122 relations: Alkaloid, Amazon basin, American Civil War, Americas, Andes, Antiarrhythmic agent, Antipyretic, Antonio de la Calancha, Atlantic Ocean, Bernabé Cobo, Biological activity, Bloodletting, Capsule (fruit), Carl Linnaeus, Central America, Charles Ferdinand Pahud, Charles II of England, Charles Ledger, Charles Marie de La Condamine, Cinchona ledgeriana, Cinchona officinalis, Cinchona pubescens, Cinchonidine, Cinchonine, Cinchonism, Cinchotannic acid, Clements Markham, Count of Chinchón, Darjeeling district, Dihydroquinidine, Dihydroquinine, Dutch East Indies, Dutch Empire, Enantioselective synthesis, Encyclopædia Britannica, Endoclita, Endoclita damor, Endoclita purpurescens, Endoclita sericeus, Engrailed (moth), Engraving, Equator, Ethyl group, Evergreen, Exploration of the Valley of the Amazon, Flower, Francesco Torti, French Academy of Sciences, French Geodesic Mission, French Polynesia, ..., Fruit, Galen, Genus, George King (botanist), Hakgala Botanical Garden, Herb, History of malaria, Homeopathy, Hugh Algernon Weddell, Humorism, Hybrid (biology), Hydrogen, Jamaica, James Taylor (tea planter), Jesuit's bark, José Celestino Mutis, Joseph Bienaimé Caventou, Justus Carl Hasskarl, Ladenbergia, Larva, Leaf, Lepidoptera, List of national trees, Loja, Ecuador, Louis XIV of France, Luis Jerónimo de Cabrera, 4th Count of Chinchón, Malaria, Martin Vahl, Materia medica, Matthew Fontaine Maury, Maximilian I of Mexico, Meridian arc, Methoxy group, Mexico, Moduza procris, Mungpoo, Myroxylon, National Museum of Natural History, New World, Nicolás Monardes, Old World, Organic chemistry, Organocatalysis, Panicle, Peru, Pharmacopoeia, Pierre Joseph Pelletier, Pietro Castelli, Quechua people, Quinidine, Quinine, Quinine total synthesis, Royal College of Physicians, Rubiaceae, Saint Helena, Samuel Hahnemann, São Tomé and Príncipe, Schedula Romana, Science, Seed, Shrub, Smithsonian Institution, Smithsonian Institution Archives, Society of Jesus, Stereoisomerism, Sulawesi, Tree, Vinyl group, West Bengal, William Cullen, William Graham McIvor, World War II. Expand index (72 more) » « Shrink index
Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.
The Amazon basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.
Antiarrhythmic agents, also known as cardiac dysrhythmia medications, are a group of pharmaceuticals that are used to suppress abnormal rhythms of the heart (cardiac arrhythmias), such as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation.
Antipyretics (from anti- 'against' and 'feverish') are substances that reduce fever.
Antonio de la Calancha (1584–1684) was a pioneering anthropologist studying the South American natives and a senior Augustinian friar.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
Padre Bernabé Cobo (born at Lopera in Spain, 1582; died at Lima, Peru, 9 October 1657) was a Spanish Jesuit missionary and writer.
In pharmacology, biological activity or pharmacological activity describes the beneficial or adverse effects of a drug on living matter.
Bloodletting (or blood-letting) is the withdrawal of blood from a patient to prevent or cure illness and disease.
In botany a capsule is a type of simple, dry, though rarely fleshy dehiscent fruit produced by many species of angiosperms (flowering plants).
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
Charles Ferdinand Pahud (18 April 1803 – 31 August 1873) was the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies in 1856–1861.
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Charles Ledger (4 March 1818 – 19 May 1905)B.
Charles Marie de La Condamine (28 January 1701 – 4 February 1774) was a French explorer, geographer, and mathematician.
Cinchona ledgeriana is a plant indigenous to the eastern slopes of the Andes, where they grow from in elevation in Colombia and Bolivia.
Cinchona officinalis is a South American tree in the Rubiaceae family.
Cinchona pubescens, also known as red cinchona and quina (Quechua) (Cascarilla, cinchona; quina-do-amazonas, quineira), is native to Central and South America.
Cinchonidine is an alkaloid found in Cinchona officinalis and Gongronema latifolium.
Cinchonine is an alkaloid found in Cinchona officinalis.
Cinchonism or quinism is a pathological condition caused by an overdose of quinine or quinidine, or their natural source, cinchona bark.
Cinchotannic acid is a tannin contained in many cinchona barks, which by oxidation rapidly yields a dark-coloured phlobaphene called red cinchonic, cinchono-fulvic acid or cinchona red.
Sir Clements Robert Markham (1830 – 1916) was an English geographer, explorer, and writer.
Count of Chinchón (Conde de Chinchón) is a title of Spanish nobility.
Darjeeling District (pronunciation: dɑ:rʤi:lɪŋ) is the northernmost district of the state of West Bengal in eastern India in the foothills of the Himalayas.
Dihydroquinidine (also called hydroquinidine) is an organic compound, a cinchona alkaloid closely related to quinine.
Dihydroquinine, also known as hydroquinine, is an organic compound and as a cinchona alkaloid closely related to quinine.
The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; Nederlands(ch)-Indië; Hindia Belanda) was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.
The Dutch Empire (Het Nederlandse Koloniale Rijk) comprised the overseas colonies, enclaves, and outposts controlled and administered by Dutch chartered companies, mainly the Dutch West India and the Dutch East India Company, and subsequently by the Dutch Republic (1581–1795), and the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands since 1815.
Enantioselective synthesis, also called asymmetric synthesis, is a form of chemical synthesis.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Endoclita is a genus of moths of the family Hepialidae.
Endoclita damor is a species of moth of the family Hepialidae.
Endoclita purpurescens is a species of moth of the family Hepialidae.
Endoclita sericeus is a species of moth of the family Hepialidae.
The engrailed and small engrailed (Ectropis crepuscularia) are moths of the family Geometridae found from the British Isles through Central and Eastern Europe to the Russian Far East and Kazakhstan.
Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, usually flat surface by cutting grooves into it.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
In chemistry, an ethyl group is an alkyl substituent derived from ethane (C2H6).
In botany, an evergreen is a plant that has leaves throughout the year, always green.
Exploration of the Valley of the Amazon is a two volume publication by two young USN lieutenants William Lewis Herndon (vol. 1) and Lardner A. Gibbon (vol. 2).
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms).
Francesco Torti (30 November 1658 – 15 February 1741) was an Italian physician.
The French Academy of Sciences (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research.
The French Geodesic Mission (also called the Geodesic Mission to Peru, Geodesic Mission to the Equator and the Spanish-French Geodesic Mission) was an 18th-century expedition to what is now Ecuador carried out for the purpose of measuring the roundness of the Earth and measuring the length of a degree of latitude at the Equator.
French Polynesia (Polynésie française; Pōrīnetia Farāni) is an overseas collectivity of the French Republic; collectivité d'outre-mer de la République française (COM), sometimes unofficially referred to as an overseas country; pays d'outre-mer (POM).
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
Sir George King, KCIE FRS (12 April 1840 – 12 February 1909), was a British botanist appointed superintendent of the Royal Botanic Garden, Calcutta in 1871, and the first Director of the Botanical Survey of India from 1890.
Hakgala Botanical Garden is one of the five botanical gardens in Sri Lanka.
In general use, herbs are plants with savory or aromatic properties that are used for flavoring and garnishing food, in medicine, or as fragrances.
The history of malaria stretches from its prehistoric origin as a zoonotic disease in the primates of Africa through to the 21st century.
Homeopathy or homœopathy is a system of alternative medicine developed in 1796 by Samuel Hahnemann, based on his doctrine of like cures like (similia similibus curentur), a claim that a substance that causes the symptoms of a disease in healthy people would cure similar symptoms in sick people.
Hugh Algernon Weddell (22 June 1819 – 22 July 1877) was a physician and botanist, specialising in South American flora.
Humorism, or humoralism, was a system of medicine detailing the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers, positing that an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids in a person—known as humors or humours—directly influences their temperament and health.
In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.
James Taylor (29 March 1835 Kincardineshire, Scotland - 2 May 1892 Kandy, British Ceylon) was a British citizen who introduced tea plantation to British Ceylon.
Jesuit's Bark, also known as cinchona bark, as Peruvian Bark, and as China Bark, is a former name of the most celebrated specific remedy for all forms of malaria.
José Celestino Mutis (6 April 1732 – 11 September 1808) was a Spanish priest, botanist and mathematician.
Joseph Bienaimé Caventou (30 June 1795 – 5 May 1877) was a French pharmacist.
Justus Carl Hasskarl (6 December 1811 – 5 January 1894) was a German explorer and botanist specializing in Pteridophytes, Bryophytes and Spermatophytes.
Ladenbergia is a genus of plant in family Rubiaceae.
A larva (plural: larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults.
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.
Lepidoptera is an order of insects that includes butterflies and moths (both are called lepidopterans).
This is a list of national trees, most official, but some unofficial.
Loja, formerly Loxa and fully City of the Immaculate Conception of Loja (Ciudad de la Inmaculada Concepción de Loja), is the capital of Ecuador's Loja Province.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
Luis Jerónimo Fernández de Cabrera Bobadilla Cerda y Mendoza, 4th Count of Chinchón (1589 in Madrid – October 28, 1647 in Madrid) was a Spanish nobleman and captain general and Viceroy of Peru, from January 14, 1629 to December 18, 1639.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Martin Henrichsen Vahl (10 October 1749 – 24 December 1804) was a Danish-Norwegian botanist, herbalist and zoologist.
Materia medica (medical material/substance) is a Latin term for the body of collected knowledge about the therapeutic properties of any substance used for healing (i.e., medicines).
Matthew Fontaine Maury (January 14, 1806February 1, 1873) was an American astronomer, United States Navy officer, historian, oceanographer, meteorologist, cartographer, author, geologist, and educator.
Maximilian I (Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph; 6 July 1832 – 19 June 1867) was the only monarch of the Second Mexican Empire.
In geodesy, a meridian arc measurement is the distance between two points with the same longitude, i.e., a segment of a meridian curve or its length.
A methoxy group is the functional group consisting of a methyl group bound to oxygen.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Moduza procris, the commander, sometimes included in the genus Limenitis, is a medium-sized, strikingly coloured brush-footed butterfly found in South Asia and Southeast Asia.
Mungpoo is a town in West Bengal, Darjeeling district, India, located 33 km east of Darjeeling and 52 km north-east of Siliguri.
The genus Myroxylon was originally described in 1753 by Linnaeus, such description was made using a specimen collected in the province of Cartagena (at the time Tolú was located in the province of Cartagena), and named it Toluifera balsamum.
The National Museum of Natural History is a natural-history museum administered by the Smithsonian Institution, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., United States.
The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
Nicolás Bautista Monardes (1493 – 10 October 1588) was a Spanish physician and botanist.
The term "Old World" is used in the West to refer to Africa, Asia and Europe (Afro-Eurasia or the World Island), regarded collectively as the part of the world known to its population before contact with the Americas and Oceania (the "New World").
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
In organic chemistry, the term organocatalysis (a portmanteau of the terms "organic" and "catalyst") refers to a form of catalysis, whereby the rate of a chemical reaction is increased by an organic catalyst referred to as an "organocatalyst" consisting of carbon, hydrogen, sulfur and other nonmetal elements found in organic compounds.
A panicle is a much-branched inflorescence.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
A pharmacopoeia, pharmacopeia, or pharmacopoea (literally, “drug-making”), in its modern technical sense, is a book containing directions for the identification of compound medicines, and published by the authority of a government or a medical or pharmaceutical society.
Pietro Castelli (1574–1662) was an Italian physician and botanist.
The Quechua people are the indigenous peoples of South America who speak any of the Quechua languages.
Quinidine is a pharmaceutical agent that acts as a class I antiarrhythmic agent (Ia) in the heart.
Quinine is a medication used to treat malaria and babesiosis.
In total synthesis, the quinine total synthesis describes the efforts in synthesis of quinine over a 150-year period.
The Royal College of Physicians is a British professional body dedicated to improving the practice of medicine, chiefly through the accreditation of physicians by examination.
The Rubiaceae are a family of flowering plants, commonly known as the coffee, madder, or bedstraw family.
Saint Helena is a volcanic tropical island in the South Atlantic Ocean, east of Rio de Janeiro and 1,950 kilometres (1,210 mi) west of the Cunene River, which marks the border between Namibia and Angola in southwestern Africa.
Christian Friedrich Samuel Hahnemann (10 April 1755 – 2 July 1843) was a German physician, freemason best known for creating the system of alternative medicine called homeopathy.
São Tomé and Príncipe, officially the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe, is an island nation in the Gulf of Guinea, off the western equatorial coast of Central Africa.
The Schedula Romana was a pharmaceutical handbill published in 1649.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
A shrub or bush is a small to medium-sized woody plant.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
The Smithsonian Institution Archives (SIA) is the archives of the Smithsonian Institution.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
In stereochemistry, stereoisomers are isomeric molecules that have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms (constitution), but differ in the three-dimensional orientations of their atoms in space.
Sulawesi, formerly known as Celebes, is an island in Indonesia.
In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species.
In chemistry, vinyl or ethenyl is the functional group with the formula −CH.
West Bengal (Paśchimbāṅga) is an Indian state, located in Eastern India on the Bay of Bengal.
William Cullen FRS FRSE FRCPE FPSG (15 April 1710 – 5 February 1790) was a Scottish physician, chemist and agriculturalist, and one of the most important professors at the Edinburgh Medical School, during its heyday as the leading centre of medical education in the English-speaking world.
William Graham McIvor (1824 - 8 June 1876) was a Scottish gardener and superintendent of the Neilgherry Cinchona plantations in Ootacamund, India who was responsible for the successful introduction of cinchona plants in the Nilgiris in the 1860s.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.