268 relations: Acetaldehyde, Acetate, Acetylation, Acetylesterase, Acrolein, Acrylonitrile, Adverse effect, Aerosol, Agence France-Presse, Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Alcohol, Amber Leaf, American Cancer Society, American Industrial Hygiene Association, Ammonia, Ammonium, Anaerobic respiration, Army Club, Ashford (cigarette), Asthma, Atherinops affinis, Australian Capital Territory, Aztecs, Bacteria, Basic (cigarette), Beedi, Benson & Hedges, Bhutan, Bioaccumulation, Biodegradation, Birth defect, Blunt (cannabis), Brand, British American Tobacco, British Columbia, British Medical Association, Bushfires in Australia, C-ration, California, California Environmental Protection Agency, Camel (cigarette), Canadian Prairies, Cancer, Cancer epigenetics, Candy cigarette, Capri (cigarette), Carcinogen, Carcinogenesis, ..., Cardiovascular disease, Catalysis, Cellular respiration, Cellulase, Cellulose, Cellulose acetate, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Chemical compound, Chemical reaction, Chesterfield (cigarette), Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Cigar, Cigarette Camp, Cigarette filter, Cigarette machine, Cigarillo, Cocoa solids, Crimean War, Davidoff, Debit card, Deutsche Welle, Developed country, Developing country, Djarum, Dopamine, Doral (cigarette), Du Maurier (cigarette), Dunhill (cigarette), Eclipse (cigarette), Egyptian cigarette industry, Electric battery, Electronic cigarette, Electronic cigarette aerosol and liquid, Embassy (cigarette), Ethyl acetate, Ethylene oxide, European Union, Eve (cigarette), Export (cigarette), Fathead minnow, Fatima (cigarette), Fire safe cigarette, Food and Drug Administration, Formaldehyde, Fortuna (cigarette), Francisco Goya, Free base, Fungus, Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, Gauloises, Genotoxicity, Gitanes, Glucose, Glutamic acid, Glycerol, Gold Flake, Golden Virginia, Hawaii, Heating element, Helmuth von Moltke the Elder, Herbal cigarette, History of commercial tobacco in the United States, Houston Chronicle, Humectant, Hypertension, Imperial Brands, In vitro, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Isoprene, James Albert Bonsack, Japan Tobacco, John Player & Sons, Joint (cannabis), Kent (cigarette), Kool (cigarette), Kretek, Kyriazi Freres, L&M, L'Expansion, Lambert & Butler, Lark (cigarette), Laryngeal cancer, Latakia (tobacco), Liquorice, List of additives in cigarettes, List of cigarette smoke carcinogens, Litter, Livery, Longwood University, Lucky Strike, Lung cancer, Maine, Manitoba, Marine pollution, Marlboro (cigarette), Massachusetts, Max (cigarette), Maya civilization, Mayfair (cigarette), Merit (cigarette), Mesh (scale), Mevius, Missouri, More (cigarette), Myocardial infarction, Nanotube, Nassau County, New York, Nat Sherman, Natural American Spirit, Neurotransmitter, New Jersey, New York, Newfoundland and Labrador, Newport (cigarette), Next (cigarette), Nicotine, Nicotine replacement therapy, Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, Nil (cigarette), Old Gold (cigarette), Oligosaccharide, Onondaga County, New York, Ontario, Oregon, Organoleptic, Ottoman Turks, Pall Mall (cigarette), Pancreatic cancer, Pantone 448 C, Parliament (cigarette), Passive smoking, Pectin, Perilly's, Peter Stuyvesant (cigarette), Philip Morris International, Philip Morris USA, Photodegradation, Plain tobacco packaging, Polysaccharide, Polyvinyl acetate, Prince (cigarette), Product (chemistry), Propylene glycol, Protozoa, Public health, Pyramid (cigarette), Quebec, R. J. Reynolds, Republic of Ireland, Respiratory tract infection, Safety of electronic cigarettes, Salem (cigarette), Sampoerna, Saskatchewan, Seneca (cigarette), Senior Service (cigarette), Shag (tobacco), Sharia, Silver Bay, New York, Sizing, Smart card, Smokeless tobacco, Smoking, Smoking age, Smoking ban, Smoking bans in private vehicles, Smoking cessation, Smoking in Japan, Smoking pipe, Sobranie, Spectrum News Central New York, State Express 555, Stroke, Substance dependence, Suffolk County, New York, Suffrage, Surgeon General of the United States, Surya, Tar (tobacco residue), Tareyton, Taspo, TerraCycle, Tobacco, Tobacco control, Tobacco Control Act of Bhutan 2010, Tobacco display ban, Tobacco harm reduction, Tobacco smoke, Tobacco smoking, Toxicity, Trading Standards, Turkish tobacco, Ulcerative colitis, Utah, Vancouver, Vantage (cigarette), Vapor, Vaporizer (inhalation device), Varenicline, Viceroy (cigarette), Virginia, Virginia Slims, Washington (state), Waste, Water supply, Water supply network, West (cigarette), White paper, Wildfire, Winfield (cigarette), Winston (cigarette), Woodbine (cigarette), World Health Organization, Youth smoking, 1,3-Butadiene, 520 (cigarette), 8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine. Expand index (218 more) » « Shrink index
Acetaldehyde (systematic name ethanal) is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH3CHO, sometimes abbreviated by chemists as MeCHO (Me.
An acetate is a salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, metallic or nonmetallic and other base.
Acetylation (or in IUPAC nomenclature ethanoylation) describes a reaction that introduces an acetyl functional group into a chemical compound.
In enzymology, an acetylesterase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are acetic ester and H2O, whereas its two products are alcohol and acetate.
Acrolein (systematic name: propenal) is the simplest unsaturated aldehyde.
Acrylonitrile is an organic compound with the formula CH2CHCN.
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
An aerosol is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas.
Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris, France.
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
Alberta is a western province of Canada.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
Amber Leaf is a brand of rolling tobacco.
The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a nationwide voluntary health organization dedicated to eliminating cancer.
The American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) is a 501(c)6 non-profit organization, whose mission is "Creating knowledge to protect worker health." The American Industrial Hygiene Association works to provide information and resources to Industrial Hygienists and Occupational Health professionals.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula.
Anaerobic respiration is respiration using electron acceptors other than molecular oxygen (O2).
Army Club was a British brand of cigarettes, owned and manufactured by Cavanders Ltd of London.
Ashford is a brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by Philip Morris International.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Atherinops affinis, the topsmelt silverside or simply topsmelt, is a species of Neotropical silverside native to the eastern Pacific Ocean.
The Australian Capital Territory (ACT; known as the Federal Capital Territory until 1938) is Australia's federal district, located in the south-east of the country and enclaved within the state of New South Wales.
The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Basic is an American brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by Philip Morris USA in the U.S. and by Altria outside of the U.S.
A beedi (from बीड़ी; also spelled bidi or biri) is a thin cigarette or mini-cigar filled with tobacco flake and commonly wrapped in a Diospyros melanoxylon or Piliostigma racemosum leaf tied with a string or adhesive at one end.
Benson & Hedges is a British brand of cigarettes owned by either Philip Morris International, British American Tobacco, or Japan Tobacco, depending on the region.
Bhutan, officially the Kingdom of Bhutan (Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in South Asia.
Bioaccumulation is the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism.
Biodegradation is the disintegration of materials by bacteria, fungi, or other biological means.
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
A blunt is a cigar hollowed out and filled with marijuana.
A brand is a name, term, design, symbol, or other feature that distinguishes an organization or product from its rivals in the eyes of the customer.
British American Tobacco plc (BAT) is a British multinational tobacco company headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
British Columbia (BC; Colombie-Britannique) is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains.
The British Medical Association (BMA) is the professional association and registered trade union for doctors in the United Kingdom.
Bushfires are frequent events during the warmer months of the year, due to Australia's mostly hot, dry climate.
The C-Ration, or Type C ration, was an individual canned, pre-cooked, and prepared wet ration.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
\bthearticlewriter\.com\b on the local blacklist|bot.
Camel is an American brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company in the United States and by Japan Tobacco outside of the United States.
The Canadian Prairies is a region in Western Canada, which may correspond to several different definitions, natural or political.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Cancer epigenetics is the study of epigenetic modifications to the DNA of cancer cells that do not involve a change in the nucleotide sequence.
Candy cigarettes are a candy introduced in the early 20th century made out of chalky sugar, bubblegum or chocolate, wrapped in paper and packaged and branded so as to resemble cigarettes.
Capri (also known as Caprice in Germany) is an American brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Carcinogenesis, also called oncogenesis or tumorigenesis, is the formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
Cellulase is any of several enzymes produced chiefly by fungi, bacteria, and protozoans that catalyze cellulolysis, the decomposition of cellulose and of some related polysaccharides.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
Cellulose acetate is the acetate ester of cellulose.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
Chesterfield is a brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by Altria.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow.
A cigar is a rolled bundle of dried and fermented tobacco leaves made to be smoked.
A Cigarette Camp was one of a number of temporary U.S. Army "tent cities" situated principally around the French ports of Le Havre and Marseilles following their respective captures in the wake of the Allied D-Day invasion in June 1944, and Operation Dragoon in July 1944.
A cigarette filter is a component of a cigarette, along with cigarette paper, capsules and adhesives.
A cigarette machine is a vending machine that takes cash in payment for packs of cigarettes.
A cigarillo (from Spanish cigarrillo, meaning cigarette, in turn from "cigarro" + "illo" diminutive, pronounced in parts of Latin America or in Spain) is a short, narrow cigar.
Cocoa solids are a mixture of many substances remaining after cocoa butter is extracted from cacao beans.
The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
Davidoff is a Swiss premium brand of cigars and smoker’s accessories.
A debit card (also known as a bank card, plastic card or check card) is a plastic payment card that can be used instead of cash when making purchases.
Deutsche Welle ("German wave" in German) or DW is Germany's public international broadcaster.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Djarum is an Indonesian kretek (clove cigarette) brand/manufacturer founded in April 21, 1951 by Oei Wie Gwan in Kudus, Central Java.
Dopamine (DA, a contraction of 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is an organic chemical of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays several important roles in the brain and body.
Doral is an American brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by the R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company.
Du Maurier is a Canadian brand of cigarettes, produced by Imperial Tobacco Canada, a subsidiary of British American Tobacco.
Dunhill is a British brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by British American Tobacco.
Eclipse is an American cigarette brand that was developed and marketed by R.J. Reynolds Tobacco.
The Egyptian cigarette industry, during the period between the 1880s and the end of the First World War, was a major export industry that influenced global fashion.
An electric battery is a device consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections provided to power electrical devices such as flashlights, smartphones, and electric cars.
An electronic cigarette or e-cigarette is a handheld electronic device that simulates the feeling of tobacco smoking.
Electronic cigarette aerosol and liquid (sometimes referred to as E-liquid) is the mixture used in vapor products such as electronic cigarettes.
Embassy is a British brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by Imperial Tobacco.
Ethyl acetate (systematically ethyl ethanoate, commonly abbreviated EtOAc or EA) is the organic compound with the formula, simplified to.
Ethylene oxide, called oxirane by IUPAC, is an organic compound with the formula. It is a cyclic ether and the simplest epoxide: a three-membered ring consisting of one oxygen atom and two carbon atoms. Ethylene oxide is a colorless and flammable gas with a faintly sweet odor. Because it is a strained ring, ethylene oxide easily participates in a number of addition reactions that result in ring-opening. Ethylene oxide is isomeric with acetaldehyde and with vinyl alcohol. Ethylene oxide is industrially produced by oxidation of ethylene in the presence of silver catalyst. The reactivity that is responsible for many of ethylene oxide's hazards also make it useful. Although too dangerous for direct household use and generally unfamiliar to consumers, ethylene oxide is used for making many consumer products as well as non-consumer chemicals and intermediates. These products include detergents, thickeners, solvents, plastics, and various organic chemicals such as ethylene glycol, ethanolamines, simple and complex glycols, polyglycol ethers, and other compounds. Although it is a vital raw material with diverse applications, including the manufacture of products like polysorbate 20 and polyethylene glycol (PEG) that are often more effective and less toxic than alternative materials, ethylene oxide itself is a very hazardous substance. At room temperature it is a flammable, carcinogenic, mutagenic, irritating, and anaesthetic gas. As a toxic gas that leaves no residue on items it contacts, ethylene oxide is a surface disinfectant that is widely used in hospitals and the medical equipment industry to replace steam in the sterilization of heat-sensitive tools and equipment, such as disposable plastic syringes. It is so flammable and extremely explosive that it is used as a main component of thermobaric weapons; therefore, it is commonly handled and shipped as a refrigerated liquid to control its hazardous nature.Rebsdat, Siegfried and Mayer, Dieter (2005) "Ethylene Oxide" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim..
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Eve Cigarettes are an American brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by the Liggett Group in the United States.
Export is a Canadian brand of cigarettes and rolling tobacco, currently owned and manufactured by JTI Macdonald, a subsidiary of Japan Tobacco.
The fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) is a species of temperate freshwater fish belonging to the genus Pimephales of the cyprinid family.
Fatima Cigarettes (pronounced fa-TEE-ma) was an American brand of cigarettes, owned and manufactured by the Liggett & Myers tobacco company.
Fire safe cigarettes, abbreviated "FSC", also known as lower ignition propensity (LIP), reduced fire risk (RFR), self-extinguishing, fire-safe or reduced ignition propensity (RIP) cigarettes, are cigarettes that are designed to extinguish more quickly than standard cigarettes if ignored, with the intention of preventing accidental fires.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Fortuna is a Spanish brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by the Franco-Spanish company Altadis, a subsidiary of Imperial Tobacco.
Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (30 March 1746 – 16 April 1828) was a Spanish romantic painter and printmaker.
Free base (freebase, free-base) is the conjugate base (deprotonated) form of an amine, as opposed to its conjugate acid (protonated) form.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid, or γ-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, is the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.
Gauloises, "Gaul women" in French ("cigarette" is feminine in French), is a brand of cigarette of French manufacture.
In genetics, genotoxicity describes the property of chemical agents that damages the genetic information within a cell causing mutations, which may lead to cancer.
Gitanes ("Gypsy women") is a French brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by Imperial Tobacco following their acquisition of Altadis in January 2008, having been owned by SEITA before that.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
Gold Flake is a classic Indian brand that has been in the market for over a century.
Golden Virginia is a roll tobacco manufactured in Nottingham, England by Imperial Tobacco and sold throughout Europe.
Hawaii (Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.
A heating element converts energy into heat through the process of resistive or Joule heating.
Helmuth Karl Bernhard Graf von Moltke (26 October 1800, Parchim, Mecklenburg-Schwerin – 24 April 1891, Berlin) was a German Field Marshal.
Herbal cigarettes (also called tobacco-free cigarettes or nicotine-free cigarettes) are cigarettes that usually do not contain any tobacco, instead being composed of a mixture of various herbs and/or other plant material.
The history of commercial tobacco production in the United States dates back to the 17th century when the first commercial crop was planted.
The Houston Chronicle is the largest daily newspaper in Houston, Texas, United States.
A humectant is a hygroscopic substance used to keep things moist; it is the opposite of a desiccant because it is wet.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Imperial Brands plc, formerly Imperial Tobacco Group plc, is a British multinational tobacco company headquartered in Bristol, United Kingdom.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC; Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer, CIRC) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organization of the United Nations.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
Isoprene, or 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, is a common organic compound with the formula CH2.
James Albert Bonsack (October 9, 1859,. URL last accessed 2006-10-11., with diagrams. URL last accessed 2006-10-11. – June 1, 1924) was an American inventor who invented the first cigarette rolling machine in 1880.
, abbreviated JT, is a cigarette manufacturing company.
John Player & Sons, most often known simply as Player's, was a tobacco and cigarette manufacturer based in Nottingham, England.
A joint, spliff, jay, or doobie, is a rolled marijuana cigarette.
Kent is an American brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company in the United States and British American Tobacco elsewhere.
Kool (stylized as KOOL) is an American brand of menthol cigarette, currently owned and manufactured by ITG Brands LLC (a subsidiary of Imperial Tobacco Company). Kool cigarettes sold outside of the U.S. are manufactured by British American Tobacco.
Kretek are cigarettes made with a blend of tobacco, cloves and other flavors.
Kyriazi Freres (also spelled Kyriazi Frères and incorrectly "Kiriazi") was a cigarette manufacturing company established in 1873 in Egypt.
L&M is an American brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by Altria (previously known as Philip Morris Companies, Inc.). The name comes from the tobacco company founded in 1873 called Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company, predecessor of today's Liggett Group in which L&M was originally produced.
L'Expansion is a French former monthly business magazine based in Paris, France.
Lambert & Butler is a British brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by Imperial Tobacco.
Lark is an American brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by Philip Morris USA in the United States.
Laryngeal cancer, also known as cancer of the larynx or laryngeal carcinoma, are mostly squamous cell carcinomas, reflecting their origin from the skin of the larynx.
Latakia tobacco (تبغ اللاذقية) is a specially prepared tobacco originally produced in Syria and named after the port city of Latakia.
Liquorice (British English) or licorice (American English) is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra from which a sweet flavour can be extracted.
This is the list of 599 additives in cigarettes submitted to the United States Department of Health and Human Services in April 1994.
Commercial tobacco smoke is a mixture of more than 5000 chemicals.
Litter consists of waste products that have been disposed improperly, without consent, at an inappropriate location.
A livery is a uniform, insignia or symbol adorning, in a non-military context, a person, an object or a vehicle that denotes a relationship between the wearer of the livery and an individual or corporate body.
Longwood University is a four-year public liberal arts university located in Farmville, Virginia, United States.
Lucky Strike is an American brand of cigarettes owned by the British American Tobacco groups.
Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
Maine is a U.S. state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada.
Marine pollution occurs when harmful, or potentially harmful, effects result from the entry into the ocean of chemicals, particles, industrial, agricultural, and residential waste, noise, or the spread of invasive organisms.
Marlboro is an American brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by Philip Morris USA (a branch of Altria) within the United States, and by Philip Morris International (now separate from Altria) outside the United States.
Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Max was an American brand of 120mm cigarettes which was owned and manufactured by the Lorillard Tobacco Company of Greensboro, North Carolina, United States.
The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.
Mayfair is an English brand of cigarettess, currently owned and manufactured by Gallaher Group, a subsidiary of Japan Tobacco.
Merit is an American brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by Philip Morris USA in the United States and Philip Morris International outside the United States.
Mesh is a measurement of particle size often used in determining the particle-size distribution of a granular material.
Mevius (Japanese: メビウス) previously called Mild Seven (Japanese: マイルドセブン Mairudo Sebun) is a Japanese brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by Japan Tobacco.
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States.
More is an American brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by the R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company in the United States, Japan Tobacco in the European Union and PMFTC in the Philippines.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
A nanotube is a nanometer-scale tube-like structure.
Nassau County or is a suburban county comprising much of western Long Island in the U.S. state of New York.
Nat Sherman is the brand name for a line of handmade cigars and "luxury cigarettes." The company, which began as a retail tobacconist, continues to operate a flagship retail shop now located on 42nd Street, off Fifth Avenue, in New York City.
Natural American Spirit (often referred to as American Spirits) is an American brand of cigarettes and other tobacco products, currently owned by Reynolds American and manufactured by the Santa Fe Natural Tobacco Company.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.
New York most commonly refers to.
Newfoundland and Labrador (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador; Akamassiss; Newfoundland Irish: Talamh an Éisc agus Labradar) is the most easterly province of Canada.
Newport is an American brand of menthol cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by the R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company.
Next is a brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by Philip Morris International.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is a medically-approved way to take nicotine by means other than tobacco.
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are receptor proteins that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Nil is a German brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by Gallaher Group, a subsidiary of Japan Tobacco.
Old Gold was an American brand of cigarettes which was owned and manufactured by the Lorillard Tobacco Company.
An oligosaccharide (from the Greek ὀλίγος olígos, "a few", and σάκχαρ sácchar, "sugar") is a saccharide polymer containing a small number (typically three to ten) of monosaccharides (simple sugars).
Onondaga County is a county in the U.S. state of New York.
Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada.
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States.
Organoleptic properties are the aspects of food, water or other substances that an individual experiences via the senses—including taste, sight, smell, and touch.
The Ottoman Turks (or Osmanlı Turks, Osmanlı Türkleri) were the Turkish-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire who formed the base of the state's military and ruling classes.
Pall Mall (or adopted) is an American brand of cigarettes produced by R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, and internationally by British American Tobacco at multiple sites.
Pancreatic cancer arises when cells in the pancreas, a glandular organ behind the stomach, begin to multiply out of control and form a mass.
Pantone 448 C is a colour in the Pantone colour system.
Parliament is an American brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by Philip Morris USA in the United States and Philip Morris International outside of the United States.
Passive smoking is the inhalation of smoke, called second-hand smoke (SHS), or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), by persons other than the intended "active" smoker.
Pectin (from πηκτικός, "congealed, curdled") is a structural heteropolysaccharide contained in the primary cell walls of terrestrial plants.
Perilly's cigarettes are a brand of tobacco cigarettes currently selling in Japan, and South Africa.
Peter Stuyvesant is a premium brand of cigarettes currently owned by British American Tobacco and manufactured by the American Cigarette Company.
Philip Morris International Inc. (PMI) is an American multinational cigarette and tobacco manufacturing company, with products sold in over 180 countries outside the United States.
Philip Morris USA is the United States tobacco division of Altria Group.
Photodegradation is the alteration of materials by light.
Plain tobacco packaging, also known as generic, neutral, standardised or homogeneous packaging, refers to packaging that requires the removal of all branding (colours, imagery, corporate logos and trademarks), permitting manufacturers to print only the brand name in a mandated size, font and place on the pack, in addition to the health warnings and any other legally mandated information such as toxic constituents and tax-paid stamps.
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
Poly(vinyl acetate) (PVA, PVAc, poly(ethenyl ethanoate): commonly referred to as wood glue, white glue, carpenter's glue, school glue, Elmer's glue in the US, or PVA glue) is an aliphatic rubbery synthetic polymer with the formula (C4H6O2)n.
Prince is a Danish brand of cigarettes owned by House of Prince, which until 2008 was a subsidiary of the Scandinavian Tobacco Company.
Products are the species formed from chemical reactions.
Propylene glycol (IUPAC name: propane-1,2-diol) is a synthetic organic compound with the chemical formula C3H8O2.
Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
Pyramid is an American brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by Liggett Group, based in Mebane, North Carolina.
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
Richard Joshua "R.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
Respiratory tract infection (RTI) refers to any of a number of infectious diseases involving the respiratory tract.
The safety of electronic cigarettes is uncertain.
Salem is an American brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by ITG Brands, a subsidiary of Imperial Tobacco, inside the U.S. and by Japan Tobacco outside the United States.
PT Hanjaya Mandala Sampoerna Tbk. (commonly known as Sampoerna) is an Indonesian tobacco company owned by Philip Morris International.
Saskatchewan is a prairie and boreal province in western Canada, the only province without natural borders.
Seneca cigarettes are a popular brand of native cigarettes manufactured by Grand River Enterprises in Six Nations, Ontario, Canada.
Senior Service is a British brand of filterless cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by Gallaher Group, a subsidiary of Japan Tobacco.
Shag, also known as rolling tobacco, loose tobacco, baccy and rollies is fine-cut tobacco, used to make self-made cigarettes by hand rolling the tobacco into rolling paper or injecting it into filter tubes.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Silver Bay is a hamlet in the town of Hague in Warren County, New York, United States.
Sizing or size is any one of numerous substances that is applied to, or incorporated into, other materials — especially papers and textiles — to act as a protective filler or glaze.
A smart card, chip card, or integrated circuit card (ICC), is any pocket-sized card that has embedded integrated circuits.
Smokeless tobacco is tobacco or a tobacco product that is used by means other than smoking.
Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream.
The smoking age is the minimum legal age required to purchase or smoke tobacco products.
Smoking bans (or smoke-free laws) are public policies, including criminal laws and occupational safety and health regulations, that prohibit tobacco smoking in workplaces and other public spaces.
Smoking bans in private vehicles are enacted to protect passengers from secondhand smoke and to increase road traffic safety, e.g. by preventing the driver from being distracted by the act of smoking.
Smoking cessation (also known as quitting smoking or simply quitting) is the process of discontinuing tobacco smoking.
Smoking in Japan, though historically less restricted by law than in many other nations, has significantly changed in recent years.
A smoking pipe is a device made to allow the user to inhale or taste smoke or vapor derived from the burning or vaporization of some substance.
Sobranie (Собрание, "Gathering", "Collection", "Assembly") is a British brand of luxury cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by Gallaher Group, a subsidiary of Japan Tobacco.
Spectrum News Central New York (formerly Time Warner Cable News Central New York) is an American cable news television channel that is owned by Charter Communications, as an affiliate of its Spectrum News slate of regional news channels.
State Express 555, simply known as 555, is a brand of cigarette originally manufactured in the United Kingdom by the Ardath Tobacco Company.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Substance dependence also known as drug dependence is an adaptive state that develops from repeated drug administration, and which results in withdrawal upon cessation of drug use.
Suffolk County is a suburban county on Long Island and the easternmost county in the U.S. state of New York.
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).
The Surgeon General of the United States is the operational head of the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (PHSCC) and thus the leading spokesperson on matters of public health in the federal government of the United States.
Surya (सूर्य, IAST: ‘'Sūrya’') is a Sanskrit word that means the Sun.
Tar is the common name for the resinous, partially combusted particulate matter produced by the burning of tobacco and other plant material in the act of smoking.
Tareyton is an American brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by the R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company.
, formerly known as, is a smart card using RFID developed by the Tobacco Institute of Japan (TIOJ), the, and the for introduction in 2008.
TerraCycle is a private U.S. business headquartered in Trenton, New Jersey.
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them.
Tobacco control is a field of international public health science, policy and practice dedicated to addressing tobacco use and thereby reducing the morbidity and mortality it causes.
The Tobacco Control Act of Bhutan (Dzongkha: འབྲུག་གི་ཏམ་ཁུ་དམ་འཛིན་བཅའ་ཁྲིམས་ཅན་མ་; Wylie: 'Drug-gi tam-khu dam-'dzin bca'-khrims can-ma) was enacted by parliament on 16 June 2010.
A tobacco display ban, point-of-sale display ban or retail display ban is a measure imposed in some jurisdictions prohibiting shops and stores to display tobacco products.
Tobacco harm reduction (THR) is a public health strategy to lower the health risks to individuals and wider society associated with using tobacco products.
Cigarette smoke is an aerosol produced by the incomplete combustion of tobacco during the smoking of cigarettes.
Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
In the United Kingdom, Trading Standards are the local authority departments, formerly known as Weights and Measures, that enforce consumer protection legislation.
Turkish tobacco, or Oriental tobacco, is a highly aromatic, small-leafed variety of tobacco which is sun-cured.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a long-term condition that results in inflammation and ulcers of the colon and rectum.
Utah is a state in the western United States.
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia.
Vantage is an American brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by the R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company.
In physics a vapor (American) or vapour (British and Canadian) is a substance in the gas phase at a temperature lower than its critical temperature,R.
A vaporizer or vaporiser (a ‘vape’) is a device used to vaporize substances for inhalation.
Varenicline (trade name Chantix and Champix), is a prescription medication used to treat nicotine addiction.
Viceroy is an American brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company in the United States and British American Tobacco outside of the United States.
Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
Virginia Slims is an American brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by Philip Morris USA in the U.S. and Philip Morris International outside of the U.S.
Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
Waste (or wastes) are unwanted or unusable materials.
Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities commercial organisations, community endeavors or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes.
A water supply system or water supply network is a system of engineered hydrologic and hydraulic components which provide water supply.
West is a German brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by Imperial Tobacco.
A white paper is an authoritative report or guide that informs readers concisely about a complex issue and presents the issuing body's philosophy on the matter.
A wildfire or wildland fire is a fire in an area of combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside or rural area.
Winfield is an Australian brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by British American Tobacco Australia (BATA), a subsidiary of British American Tobacco.
Winston is an American brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by ITG Brands, subsidiary of Imperial Tobacco in the United States and by Japan Tobacco outside the U.S. The brand is named after the town where R. J. Reynolds started his business which is Winston-Salem, North Carolina.
Woodbine is a British brand of cigarettes, currently owned and manufactured by Imperial Tobacco.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Smoking among youth and adolescents is an issue that affects countries worldwide.
1,3-Butadiene is the organic compound with the formula (CH2.
520 is a Taiwanese brand of cigarettes manufactured by the Taiwan Tobacco and Liquor Corporation (菸酒公賣局).
8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) is an oxidized derivative of deoxyguanosine.
100mm cigarette, Cancer Stick, Cancer stick, Cancer sticks, Ccigarette, Cciggarete, Cig, Cigaret, Cigarete, Cigaretes, Cigarette ash, Cigarette end, Cigarette litter, Cigarettes, Cigarrete, Cigarrette, Cigerette, Cigerettes, Ciggarette, Ciggie, Ciggy, Cigs, Dog end, Environmental impact of cigarettes, European cigarettes, Fag (cigarette), Fag end, Full Flavor (cigarette type), Lung rocket, Sickarette, Smokes, Tobacco cigarette, Tobacco cigarettes.