthfeel refers to the physical sensations in the mouth caused by food or drink, as distinct from taste.

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Murree Brewery

Murree Brewery is a Pakistani multinational manufacturer of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages.

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Navarre (Navarra, Nafarroa; Navarra), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre (Spanish: Comunidad Foral de Navarra; Basque: Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea), is an autonomous community and province in northern Spain, bordering the Basque Autonomous Community, La Rioja, and Aragon in Spain and Nouvelle-Aquitaine in France.

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The Neckar is a river in Germany, mainly flowing through the southwestern state of Baden-Württemberg, with a short section through Hesse.

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Nelson, New Zealand

Nelson (Whakatū) is a city on the eastern shores of Tasman Bay.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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Nonvolatile acid

A nonvolatile acid (also known as a fixed acid or metabolic acid) is an acid produced in the body from sources other than carbon dioxide, and is not excreted by the lungs.

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Normandy (Normandie,, Norman: Normaundie, from Old French Normanz, plural of Normant, originally from the word for "northman" in several Scandinavian languages) is one of the 18 regions of France, roughly referring to the historical Duchy of Normandy.

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Norte Region, Portugal

Norte (Região Norte,; "North Region") or Northern Portugal is the most populous region in Portugal, ahead of Lisboa, and the third most extensive by area.

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Northern Italy

Northern Italy (Italia settentrionale or just Nord) is a geographical region in the northern part of Italy.

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The is a low mountain range in the German states of Hesse, Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg.

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An orchard is an intentional planting of trees or shrubs that is maintained for food production.

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Orne is a department in the northwest of France, named after the river Orne.

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Pasteurization or pasteurisation is a process in which packaged and non-packaged foods (such as milk and fruit juice) are treated with mild heat (Today, pasteurization is used widely in the dairy industry and other food processing industries to achieve food preservation and food safety. This process was named after the French scientist Louis Pasteur, whose research in the 1880s demonstrated that thermal processing would inactivate unwanted microorganisms in wine. Spoilage enzymes are also inactivated during pasteurization. Most liquid products are heat treated in a continuous system where heat can be applied using plate heat exchanger and/or direct or indirect use of steam and hot water. Due to the mild heat there are minor changes to the nutritional quality of foods as well as the sensory characteristics. Pascalization or high pressure processing (HPP) and Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) are non-thermal processes that are also used to pasteurize foods.

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The pear is any of several tree and shrub species of genus Pyrus, in the family Rosaceae.

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Pemberton, Western Australia

Pemberton is a town in the South West region of Western Australia, named after original settler Pemberton Walcott.

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PepsiCo, Inc. is an American multinational food, snack, and beverage corporation headquartered in Purchase, New York.

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Perry is an alcoholic beverage made from fermented pears, similar to the way cider is made from apples.

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Phenolic content in wine

The phenolic content in wine refers to the phenolic compounds—natural phenol and polyphenols—in wine, which include a large group of several hundred chemical compounds that affect the taste, color and mouthfeel of wine.

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In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (—OH) bonded directly to an aromatic hydrocarbon group.

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Phloretin is a dihydrochalcone, a type of natural phenols.

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Pichia (Hansenula and Hyphopichia are obsolete synonyms) is a genus of yeasts in the family Saccharomycetaceae with spherical, elliptical, or oblong acuminate cells.

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Pichia membranifaciens

Pichia membranifaciens is a plant pathogen infecting strawberries.

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Piedmont (Piemonte,; Piedmontese, Occitan and Piemont; Piémont) is a region in northwest Italy, one of the 20 regions of the country.

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Pink Pearl (apple)

The 'Pink Pearl' apple is a pink-fleshed apple cultivar developed in 1944 by Albert Etter, a northern California breeder.

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Polygalacturonase, also known as pectin depolymerase, PG, pectolase, pectin hydrolase, and poly-alpha-1,4-galacturonide glycanohydrolase, is an enzyme that hydrolyzes the alpha-1,4 glycosidic bonds between galacturonic acid residues.

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Pomace, or marc (from French marc), is the solid remains of grapes, olives, or other fruit after pressing for juice or oil.

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In botany, a pome (derived from Latin pōmum, meaning "fruit") is a type of fruit produced by flowering plants in the subtribe Malinae of the family Rosaceae.

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Pommeau is an alcoholic drink made in north-western France by mixing apple juice with apple brandy: Calvados in Normandy or lambig in Brittany.

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Pomology (from latin pomum (fruit) + -logy) is a branch of botany that studies and cultivates fruit.

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Procyanidin B2

Procyanidin B2 is a B type proanthocyanidin.

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A pub, or public house, is an establishment licensed to sell alcoholic drinks, which traditionally include beer (such as ale) and cider.

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Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.

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Quebec cider

Quebec cider is crafted in the apple-producing regions of Montérégie, Eastern Townships, Chaudière-Appalaches, the Laurentides, Charlevoix and Capitale-Nationale, in Canada.

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The quince (Cydonia oblonga) is the sole member of the genus Cydonia in the family Rosaceae (which also contains apples and pears, among other fruits).

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The raspberry is the edible fruit of a multitude of plant species in the genus Rubus of the rose family, most of which are in the subgenus Idaeobatus; the name also applies to these plants themselves.

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Rekorderlig is a brand of cider manufactured by Åbro Bryggeri from Sweden.

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Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz) is one of the 16 states (Bundesländer) of the Federal Republic of Germany.

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Rioja (wine)

Rioja is a wine region in Spain, with Denominación de Origen Calificada (D.O.Ca., "Qualified Designation of Origin").

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Romandy (la Romandie)Before World War I, the term French Switzerland (Suisse française) was. is the French-speaking part of western Switzerland. In 2010, about 1.9 million people, or 24.4% of the Swiss population, lived in Romandy. The bulk of romand population lives in the Arc Lémanique region along Lake Geneva, connecting Geneva, Vaud and the Lower Valais.

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Roxbury Russet

The 'Roxbury Russet' is an apple cultivar, believed to be the oldest apple cultivar bred in the United States, having first been discovered and named in the mid-17th century in the former Town of Roxbury, part of the Massachusetts Bay Colony southwest of (now part of) Boston.

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Saar (river)

The Saar (Sarre; Saar) is a river in northeastern France and western Germany, and a right tributary of the Moselle.

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Saarburg is a city of the Trier-Saarburg district in the Rhineland-Palatinate state of Germany, on the banks of the Saar River in the hilly country a few kilometers upstream from the Saar's junction with the Moselle.

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Saarland (das Saarland,; la Sarre) is one of the sixteen states (Bundesländer) of the Federal Republic of Germany.

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Saccharomyces is a genus of fungi that includes many species of yeasts.

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Saccharomyces bayanus

Saccharomyces bayanus is a yeast of the genus Saccharomyces, and is used in winemaking and cider fermentation, and to make distilled beverages.

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast.

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Saccharomyces pastorianus

Saccharomyces pastorianus is a yeast used industrially for the production of lager beer, and was named in honour of Louis Pasteur by the German Max Reess in 1870.

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A sagardotegi (pronounced) is a type of cider house found in the Basque Country where Basque cider and traditional foods such as cod omelettes are served.

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Savanna Dry

Savanna Dry is a South African cider introduced by the Distell Group Limited in May 1996.

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Sidral Mundet

Sidral Mundet is a Mexican apple-flavored carbonated soft drink produced by FEMSA S.A de C.V and distributed in the United States by the Novamex company, which also distributes the Jarritos and Sangria Señorial soda brands.

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The word siphon (from σίφων "pipe, tube", also spelled syphon) is used to refer to a wide variety of devices that involve the flow of liquids through tubes.

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Snakebite (drink)

A snakebite is an alcoholic drink made with equal parts of lager and cider.

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Soft drink

A soft drink (see terminology for other names) typically contains carbonated water (although some lemonades are not carbonated), a sweetener, and a natural or artificial flavoring.

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Somersby cider

Somersby cider is a brand of 4.5% abv cider by Danish brewing company Carlsberg Group.

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Somerset County Council

Somerset County Council (established in 1889) is the county council of Somerset in the South West of England, an elected local government authority responsible for the most significant local government services in most of the county.

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Sparkling wine

Sparkling wine is a wine with significant levels of carbon dioxide in it, making it fizzy.

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Sparkling wine production

Sparkling wine is a wine (usually white) that becomes carbonated, either through fermentation or by addition of carbon dioxide.

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Speight's is a brewery in Dunedin, New Zealand.

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Sprite (drink)

Sprite is a colorless, caffeine-free, lemon- and lime-flavored soft drink created by The Coca-Cola Company.

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Stella Artois

Stella Artois is a Belgian pilsner of between 4.8 and 5.2% ABV which was first brewed by Brouwerij Artois (the Artois Brewery) in Leuven, Belgium, in 1926.

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Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.

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Strongbow (cider)

Strongbow is a dry cider produced by H. P. Bulmer in England since 1962.

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Styria (Steiermark,, Štajerska, Stájerország, Štýrsko) is a state or Bundesland, located in the southeast of Austria.

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Swabia (Schwaben, colloquially Schwabenland or Ländle; in English also archaic Suabia or Svebia) is a cultural, historic and linguistic region in southwestern Germany.

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Tannins (or tannoids) are a class of astringent, polyphenolic biomolecules that bind to and precipitate proteins and various other organic compounds including amino acids and alkaloids.

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Tasmania (abbreviated as Tas and known colloquially as Tassie) is an island state of Australia.

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Temperance movement

The temperance movement is a social movement against the consumption of alcoholic beverages.

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Terroir (from terre, "land") is the set of all environmental factors that affect a crop's phenotype, including unique environment contexts, farming practices and a crop's specific growth habitat.

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Tooheys Brewery

Tooheys is a brewery in the suburb of Lidcombe, in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

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Torulaspora delbrueckii

Torulaspora delbrueckii is a ubiquitous yeast species with both wild and anthropic habitats.

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Traditional method

The traditional method is the process used in the Champagne region of France to produce Champagne.

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Trentino, officially the Autonomous Province of Trento, is an autonomous province of Italy, in the country's far north.

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Trier (Tréier), formerly known in English as Treves (Trèves) and Triers (see also names in other languages), is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle.

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Txakoli (pronounced) or chacolí (pronounced) is a slightly sparkling, very dry white wine with high acidity and low alcohol content produced in the Spanish provinces of the Basque Country, Cantabria and northern Burgos.

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Upper Austria

Upper Austria (Oberösterreich; Austro-Bavarian: Obaöstarreich; Horní Rakousy) is one of the nine states or Bundesländer of Austria.

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Vinegar is a liquid consisting of about 5–20% acetic acid (CH3COOH), water (H2O), and trace chemicals that may include flavorings.

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Vinmonopolet (The Wine Monopoly), symbolized by Ⓥ and colloquially shortened to Polet, is a government-owned alcoholic beverage retailer and the only company allowed to sell beverages containing an alcohol content higher than 4.75% in Norway.

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Volatile organic compound

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature.

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The tradition of wassailing (alt sp wasselling) falls into two distinct categories: the house-visiting wassail and the orchard-visiting wassail.

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West Country

The West Country is a loosely defined area of south western England.

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Western Australia

Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia.

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Weston's Cider

H.Weston & Sons Limited ("Weston's Cider") is a cider and perry producer based in Much Marcle, Herefordshire, England.

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The Wetterau is a fertile undulating tract, watered by the Wetter, a tributary of the Nidda River, in the western German state of Hesse, between the hilly province Oberhessen and the north-western Taunus mountains.

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Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from grapes fermented without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients.

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Wine tasting descriptors

The use of wine tasting descriptors allows the taster to qualitatively relate the aromas and flavors that the taster experiences and can be used in assessing the overall quality of wine.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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Xylan 1,4-b-xylosidase

Xylan 1,4-beta-xylosidase (xylobiase, beta-xylosidase, exo-1,4-beta-xylosidase, beta-D-xylopyranosidase, exo-1,4-xylosidase, exo-1,4-beta-D-xylosidase, 1,4-beta-D-xylan xylohydrolase) is an enzyme with systematic name 4-beta-D-xylan xylohydrolase.

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Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.

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Yule or Yuletide ("Yule time") was and is a festival observed by the historical Germanic peoples.

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Zona Sur

The Zona Sur (Southern Zone) is one of the five natural regions on which CORFO divided continental Chile in 1950.

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Zonhoven is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Limburg near Hasselt.

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Zygosaccharomyces is a genus of yeasts in the family Saccharomycetaceae.

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4-Ethylphenol (4-EP) is a phenolic compound.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cider

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