114 relations: Achaemenid Empire, Akkadian language, Alyattes of Lydia, Anatolia, Ancient Greek, Anshan (Persia), Archilochus, Ardys of Lydia, Armenian language, Ashurbanipal, Assyria, Austen Henry Layard, Behistun Inscription, Black Sea, British Museum, Brittonic languages, Callinus, Cambridge University Press, Cappadocia, Carl Ferdinand Friedrich Lehmann-Haupt, Caucasus, Celts, Cilicia, Cimbri, Cimmeria (Conan), Citadel, Colchis, Crimea, Danube, Dniester, Don River (Russia), Dykyi Sad archaeological site, Edwin M. Yamauchi, Encyclopædia Britannica, Epidemic, Esarhaddon, Franks, Gawirkayeti, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gelderland, Geographer, Georgia (country), Germanic peoples, Gog and Magog, Gomer, Greek language, Gyges of Lydia, Gyumri, Hades, Hallstatt culture, ..., Herodotus, Homer, Hurrians, Ionia, Iranian languages, Iranian peoples, János Harmatta, Jona Lendering, Kemi Oba culture, Kingdom of Iberia, Koban culture, Kurdish languages, Lydia, Maeotians, Manfred Mayrhofer, Mannaeans, Marduk, Marxist archaeology, Merovingian dynasty, Midas, Neo-Assyrian Empire, Netherlands, Nimrud, Nineveh, Nomad, Novocherkassk culture, Oceanus, Odyssey, Ossetian language, Paphlagonia, Paul Reinecke, Peoples of the Caucasus, Phrygia, Pontic–Caspian steppe, Posidonius, Ptolemy, Royal Frankish Annals, Rusa I, Russia, Saka, Sandakhshatra, Sandas, Sardis, Sargon II, Scythians, Sicambri, Sieg, Srubna culture, Stary Krym, Strabo, Tabal, Teshub, Teushpa, The Cambridge Ancient History, Thracian language, Thracians, Thraco-Cimmerian, Toponymy, Treri, Tugdamme, Turkic languages, Ukraine, Urartu, Welsh people. Expand index (64 more) » « Shrink index
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Alyattes reigned as king of Lydia from c.610 BC to 560 BC.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Anshan (𒀭𒍝𒀭 Anzan), modern Tall-i Malyan (تل ملیان), was an ancient city.
Archilochus (Ἀρχίλοχος Arkhilokhos; c. 680c. 645 BC)While these have been the generally accepted dates since Felix Jacoby, "The Date of Archilochus," Classical Quarterly 35 (1941) 97–109, some scholars disagree; Robin Lane Fox, for instance, in Travelling Heroes: Greeks and Their Myths in the Epic Age of Homer (London: Allen Lane, 2008), p. 388, dates him c. 740–680 BC.
Ardys (c.652–c.603 BC; also known as Ardysus) was the second king of the Mermnad dynasty in Lydia, the son of Gyges.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
Ashurbanipal (Aššur-bāni-apli; ܐܫܘܪ ܒܢܐ ܐܦܠܐ; 'Ashur is the creator of an heir'), also spelled Assurbanipal or Ashshurbanipal, was King of the Neo-Assyrian Empire from 668 BC to c. 627 BC, the son of Esarhaddon and the last strong ruler of the empire, which is usually dated between 934 and 609 BC.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
Sir Austen Henry Layard (5 March 18175 July 1894) was an English traveller, archaeologist, cuneiformist, art historian, draughtsman, collector, politician and diplomat.
The Behistun Inscription (also Bisotun, Bistun or Bisutun; بیستون, Old Persian: Bagastana, meaning "the place of god") is a multilingual inscription and large rock relief on a cliff at Mount Behistun in the Kermanshah Province of Iran, near the city of Kermanshah in western Iran.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.
The Brittonic, Brythonic or British Celtic languages (ieithoedd Brythonaidd/Prydeinig; yethow brythonek/predennek; yezhoù predenek) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family; the other is Goidelic.
Callinus (Καλλῖνος, Kallinos) was an ancient Greek elegiac poet who lived in the city of Ephesus in Asia Minor in the mid-7th century BC.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Cappadocia (also Capadocia; Καππαδοκία, Kappadokía, from Katpatuka, Kapadokya) is a historical region in Central Anatolia, largely in the Nevşehir, Kayseri, Kırşehir, Aksaray, and Niğde Provinces in Turkey.
Carl Ferdinand Friedrich Lehmann-Haupt (11 March 1861, Hamburg– 24 July 1938, Innsbruck) was a German orientalist and historian.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
In antiquity, Cilicia(Armenian: Կիլիկիա) was the south coastal region of Asia Minor and existed as a political entity from Hittite times into the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia during the late Byzantine Empire.
The Cimbri were an ancient tribe.
Cimmeria is a fictional land of barbarians in the Hyborian Age, and the homeland of Conan the Barbarian in the works of Robert E. Howard.
A citadel is the core fortified area of a town or city.
Colchis (კოლხეთი K'olkheti; Greek Κολχίς Kolkhís) was an ancient Georgian kingdom and region on the coast of the Black Sea, centred in present-day western Georgia.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
The Danube or Donau (known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga.
The Dniester or Dnister River is a river in Eastern Europe.
The Don (p) is one of the major rivers of Russia and the 5th longest river in Europe.
The Dykyi Sad archaeological site constitutes the remains of an ancient port city discovered in the Dykyi Sad park in Mykolaiv, Ukraine.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
An epidemic (from Greek ἐπί epi "upon or above" and δῆμος demos "people") is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time, usually two weeks or less.
Esarhaddon (Akkadian: Aššur-aḥa-iddina "Ashur has given a brother";; Ασαρχαδδων; Asor Haddan) was a king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire who reigned 681 – 669 BC.
The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
Gawirkayeti (Kurdish: Gewirkayetî/Gewurkayetî, گهورکایهتی, literally: "abode of Gawirks"), is the southernmost part of Mukriyan region of the Iranian Kurdistan, and the West Azarbaijan Province of Iran.
Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru (The University of Wales Dictionary) is the standard historical dictionary of the Welsh language, aspiring to be "comparable in method and scope to the Oxford English Dictionary".
Gelderland (also Guelders in English) is a province of the Netherlands, located in the central eastern part of the country.
A geographer is a scholar whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's natural environment and human society.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Gog and Magog (גּוֹג וּמָגוֹג Gog u-Magog) in the Hebrew Bible may be individuals, peoples, or lands; a prophesied enemy nation of God's people according to the Book of Ezekiel, and according to Genesis, one of the nations descended from Japheth, son of Noah.
Gomer (גֹּמֶר, Standard Hebrew Gómer, Tiberian Hebrew Gōmer) was the eldest son of Japheth (and of the Japhetic line), and father of Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah, according to the "Table of Nations" in the Hebrew Bible (Genesis 10).
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Gyges (Γύγης) was the founder of the third or Mermnad dynasty of Lydian kings and reigned from 716 BC to 678 BC.
Gyumri (Գյումրի), is an urban municipal community and the second largest city in Armenia, serving as the administrative centre of Shirak Province in the northwestern part of the country.
Hades (ᾍδης Háidēs) was the ancient Greek chthonic god of the underworld, which eventually took his name.
The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Western and Central European culture of Early Iron Age Europe from the 8th to 6th centuries BC, developing out of the Urnfield culture of the 12th century BC (Late Bronze Age) and followed in much of its area by the La Tène culture.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
The Hurrians (cuneiform:; transliteration: Ḫu-ur-ri; also called Hari, Khurrites, Hourri, Churri, Hurri or Hurriter) were a people of the Bronze Age Near East.
Ionia (Ancient Greek: Ἰωνία, Ionía or Ἰωνίη, Ioníe) was an ancient region on the central part of the western coast of Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, which was historically Smyrna.
The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family.
The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.
János Harmatta (2 October 1917 – 24 July 2004) was a Hungarian linguist.
Jona Lendering (born 29 October 1964 in Beneden-Leeuwen, Gelderland) is a Dutch historian and the author of books on antiquity, Dutch history and modern management.
Kemi Oba culture, ca.
In Greco-Roman geography, Iberia (Ancient Greek: Ἰβηρία; Hiberia) was an exonym (foreign name) for the Georgian kingdom of Kartli (ქართლი), known after its core province, which during Classical Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages was a significant monarchy in the Caucasus, either as an independent state or as a dependent of larger empires, notably the Sassanid and Roman empires.
The Koban culture (c. 1100 to 400 BC) is a late Bronze Age and Iron Age culture of the northern and central Caucasus.
Kurdish (Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia.
Lydia (Assyrian: Luddu; Λυδία, Lydía; Lidya) was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir.
The Maeotians (Μαιῶται, Maiōtai; Mæotæ) were an ancient people dwelling along the Sea of Azov, which was known in antiquity as the "Maeotian marshes" or "Lake Maeotis".
Manfred Mayrhofer (26 September 1926 – 31 October 2011) was an Austrian Indo-Europeanist who specialized in Indo-Iranian languages.
The Mannaeans (country name usually Mannea; Akkadian: Mannai, possibly Biblical Minni, מנּי) were an ancient people who lived in the territory of present-day northwestern Iran south of lake Urmia, around the 10th to 7th centuries BC.
Marduk (cuneiform: dAMAR.UTU; Sumerian: amar utu.k "calf of the sun; solar calf"; Greek Μαρδοχαῖος, Mardochaios) was a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon.
Marxist archaeology is an archaeological theory that interprets archaeological information within the framework of Marxism.
The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century.
Midas (Μίδας) is the name of at least three members of the royal house of Phrygia.
The Neo-Assyrian Empire was an Iron Age Mesopotamian empire, in existence between 911 and 609 BC, and became the largest empire of the world up till that time.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Nimrud (النمرود) is the name that Carsten NiebuhrNiebuhr wrote on:: "Bei Nimrud, einem verfallenen Castell etwa 8 Stunden von Mosul, findet man ein merkwürdigeres Werk.
Nineveh (𒌷𒉌𒉡𒀀 URUNI.NU.A Ninua); ܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ was an ancient Assyrian city of Upper Mesopotamia, located on the outskirts of Mosul in modern-day northern Iraq.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
The Chernogorivka and Novocherkassk cultures (c. 900 to 650 BC) are Iron Age steppe cultures in Ukraine and Russia, centered between the Prut and the lower Don.
Oceanus (Ὠκεανός Ōkeanós), also known as Ogenus (Ὤγενος Ōgenos or Ὠγηνός Ōgēnos) or Ogen (Ὠγήν Ōgēn), was a divine figure in classical antiquity, believed by the ancient Greeks and Romans to be the divine personification of the sea, an enormous river encircling the world.
The Odyssey (Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.
Ossetian, also known as Ossete and Ossetic, is an Eastern Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the northern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains.
Paphlagonia (Παφλαγονία, Paphlagonía, modern pronunciation Paflagonía; Paflagonya) was an ancient area on the Black Sea coast of north central Anatolia, situated between Bithynia to the west and Pontus to the east, and separated from Phrygia (later, Galatia) by a prolongation to the east of the Bithynian Olympus.
Paul Heinrich Adalbert Reinecke (September 25, 1872 – May 12, 1958) was a German prehistorian and archaeologist.
This article deals with the various ethnic groups inhabiting the Caucasus region.
In Antiquity, Phrygia (Φρυγία, Phrygía, modern pronunciation Frygía; Frigya) was first a kingdom in the west central part of Anatolia, in what is now Asian Turkey, centered on the Sangarios River, later a region, often part of great empires.
The Pontic–Caspian steppe, Pontic steppe or Ukrainian steppe is the vast steppeland stretching from the northern shores of the Black Sea (called Euxeinos Pontos in antiquity) as far east as the Caspian Sea, from Moldova and eastern Ukraine across the Southern Federal District and the Volga Federal District of Russia to western Kazakhstan, forming part of the larger Eurasian steppe, adjacent to the Kazakh steppe to the east.
Posidonius (Ποσειδώνιος, Poseidonios, meaning "of Poseidon") "of Apameia" (ὁ Ἀπαμεύς) or "of Rhodes" (ὁ Ῥόδιος) (c. 135 BCE – c. 51 BCE), was a Greek Stoic philosopher, politician, astronomer, geographer, historian and teacher native to Apamea, Syria.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
The Royal Frankish Annals (Latin: Annales regni Francorum; also Annales Laurissenses maiores and German: Reichsannalen) are Latin annals composed in Carolingian Francia, recording year-by-year the state of the monarchy from 741 (the death of Mayor of the Palace Charles Martel) to 829 (the beginning of the crisis of Louis the Pious).
Rusa I (Ռուսա Ա, ruled: 735–713 BC) was a King of Urartu.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Saka, Śaka, Shaka or Saca mod. ساکا; Śaka; Σάκαι, Sákai; Sacae;, old *Sək, mod. Sāi) is the name used in Middle Persian and Sanskrit sources for the Scythians, a large group of Eurasian nomads on the Eurasian Steppe speaking Eastern Iranian languages.
Sandakhshatra, Sandaksatru or Sandakuru was a Cimmerian king in the late 7th century BC.
Sandas (more commonly spelt as "Sandan") was the Anatolian (Hittite) lion god during the Classical period.
Sardis or Sardes (Lydian: 𐤮𐤱𐤠𐤭𐤣 Sfard; Σάρδεις Sardeis; Sparda) was an ancient city at the location of modern Sart (Sartmahmut before 19 October 2005) in Turkey's Manisa Province.
Sargon II (Assyrian Šarru-ukīn (LUGAL-GI.NA 𒈗𒄀𒈾).; Aramaic סרגן; reigned 722–705 BC) was an Assyrian king.
or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.
The Sicambri, also known as the Sugambri or Sicambrians, were a Germanic people who during Roman times lived on the east bank of the Rhine river, in what is now Germany, near the border with the Netherlands.
The Sieg is a river in North Rhine-Westphalia and Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany named after the Sigambrer.
The Srubna culture (Сру́бная культу́ра, Зрубна́ культу́ра), Timber-grave culture, was a Late Bronze Age (18th–12th centuries BC) cultureJ. P. Mallory, "Srubna Culture", Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Fitzroy Dearborn, 1997.
Staryi Krym (Старий Крим, Старый Крым, Eski Qırım) is a small historical town and former bishopric in Kirovske Raion of Crimea, an area currently disputed between Russia and Ukraine.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
Tabal (c.f. biblical Tubal) was a Luwian speaking Neo-Hittite kingdom of South Central Anatolia.
Teshub (also written Teshup or Tešup; cuneiform; hieroglyphic Luwian, read as TarhunzasAnnick Payne (2014), Hieroglyphic Luwian: An Introduction with Original Texts, 3rd revised edition, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, p. 159.) was the Hurrian god of sky and storm.
Teushpa was an early 7th-century BC king of the Cimmerians but is also mentioned as king of the Umman-Manda according to King Esarhaddon's inscriptions.
The Cambridge Ancient History is a multi-volume work of ancient history from Prehistory to Late Antiquity, published by Cambridge University Press.
The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times in Southeast Europe by the Thracians, the northern neighbors of the Ancient Greeks.
The Thracians (Θρᾷκες Thrāikes; Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.
Thraco-Cimmerian is a historiographical and archaeological term, composed of the names of the Thracians and the Cimmerians.
Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.
Treri (Τρῆροι) is the name of a Thracian tribe.
Tugdamme (also Dugdammi and, in classical Greece, Lygdamis) was a Cimmerian king of the mid-seventh century BC.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
Urartu, which corresponds to the biblical mountains of Ararat, is the name of a geographical region commonly used as the exonym for the Iron Age kingdom also known by the modern rendition of its endonym, the Kingdom of Van, centered around Lake Van in the Armenian Highlands.
The Welsh (Cymry) are a nation and ethnic group native to, or otherwise associated with, Wales, Welsh culture, Welsh history, and the Welsh language.