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Allahrakka Rahman (born A. S. Dileep Kumar, best known as A. R. Rahman, is an Indian composer, singer-songwriter, and music producer. A. R. Rahman's works are noted for integrating Indian classical music with electronic music, world music and traditional orchestral arrangements. Among his awards are six National Film Awards, two Academy Awards, two Grammy Awards, a BAFTA Award, a Golden Globe, fifteen Filmfare Awards and seventeen Filmfare Awards South. He has been awarded the Padma Bhushan, the third highest civilian award, in 2010 by the Government of India. In 2009, Rahman was included on the ''Time'' 100 list of the world's most influential people. The UK-based world-music magazine Songlines named him one of "Tomorrow's World Music Icons" in August 2011. South Indian fans of Rahman refer him with the nickname of "The Mozart of Madras", and "Isai Puyal" (the Musical Storm). With an in-house studio (Panchathan Record Inn in Chennai), Rahman's film-scoring career began during the early 1990s with the Tamil film Roja. Working in India's film industries, international cinema, and theatre, Rahman is one of the best-selling recording artists, with an estimated 200million units sold. In a notable two-decade career, he has been acclaimed for redefining contemporary Indian film music and contributing to the success of several films. Rahman has also become a notable humanitarian and philanthropist, donating and raising money for a number of causes and charities. In 2017, Rahman made his debut as a director and writer for the film Le Musk.
Aamir Khan (born Mohammed Aamir Hussain Khan on 14 March 1965) is an Indian film actor, producer, director and television talk show host.
Aamir Khan Productions (AKP) is an Indian motion picture production and distribution company based in Mumbai.
Aarathi (Kannada: ಆರತಿ; born 1954) is an Indian actress turned director who works predominantly in Kannada language films.
Abbas Kiarostami (عباس کیارستمی; 22 June 1940 – 4 July 2016) was an Iranian film director, screenwriter, poet, photographer and film producer.
The Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film is one of the Academy Awards handed out annually by the U.S.-based Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS).
Accident is a 1984 Indian Kannada language film directed by Shankar Nag.
Achhut Kannya (italic) is a 1936 Indian Hindi-Urdu film.
Action film is a film genre in which the protagonist or protagonists are thrust into a series of challenges that typically include violence, extended fighting, physical feats, and frantic chases.
Adoor Gopalakrishnan is an Indian film director, script writer, and producer.
Adurthi Subba Rao (16 December 1912 – 1 October 1975) was an Indian film director, cinematographer, screenwriter, editor and producer known for his works predominantly in Telugu cinema, few bollywood, and Tamil films.
Agra is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India.
Ajay Devgn Ffilms is an Indian film production and distribution company established by actor Ajay Devgn in 2000.
was a Japanese film director and screenwriter, who directed 30 films in a career spanning 57 years.
Akkineni Kutumba Rao is an Indian filmmaker in Tollywood, known for his work in Telugu Parallel Cinema.
Akkineni Nageswara Rao (20 September 1924 – 22 January 2014), widely known as ANR, was an Indian film actor and producer, known for his works predominantly in Telugu cinema.
Alam Ara (translation: The Ornament of the World) was a 1931 Indian film directed by Ardeshir Irani.
Aligarh (formerly Allygurh & Koil) is a city in the Northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh that is famous for lock industries and the administrative headquarters of the Aligarh district.
Amar Akbar Anthony is a 1977 Indian action comedy film, directed and produced by Manmohan Desai.
Amar Prem (translation: Immortal Love) is a 1972 Indian drama film directed by Shakti Samanta.
Malavalli Huchche Gowda Amarnath (born 29 May 1952), known mononymously by screen name Ambareesh, is an Indian film actor, media personality and a politician from the Karnataka state.
Ameer Sultan (born 5 December 1967) is an Indian film director, producer and actor, working in the Tamil film industry.
Amitabh Bachchan (born 11 October 1942) is an Indian film actor, producer, television host, and former politician.
Amritsar, historically also known as Rāmdāspur and colloquially as Ambarsar, is a city in north-western India which is the administrative headquarters of the Amritsar district - located in the Majha region of the Indian state of Punjab.
Anand is a 1971 Indian drama film, co-written and directed by Hrishikesh Mukherjee, with dialogues written by Gulzar.
Anant Balani (1962 – 29 August 2003) was a Bollywood film director and screenwriter.
Anant Nagarkatte (born 4 September 1948), popularly known as Anant Nag, is an actor from Karnataka, India.
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India.
Anil Kapoor (born 24 December 1956) is an Indian actor and producer who has appeared in many Hindi-language films, as well as international films and television series.
Annapurna International School of Film and Media is a Film School based in Hyderabad.
An anti-establishment view or belief is one which stands in opposition to the conventional social, political, and economic principles of a society.
Aparajito (অপরাজিত Ôporajito; The Unvanquished) is a 1956 Indian Bengali drama film written and directed by Satyajit Ray (1921–1992), and is the second part of The Apu Trilogy.
Aparna Sen (Ôporna Shen; born 25 October 1945) is an Indian filmmaker, screenwriter and actress who is known for her work in Bengali cinema.
Aradhana (italic) is a 1969 Indian romantic drama film directed by Shakti Samanta, starring Sharmila Tagore and Rajesh Khanna. It won the Filmfare Award for Best Film at the 17th Filmfare Awards. Sharmila Tagore would win her first Filmfare Best Actress Award for playing the lead role in this film. Originally released in Hindi-Urdu and dubbed in Bengali, Aradhanas huge success led to two remakes, both starring Vanisri in Tagore's role: the Tamil film Sivagamiyin Selvan (1974) and the Telugu film Kannavari Kalalu (1974). This film is counted among the 17 consecutive hit films of Rajesh Khanna between 1969 and 1971, by adding the two hero films Marayada and Andaz to the 15 consecutive solo hits he gave from 1969 to 1971. Aradhana was a blockbuster in India and the Soviet Union.
Aranyer Din Ratri (অরণ্যের দিনরাত্রি Araṇyēra Dinarātri, Days and Nights in the Forest) is an Indian Bengali adventure drama film released in 1970, written and directed by Satyajit Ray.
Archana is an Indian film actress and accomplished Kuchipudi and Kathak dancer, known for her works in the South Indian film industry.
Khan Bahadur Ardeshir Irani (5 December 1886 – 14 October 1969); popularly known as Ardeshir Irani, was a writer, director, producer, actor, film distributor, film showman and cinematographer in the silent and sound eras of early Indian cinema.
Aribam Syam Sharma is a film director and composer from Manipur in India.
An art film is typically a serious, independent film, aimed at a niche market rather than a mass market audience.
Arunachal Pradesh ("the land of dawn-lit mountains") is one of the 29 states of India and is the northeastern-most state of the country.
Ashok Saraf (अशोक सराफ) (born 4 June 1947) is an Indian film and stage actor and comedian.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Asia Times is a Hong Kong-based Philippine English-language news website covering politics, economics, business and culture "from an Asian perspective specially Philippine".
The Asian Academy of Film & Television (AAFT) is a film school located in India's Noida Film City in the National Capital Region and popular for film studies.
The Asian Tribune is an online newspaper that provides news and editorial on the current affairs of Asia, with a special emphasis on South Asia but mostly concentrates its news on the current Civil conflict in Sri Lanka.
Asianet (Star Asianet) is an Indian general channel broadcasting in Malayalam language.
The Asianet Film Awards is an award ceremony for films presented annually by Asianet, a Malayalam-language television network from the south-Indian state of Kerala.
Asif Ali (born 4 February 1986) is an Indian film actor and producer who works in Malayalam cinema.
Govardhan Thakurdas Jethanand Asrani, popularly known simply as Asrani, is an Indian actor and director whose Bollywood career has spanned five decades.
Assamese cinema is cinema in the Assamese language, watched primarily in Assam, India.
Assamese or Asamiya অসমীয়া is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language spoken mainly in the Indian state of Assam, where it is an official language.
The Lumière brothers, Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas; 19 October 1862 – 10 April 1954) and Louis Jean; 5 October 1864 – 7 June 1948), were among the first filmmakers in history. They patented an improved cinematograph, which in contrast to Thomas Edison's "peepshow" kinetoscope allowed simultaneous viewing by multiple parties.
Aurat (English: Woman) is a 1940 Indian film, directed by Mehboob Khan, starring Sardar Akhtar, Surendra, Yakub, Kanhaiyalal and Arun Kumar Ahuja.
An auteur ('author') is an artist, such as a film director, who applies a highly centralized and subjective control to many aspects of a collaborative creative work.
AVM Productions is an Indian film production studio.
Awaara (pronounced Āvārā, meaning "Vagabond"; also written Awāra), also known as The Vagabond overseas, is a 1951 Indian Bollywood film, produced and directed by Raj Kapoor, and written by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas.
Awadhi (Devanagari: अवधी) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken primarily in the Awadh region of Uttar Pradesh and Terai belt of Nepal.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
Ayngaran International is a film distribution and production company, based in the United Kingdom.
Bongu Narsing Rao (born 1946) is an Indian film director, screenwriter, littérateur, composer, producer, actor and painter known for his works in Telugu, parallel cinema, and Telugu theater.
Budaguru Ramakrishnaiah Panthulu (26 July 1910 — 8 October 1974), better known as B. R. Panthulu, was an Indian film director, producer, and actor.
Unnikrishnan Bhaskaran Pillai (born 14 August 1970) is an Indian filmmaker and screenwriter who works in Malayalam film industry.
Babukodi Venkataramana Karanth (19 September 1929 – 1 September 2002) was a noted film and theatre personality from India.
A backstory, background story, back-story, or background is a set of events invented for a plot, presented as preceding and leading up to that plot.
Baiju Bawra is a 1952 Hindi film directed by Vijay Bhatt.
Balaji Motion Pictures is a wholly owned subsidiary company of Balaji Telefilms Limited which is an Indian film production and distribution company established by Jeetendra.
Balan is a 1938 Indian Malayalam-language film directed by S. Nottani.
Balijepalli Lakshmikantam or Lakshmikanta Kavi (Telugu: బలిజేపల్లి లక్ష్మీకాంతం) (23 December 1881 – 30 June 1953) was an actor, poet, screenwriter, dramatist and freedom fighter.
Bandhana is a 1984 Indian Kannada language film directed by Rajendra Singh Babu, based on a novel by Usha Navaratnanram of the same name, and starring Vishnuvardhan and Suhasini in the lead roles.
Bandit Queen is a 1994 Indian biographical film based on the life of Phoolan Devi as covered in the book India's Bandit Queen: The True Story of Phoolan Devi by the Indian author Mala Sen.
Bangalore, officially known as Bengaluru, is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka.
Banker Margayya is 1983 Indian Kannada-language film directed by T. S. Nagabharana, based on the novel The Financial Expert by R. K. Narayan, and starring Lokesh in the lead role.
Bara (ಬರ Drought) is a 1982 Kannada film directed and produced by M. S. Sathyu.
Bawre Nain ("Impassioned Eyes") is 1950 Indian Hindi-language romance film directed by Kidar Nath Sharma.
Baz Luhrmann (born Mark Anthony Luhrmann, 17 September 1962) is an Australian writer, director, and producer with projects spanning film, television, opera, theatre, music, and recording industries.
Bedara Kannappa (ಬೇಡರ ಕಣ್ಣಪ್ಪ) is a 1954 Indian Kannada film directed by H. L. N. Simha and written by G. V. Iyer.
Bengal Film Journalists' Association Awards commonly referred as BFJA Awards, is given by The Bengal Film Journalists' Association.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
Bengali literature (বাংলা সাহিত্য, Bangla Sahityô) denotes the body of writings in the Bengali language.
Bengali science fiction (বাংলা বিজ্ঞান কল্পকাহিনী) is a part of Bengali literature containing science fiction elements.
The Bengaluru International Film Festival, is an annual film festival held in Bengaluru, the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka, which previews films of all genres including documentaries from around the world.
The Berlin International Film Festival (Internationale Filmfestspiele Berlin), usually called the Berlinale, is a film festival held annually in Berlin, Germany.
Besançon (French and Arpitan:; archaic Bisanz, Vesontio) is the capital of the department of Doubs in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté.
Bettada Jeeva is a National Award-winning (2011) Kannada film directed by P. Sheshadri starring Suchendra Prasad, Rameshwari Varma and H. G. Dattatreya.
The BFI London Film Festival is an annual film festival held in the United Kingdom, running in the second half of October with cooperation from the British Film Institute.
Bhakta Surdas is a 1942 Indian Bollywood devotional film.
Bhanu Athaiya née Rajopadhye (भानु अथैय्या; born 28 April 1929) is an Indian costume designer, having worked in over 100 films, since the 1950s, with noted filmmakers like Guru Dutt, Yash Chopra, Raj Kapoor, Ashutosh Gowariker, and international directors like Conrad Rooks and Richard Attenborough.
Bhanumathi Ramakrishna (7 September 1925 – 24 December 2005) was a multilingual Indian film actress, director, music director, singer, producer, book writer and songwriter.
Gopynathan Velayudhan Nair, popularly known by the stage name Bharat Gopy (2 November 1937 – 29 January 2008), was an Indian film actor, producer, and director.
Bharathan (14 November 1946 – 30 July 1998) was an Indian film director, artist, and art director.
Bharathi Vishnuvardhan (born 15 August 1950), also known mononymously as Bharathi, is an Indian actress known primarily for her work in Kannada cinema.
Bhojpuri cinema Bhojiwood refers to films produced in the Bhojpuri language in the western Bihar, eastern Uttar Pradesh and Madhesh in southern Nepal.
Bhojpuri is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Northern-Eastern part of India and the Terai region of Nepal.
Bhootayyana Maga Ayyu (Bhootayya's Son Ayyu) is 1974 Indian Kannada language film directed by Siddalingaiah, based on the story by same name from the short stories collection Vayyari by Gorur Ramaswamy Iyengar, and starring Vishnuvardhan, Lokesh and M. P. Shankar in lead roles.
Bhubaneswar, also spelt as Bhubaneshwar or Bhuvanēśvar, is the capital of the Indian state of Odisha.
Bicycle Thieves (Ladri di biciclette; sometimes known in the United States as The Bicycle Thief) is a 1948 Italian film directed by Vittorio De Sica.
Bidesiya is Bhojpuri film released in 1963 directed by S.N. Tripathi produced by Bachubhai Shah.
Bijon Bhattacharya (বিজন ভট্টাচার্য) (17 July 1915 – 19 January 1978) was a prominent Indian theatre and film personality from Bengal.
The Biju Patnaik Film and Television Institute of Odisha, Cuttack (BPFTIO), is an autonomous Institute established by the Government of Odisha under World Bank assisted scheme to meet the emerging demand of well trained technical manpower in the field of television network and film production activities.
Bilat Ferat বিলেত ফেরত (England Returned) also known as Bilet Pherat, is a 1921 Bengali silent film directed by N.C. Lahiri and produced by Dhirendra Nath Ganguly.
Bilwamangal (Bengali: বিল্লমঙ্গল Billamaŋgal, pronounced), also known as Bhagat Soordas, is a 1919 silent black-and-white film directed by Rustomji Dhotiwala, a Parsi Gujarati based on the story by Gujarati writer Champshi Udeshi.
Bimal Roy (বিমল রায়) (12 July 1909 – 8 January 1966) was an Indian film director.
A biographical film, or biopic (abbreviation for biographical motion picture), is a film that dramatizes the life of a non-fictional or historically-based person or people.
A Bioscope show was a music hall and fairground attraction consisting of a travelling cinema.
A blockbuster is a work of entertainment – especially a feature film, but also other media – that is highly popular and financially successful.
Hindi cinema, often metonymously referred to as Bollywood, is the Indian Hindi-language film industry, based in the city of Mumbai (formerly Bombay), Maharashtra, India.
Bombay is a 1995 Indian Tamil-language Indian romantic drama film directed by Mani Ratnam, starring Arvind Swamy and Manisha Koirala in the lead, and featuring music composed by A. R. Rahman.
Bombay Talkies was a movie studio founded in 1934.
Braj, also known as Brij or Brijbhoomi, is a region in Uttar Pradesh of India, around Mathura-Vrindavan.
Braj Bhāshā is a Western Hindi language.
The British Film Institute (BFI) is a film and charitable organisation which promotes and preserves filmmaking and television in the United Kingdom.
The Indian Army (IA), often known since 1947 (but rarely during its existence) as the British Indian Army to distinguish it from the current Indian Army, was the principal military of the British Indian Empire before its decommissioning in 1947.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
Buddhadeb Dasgupta (Bengali: বুদ্ধদেব দাশগুপ্ত Buddhodeb Dashgupto) (born 1944) is a poet and prominent contemporary Indian filmmaker, most known for films like Bagh Bahadur, Tahader Katha, Charachar and Uttara.
Burma Rani is a 1945 Indian Tamil-language war-spy film directed by T. R. Sundaram.
Conjeevaram Natarajan Annadurai (15 September 1909 – 3 February 1969), popularly called Anna ("Elder brother") or Arignar Anna ("Anna, the scholar"), was an Indian politician who served as 1st Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu from 1967 and 5th, last Chief Minister of Madras until 1969 in the state of Tamil Nadu in South India.
Chittajallu Pullayya, also known as C. Pullayya (1898 – 6 October 1967), was an Indian film director, known for his works predominantly in Telugu cinema.
The California Institute of Technology (abbreviated Caltech)The university itself only spells its short form as "Caltech"; other spellings such as.
The Caméra d'Or ("Golden Camera") is an award of the Cannes Film Festival for the best first feature film presented in one of the Cannes' selections (Official Selection, Directors' Fortnight or International Critics' Week).
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A camera phone is a mobile phone which is able to capture photographs and often record video using one or more built-in digital cameras.
The Canada Council for the Arts (Conseil des Arts du Canada), commonly called the Canada Council, is a Crown Corporation established in 1957 to act as an arts council of the government of Canada, created to foster and promote the study and enjoyment of, and the production of works in, the arts.
The Cannes Festival (Festival de Cannes), named until 2002 as the International Film Festival (Festival international du film) and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, is an annual film festival held in Cannes, France, which previews new films of all genres, including documentaries from all around the world.
Carlos Saura Atarés (born 4 January 1932) is a Spanish film director, photographer and writer.
The Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC) (often referred to as the Censor Board) is a statutory censorship and classification body under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India.
ChaalBaaz (English: Trickster) is a 1989 Indian slapstick comedy film directed by Pankaj Parashar in a screenplay written by Rajesh Mazumdar and Kamlesh Pandey.
Chandni is a 1989 Indian romantic musical drama film, directed and produced by Yash Chopra in a screenplay written by Kamna Chandra, Arun Kaul, Sagar Sarhadi and Umesh Kalbagh.
Chandralekha (also spelt Chandraleka) is a 1948 Indian historical adventure film directed and produced by S. S. Vasan.
Charulata (চারুলতা Cārulatā; in English also known as The Lonely Wife) is a 1964 Indian Bengali drama film written and directed by Satyajit Ray based upon the novella Nastanirh ("The Broken Nest") by Rabindranath Tagore.
Chemmeen is a 1965 Indian Malayalam-language romance film, based on the novel of the same name by Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai.
Chennai (formerly known as Madras or) is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Chetan Anand (3 January 1921 – 6 July 1997) was a Hindi film producer, screenwriter and director from India, whose debut film, Neecha Nagar, was awarded the Palme d'Or (Best Film) award at the first ever Cannes Film Festival in 1946.
Chhollywood refers to the film industry of Chhattisgarh state, central India, or to cinema in the Chhattisgarhi language.
Chhattisgarhi is a language spoken in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh, by 24 million people.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Konidela Siva Sankara Vara Prasad (born 22 August 1955), better known by his stage name Chiranjeevi, is an Indian film actor and politician.
Chittoor V. Nagaiah (born Vuppaladadiyam Nagaiah) was a multilingual Indian film actor, thespian, composer, director, producer, writer and playback singer from Chittoor, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Chokher Bali (sand in the eye, constant irritant) is a Bengali language drama film based on the novel Chokher Bali by Rabindranath Tagore.
Chomana Dudi (ಚೋಮನ ದುಡಿ, Choma's Drum) is a feature film in the Kannada language.
Cine Blitz is a noted Hindi and English film magazine published every month from Mumbai about Bollywood, Hindi cinema.
Asian cinema refers to the film industries and films produced in the continent of Asia, and is also sometimes known as Eastern cinema.
The cinema of Bangladesh is the Bengali language film industry based in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Cinema of Europe refers to the film industries and films produced in the continent of Europe.
The Cinema of India consists of films produced in the nation of India.
The cinema of Manipur refers to the film industry of the Manipur.
Nepali cinema does not have a very long history, but the industry has its own place in the cultural heritage of the country.
The cinema of Nigeria, often referred to informally as Nollywood, consists of films produced in Nigeria; its history dates back to as early as the late 19th century and into the colonial era in the early 20th century.
The Odia film industry, colloquially known as Ollywood, is the Odia language Indian film industry, based in Cuttack, Odisha.
The Cinema of Pakistan or Pakistani cinema (پاکِستانی سینما) refers to the filmmaking industry in Pakistan.
The cinema of Rajasthan refers to films in the Rajasthani language in Rajasthan in north-western India.
The Cinema of South India is used to refer collectively to the five different film industries of South India: Kannada, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu and Tulu film industries, as a single entity.
The cinema of the Soviet Union, not to be confused with "cinema of Russia" despite films in the Russian language being predominant in the body of work so described, includes films produced by the constituent republics of the Soviet Union reflecting elements of their pre-Soviet culture, language and history, albeit they were all regulated by the central government in Moscow.
The cinema of the United States, often metonymously referred to as Hollywood, has had a profound effect on the film industry in general since the early 20th century.
The cinema of West Bengal (ṭôliuḍ), also known as Tollywood refers to the Indian Bengali language film industry based in the Tollygunge region of Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
CinemaScope is an anamorphic lens series used, from 1953 to 1967, for shooting widescreen movies.
Cinematography (also called Direction of Photography) is the science or art of motion-picture photography by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as film stock.
Cinemaya is an influential film magazine established in 1988 devoted exclusively to coverage of Asian film.
CNN-News18 (originally CNN-IBN) is an Indian English-language news television channel founded by Rajdeep Sardesai located in Noida, Uttar Pradesh.
Coimbatore (Tamil: கோயம்புத்தூர்), also known as Kovai, is a major city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Comedy is a genre of film in which the main emphasis is on humor.
Coming of age is a young person's transition from being a child to being an adult.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
A composer (Latin ''compōnō''; literally "one who puts together") is a musician who is an author of music in any form, including vocal music (for a singer or choir), instrumental music, electronic music, and music which combines multiple forms.
Coolie (कुली, 'Porter') is a 1983 Indian Bollywood action comedy film, directed by Manmohan Desai and written by Kader Khan.
The Cornell University Press is a division of Cornell University housed in Sage House, the former residence of Henry William Sage.
Cottalango Leon (born 1971) Mr.
Crime cinema, in the broadest sense, is a cinematic genre inspired by and analogous to the crime fiction literary genre.
Crossing Bridges is a 2013 Indian film directed by Sange Dorjee Thongdok.
Cuttack is the former capital and the second largest city in the eastern Indian state of Odisha.
Daag: A Poem of Love is a 1973 Bollywood romantic drama film produced and directed by Yash Chopra in his debut as a producer, which laid the foundation of Yash Raj Films.
Dacoity is a term used for "banditry" in Bengali, Odiya, Hindi, Kannada and Urdu.
Dhundiraj Govind Phalke, popularly known as Dadasaheb Phalke (दादासाहेब फाळके) (30 April 1870 – 16 February 1944), was an Indian producer-director-screenwriter, known as the Father of Indian cinema.
The Dadasaheb Phalke Award is India's highest award in cinema.
Ramchandra Gopal "Dadasaheb" Torne (Marathi: रामचंद्र गोपाळ "दादासाहेब" तोरणे)(13 April 1890 - 19 January 1960) was an Indian director and producer, best known for making the first feature film in India, Shree Pundalik.
Dangal (Wrestling competition) is a 2016 Indian Hindi-language biographical sports drama film, directed by Nitesh Tiwari and produced by Aamir Khan, under his studio Aamir Khan Productions with UTV Motion Pictures and Walt Disney Pictures India.
Danny Boyle (born 20 October 1956) is an English director, producer, screenwriter and theatre director, known for his work on films including Shallow Grave, Trainspotting, The Beach, 28 Days Later, Sunshine, Slumdog Millionaire, 127 Hours, and Steve Jobs.
Darjeeling is a town and a municipality in the Indian state of West Bengal.
Darr: A Violent Love Story (English: Fear) is a 1993 Indian psychological romantic thriller film directed by Yash Chopra under the banner of Yash Raj Films, inspired by the movie Cape Fear.
Deepa Mehta, (born September 15, 1950) is an Indo-Canadian film director and screenwriter, most known for her Elements Trilogy, ''Fire'' (1996), Earth (1998), and Water (2005).
Deewaar is a 1975 Indian crime drama film, written by Salim-Javed (Salim Khan and Javed Akhtar), directed by Yash Chopra, and starring Shashi Kapoor, Amitabh Bachchan, Nirupa Roy, Parveen Babi and Neetu Singh.
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
Deva Kaushik Katta is an Indian American filmmaker, known for his works exclusively in Telugu cinema.
Devdas is a 1935 Bengali film directed by Pramathesh Barua and based on the Sharat Chandra Chattopadhyay novella, Devdas.
Dharma Productions Pvt.
Dharti Ke Lal (Children of the Earth in English) is a 1946 Hindi-Urdu film, the first directorial venture of the noted film director Khwaja Ahmad Abbas (K. A. Abbas).
Dhirendra Nath Ganguly (26 March 1893 – 18 November 1978), better known as Dhiren Ganguly or D.G, was a Dadasaheb Phalke Award-winning and Padma Bhushan recipient film entrepreneur/actor/director of Bengali Cinema.
Digital cinema refers to the use of digital technology to distribute or project motion pictures as opposed to the historical use of reels of motion picture film, such as 35 mm film.
Digression (parekbasis in Greek, egressio, digressio and excursion in Latin) is a section of a composition or speech that marks a temporary shift of subject; the digression ends when the writer or speaker returns to the main topic.
Dil To Pagal Hai (English: The Heart Is Crazy), is a 1997 Indian musical romance film directed by Yash Chopra.
Gopalakrishnan Padmanabhan Pillai (born 27 October 1967), best known by his stage name Dileep, is an Indian film actor, mimicry artist, producer, assistant director, and businessman.
Dilip Kumar (born Muhammad Yusuf Khan; 11 December 1922) is an Indian film actor, producer, screenwriter, and activist, known for his work in Hindi cinema.
Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge (italic), also known by the initialism DDLJ, is an Indian romance film, directed by Aditya Chopra (in his directorial debut), produced by his father Yash Chopra, and written by Javed Siddiqui with Aditya Chopra.
The Directorate of Film Festivals in India is an organisation that initiates and presents the International Film Festival of India, the National Film Awards and the Indian Panorama.
Divya Spandana (born 29 November 1982), known professionally as Ramya (Kannada: ರಮ್ಯಾ), is an Indian film actress and politician.
Do Bigha Zamin is a 1953 Hindi film, directed by Bengali film director Bimal Roy and starring Balraj Sahni and Nirupa Roy in lead roles.
Doab (from dō, "two" + āb, "water" or "river") is a term used in India and Pakistan for the "tongue," or water-richAugust 2010,, Society for Promotion of Wastelands Development,, page vi.
Dogri Cinema or Pahariwood refers to cinema in Dogri language, a language included in the Schedule VIII of the Constitution, spoken primarily in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir state, Northern Punjab, Himachal Pradesh of India and Azad Jammu-Kashmir Area.
Dotdash (formerly About.com) is an American Internet-based network of content that publishes articles and videos about various subjects on its "topic sites", of which there are nearly 1,000.
In reference to film and television, drama is a genre of narrative fiction (or semi-fiction) intended to be more serious than humorous in tone.
Dulquer Salmaan (born 28 July 1984), is an Indian film actor who appears predominantly in Malayalam films.
Durga Khote (14 January 1905 − 22 September 1991) was an Indian actress, beginning as one of the foremost leading ladies of her times, she remained active in Hindi and Marathi cinema, as well as theatre, for over 50 years, starring in around 200 films and numerous theatre productions.
Dushman is a 1972 Hindi film produced by Premji and directed by Dulal Guha.
Dweepa (ದ್ವೀಪ, The Island) is a 2002 Indian Kannada language film by Girish Kasaravalli, based on the novel of the same name by Na D'Souza, and starring Soundarya and Avinash in lead roles.
South Indian film industry had been producing colour films since the 40's, especially Tamil cinema.
East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography.
The East India Film Company was an Indian film production company, based in Calcutta, Bengal Presidency, British India.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The Economic and Political Weekly is a weekly peer-reviewed academic journal covering all social sciences, and is published by the Sameeksha Trust.
Ek Duuje Ke Liye is a 1981 Hindi romantic tragedy movie directed by K. Balachander, starring Kamal Haasan and Rati Agnihotri.
Elippathayam (Translation: The Rat Trap) is a 1981 Malayalam film written and directed by Adoor Gopalakrishnan.
Empathy is the capacity to understand or feel what another person is experiencing from within their frame of reference, i.e., the capacity to place oneself in another's position.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
Enthiran is a 2010 Indian Tamil-language science fiction film written and directed by S. Shankar.
Epic films are a style of filmmaking with large scale, sweeping scope, and spectacle.
Eros Films was a British film distribution and, later, production company, in operation from May 1947 to June 1961.
Eros International Media Ltd is an Indian motion picture production and distribution company, based in Mumbai.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
An exploitation film is a film that attempts to succeed financially by exploiting current trends, niche genres, or lurid content.
Fahadh Faasil is an Indian film actor and producer, who works in the Malayalam film industry.
The Film and Television Institute of India (FTII) is an autonomous institute under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting of the Government of India and aided by the Central Government of India.
The Film Federation of India (FFI) is an apex body of the Indian film producers (around 18,000), distributors (around 20,000), exhibitors (around 12,000) and studio owners, headquartered in Mumbai.
A film genre is a motion picture category based on similarities in either the narrative elements or the emotional response to the film (namely, serious, comic, etc.). Most theories of film genre are borrowed from literary genre criticism.
Filmfare is an English-language, tabloid-sized magazine about Hindi-language cinema, popularly known as Bollywood.
The Filmfare Awards are presented annually by The Times Group to honour both artistic and technical excellence of professionals in the '''Hindi''' language film industry of India.
Filmfare Awards East is the East Indian segment of the annual Filmfare Awards, presented by The Times Group to honour the artistic and cinematic excellence in Bengali film industry, Assamese film industry and Odia film industry.The first installment of the awards were held for Bengali, Assamese and Odia films in a ceremony on March 29, 2014.
Filmfare Awards South is the South Indian segment of the annual Filmfare Awards, presented by The Times Group to honour both artistic and technical excellence of professionals in the South Indian film industry.
Filmmaking (or, in an academic context, film production) is the process of making a film, generally in the sense of films intended for extensive theatrical exhibition.
Films Division of India (FDI) commonly referred as Films Division is a film production house belonging to the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India, primarily to "produce documentaries and news magazines for publicity of Government programmes" and cinematic record of Indian history.
Firstpost is an Indian news and media website.
A flashback (sometimes called an analepsis) is an interjected scene that takes the narrative back in time from the current point in the story.
Forbes is an American business magazine.
François Roland Truffaut (6 February 1932 – 21 October 1984) was a French film director, screenwriter, producer, actor, and film critic, as well as one of the founders of the French New Wave.
New Wave (La Nouvelle Vague) is often referred to as one of the most influential movements in the history of cinema.
Govindan Aravindan (21 January 1935 – 15 March 1991), popularly known as G. Aravindan, was a film director, screenwriter, musician, cartoonist and painter from Kerala, India.
Gurajada Krishnadas Venkatesh (GKV) (21 September 1927 – 13 November 1993) was a prominent composer of film music in Kannada cinema during the 1960s, 1970s and until the late-1980s.
Gopaldas Parmanand Sippy (14 September 1914 British India – 25 December 2007 India) was a Bollywood movie producer and director.
Ganapathi Venkataramana Iyer (3 September 1917 – 21 December 2003), popularly known as G. V. Iyer, was a well-known Indian film director and actor.
Ganga Maiyya Tohe Piyari Chadhaibo is a Bhojpuri film released in 1963 directed by Kundan Kumar.
Gangadhar was an Indian actor in the Kannada film industry.
Gardish is a 1993 Indian Hindi film written and directed by Priyadarshan, starring Jackie Shroff and Dimple Kapadia.
Garhwali language (गढ़वळि भाख/भासा) is a Central Pahari language belonging to the Northern Zone of Indo-Aryan languages.
Geetha Arts (Telugu: గీతా ఆర్ట్స్) is an Indian film production and distribution company established in 1972 by Allu Aravind, brother-in-law of Chiranjeevi.
Lakshman Rao Mohite (15 June 1932 – 17 January 2016), better known by his pen-name Geethapriya (ಗೀತಪ್ರಿಯ), was an Indian film director and lyricist of the Kannada film industry.
Ghantasala Venkateswara Rao (4 December 1922 – 11 February 1974) was an Indian film composer, playback singer known for his works predominantly in Telugu cinema, and a few Tamil, Kannada, Malayalam, Tulu and Hindi language films.
Ghatashraddha (The Ritual) is a 1977 Indian Kannada language film directed by Girish Kasaravalli starring Meena Kuttappa, Naraya Bhat and Ajith Kumar in lead roles.
Girish Raghunath Karnad (born 19 May 1938) is an Indian actor, film director, Kannada writer playwright and a Rhodes Scholar, who predominantly works in South Indian cinema and Bollywood.
Girish Kasaravalli (born 3 December 1950) is an Indian film director, in the Kannada cinema, and one of the pioneers of the Parallel Cinema.
Goa is a state in India within the coastal region known as the Konkan, in Western India.
The Golden Bear (Goldener Bär) is the highest prize awarded for the best film at the Berlin International Film Festival.
The Golden Lion (Leone d'Oro) is the highest prize given to a film at the Venice Film Festival.
Goutam Ghose (also credited as Gautam Ghosh) (born 24 July 1950) is one of the most acclaimed film directors, music director, and cinematographer of modern India, who works primarily in Bengali cinema.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
The Government Film & Television Institute, Bangalore (formerly a part of S.J.Polytechnic) is believed as the first government institute in India to start technical courses related to films.
The Government of the French Republic (Gouvernement de la République française) exercises executive power in France.
The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.
The Government of Karnataka is a democratically elected body with the governor as the constitutional head.
The Government of Kerala headquartered at Thiruvananthapuram is a democratically elected body that governs the Indian State of Kerala.
The Government of Maharashtra is the government for the state of Maharashtra in Western India.
The Government of Odisha and its 30 districts consists of an executive, led by the Governor of Odisha, a judiciary, and a legislative branch.
The Government of Punjab also known as the State Government of Punjab, or locally as State Government, is the supreme governing authority of the Indian state of Punjab and its 22 districts.
The Government of Tamil Nadu is the governing authority for the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
The Government of West Bengal also known as the State Government of West Bengal, or locally as State Government, is the supreme governing authority of the Indian state of West Bengal and its 23 districts.
Govind Nihalani (born 19 December 1940) is an Indian film director, cinematographer, screenwriter and producer, known for his works in Hindi cinema.
The Greater Middle East is a political term, introduced in the early 2000s, denoting a set of contiguously connected countries stretching from Morocco in the west all the way to Pakistan in the east.
Gregory James Nava (born April 10, 1949) is an American film director, producer and screenwriter.
Gubbi Veeranna (1891 – 1972) was an Indian theatre director and artist and an awardee of the prestigious Padmashree conferred by the President of India. He was one of the pioneers and most prolific contributors to Kannada theatre.
Gudavalli Ramabrahmam was an Indian film director, screenwriter, and producer known for his works predominantly in Telugu cinema.
Guinness World Records, known from its inception in 1955 until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records and in previous United States editions as The Guinness Book of World Records, is a reference book published annually, listing world records both of human achievements and the extremes of the natural world.
Gujarati cinema, informally referred to as Dhollywood or Gollywood, is the Gujarati language film industry.
Gujarati (ગુજરાતી) is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat.
Sampooran Singh Kalra (born 18 August 1934), known popularly by his pet name Gulzar, is an Indian poet, lyricist, musician, composer and film director.
Gummadi Venkateswara Rao (9 July 1928 – 26 January 2010), widely known as Gummadi, was an Indian film actor and producer, known for his works predominantly in Telugu cinema and a few Tamil films.
Gunga Jumna (also transliterated as Ganga Jamuna or Ganga Jamna) is a 1961 Indian dacoit crime drama film, produced in Technicolor.
Vasanth Kumar Shivashankar Padukone (9 July 1925 – 10 October 1964), better known as Guru Dutt, was an Indian film director, producer and actor.
Hanumappa Muniappa Reddy (12 June 1892 – 14 January 1960), known as H. M. Reddy, was an Indian film producer and director known for his works in Telugu cinema.
Harishchandra Sakharam Bhatavdekar (15 March 1868 – 20 February 1958) (Marathi: हरिश्चंद्र सखाराम भाटवडेकर), also known as Save dada, was the first Indian to make a film (motion picture) in India.
Haathi Mere Saathi is a 1971 Indian Hindi-language film, directed by M. A. Thirumugam, with screenplay written by Salim-Javed and dialogues by Inder Raj Anand.
Haider is a 2014 Indian crime tragedy film written, produced and directed by Vishal Bhardwaj, and co-written by Basharat Peer.
Haji Mastan (1 March 1926 25 June 1994), popularly known as Haji Mastan, Bawa, or Sultan, was an Indian gangster, smuggler, film financier and real estate businessman.
Hamsageethe (ಹಂಸಗೀತೆ, The Swan song) is a 1975 Indian feature film in the Kannada language.
Hamsalekha (born Govindaraju Gangaraju on 23 June 1951) is an Indian film composer and a songwriter who works in South Indian cinema, predominantly in the Kannada film industry since the late 1980s.
Harishchandrachi Factory (Marathi: हरिश्चंद्राची फॅक्टरी, "Harishchandra's Factory") is a 2009 Marathi film, directed by Paresh Mokashi, depicting the struggle of Dadasaheb Phalke in making Raja Harishchandra in 1913: India's first feature film, the birth of Indian cinema.
HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.
Hariyanvi cinema, nicknamed Hariwood, refers to the Haryanvi language film industry in Haryana state in North India.
Haryanvi (हरियाणवी or हरयाणवी) is a language of the Western Hindi group.
Hathras is an ancient city and a municipal board in Hathras district, in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
Hay House is a New Thought and self-help publisher founded in 1984 by author Louise Hay,, Michael Kinsman, December 4, 2005, San Diego Union-Tribune when she self-published her books Heal Your Body and You Can Heal Your Life.
Hemareddy Mallamma is a 1946 Indian Kannada film, directed by S. Soundarya Rajan and produced by Gubbi Veeranna.
Himachal Pradesh (literally "snow-laden province") is a Indian state located in North India.
Himmatwala is a 1983 Indian masala film produced by G. Hanumantha Rao under the Padmalaya Studios banner, presented by Krishna and directed by K. Raghavendra Rao.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
The Hindi Belt or Hindi Desh, sometimes referred to as the Hindi-Urdu Region, is a linguistic region in north-central India where Hindi (including its dialects) and Urdu are widely spoken.
Hindustan Times is an Indian English-language daily newspaper founded in 1924 with roots in the Indian independence movement of the period ("Hindustan" being a historical name for India).
Hindustani (हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی, ||lit.
Hiralal Sen (হীরালাল সেন, Hiralal Shen) (2 August 1866 – 26 October 1917) was an Indian photographer generally considered one of India's first filmmakers.
Although the start of the history of film is not clearly defined, the commercial, public screening of ten of Lumière brothers' short films in Paris on 28 December 1895 can be regarded as the breakthrough of projected cinematographic motion pictures.
"Ho Jamalo" is a Sindhi-language folk song and associated dance in the Sindhi culture of Pakistan, especially in Sindh.
Homi Adajania is an Indian film director and writer.
Hong Kong action cinema is the principal source of the Hong Kong film industry's global fame.
Hum Aapke Hain Koun..! (italic) also known by the initialism HAHK, is a 1994 Indian musical romantic-comedy film, written and directed by Sooraj Barjatya, and produced by Rajshri Productions.
Hunsur Krishnamurthy (9 February 1914 – 13 February 1989) was an Indian playwright, film director, producer, actor, screenwriter and lyricist in Kannada cinema.
Hyderabad is the capital of the Indian state of Telangana and de jure capital of Andhra Pradesh.
Irruppam Veedu Sasidaran (28 March 1948 – 24 October 2017), better known as I. V. Sasi, was an Indian film director who made over 150 films in various Indian languages.
IDBI Bank (Industrial Development Bank of India) was established in 1964 by an Act of Parliament only to provide credit and other financial facilities for the development of the fledgling Indian industry.
Ilaiyaraaja (born 2 June 1943 as Gnanathesikan) is an Indian film composer, singer, songwriter, instrumentalist, orchestrator, conductor-arranger and lyricist who works in the Indian Film Industry, predominantly in Tamil.
IMAX is a system of high-resolution cameras, film formats and film projectors.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Cinematograph Committee was established by British Raj in 1927 to "investigate the adequacy of censorship and the supposedly immoral effect of cinematograph films", and subsequently the Indian Cinematograph Committee Evidence and Report 1927-1928 was published in the following year.
Indian classical dance, or Shastriya Nritya, is an umbrella term for various performance arts rooted in religious Hindu musical theatre styles,, Quote: All of the dances considered to be part of the Indian classical canon (Bharata Natyam, Chhau, Kathak, Kathakali, Manipuri, Mohiniattam, Odissi, Sattriya and Yakshagana) trace their roots to religious practices (...) the Indian diaspora has led to the translocation of Hindu dances to Europe, North America and the world." whose theory and practice can be traced to the Sanskrit text Natya Shastra.
The term Indian classical drama refers to the tradition of dramatic literature and performance in ancient India.
Indian classical music is a genre of South Asian music.
Indian cuisine consists of a wide variety of regional and traditional cuisines native to the Indian subcontinent.
Indian English is any of the forms of English characteristic of India.
Indian epic poetry is the epic poetry written in the Indian subcontinent, traditionally called Kavya (or Kāvya; Sanskrit: काव्य, IAST: kāvyá) or Kappiyam (Tamil language: காப்பியம், kāppiyam).
Indian Gorkhas (भारतीय गोर्खा, Bharatiya Gorkha) also known as Nepali Indian (नेपाली भारतीय, Nepali Bharatiya) are Nepali-speaking Indian citizens.
The Indian independence movement encompassed activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule (1757–1857) and the British Indian Empire (1857–1947) in the Indian subcontinent.
Indian literature refers to the literature produced on the Indian subcontinent until 1947 and in the Republic of India thereafter.
Indian People’s Theatre Association (IPTA) was an association of leftist theatre-artists under the Left parties.
Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (née Nehru; 19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was an Indian politician, stateswoman and a central figure of the Indian National Congress.
The Indo British Film Co was a film production company set up by Dhirendra Nath Ganguly in 1918.
Indo-Persian culture refers to those Persian aspects that have been integrated into or absorbed into the cultures of South Asia and in particular, into North India, and Pakistan.
The International Federation of Film Critics (FIPRESCI, short for Fédération Internationale de la Presse Cinématographique) is an association of national organizations of professional film critics and film journalists from around the world for "the promotion and development of film culture and for the safeguarding of professional interests." It was founded in June 1930 in Brussels, Belgium.
The International Film Festival of India (IFFI), founded in 1952, is one of the most significant film festivals in Asia.
The International Film Festival of Kerala (abbreviated as IFFK) is a film festival held annually in Thiruvananthapuram, the capital city of Kerala, India.
The International Indian Film Academy Awards (also known as the IIFA Awards) are a set of awards presented annually by the International Indian Film Academy to honour both artistic and technical excellence of professionals in Bollywood, the Hindi language film industry.
was a Japanese film director, screenwriter and producer.
Italian neorealism (Neorealismo), also known as the Golden Age, is a national film movement characterized by stories set amongst the poor and the working class, filmed on location, frequently using non-professional actors.
Chan Kong-sang, SBS, MBE, PMW (生; born 7 April 1954), known professionally as Jackie Chan, is a Hong Kong martial artist, actor, film director, producer, stuntman, and singer.
Jai Santoshi Maa is a 1975 low-budget Hindi film that became one of the top blockbusters of all time.
Jaipur is the capital and the largest city of the Indian state of Rajasthan in Northern India.
Jaisalmer, nicknamed "The Golden city", is a city in the Indian state of Rajasthan, located west of the state capital Jaipur.
Jait Re Jait (English: Win, Win) is 1977 Indian Marathi language film directed by Dr. Jabbar Patel and produced by Usha Mangeshkar and Hridaynath Mangeshkar, under the banner Mahalakshmi Chitra.
Jalachhayam is a 2010 Indian Malayalam-language Experimental film, produced and directed by Sathish Kalathil under the banner of The People's Films.
Jalsaghar (জলসাঘর Jalsāghar, "The Music Room") is a 1958 Indian Bengali drama film written and directed by Satyajit Ray based on a popular short story by Bengali writer Tarasankar Bandyopadhyay and starring Chhabi Biswas.
Jamai Shashthi (জামাই ষষ্ঠী English: Son-in-law day) is a 1931 Bengali short film directed by Amar Choudhury, produced by Madan Theatre Limited.
James Francis Ivory (born June 7, 1928) is an American film director, producer, and screenwriter.
Jammu and Kashmir (ænd) is a state in northern India, often denoted by its acronym, J&K.
Jamshedji Framji Madan (1856, Bombay – 28 June 1923), professionally known as J. F. Madan, was an Indian theatre and film magnate who was one of the pioneers of film production in India, an early exhibitor, distributor and producer of films and plays.
Jamuna Kinare is a 1983 Brajbhasha language film based on Braj culture.
The was established in 1972 by an Act of the National Diet as a special legal entity to undertake international dissemination of Japanese culture, and became an Independent Administrative Institution under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs on 1 October 2003 under the "Independent Administrative Institution Japan Foundation Law".
The Japanese New Wave, in Japanese, is a blanket term used to describe a group of loosely connected Japanese filmmakers during the late 1950s and into the 1970s.
The Japanese occupation of Burma was the period between 1942 and 1945 during World War II, when Burma was occupied by the Empire of Japan.
Javed Akhtar (born 17 January 1945) is an Indian poet, lyricist and screenwriter.
Jayaram Jayalalithaa (born Komalavalli, 24 February 1948 –5 December 2016) was an Indian film actress and politician who served six terms as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu for over fourteen years between 1991 and 2016.
Jayamala (born 1959) is an Indian actress and Indian politician.
Krishnan Nair (25 July 1939 – 16 November 1980), better known by his stage name Jayan, was an Indian film actor, naval officer, stunt performer and cultural icon of the 1970s.
Kamala Kumari (born 6 January 1945), known by her mononymous stage name Jayanthi, is an Indian actress known for her work in Kannada cinema.
Jayaram Subramaniam (born 10 December 1965), known mononymously as Jayaram, is an Indian film actor who predominantly appears in Malayalam and Tamil films.
Jayasurya (born 30 August 1978) is an Indian film actor, producer, playback singer, and impressionist, who works in Malayalam film industry.
Jean Renoir (15 September 1894 – 12 February 1979) was a French film director, screenwriter, actor, producer and author.
Jeevana Nataka is a 1943 Indian Kannada film directed by Wahab Kashmiri, based on a play of the same name written by A. N. Krishna Rao.
Jijo Punnoose popularly known as Jijo, is a film director from India, best known for directing the two landmark films in Malayalam cinema Padayottam (1982) and My Dear Kuttichathan (1984).
Jodhpur is the second largest city in the Indian state of Rajasthan and officially the second metropolitan city of the state.
Journey Beyond Three Seas (italic; italic) is a 1957 Indian-Soviet film, jointly directed by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas and Vasili Pronin.
Joymoti or Joimoti (জয়মতী), released on 10 March 1935, was the first Assamese film made.
Juhi Chawla (born 13 November 1967) is an Indian actress, model, film producer, and the winner of the 1984 Miss India beauty pageant.
Kodumudi Balambal Sundarambal (1908–1980) was an Indian theatre and film actress and singer from Erode district, Tamil Nadu. She performed in Tamil cinema and was referred to as the "Queen of the Indian stage." A political activist during the Indian independence movement, K.B. Sundarambal was the first film personality to enter a state legislature in India.
Kulakkatil Geevarghese George (born 1946 in Thiruvalla, Travancore) is an Indian film director and screenwriter.
Kattassery Joseph Yesudas (born 10 January 1940) is an Indian musician and film playback singer.
Kaadu Kudure (ಕಾಡು ಕುದುರೆ) is a 1979 Indian Kannada drama film directed, written and composed by Chandrashekhara Kambara and produced by Wheel Productions.
Kaagaz Ke Phool (Kāgaz kē Phūl, Translation: "Paper Flowers") is a 1959 Hindi film produced and directed by Guru Dutt, who also played the lead role in the film.
Kajol (born Kajol Mukherjee; 5 August 1974), also known by her married name Kajol Devgn, is an Indian film actress, who predominantly works in Hindi cinema.
Kalathur Kannamma is a 1960 Indian Tamil-language romantic drama film produced by A. V. Meiyappan and directed by A. Bhimsingh.
Kalidas is a 1931 Indian Tamil-language biographical film directed by H. M. Reddy and produced by Ardeshir Irani.
Kalpana (18 July 1943 – 12 May 1979), born Sharat Lata, was a Kannada film actress.
Kalyan Kumar (28 July 1928 – 1 August 1999), born as Chokkanna, was an Indian film actor, and an occasional film director and producer, who worked primarily in Kannada and Tamil cinema.
Parathasarathi Srinivasan (born 7 November 1954), professionally known as Kamal Haasan, is an Indian politician, film actor, dancer, film director, screenwriter, producer, playback singer and lyricist who works primarily in Tamil cinema.
The Kanara (also known as Canara, Karavali and Coastal Karnataka) region of Karnataka, comprises three coastal districts, namely Dakshina Kannada and Udupi district (South Canara) and Uttara Kannada (North Canara).
Kanchivaram (காஞ்சிவரம்) is a 2008 Indian Tamil-language drama film written and directed by Priyadarshan.
Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India, mainly in the state of Karnataka, and by significant linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Kerala, Goa and abroad.
Kannada cinema, also known as Chandanavana, Link referring rechristening of sandalwod as chandanavana at world kannada summit is the Indian film industry based in the state of Karnataka where motion pictures are produced in the Kannada language.
Kannathil Muthamittal (A Peck on the Cheek) is a 2002 Indian Tamil-language musical war drama film written, produced and directed by Mani Ratnam.
Tadepalli Lakshmi Kanta Rao (తాడేపల్లి లక్ష్మీ కాంతారావు) (16 November 1923 – 22 March 2009), more popularly known as Kanta Rao, was an Indian film actor and producer known for his works predominantly in Telugu cinema.
Karnataka also known Kannada Nadu is a state in the south western region of India.
Karnataka State Film Awards are the most notable and prestigious film awards given for Kannada film industry in Karnataka, India.
Kashmiri cinema is the Kashmiri language-based film industry in the Kashmir Valley of India.
Kati Patang is a 1971 Indian Hindi-language film produced and directed by Shakti Samanta.
Keechaka Vadham (italic) is an Indian silent film produced, directed, filmed and edited by R. Nataraja Mudaliar.
Kerala is a state in South India on the Malabar Coast.
The Kerala State Film Awards are the film awards for a motion picture made in Kerala.
Khal Nayak (Villain) is a 1993 Indian Hindi action thriller film produced and directed by Subhash Ghai.
Khans of Bollywood is a term used to describe leading male actors of Bollywood, the Mumbai-based Hindi-language Indian film industry, whose surnames are Khan.
Khasi (Khasi: Ka Ktien Khasi) is an Austroasiatic language spoken primarily in Meghalaya state in India by the Khasi people.
Khwaja Ahmad Abbas (7 June 1914 – 1 June 1987), popularly known as K. A. Abbas, was an Indian film director, screenwriter, novelist, and a journalist in the Urdu, Hindi and English languages.
Kochi, also known as Cochin, is a major port city on the south-west coast of India bordering the Laccadive Sea.
Kolhapur is a historic city of Maharashtra.
Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
The Kolkata International Film Festival (KIFF) (কলকাতা আন্তর্জাতিক চলচিত্র উত্সব) is an annual film festival held in Kolkata, India.
Konkani cinema is an Indian film industry, where films are made in the Konkani language, which is spoken mainly in the Indian states of Goa, Maharashtra and Karnataka and to a smaller extent in Kerala.
Konkani is an Indo-Aryan language belonging to the Indo-European family of languages and is spoken along the South western coast of India.
Kottayam is one of the 14 districts in the state of Kerala, India.
Kraurya (The Tale of a Storyteller) is a 1996 Indian Kannada language drama film directed by Girish Kasaravalli, based on a story written by T. N. Seetharam about an old woman who has to deal with complex relationships with people of different generations she is put up with.
Krishna Tere Desh Main is a 2000 film produced and directed by Shiv Kumar.
Kuch Kuch Hota Hai (English: Something... Something Happens) also known as KKHH, is a 1998 Indian Hindi-language romantic drama film, released in India and the United Kingdom on 16 October 1998.
Kunchacko Boban (born 2 November 1976) is an Indian film actor and producer, who works in Malayalam film industry.
Akkineni Lakshmi Vara Prasada Rao (17 January 1908 – 22 June 1994), known popularly as L. V. Prasad, was an Indian film producer, actor, director, cinematographer and businessman.
Ladakh ("land of high passes") is a region in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir that currently extends from the Kunlun mountain range to the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people of Indo-Aryan and Tibetan descent.
Lagaan (released worldwide as Lagaan: Once Upon a Time in India) is a 2001 Indian epic sports-drama film, directed by Ashutosh Gowariker, produced by Aamir Khan and Mansoor Khan, and written by Gowariker and Abbas Tyrewala.
Lai Haraoba is a festival associated with Meitei People, celebrated to please traditional deities of Sanamahism.
Lalita Pawar (18 April 1916 – 24 February 1998) was a prolific Indian actress, who later became famous as a character actress, appearing in over 700 films in Hindi, Marathi and Gujarati cinema, where she gave hits such as Netaji Palkar (1938), made by Bhalji Pendharkar, New Hana Pictures’ Sant Damaji, Navyug Chitrapat’s Amrit, written by VS Khandekar, and Chhaya Films’ Gora Kumbhar.
Lambani or Goar-boali, also called Banjari, is a language spoken by the once nomadic Banjara people across India and it belongs to Indo-Aryan group of languages.
Languages spoken in India belong to several language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 76.5% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by 20.5% of Indians.
Lata Mangeshkar (born 28 September 1929) is an Indian playback singer and occasional music composer.
Laxmikant Berde (Marathi: लक्ष्मीकांत बेर्डे) (26 October 1954 – 16 December 2004;Mumbai) was an Indian actor who appeared in Marathi and Hindi movies.
Leelavathi (born Leela Kiran in 1937) is a Kannada film actress who predominantly worked in Kannada, Tamil, Telugu.
The Legion of Honour, with its full name National Order of the Legion of Honour (Ordre national de la Légion d'honneur), is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoléon Bonaparte and retained by all the divergent governments and regimes later holding power in France, up to the present.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
This is the list of Indians and persons of Indian origin who are Academy Award (informally known as Oscar) winners and nominees.
The Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh is the chief executive of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
The complete list of Chief Ministers of Tamil Nadu consists of the heads of government in the history of the state of Tamil Nadu in India since 1920.
This is a list of cinema of the world by continent and country.
This is a list of films considered "the best ever", so voted in a notable national or international survey of either critics or the public.
The following is a list of the highest-grossing films in China (excluding Hong Kong and Taiwan), based on data by Entgroup's China Boxoffice (CBO) website with the gross in yuan.
This is a ranking of the highest grossing Indian films which includes films from various languages based on the conservative global box office estimates as reported by reputable sources.
Hollywood-inspired nicknames, most starting with the first letter(s) of the location and ending in the letters "-ollywood" or "-wood", have been given to various locations around the world with associations to the film industry - inspired by the iconic Hollywood in Los Angeles, California, whose name has come to be a metonym for the motion picture industry of the United States.
This is a list of notable Indian film actors.
This is an alphabetical list of notable female Indian film actresses.
Here are the films of the USSR with the greatest number of ticket sales during the year in question.
The Locarno Festival (formerly called the Festival del film Locarno and commonly referred to as the Locarno Film Festival) is an annual film festival held every August in Locarno, Switzerland.
Lucknow is the capital and largest city of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and is also the administrative headquarters of the eponymous District and Division.
Marudur Gopalan Ramachandran (17 January 1917 – 24 December 1987), popularly known as M.G.R., was an Indian actor, filmmaker and politician who served as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu for ten years between 1977 and 1987.
Muthuvel Karunanidhi (born as Daksinamoorthy on 3 June 1924) is an Indian politician and the 3rd Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu.
Mysore Shrinivas Sathyu (born in Mysore, Karnataka) is a leading film director, stage designer and art director from India.
Manasa Sarovara (ಮಾನಸ ಸರೋವರ) is a 1982 Indian Kannada language film directed by Puttanna Kanagal starring Srinath, Padmavasanthi and Ramakrishna.
Madan Theatre Company, is also known as Madan Theatres Limited or in short, Madan Theatres was a film production company founded by Jamshedji Framji Madan, one of the pioneers of Indian Cinema.
Madhumati is a 1958 Indian paranormal romance film directed and produced by Bimal Roy, and written by Ritwik Ghatak and Rajinder Singh Bedi.
Madhuri Dixit Nene (born 15 May 1967) is an Indian actress who is known for her work in Hindi cinema.
The Mahābhārata (महाभारतम्) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.
Maharashtra (abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India and is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area.
Maharashtra State Film Awards, one of the prestigious awards of Marathi cinema, are awarded by the Government of Maharashtra to Marathi language films and artists.
Maine Pyar Kiya (italic) is a 1989 Indian musical romance film, directed by Sooraj R. Barjatya and written by Barjatya with S. M. Ahale.
Maithili (Maithilī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Bihar and Jharkhand states of India and is one of the 22 recognised Indian languages.
Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken across the Indian state of Kerala by the Malayali people and it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India.
Malayalam cinema is the Indian film industry based in the southern state of Kerala, dedicated to the production of motion pictures in the Malayalam.
Muhammad Kutty Paniparambil Ismail (born 7 September 1951), better known by his stage name Mammootty is an Indian film actor and producer who works in Malayalam cinema.
Manali is a resort town nestled in the mountains of the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh near the northern end of the Kullu Valley, at an altitude of in the Beas River Valley.
Mane (ಮನೆ, House) is a 1990 Indian Kannada language film directed by Girish Kasaravalli starring Naseeruddin Shah, Deepti Naval and Rohini Hattangadi in lead roles.
Manipur is a state in Northeast India, with the city of Imphal as its capital.
Manju Warrier (pronounced: Manju Vāryar; born 10 September 1978) is an Indian film actress and dancer in the name.
Manmohan Desai (26 February 1937 – 1 March 1994) was a producer and director of Indian movies.
Mansoor Khan is an Indian film director and producer known for his works in Bollywood.
Maqbool is a 2003 Indian crime tragedy directed by Vishal Bhardwaj and starring Pankaj Kapur, Irrfan Khan, Tabu and Masumeh Makhija in an adaptation of the play Macbeth by Shakespeare.
Marathi cinema refers to Indian films produced in Marathi, the language of the state of Maharashtra, India.
Marathi (मराठी Marāṭhī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by the Marathi people of Maharashtra, India.
Marlon Brando Jr. (April 3, 1924 – July 1, 2004) was an American actor and film director.
Marshall Goodwin Simms Hodgson (April 11, 1922 – June 10, 1968), was an Islamic studies academic and a world historian at the University of Chicago.
Martin Charles Scorsese (born November 17, 1942) is an American director, producer, screenwriter, actor and film historian, whose career spans more than 50 years.
Marupakkam (italic) is a 1991 Indian Tamil-language drama film directed by K. S. Sethumadhavan.
Masala films of Indian cinema are those that mix genres in one work.
Mathilukal (Malayalam: മതിലുകൾ, meaning Walls) is a Malayalam novel written by Vaikom Muhammad Basheer in 1965.
Mathura is a city in the North Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
Matinée idol is a term used mainly to describe film or theatre stars who are adored to the point of adulation by their fans.
Mayabazar is a 1957 Indian epic fantasy film directed by Kadiri Venkata Reddy.
Meghe Dhaka Tara (মেঘে ঢাকা তারা Mēghē Ḍhākā Tārā, meaning The Cloud-Capped Star) is a 1960 film written and directed by Ritwik Ghatak, based on a social novel by Shaktipada Rajguru with the same title.
Mehboob Khan (born Mehboob Khan Ramzan Khan; 9 September 1907 at filmreference.com. – 28 May 1964) was a pioneer producer-director of Hindi cinema, best known for directing the social epic Mother India (1957), which won the Filmfare Awards for Best Film and Best Director and was a nominee for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film.
A melodrama is a dramatic work in which the plot, which is typically sensational and designed to appeal strongly to the emotions, takes precedence over detailed characterization.
Method acting is a range of training and rehearsal techniques that seek to encourage sincere and emotionally expressive performances, as formulated by a number of different theatre practitioners, principally in the United States, where it is among the most popular—and controversial—approaches to acting.
Marathi International Film and Theatre Awards (MIFTA) is the joint endeavour of famed film director and renowned actor Mahesh Manjrekar, owner of Ashwami Films, and Abhijeet Patil, Chairman of Raja Rani Travels.
Mid Day (stylised as mid-day) is a morning daily Indian compact newspaper.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
The Minerva Theatre is a theatre in Calcutta, built in 1893.
The Ministry of Finance is an important ministry within the Government of India concerned with the economy of India, serving as the Indian Treasury Department.
The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (Ministry of I&B) is a branch of the Government of India which is apex body for formulation and administration of the rules and regulations and laws relating to information, broadcasting, the press and films in India.
Mint is an Indian financial daily newspaper published by HT Media, a Delhi-based media group which is controlled by the KK Birla family and also publishes Hindustan Times.
Mira Nair (born 15 October 1957) is an Indian-American filmmaker based in New York City.
Mising/Mishing, also known as Plains Miri, is a Tani language spoken by the Mishing people.
Mogacho Anvddo (Love's Craving) was the first Konkani film.
Mohammed Rafi (24 December 1924 - 31 July 1980) was an Indian playback singer and one of the most popular and successful singers of the Hindi film industry.
Mohanlal Viswanathan (born 21 May 1960), known mononymously as Mohanlal, is an Indian actor, producer and playback singer who predominantly works in Malayalam cinema.
"Moneycontrol.com is an Indian onlinebusiness news website owned by E-EIGHTEEN Dot Com (P) Ltd., a subsidiary of the Mukesh Ambani (Reliance Industries) controlled media house TV 18.
Moonnamathoral (മൂന്നാമതൊരാള്; translation: A Third Person) is the first digital Malayalam movie.
Mother India is a 1957 Indian epic drama film, directed by Mehboob Khan and starring Nargis, Sunil Dutt, Rajendra Kumar, and Raaj Kumar.
Moulin Rouge! (from) is a 2001 Australian-American jukebox musical romantic comedy film directed, co-produced, and co-written by Baz Luhrmann.
A movie star (also known as a film star and cinema star) is an actor who is famous for their starring, or leading, roles in motion pictures.
Mrinal Sen (also spelled Mrinal Shen, born 14 May 1923) is a noted Bengali filmmaker based in Kolkata.
MTV (originally an initialism of Music Television) is an American cable and satellite television channel owned by Viacom Media Networks (a division of Viacom) and headquartered in New York City.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
Munnudi (ಮುನ್ನುಡಿ, The Preface) is a 2000 Indian Kannada language film directed by P. Sheshadri, based on Bolwar Mahammad Kunhi's short story Muthucchera, and starring Tara, H. G. Dattatreya, Shashikumar and Chaya Singh in pivotal roles.
Muraleedharan Pillai, popularly known as Murali (മുരളി, 25 May 1954 – 6 August 2009) was an Indian film, stage and television actor and author.
The musical film is a film genre in which songs sung by the characters are interwoven into the narrative, sometimes accompanied by dancing.
Muttina Haara (English:Pearl Necklace) is a 1990 Indian Kannada war drama film directed by Rajendra Singh Babu.
Muthu is a 1995 Indian Tamil-language romantic drama film directed by K. S. Ravikumar.
My Dear Kuttichathan (English: My Dear Little Ghost) is a 1984 Indian Malayalam fantasy film directed by Jijo Punnoose.
Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao (28 May 1923 – 18 January 1996), popularly known as NTR, was an Indian actor, producer, director, editor and politician who served as Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh for seven years over three terms.
Nabanna (নবান্ন, Nabānna; lit: new Feast) is a Bengali harvest celebration usually celebrated with food and dance and music in Bangladesh and in the Indian State of West Bengal.
Nagarik (নাগরিক), also spelled as Nagorik, The Citizen in English, was the first feature-length film directed by Indian director Ritwik Ghatak.
Nagesh Kukunoor (Telugu: నాాగేశ్ కుకునూర్) (born 30 March 1967) is an Indian film director, producer, screenwriter and actor known for his works predominantly in Bollywood.
Nana Patekar (born 1 January 1951) is an Indian actor, writer, philanthropist and filmmaker, mainly working in Hindi and Marathi cinema.
Nanda Karnataki (8 January 1939 – 25 March 2014) known mononymously as Nanda, was an Indian film actress who appeared in Hindi and Marathi films.
The Nandi Awards is the highest award ceremony for excellence in Telugu cinema, Telugu theatre, Telugu television, and Lifetime achievements in Indian cinema, presented annually by the Government of Andhra Pradesh.
Nandita Das (born 7 November 1969) is an actor and director, one of the leading figures in the Indian film industry.
Nantes (Gallo: Naunnt or Nantt) is a city in western France on the Loire River, from the Atlantic coast.
Narsinh Mehta (નરસિંહ મેહતા) is a 1932 Gujarati biographical film directed by Nanubhai Vakil.
Nartanasala is a 1963 Indian Telugu-language historical period drama film directed by Kamalakara Kameswara Rao.
Naseeruddin Shah (born 20 July 1950) is an Indian film and stage actor and director, and a prominent figure in Indian parallel cinema.
Nasir Hussain (16 November 1926 – 13 March 2002) was an Indian film producer, director and screenwriter.
The National Film Archive of India was established as a media unit of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting in February 1964.
The National Award for Best Feature Film is one of the categories in the National Film Awards presented annually by the Directorate of Film Festivals, the organisation set up by Ministry of Information and Broadcasting in India.
The National Film Awards is the most prominent film award ceremonies in India.
The National Institute of Design (NID) is a design school in Ahmedabad, India.
National School of Drama or NSD) is a theatre training institute situated at New Delhi, India. It is an autonomous organization under Ministry of Culture, Government of India. It was set up in 1959 by the Sangeet Natak Akademi, and became an independent school in 1975. In 2005 it was granted deemed university status, but in 2011 it was revoked on the institute's request.
The National Stock Exchange of India Limited (NSE) is the leading stock exchange of India, located in Mumbai.
The Nāṭya Śāstra (Sanskrit: नाट्य शास्त्र, Nāṭyaśāstra) is a Sanskrit Hindu text on the performing arts.
In North India, Nautch is one of several styles of popular dance, performed by girls known as Nautch girls.
Maliampurackal Chacko Punnoose, known as Navodaya Appachan (06 February 1925 – 23 April 2012) was an Indian film producer, director and entrepreneur.
Nawazuddin Siddiqui (born 19 May 1974) is an Indian film actor, known for his works in Hindi cinema.
Nayakan (also spelt Nayagan) is a 1987 Indian Tamil-language gangster film written and directed by Mani Ratnam and starring Kamal Haasan.
Nāma is the Sanskrit for "name".
Kesavan Venugopal Nair (born 22 May 1948), known popularly by his stage name Nedumudi Venu, is an Indian film actor from Kerala.
Neecha Nagar (नीचा नगर Nīcā nagar, English: Lowly City) is a 1946 Hindi-Urdu film, directed by Chetan Anand, written by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas and Hayatullah Ansari, and produced by Rashid Anwar.
Neelakuyil (The Blue Cuckoo; നീലക്കുയിൽ) is a 1954 Malayalam film jointly directed by P. Bhaskaran and Ramu Kariat.
In photography, a negative is an image, usually on a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film, in which the lightest areas of the photographed subject appear darkest and the darkest areas appear lightest.
In art, neorealism refers to a few movements.
Nepali known by endonym Khas-kura (खस कुरा) is an Indo-Aryan language of the sub-branch of Eastern Pahari.
New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of Government of India.
New Hollywood, sometimes referred to as the "American New Wave," refers to a movement in American film history from the mid-to-late 1960s to the early 1980s when a new generation of young filmmakers came to prominence in the United States.
The New York Daily News, officially titled Daily News, is an American newspaper based in New York City.
Newspaper Boy is a Malayalam–language Indian drama film released in 1955.
Nikkhil Advani (born 28 April 1971) is an Indian film producer, director and screenwriter.
Nirad Narayan Mohapatra (12 November 1947 – 19 February 2015) was an Indian film director.
Nivin Pauly (born 11 October 1984) is an Indian film actor and producer, who predominantly works in Malayalam cinema.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
Odia (ଓଡ଼ିଆ) (formerly romanized as Oriya) is a language spoken by 4.2% of India's population.
The Odisha State Film Awards have been conferred by the Department of Culture of the Government of Odisha, India.
Omkara is a 2006 Indian crime drama film adapted from Shakespeare’s Othello, co-written and directed by Vishal Bhardwaj.
One Thousand and One Nights (ʾAlf layla wa-layla) is a collection of Middle Eastern folk tales compiled in Arabic during the Islamic Golden Age.
Udagamandalam (also known as Ootacamund), and abbreviated as Udhagai or Ooty, (is a town and municipality in Tamil Nadu, India. It is located 86 km north of Coimbatore and 128 km south of Mysore and is the capital of the Nilgiris district. It is a popular hill station located in the Nilgiri Hills. Originally occupied by the Toda people, the area came under the rule of the East India Company at the end of the 18th century. The economy is based on tourism and agriculture, along with the manufacture of medicines and photographic film. The town is connected by the Nilgiri ghat roads and Nilgiri Mountain Railway. Its natural environment attracts tourists and it is a popular summer destination. In 2011, the town had a population of 88,430.
Organised crime in India is a reference to organised crime elements originating in India and active in many parts of the world.
Oriyardori Asal (One better than the other) is a 2011 Indian Tulu language film directed by H. S. Rajashekar and produced by Roopa Vijayakumar Kodialbail, starring Likith Shetty, Ramya Barna, Naveen D Padil, Aravind Bolar and Rekha Das in the lead roles.
Osian's-Cinefan, the largest film-festival devoted to Asian and Arab cinema, is part of Osian's Film House Division.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pulloottupadathu Bhaskaran alias as P. Bhaskaran (21 April 1924 – 25 February 2007), was a Malayalam poet, lyricist of Malayalam film songs and filmmaker.
Padayottam is a 1982 Indian Malayalam-language epic historical film directed by Jijo Punnoose and produced by Navodaya Appachan.
Padma Shri (also Padma Shree) is the fourth highest civilian award in the Republic of India, after the Bharat Ratna, the Padma Vibhushan and the Padma Bhushan.
Padmarajan (23 May 1945 – 24 January 1991) was an Indian author, screenwriter, and film director who was known for his landmark works in Malayalam literature and Malayalam cinema.
Padmini Kolhapure (born 1 November 1965) is an Indian actress and singer, who appeared primarily in Hindi films.
Pallepfam (English: Destiny) is a 2014 Manipuri film produced and directed by Wanglen Khundongbam.
The Palme d'Or (Golden Palm) is the highest prize awarded at the Cannes Film Festival.
Pandari Bai (ಪಂಡರೀ ಬಾಯಿ; 18 September 1928 – 29 January 2003) was a prominent actress of South Indian languages films, mostly in Kannada language during the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s.
Parallel cinema is a film movement in Indian cinema that originated in the state of West Bengal in the 1950s as an alternative to the mainstream commercial Indian cinema, represented especially by popular Hindi cinema, known today as Bollywood.
Parsi theatre is a generic term for an influential theatre tradition, staged by Parsis, and theatre companies largely-owned by the Parsi business community, which flourished between 1850 and 1930s.
The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.
Paruthiveeran is a 2007 Indian Tamil epic romantic drama film written and directed by Ameer Sultan.
Pather Panchali (Song of the Little Road) is a 1955 Indian Bengali-language drama film written and directed by Satyajit Ray and produced by the Government of West Bengal.
Pattabhirama Reddy Tikkavarapu, (19 February 1919 – 6 May 2006) was an Indian film screenwriter, producer, director, social activist, poet, and writer known for his pioneering works in Telugu cinema, and Kannada cinema.
Paul Muni (born Frederich Meshilem Meier Weisenfreund; September 22, 1895 – August 25, 1967) was an American stage and film actor who grew up in Chicago.
Pehchaan 3D is the first Punjabi 3D movie based on a true story.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
The Penguin Group is a trade book publisher and part of Penguin Random House.
Performance art is a performance presented to an audience within a fine art context, traditionally interdisciplinary.
A Persianate society, or Persified society, is a society that is based on or strongly influenced by the Persian language, culture, literature, art and/or identity.
Phijigee Mani (English: My Only Jem; also written as Phijigi Mani) is a 2011 Manipuri film directed by Oinam Gautam Singh, co-written and produced by Takhelchangbam Ongbi Medha Sharmi, and starring an ensemble cast including Gurumayum Bonny Sharma, Abenao Elangbam and Leishangthem Tonthoingambi Devi in the lead roles.
Piravi (The Birth) is a 1989 Indian Malayalam feature film directed by Shaji N. Karun.
A playback singer is a singer whose singing is pre-recorded for use in movies.
Pnar (also known as Jaintia or Synteng) is an Austroasiatic language spoken in India and Bangladesh.
Poetic realism was a film movement in France of the 1930s.
Prabhakar is an Indian given name and surname.
Prabhat Film Company popularly known as Prabhat Films was an Indian film production company and film studios founded in 1929 by the noted film director V.Shantaram and his friends.
Prag Cine Awards are presented annually by Prag News, a satellite television channel from Assam.
Prakash Raj (born Prakash Rai; 26 March 1965) is an Indian film actor, film director, producer, thespian and television presenter who is known for his works in the South Indian film industry, and Hindi films.
Prasad Studios and Prasad Film Labs are motion picture post production studios in Hyderabad, India, founded by Prasad Group in 1956.
Prasad V. Potluri (born 8 September 1970), popularly known as "PVP", is a serial entrepreneur, philanthropist and educationalist.
Pratidwandi or Pratidandi (literally Adversary, Opponent or Competitor in Bengali; known internationally as The Adversary) is a 1970 Indian Bengali drama film written and directed by Satyajit Ray based on the novel by Sunil Gangopadhyay.
Prema Karanth (15 August 1936 – 29 October 2007) was an Indian theatre personality and the first-ever woman film-maker of Kannada cinema.
Press Trust of India (PTI) is the largest news agency in India.
Prithviraj Sukumaran (born 16 October 1982) is an Indian film actor, producer, and playback singer, who primarily works in the Malayalam film industry.
Priyadarshan (born Priyadarshan Soman Nair; 30 January 1957) is an Indian film director, producer, and screenwriter.
The Producers Guild Film Awards (previously known as the Apsara Film & Television Producers Guild Award) is an accolade given by the Apsara Producers Guild to recognize excellence in Indian film and television.
Pune, formerly spelled Poona (1857–1978), is the second largest city in the Indian state of Maharashtra, after Mumbai.
The Punjab Rattan Award, is an award given by the Government of Punjab for exceptional excellence and achievement in the service of Punjab or international level in the field of art, literature, culture, science, technology, politics and achievements at the international level.
Punjab is a state in northern India.
Punjabi cinema (پنجابی سنیما (Shahmukhi)), sometimes metonymously referred to as Pollywood, is the Punjabi language film industry of the Punjabi people of the world.
Punjabi International Film Academy Awards also known as PIFAA Awards are presented to honour both artistic and technical excellence of professionals Punjabi Film Industry.
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
Pyaar Kiya To Darna Kya (English Translation: If you loved someone, don't be afraid) is a 1998 Indian Hindi romantic comedy film.
Pyaasa (English: Thirsty, or more idiomatically, "Wistful") is a 1957 Indian film, produced and directed by Guru Dutt, written by Abrar Alvi, and starring Guru Dutt, Waheeda Rehman and Mala Sinha.
Pyar Kare Dis: Feel The Power of Love (Sindhi: प्यार करें दिस्, پِيارَ ڪري ڏِسُ) is a 2007 Sindhi film, directed by Kamal Nathani and produced by Mr.
Pyramid Saimira, an Indian multinational entertainment company, operating in 6 countries was one of the World’s fastest growing entertainment group.
Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak (English: From Doom till Doom), also known by the initialism QSQT, is a 1988 Indian Hindi romantic film, directed by Mansoor Khan, written and produced by his father Nasir Hussain, and starring his cousin Aamir Khan with Juhi Chawla in the lead roles.
Rattihalli Nagendra Rao (23 June 1896 – 9 February 1977) was an Indian theatre actor, film actor and director in South Indian cinema.
Rangaswamy Nataraja Mudaliar (1885–1972), popularly known as the father of Tamil cinema, was a pioneer in the production of silent films.
The Raghupathi Venkaiah Award is Telugu cinema's highest award introduced to annually recognize people for their lifetime achievements and contributions to the Telugu film industry.
Raghupathi Venkaiah Naidu (15 October 1887 – 15 March 1941), known widely as the father of Telugu cinema, was an Indian artiste and film maker.
Rahul C. Thakkar is an Indian-American software inventor who jointly won the Academy Award for scientific and technical achievement in 2016.
Raithu Bidda (English: Farmer of Common Origins) (''Telugu'': రైతు బిడ్డ, lit. Farmer-Son of the Soil) is a 1939 Telugu social problem film directed by Gudavalli Ramabrahmam.
Ranbir Raj Kapoor (14 December 1924 – 2 June 1988), also known as "the greatest showman of Hindi cinema", was a noted Indian film actor, producer and director of Indian cinema.
Raja Harishchandra is a 1913 Indian silent film, directed and produced by Dadasaheb Phalke, and is often considered as the first full-length Indian feature film.
Rajahmundry, officially known as Rajamahendravaram, is a city in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh located on the banks of the Godavari River in East Godavari district.
Rajan and Nagendra (Kannada ರಾಜನ್ – ನಾಗೇಂದ್ರ) were musicians who were prominent composers of film music in Kannada cinema during the late 1950s, 1960s, 1970s, 1980s and early 1990s.
Rajasthan (literally, "Land of Kings") is India's largest state by area (or 10.4% of India's total area).
Rajasthani (Devanagari: राजस्थानी) refers to a group of Indo-Aryan languages spoken primarily in the state of Rajasthan and adjacent areas of Haryana, Punjab, Gujarat, and Madhya Pradesh in India.
Shivaji Rao Gaekwad (born 12 December 1950), known by his mononymous stage name Rajinikanth, is an Indian film actor and politician who works primarily in Tamil cinema.
Singanalluru Puttaswamayya Muthuraju (24 April 1929 – 12 April 2006), known mononymously by his stage name Rajkumar, was an Indian actor and singer in the Kannada cinema.
Ramayana (रामायणम्) is an ancient Indian epic poem which narrates the struggle of the divine prince Rama to rescue his wife Sita from the demon king Ravana.
Ramesh Deo (born 30 January 1929) is an Indian film and television actor who has worked in more than 285 Hindi films, 190 Marathi films and 30 Marathi dramas with over 200 showings in his long career.
Ramesh Sippy (born 23 January 1947) is an Indian film director and producer, best known for directing the popular and critically acclaimed film Sholay.
Ramlila (Rāmlīlā) (literally 'Rama’s lila or play') is any dramatic folk re-enactment of the life of Rama according to the ancient Hindu epic Ramayana or secondary literature based on it such as the Ramcharitmanas.
The Ramoji Film City in India is located in Hyderabad.
Ramu Kariat (alternatively Ramu Karyat) (1 February 1927 – 10 February 1979) was a legendary Malayali Indian film director for almost three decades from the 1950s to the 1970s.
Rang De Basanti (Colour it Saffron) is a 2006 Indian drama film written, produced and directed by Rakeysh Omprakash Mehra, and co-written by Rensil D'Silva and Aamir Khan.
A rasa (रस, രാസ്യം.) literally means "juice, essence or taste".
Rashtrapati Awards are given by the President of India, in some cases the Prime Minister of India, for achievements in the field of sports, art, military, literature, cinema, culture, science and technology, or Scouting.
Ravi Kishan Shukla (born 17 July 1969), popularly known as Ravi Kishan, is an Indian actor and television personality, who works in Hindi cinema and Bhojpuri cinema.
Realism, sometimes called naturalism, in the arts is generally the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, or implausible, exotic, and supernatural elements.
Red Chillies Entertainment (RCE) founded in 2003, is an Indian motion picture production, distribution and a premier visual effects company based in the city of Mumbai.
Rediff.com is an Indian news, information, entertainment and shopping web portal, founded in 1996 as "Rediff On The NeT".
Reema Lagoo (Marathi: रीमा लागू) (21 June 1958 – 18 May 2017) was an Indian theatre and screen actress known for her work in Hindi and Marathi cinema.
Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that an aspect of a living being starts a new life in a different physical body or form after each biological death.
Reincarnation is regularly mentioned in feature films, books, and popular music.
Reliance MediaWorks Limited (RMW) is a Film and Entertainment Services Company and a member of the Reliance Group.
A resistance movement is an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to withstand the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability.
Resul Pookutty (born 30 May 1971) is an Indian film sound designer, sound editor and mixer.
Ritesh Sidhwani (born 1973) is one of the principal driving force and co-founder of Excel Entertainment.
Rituparno Ghosh (31 August 1963 – 30 May 2013) was an Indian film director, actor, writer and lyricist in the Bengali cinema.
Ritwik Ghatak (4 November 19256 February 1976) was a Bengali filmmaker and script writer.
Rohini is an Indian actress, lyricist, screenwriter, voice actor and director.
Romance films or romance movies are romantic love stories recorded in visual media for broadcast in theaters and on TV that focus on passion, emotion, and the affectionate romantic involvement of the main characters and the journey that their genuinely strong, true and pure romantic love takes them through dating, courtship or marriage.
International Rome Film Festival is a film festival that takes place in Rome, Italy, during the month of October.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The Royal Bioscope Company was the first film production company in Bengal, and possibly the first in India, set up in 1898 by Hiralal Sen, along with Matilal Sen, Deboki Lal Sen, and Bholanath Gupta.
Sripathi Panditaradhyula Balasubrahmanyam (born 4 June 1946) mostly referred to as S.P.B. or Balu is an Indian playback singer, music director and film producer who works predominantly in Telugu, Tamil and Kannada cinema.
Samarla Venkata Ranga Rao (3 July 1918 – 18 July 1974), popularly known as S.V.R., was an Indian film actor, director and producer known for his works in Telugu cinema and Tamil cinema.
Saajan (Beloved) is a 1991 Indian romantic drama film directed by Lawrence D'Souza and starring Salman Khan, Sanjay Dutt and Madhuri Dixit.
Saamana (Sāmanā) is a Marathi-language newspaper published in Maharashtra, India.
Sachaa Jhutha (English: "Honest Liar") is a 1970 Indian Hindi film directed by Manmohan Desai.
Sachin Khedekar (सचिन खेडेकर; born 14 May 1962) is an Indian actor and director from Maharashtra, best known for his roles in the film Aap Kaa Surroor, Astitva, TV series Imtihaan, and as Subhas Chandra Bose in Shyam Benegal's Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose: The Forgotten Hero.
Sadashiv Dattaray Amrapurkar (11 May 1950 – 3 November 2014) was an Indian actor, best known for his performances in Marathi and Hindi films in the period 1983 to 1999.
Salaam Bombay! is a 1988 Indian film written and directed by Mira Nair, and screenwritten by her longtime creative collaborator, Sooni Taraporevala.
Salim Khan (सलीम ख़ान, سلیم خان; born 24 November 1935) was an Indian film actor and screenwriter.
Salim-Javed were a screenwriting duo in the Indian film industry, composed of Salim Khan and Javed Akhtar.
Abdul Rashid Salim Salman Khan (born 27 December 1965), credited as Salman Khan (pronunciation) is an Indian film actor, producer, singer and television personality.
Samikannu Vincent(18 April 1883 – 22 April 1942) was a cinema exhibitor turned theater owner.
Samskara (ಸಂಸ್ಕಾರ) is a 1970 Indian Kannada film written by U. R. Ananthamurthy based on his novel of the same name, and directed and produced by Pattabhirama Reddy.
Sandalwood is a class of woods from trees in the genus Santalum.
Sandip Ray (born 8 September 1953) is an Indian film director and music director who mainly works in Bengali cinema.
Sankarabharanam (The Jewel of Shankara) is a 1980 Indian Telugu-language musical drama film written, and directed by K. Viswanath.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sanskrit Cinema is a part of Indian cinema.
Sant Tukaram (Sant Tukārām), also known as Saint Tukaram, is a 1936 Marathi film, produced by Prabhat Film Company and based on the life of Tukaram (1608–50), a prominent Varkari saint and spiritual poet of the Bhakti movement in India.
Santali cinema has its presence in the states of Jharkhand, West Bengal, Assam, Orissa, parts of Nepal, Jhapa District, and Morang District, where Santals live.
Santosh Sivan ASC, ISC (born 8 February 1964) is an Indian cinematographer, film director, producer and actor known for his works in Malayalam cinema, Tamil cinema, Telugu cinema, Hindi cinema.
Saregama India Ltd.
Sathish Kalathil is an Indian film and documentary director and producer in Malayalam.
Sathyan Anthikad is an Indian film director, screenwriter, and lyricist best known for his family dramas in Malayalam cinema.
Satya (italics) is a 1998 Indian Hindi language crime film, produced and directed by Ram Gopal Varma; written by Saurabh Shukla and Anurag Kashyap.
Satyajit Ray (2 May 1921 – 23 April 1992) was an Indian filmmaker, screenwriter, graphic artist, music composer and author, widely regarded as one of the greatest filmmakers of the 20th century.
Satyajit Ray Film and Television Institute (SRFTI) is a film and television institute located in Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
Satyawadi Raja Harishchandra (সত্যবাদী রাজা হরিশচন্দ্র; Truthful King Harishchandra) is a 1917 silent black and white Indian film based on Hindu mythology, directed by Rustomji Dhotiwala.
Savitri (English: Goddess Saraswati) is a 1933 Indian Telugu language drama film directed by C. Pullaiah.
Savitri Ganesan (neé Nissankara; died 26 December 1981) was an Indian film actress, playback singer, dancer, director and producer. She appeared mainly in Telugu and Tamil language films but also in Kannada, Malayalam and Hindi language films. Savitri's first significant role was in the 1952 Telugu film Pelli Chesi Choodu. In 1960, she received the Rashtrapati Award for her performance in the Telugu film Chivaraku Migiledi. In 1968, she produced and directed the Telugu film Chinnari Papalu, for which she received the state Nandi Award for Best Feature Film (Silver). She was honoured among "women in cinema" at the 30th International Film Festival of India. She is best known for her work in films such as Devadasu (1953), Ardhangi (1955), Thodi Kodallu (1957), Mayabazaar (1957), Mangalya Balam (1958), Chivaraku Migiledi (1960), Mooga Manasulu (1963), Doctor Chakravarthy (1964), and Varakatnam (1968). Her Tamil work includes Kalathur Kannamma (1959), Pasamalar (1961), Pava Mannippu (1961), Paarthal Pasi Theerum (1962), Karpagam (1963), Karnan (1963), Kai Koduttha Dheivam, Navarathri (1964), and Thiruvilaiyadal (1965). Savitri's later career, from the late 1960s, tumbled into a spiral of financial problems and alcoholism that necessitated her taking on film roles of little merit.
Screen was a weekly film magazine, published in India.
The Star Screen Awards, is an annual awards ceremony held in India honouring professional excellence in the Bollywood Film Industry.
A screenplay writer (also called screenwriter for short), scriptwriter or scenarist is a writer who practices the craft of screenwriting, writing screenplays on which mass media, such as films, television programs, comics or video games, are based.
Second unit is a discrete team of filmmakers tasked with filming shots or sequences of a production, separate from the main or "first" unit.
Seema Deo (formerly known as Nalini Saraf) is Hindi and Marathi movie veteran actress.
Senses of Cinema is a quarterly online film magazine founded in 1999 by filmmaker Bill Mousoulis.
Sergey Valentinovich Kudryavtsev (Серге́й Валенти́нович Кудря́вцев; born March 12, 1956) is a Russian film critic and historian.
Shah Rukh Khan (born Shahrukh Khan; 2 November 1965), also known as SRK, is an Indian film actor, producer and television personality.
Shaji Neelakantan Karun (born 1 January 1952) is a National Award-winning Indian film director and cinematographer.
Shankar Nagarakatte (9 November 1954 – 30 September 1990) was an Indian actor, screenwriter, director, and producer known for his work in Kannada cinema and television.
Sharada (born Saraswati Devi 25 June 1945) is a three-time National Award winning Indian actress and politician from Andhra Pradesh.
Sheela (ਸ਼ੀਲਾ), also known as Pind Di Kurhi (ਪਿੰਡ ਦੀ ਕੁੜੀ), sometimes spelled as Pind Di Kuri or Sheila, is a 1935 Punjabi film directed by K.D. Mehra.
Shekhar Kapur (born 6 December 1945) is an Indian film director, actor, and producer, known for his works in Hindi cinema and international cinema.
Sherdukpen (autonym: Mey) is a small language of India.
Shimla, also known as Simla, is the capital and the largest city of the northern Indian state of Himachal Pradesh.
Shiv Kumar is an Indian actor, producer and director of Hindi and Brijbhasha films.
Sholay (meaning "Embers") is a 1975 Indian action-adventure film in Hindi language, written by Salim-Javed, directed by Ramesh Sippy, and produced by his father G. P. Sippy.
Shree 420 (Hindi: श्री ४२०; translation: Sri 420, also transliterated as Shri 420) is a 1955 Hindi film, directed and produced by Raj Kapoor, written by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas, and starring Raj Kapoor and Nargis.
Shree Pundalik, which was released on 18 May 1912 at the Coronation Cinematograph, Girgaum, Mumbai, is recognised as the first feature-length Indian film.
Shriram Lagoo (born 16 November 1927) is an Indian film and theatre actor, in Hindi and Marathi and is also an ENT surgeon.
Shwaas (Marathi: श्वास, The Breath) is a Marathi film, released in 2004.
Shyam Benegal (born 14 December 1934) is an Indian director and screenwriter.
Shyamchi Aai (श्यामची आई; Shyam's Mother) is hailed as one of the greatest tributes to mother's love in Marathi literature.
Siddique–Lal are a screenwriter and director duo, consisting of Siddique and Lal.
Sify Technologies Limited is an Indian information and communications technology company providing end to end ICT solutions including Telecom Services, Data Center Services, Cloud & Managed services, Transformation Integration Services and Application Integration Services.
Sight & Sound is a British monthly film magazine published by the British Film Institute (BFI).
The Silver Bear for Best Director is the Berlin International Film Festival's award for best achievement in direction.
Sindhis (سنڌي (Perso-Arabic), सिन्धी (Devanagari), (Khudabadi)) are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group who speak the Sindhi language and are native to the Sindh province of Pakistan, which was previously a part of pre-partition British India.
Sinhasan (Marathi: Throne) is 1979 Marathi political drama film directed by Dr.
Seeta Bibaha (1936) (ସୀତା ବିବାହ) was the first Oriya film directed by Mohan Sundar Deb Goswami; it presented the marriage of Lord Rama to Sita, based on the epic story Ramayana.
Sivaji is a 2007 Indian Tamil-language masala film directed by S. Shankar and produced by AVM Productions.
Villupuram Chinnaiah Ganesan, known by his stage name Sivaji Ganesan, (1 October 1928 – 21 July 2001) was an Indian actor, producer and composer.
A slum is a highly populated urban residential area consisting mostly of closely packed, decrepit housing units in a situation of deteriorated or incomplete infrastructure, inhabited primarily by impoverished persons.
Slumdog Millionaire is a 2008 British drama film directed by Danny Boyle, written by Simon Beaufoy, and produced by Christian Colson.
Smita Patil (17 October 1955 – 13 December 1986) was an Indian actress of film, television and theatre.
Sobhan Babu (born Uppu Sobhana Chalapathi Rao) (14 January 1937 – 20 March 2008) was an Indian film actor known for his works exclusively in Telugu cinema.
A social problem film is a narrative film that integrates a larger social conflict into the individual conflict between its characters.
Social realism is the term used for work produced by painters, printmakers, photographers, writers and filmmakers that aims to draw attention to the everyday conditions of the working class and to voice the authors' critique of the social structures behind these conditions.
Sonali Bendre (born 1 January 1975) is an Indian film actress and model who predominantly worked in Hindi films.
Sonali Kulkarni (born 3 November 1974) is an Indian actress.
Sony Music Entertainment (SME) is a Japanese-owned global music conglomerate owned by Sony and incorporated as a general partnership of Sony Music Holdings Inc. through Sony Entertainment Inc., a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America. (in Japanese), Sony Corporation The company was first founded in 1929 as American Record Corporation and renamed Columbia Recording Corporation in 1938, following its acquisition by the Columbia Broadcasting System. In 1966, the company was reorganized to become CBS Records, and Sony Corporation bought the company in 1988, renaming it under its current name in 1991. In 2004, Sony and Bertelsmann established a 50-50 joint venture called Sony BMG Music Entertainment, which transferred the businesses of Sony Music and Bertelsmann Music Group into one entity. However, in 2008, Sony acquired Bertelsmann's stake, and the company reverted to the SME name shortly after; the buyout allowed Sony to acquire all of BMG's labels, including former Columbia Pictures subsidiary Arista Records as well as RCA Records, and led to the dissolution of BMG, which instead relaunched as BMG Rights Management. Sony Music Entertainment is the second largest of the "Big Three" record companies in the world, behind Universal Music Group (UMG) and ahead of Warner Music Group (WMG). Sony's music publishing division is the world's largest music publisher after the acquisition of EMI. It also owns SYCO Entertainment, which operates some of the world's most successful reality TV format including Got Talent and The X Factor.
Sony Pictures Entertainment Inc. (known simply as Sony Pictures and abbreviated as SPE) is a Japanese-owned American entertainment company that produces, acquires and distributes filmed entertainment (theatrical motion pictures, television programs and recorded videos) through multiple platforms.
Sooni Taraporevala (born 1957) is an Indian screenwriter, photographer and filmmaker who is best known as the screenwriter of Mississippi Masala, The Namesake and Oscar-nominated Salaam Bombay (1988), all directed by Mira Nair.
Soumitra Chatterjee or Soumitra Chattopadhyay O.L.H. (Shoumitro Chôttopaddhae; born 19 January 1935) is an Indian Bengali film and stage actor and poet.
A sound film is a motion picture with synchronized sound, or sound technologically coupled to image, as opposed to a silent film.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.
South Indian International Movie Awards, also known as the SIIMA Awards, rewards the artistic and technical achievements of the South Indian film industry.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spice mixes are blended spices or herbs.
In media, a spin-off (or spinoff) is a radio program, television program, video game, film, or any narrative work, derived from already existing works that focus on more details and different aspects from the original work (e.g. particular topics, characters or events).
Sreenivasan (born 6 April 1956) is an Indian film actor, screenwriter, director and producer who works in Malayalam films.
Sridevi (ஸ்ரீதேவி; born Shree Amma Yanger Ayyapan; 13 August 1963 – 24 February 2018) was an Indian actress and film producer who starred in Tamil, Telugu, Hindi, Malayalam, and Kannada films.
Srinagar is the largest city and the summer capital of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.
Stanislavski's system is a systematic approach to training actors that the Russian theatre practitioner Konstantin Stanislavski developed in the first half of the 20th century.
The Star Theatre is a theatre in Kolkata, built in 1883.
Stardust is an Indian monthly Bollywood news and gossip magazine published in English and Hindi.
The Stardust Awards is an award ceremony for Hindi movies, which is sponsored by Stardust magazine.
The State Institute of Film and Television (SIFTV) is a Film School under the State University of Performing And Visual Arts located in Rohtak, Haryana, India.
Statista is an online statistics, market research and business intelligence portal.
A story within a story is a literary device in which one character within a narrative narrates.
A stunt is an unusual and difficult physical feat or an act requiring a special skill, performed for artistic purposes usually on television, theatre, or cinema.
A stunt performer, often referred to as a stuntman, stuntwoman, or daredevil, is a trained professional who performs stunts, often as a career.
Subarnarekha (সুবর্ণরেখা Subarṇarēkhā) is an Indian Bengali film directed by Ritwik Ghatak.
Subhadra is a 1941 Indian Kannada film directed by P. Pullaiah based on a work of B. Puttaswamayya, who also wrote the film's screenplay.
Subrata Mitra (12 October 1930 – 7 December 2001) was an Indian cinematographer.
Suddha, also called The Cleansing Rites, is an Indian film, the first ever Tulu language film shot on the digital format.
Sudhir Mishra is an Indian film director and screenwriter known for directing films including Hazaaron Khwaishein Aisi, Dharavi and Chameli.
Sujata is a 1959 Hindi language Bimal Roy film.
Sun Pictures is a film distribution and production studio unit of Chennai based Sun Network owned by Kalanidhi Maran.
Sundar Rao Nadkarni was an Indian film actor, editor, cinematographer, producer and director.
Superstar is a term used to refer to someone who has great popular appeal and is widely known, prominent, or successful in some field.
Suresh Gopinathan (born 26 June 1959), commonly known as Suresh Gopi, is an Indian film actor, politician, and singer who has starred in over 200 Malayalam films.
Suresh Heblikar (ಸುರೇಶ ಹೆಬ್ಳೀಕರ) is a Kannada filmmaker, director and actor.
Suresh Productions (సురేష్ ప్రొడక్షన్స్) is an Indian film production and distribution company, a subsidiary of Rama Naidu Studios, founded by Dr.
The Sutherland Trophy was created in 1958 by the British Film Institute as an annual award for "the maker of the most original and imaginative film introduced at the National Film Theatre during the year".
Swaham (My Own) (1994) is an award-winning feature film directed by Shaji N. Karun.
Diwan Bahadur T. Rangachari CIE (1865–1945) was an Indian lawyer, politician, journalist, legislator and Indian independence activist.
Talakadu Srinivasaiah Nagabharana (born 1953) is an Indian film director, in the Kannada film industry and a pioneer of the parallel cinema.
Tabarana Kathe (Tabara's Tale) is a 1987 Indian Kannada language film released directed by Girish Kasaravalli.
Tamil cinema is Indian motion pictures produced in the Tamil language.
Tamil cinema has played a vital role in Dravidian politics in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
Tamil Nadu State Film Awards were given for excellence in Tamil cinema in India.
The Tamil people, also known as Tamilar, Tamilans, or simply Tamils, are a Dravidian ethnic group who speak Tamil as their mother tongue and trace their ancestry to the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, the Indian Union territory of Puducherry, or the Northern, Eastern Province and Puttalam District of Sri Lanka.
Anuradha (born 4 March 1973), known by her stage name Tara, is an Indian actress and politician.
Tarun Mansukhani is a Bollywood director and writer.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
Telangana is a state in the south of India.
Telugu cinema, also known by its sobriquet Tollywood, is the segment of Indian cinema dedicated to the production of motion pictures in the Telugu language, based in Film Nagar, a neighborhood of Hyderabad, Telangana.
Telugu (తెలుగు) is a South-central Dravidian language native to India.
Terukkuttu is a Tamil street theatre form practised in Tamil Nadu state of India and Tamil-speaking regions of Sri Lanka.
Tezaab (translation: Acid) is a 1988 Indian action romantic Hindi movie, starring Anil Kapoor and Madhuri Dixit in lead roles.
Thaayi Saheba (ತಾಯಿ ಸಾಹೇಬ, Mother Saheba) is an Indian Kannada language film released in 1997 directed by Girish Kasaravalli.
Thacholi Ambu is a 1978 Malayalam-language film starring Prem Nazir, Sivaji Ganesan, Ravikumar and Jayan.
Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai (17 April 1912 – 10 April 1999) was an Indian novelist and short story writer in the Malayalam language.
The Age is a daily newspaper that has been published in Melbourne, Australia, since 1854.
The Apu Trilogy comprises three Bengali films directed by Satyajit Ray: Pather Panchali (1955), Aparajito (1956) and The World of Apu (1959).
The Asian Age is an English-language Indian daily newspaper with editions published in Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata.
The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.
Ishanou (English: The Chosen one) is a 1990 Indian film directed by Aribam Syam Sharma.
Financial Express is an Indian English-language business newspaper.
The Hindu is an Indian daily newspaper, headquartered at Chennai.
The Indian Express is an English-language Indian daily newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The River (French: Le Fleuve) is a 1951 film directed by Jean Renoir.
The Telegraph was a fan-oriented periodical about the work of Bob Dylan and musicians associated with Dylan.
The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group.
The Village Voice is an American news and culture paper, known for being the country's first alternative newsweekly.
The Wire (thewire.in) is a news website published by the Foundation for Independent Journalism (FIJ), a non-profit Indian company.
The earliest form of classical theatre of India was the Sanskrit theatre which came into existence only after the development of Greek and Roman theatres in the west.
Surendranatha Thilakan (8 December 1933 – 24 September 2012) was an Indian film and stage actor who appeared in over 200 Malayalam films.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
"All-Time" 100 Movies is a compilation by ''TIME'' magazine featuring and celebrating 100 of "the greatest" films released between March 3, 1923 (when the first issue of TIME was published) and early 2005 (when the list was compiled).
Tohfa (English: Gift) is a 1984 Indian masala film, produced by D. Ramanaidu under the Suresh Productions banner and directed by K. Raghavendra Rao.
Tollygunge is a locality of south Kolkata, in Kolkata district, West Bengal, India.
The Toronto International Film Festival (TIFF, often stylized as tiff) is one of the largest publicly attended film festivals in the world, attracting over 480,000 people annually.
Tukaram, also referred to as Sant Tukaram, Bhakta Tukaram, Tukaram Maharaj, Tukoba and Tukobaraya, was a 17th-century poet-saint of the Bhakti movement in Maharashtra.
Tulu cinema(or Costalwood) is a part of Indian cinema.
Tulu (Tulu: ತುಳು ಭಾಷೆ Tulu bāse) is a Dravidian language spoken by around 2.5 million native speakers mainly in the south west part of the Indian state of Karnataka and in the Kasaragod district of Kerala which is collectively known as Tulu Nadu.
Udaipur /ʊdəjpur/, also known as the "City of Lakes" is a major city, municipal corporation and the administrative headquarters of the Udaipur district in the Indian state of Rajasthan.
Udaya Pictures is the oldest film production studio in the Malayalam film industry of India.
Udaykumar (5 March 1933 – 26 December 1985) was an Indian film actor and producer in Kannada cinema, who is renowned for his quality films.
Umashree (born 10 May 1957) is an Indian actress and politician.
The University of California, Santa Cruz (also known as UC Santa Cruz or UCSC), is a public research university and one of 10 campuses in the University of California system.
The University of Minnesota Press is a university press that is part of the University of Minnesota.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Urdu poetry (اُردُو شاعرى) is a rich tradition of poetry and has many different forms.
Urmila Matondkar is an Indian film actress primarily known for her work in Bollywood films.
Uttam Kumar (3 September 1926– 24 July 1980) (born as Arun Kumar Chatterjee) was an Indian film actor, director, producer, singer, composer, and playback singer who predominantly worked in Indian Cinema.
Uttar Pradesh (IAST: Uttar Pradeś) is a state in northern India.
UTV Motion Pictures (also known as Disney-UTV) is the feature film unit of UTV Software Communications.
UTV Software Communications Ltd. (abbreviated as UTV) is an Indian mass media conglomerate owned by The Walt Disney Company India.
Shantaram Rajaram Vankudre (18 November 1901 – 30 October 1990), referred to as V. Shantaram or Shantaram Bapu, was a Marathi Indian filmmaker, film producer and actor.
Vaastav is a 1999 Indian crime action drama written and directed by Mahesh Manjrekar and starring Sanjay Dutt and Namrata Shirodkar.
Vamsha Vriksha (The genealogy tree), is a 1972 Indian Kannada-language film directed by B. V. Karanth and Girish Karnad, based on S. L. Bhyrappa's novel of the same name.
Vanity Fair is a magazine of popular culture, fashion, and current affairs published by Condé Nast in the United States.
Varanasi, also known as Benares, Banaras (Banāras), or Kashi (Kāśī), is a city on the banks of the Ganges in the Uttar Pradesh state of North India, south-east of the state capital, Lucknow, and east of Allahabad.
Variety is a weekly American entertainment trade magazine and website owned by Penske Media Corporation.
Varkari (meaning "a pilgrim") is a sampradaya (religious movement) within the bhakti spiritual tradition of Hinduism, geographically associated with the Indian state of Maharashtra.
Vasanthabalan is an Indian film director and screenwriter.
Vemuri Gaggaiah (1895–1955) was an Indian film actor, character actor, singer, and thespian known for his works in Telugu cinema, and Telugu theater.
The Venice Film Festival or Venice International Film Festival (Mostra Internazionale d'Arte Cinematografica della Biennale di Venezia, "International Exhibition of Cinematographic Art of the Venice Biennale") is the oldest film festival in the world and one of the "Big Three" film festivals, alongside the Cannes Film Festival and Berlin International Film Festival.
Veyil (italics) is a 2006 Tamil-language drama film written and directed by Vasanthabalan.
Vierendrra Lalit (born in village Dhimahi, Bulendshehr, U.P, on 16 March 1969) is an Indian-born cinematographer and film director.
Vigathakumaran (italic) is a 1928 Indian silent film written, produced and directed by J. C. Daniel Nadar.
The Vijay Awards are presented by the Tamil television channel STAR Vijay to honour excellence in Tamil cinema.
Vijay Bhatt (born Vrajlal Jagneshwar Bhatt; 12 May 1907 – 17 October 1993) was a noted producer-director-screenwriter of Hindi cinema, who made such films as Ram Rajya (1943), Baiju Bawra (1952), Goonj Uthi Shehnai (1959) and Himalaya Ki God Mein (1965).
Vijaya Bhaskar (ವಿಜಯಭಾಸ್ಕರ್; 1924–2002) was an Indian music director and composer who composed music for several mainstream and experimental feature films in the Kannada film industry.
Vijayashanti Srinivas is an Indian film actress, producer and a politician.
Villain is a 2017 Indian Malayalam-language crime drama film that was written and directed by B. Unnikrishnan, and produced by Rockline Venkatesh.
Vishal Bhardwaj (born 4 August 1965) is an Indian film director, screenwriter, producer, music composer and playback singer.
Vishnuvardhan (born Sampath Kumar 18 September 1950 – 30 December 2009), was an Indian film actor known for his works predominantly in Kannada cinema.
Viswa Mohini is a 1940 Telugu romantic thriller film in the backdrop of Indian motion picture world, directed by Y. V. Rao.
V.Ravichandran, is an Indian film producer and distributor in Chennai, India.
Vittorio De Sica (7 July 1901 – 13 November 1974) was an Italian director and actor, a leading figure in the neorealist movement.
Walt Disney Pictures, Inc. is an American film studio and a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios, owned by The Walt Disney Company.
West Bengal (Paśchimbāṅga) is an Indian state, located in Eastern India on the Bay of Bengal.
The West Indies or the Caribbean Basin is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean in the Caribbean that includes the island countries and surrounding waters of three major archipelagoes: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.
Western Uttar Pradesh, is a region in India that comprises the western districts of Uttar Pradesh state, including the areas of Rohilkhand and Braj.
Whistling Woods International is a film, communication and media arts institute located in Mumbai, India.
World cinema is not the sum-total of all films made around the world.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
Yaadon Ki Baaraat (English: Procession of Memories) is a 1973 Indian Bollywood film, directed by Nasir Hussain and written by Salim-Javed (Salim Khan and Javed Akhtar).
Yakshagana (Kannada: "ಯಕ್ಷಗಾನ", Tulu: "ಆಟ") is a traditional theatre form that combines dance, music, dialogue, costume, make-up, and stage techniques with a unique style and form.
Yaragudipati Varada Rao (30 May 1903 – 13 February 1973), also known as Y. V. Rao was an Indian film producer, director, thespian, screenwriter, editor and actor known for his works predominantly in Telugu, Kannada and Tamil cinema.
Yash Raj Chopra (27 September 1932 – 21 October 2012) was an Indian film director and film producer, predominantly working in Hindi cinema.
Yash Raj Films (YRF) is an Indian film production and distribution company working in Hindi cinema.
(Sanskrit: यात्रा, 'journey', 'procession'), in Hinduism and other Indian religions, generally means pilgrimage to holy places such as confluences of sacred rivers, places associated with Hindu epics such as the Mahabharata and Ramayana, and other sacred pilgrimage sites.
A zamindar in the Indian subcontinent was an aristocrat.
Zanjeer (italic) is a 1973 Indian crime action film, written by Salim-Javed (mostly by Salim Khan, with assistance from Javed Akhtar), directed and produced by Prakash Mehra, and starring Amitabh Bachchan, Jaya Bachchan, Pran, Ajit and Bindu.
The Zee Cine Award (ZCA) is an awards ceremony for the Hindi film industry.
Zee Entertainment Enterprises Limited is an Indian mass media company owned by Essel Group.
Zee Gaurav Puraskar is a cinema award show in India initiated by Zee Network to reward excellence in the Marathi entertainment world.
100 Crore Club is an unofficial designation by the Indian film trade and the media, related to Indian language films that have net 100 crore (1 billion Indian rupees) or more in India after deducting the entertainment tax.
1000 Crore Club is an unofficial designation by the Indian film trade and the media, related to Indian language films that have grossed ₹1000 crore (10 billion Indian rupees) or more worldwide.
The 7th Cannes Film Festival was held from 25 March to 9 April 1954.
The 42nd Cannes Film Festival was held from 11 to 23 May 1989.
The 47th Cannes Film Festival was held from 12 to 23 May 1994.
Twentieth Century Fox Film Corporation, doing business as 20th Century Fox, is an American film studio currently owned by 21st Century Fox.
The 2nd annual Venice International Film Festival was held between 1 and 20 August 1934.
3 Idiots is a 2009 Indian coming-of-age comedy-drama film, directed and written by Rajkumar Hirani, and produced by Vidhu Vinod Chopra, with screenplay by Abhijat Joshi, inspired by the novel Five Point Someone by Chetan Bhagat.
A three-dimensional stereoscopic film (also known as three-dimensional sangu, 3D film or S3D film) is a motion picture that enhances the illusion of depth perception, hence adding a third dimension.
The 5th National Film Awards, then known as State Awards for Films, presented by Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, India to felicitate the best of Indian Cinema released in the year 1957.
70 mm film (or 65 mm film) is a wide high-resolution film gauge for motion picture photography, with higher resolution than the standard 35 mm motion picture film format.
The 81st Academy Awards ceremony, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), honored the best films of 2008 and took place on February 22, 2009, at the Kodak Theatre in Hollywood, Los Angeles beginning at 5:30 p.m. PST / 8:30 p.m. EST.
8K resolution, or 8K UHD, is the current highest ultra high definition television (UHDTV) resolution in digital television and digital cinematography.
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