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Index Cinematography

Cinematography (also called Direction of Photography) is the science or art of motion-picture photography by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as film stock. [1]

193 relations: A Visit to the Seaside, Academy Award for Best Cinematography, Academy ratio, Aesthetics, Anamorphic format, Angle of view, Annabelle Serpentine Dance, Aspect ratio (image), Auguste and Louis Lumière, Étienne-Jules Marey, Bleach bypass, Bologna, Bordeaux, Borescope, Brussels, Business sector, Camera angle, Camera lens, Camera operator, Celluloid, Charge-coupled device, Charles Foster Kane, Charles Francis Jenkins, Charlie Chaplin, Christopher Doyle, CinemaScope, Cinematic techniques, Cinematograph, Cinematographer, Cinematographer Style, Cinematography Mailing List, Cinerama, Citizen Kane, Clapper loader, Colorfulness, Crane shot, Cross processing, Deep focus, Depth of field, Depth of focus, Diamond jubilee, Diaphragm (optics), Digital cinema, Digital cinematography, Digital compositing, Digital single-lens reflex camera, Eadweard Muybridge, Earth's magnetic field, Eastmancolor, Edison Manufacturing Company, ..., Edward Raymond Turner, Electromagnetic radiation, Exposure (photography), F-number, Field of view, Film, Film crew, Film gauge, Film laboratory, Film speed, Film stock, Film theory, Filmmaking, Filmmaking technique of Akira Kurosawa, Focal length, Focus puller, Foreshadowing, Forlì, Frame line, Frame rate, Francis Ronalds, Garrett Brown, Genoa, George Albert Smith (film pioneer), George Lucas, Georges Méliès, Glossary of motion picture terms, Gregg Toland, Grip (job), Hand-held camera, HDCAM, High-definition video, History of film, History of television, Human eye, Image sensor, In-camera effect, Index of video-related articles, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Julia and Julia, Kinemacolor, Kinetoscope, Kodachrome, Latent image, Leeds, Lens (optics), Lighting technician, List of cinema of the world, List of motion picture film formats, London, Long-focus lens, Louis Le Prince, Lyon, Macro photography, Marseille, Mass communication, Matte (filmmaking), Meteorology, Milan, Movie camera, Movie projector, Multiple exposure, Naples, Narrative film, Nice, NTSC, Optical printer, Orson Welles, Outline of film, PAL, Panavision, Panning (camera), Paris, Persistence of vision, Perspective (graphical), Phantom ride, Phantoscope, Phenakistiscope, Photographic developer, Photographic emulsion, Photographic film, Photographic filter, Photographic processing, Pixel, Polyvision, Positive (photography), Post-production, Prime lens, Professional video camera, Push processing, Racking focus, Real image, Reversal film, Reverse motion, Robert W. Paul, Rome, Roundhay, Roundhay Garden Scene, Sallie Gardner at a Gallop, Santa Claus (1898 film), Science, Seidlitz powders, Shallow focus, Slow motion, Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, Sony, Sony HDVS, Special effect, Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace, Steadicam, Stop motion, Stroboscope, Super 35, Super 8 film, Technicolor, The Corsican Brothers, The Execution of Mary Stuart, The Four Troublesome Heads, The Last Broadcast (film), The Matrix, The Vanishing Lady, Thomas Edison, Time-lapse photography, Tracking shot, Venice, Video file format, Video processing, Videography, Visions of Light, Warwick Trading Company, Wavelength, Wide-angle lens, Widescreen, William Kennedy Dickson, Worm drive, Zoetrope, Zoom lens, Zoopraxiscope, 16 mm film, 35 mm film, 3D film, 70 mm film, 8 mm film. Expand index (143 more) »

A Visit to the Seaside

A Visit to the Seaside (1908) was the first successful motion picture filmed in Kinemacolor.

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Academy Award for Best Cinematography

The Academy Award for Best Cinematography is an Academy Award awarded each year to a cinematographer for work on one particular motion picture.

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Academy ratio

The Academy ratio of 1.375:1 (abbreviated as 1.37:1) is an aspect ratio of a frame of 35mm film when used with 4-perf pulldown.

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Aesthetics (also spelled esthetics) is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.

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Anamorphic format

Anamorphic format is the cinematography technique of shooting a widescreen picture on standard 35 mm film or other visual recording media with a non-widescreen native aspect ratio.

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Angle of view

In photography, angle of view (AOV) describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera.

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Annabelle Serpentine Dance

Annabelle Serpentine Dance is a short silent American film produced and distributed by Edison Manufacturing Company in 1895.

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Aspect ratio (image)

The aspect ratio of an image describes the proportional relationship between its width and its height.

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Auguste and Louis Lumière

The Lumière brothers, Auguste Marie Louis Nicolas; 19 October 1862 – 10 April 1954) and Louis Jean; 5 October 1864 – 7 June 1948), were among the first filmmakers in history. They patented an improved cinematograph, which in contrast to Thomas Edison's "peepshow" kinetoscope allowed simultaneous viewing by multiple parties.

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Étienne-Jules Marey

Étienne-Jules Marey (5 March 1830, Beaune, Côte-d'Or – 15 May 1904, Paris) was a French scientist, physiologist and chronophotographer.

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Bleach bypass

Bleach bypass, also known as skip bleach or silver retention, is an optical effect which entails either the partial or complete skipping of the bleaching function during the processing of a color film.

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Bologna (Bulåggna; Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy.

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Bordeaux (Gascon Occitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.

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A borescope (occasionally called a boroscope, though this spelling is nonstandard) is an optical device consisting of a rigid or flexible tube with an eyepiece on one end, an objective lens on the other linked together by a relay optical system in between.

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Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.

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Business sector

In economics, the business sector or corporate sector - sometimes popularly called simply "business" - is "the part of the economy made up by companies".

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Camera angle

The camera angle marks the specific location at which the movie camera or video camera is placed to take a shot.

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Camera lens

A camera lens (also known as photographic lens or photographic objective) is an optical lens or assembly of lenses used in conjunction with a camera body and mechanism to make images of objects either on photographic film or on other media capable of storing an image chemically or electronically.

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Camera operator

A camera operator, sometimes informally called a cameraman, is a professional operator of a film or video camera.

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Celluloids are a class of compounds created from nitrocellulose and camphor, with added dyes and other agents.

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Charge-coupled device

A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value.

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Charles Foster Kane

Charles Foster Kane is a fictional character and the subject of Orson Welles' 1941 film Citizen Kane.

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Charles Francis Jenkins

Charles Francis Jenkins (August 22, 1867 – June 6, 1934) was an American pioneer of early cinema and one of the inventors of television, though he used mechanical rather than electronic technologies.

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Charlie Chaplin

Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin (16 April 1889 – 25 December 1977) was an English comic actor, filmmaker, and composer who rose to fame in the era of silent film.

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Christopher Doyle

Christopher Doyle, also known as Dù Kěfēng (Mandarin) or Dou Ho-Fung (Cantonese) (born 2 May 1952) is an Australian-Hong Kong cinematographer who often works on Chinese language films.

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CinemaScope is an anamorphic lens series used, from 1953 to 1967, for shooting widescreen movies.

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Cinematic techniques

This article contains a list of cinematic techniques that are divided into categories and briefly described.

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A cinematograph is a motion picture film camera, which also serves as a film projector and printer.

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A cinematographer or director of photography (sometimes shortened to DP or DOP) is the chief over the camera and light crews working on a film, television production or other live action piece and is responsible for making artistic and technical decisions related to the image.

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Cinematographer Style

Cinematographer Style is a 2006 documentary by Jon Fauer, ASC, about the art of cinematography.

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Cinematography Mailing List

The Cinematography Mailing List is a website and collection of mailing lists founded by Geoff Boyle in November 1996.

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Cinerama is a widescreen process that originally projected images simultaneously from three synchronized 35 mm projectors onto a huge, deeply curved screen, subtending 146° of arc.

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Citizen Kane

Citizen Kane is a 1941 American mystery drama film by Orson Welles, its producer, co-screenwriter, director and star.

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Clapper loader

A clapper loader or second assistant camera (2nd AC) is part of a film crew whose main functions are that of loading the raw film stock into camera magazines, operating the clapperboard (slate) at the beginning of each take, marking the actors as necessary, and maintaining all records and paperwork for the camera department.

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Colorfulness, chroma and saturation are attributes of perceived color relating to chromatic intensity.

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Crane shot

In filmmaking and video production, a crane shot is a shot taken by a camera on a moving crane or jib.

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Cross processing

Cross processing (sometimes abbreviated to Xpro) is the deliberate processing of photographic film in a chemical solution intended for a different type of film.

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Deep focus

Deep focus is a photographic and cinematographic technique using a large depth of field.

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Depth of field

In optics, particularly as it relates to film and photography, the optical phenomenon known as depth of field (DOF), is the distance about the Plane of Focus (POF) where objects appear acceptably sharp in an image.

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Depth of focus

Depth of focus is a lens optics concept that measures the tolerance of placement of the image plane (the film plane in a camera) in relation to the lens.

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Diamond jubilee

A diamond jubilee is a celebration held to mark a 60th anniversary of an event related to a person (e.g. accession to the throne, wedding, etc.). In the case of an event not relating to a person (e.g. the founding of an organization), a diamond jubilee is observed at the 75th anniversary.

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Diaphragm (optics)

In optics, a diaphragm is a thin opaque structure with an opening (aperture) at its center.

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Digital cinema

Digital cinema refers to the use of digital technology to distribute or project motion pictures as opposed to the historical use of reels of motion picture film, such as 35 mm film.

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Digital cinematography

Digital cinematography is the process of capturing (recording) a motion picture using digital image sensors rather than through film stock.

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Digital compositing

Digital compositing is the process of digitally assembling multiple images to make a final image, typically for print, motion pictures or screen display.

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Digital single-lens reflex camera

A digital single-lens reflex camera (also called digital SLR or DSLR) is a digital camera that combines the optics and the mechanisms of a single-lens reflex camera with a digital imaging sensor, as opposed to photographic film.

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Eadweard Muybridge

Eadweard Muybridge (9 April 1830 – 8 May 1904, born Edward James Muggeridge) was an English photographer important for his pioneering work in photographic studies of motion, and early work in motion-picture projection.

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Earth's magnetic field

Earth's magnetic field, also known as the geomagnetic field, is the magnetic field that extends from the Earth's interior out into space, where it meets the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun.

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Eastmancolor is a trade name used by Eastman Kodak for a number of related film and processing technologies associated with color motion picture production.

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Edison Manufacturing Company

The Edison Manufacturing Company was a company organized in 1889 by the inventor and entrepreneur Thomas Edison that manufactured batteries, machinery and equipment, and also produced kinetoscope films.

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Edward Raymond Turner

Edward Raymond Turner (1873 – 9 March 1903) was a pioneering British inventor and cinematographer.

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Electromagnetic radiation

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

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Exposure (photography)

In photography, exposure is the amount of light per unit area (the image plane illuminance times the exposure time) reaching a photographic film or electronic image sensor, as determined by shutter speed, lens aperture and scene luminance.

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The f-number of an optical system (such as a camera lens) is the ratio of the system's focal length to the diameter of the entrance pupil.

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Field of view

The field of view is the extent of the observable world that is seen at any given moment.

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A film, also called a movie, motion picture, moving pícture, theatrical film, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images.

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Film crew

A film crew is a group of people, hired by a production company, for the purpose of producing a film or motion picture.

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Film gauge

Film gauge is a physical property of photographic or motion picture film stock which defines its width.

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Film laboratory

A film laboratory is a commercial service enterprise and technical facility for the film industry where specialists develop, print, and conform film material for classical film production and distribution which is based on film material, such as negative and positive, black and white and color, on different film formats: 65-70mm, 35mm, 16mm, 9.5mm, 8mm.

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Film speed

Film speed is the measure of a photographic film's sensitivity to light, determined by sensitometry and measured on various numerical scales, the most recent being the ISO system.

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Film stock

Film stock is an analog medium that is used for recording motion pictures or animation.

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Film theory

Film theory is a set of scholarly approaches within the academic discipline of cinema studies that questions the essentialism of cinema and provides conceptual frameworks for understanding film's relationship to reality, the other arts, individual viewers, and society at large.

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Filmmaking (or, in an academic context, film production) is the process of making a film, generally in the sense of films intended for extensive theatrical exhibition.

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Filmmaking technique of Akira Kurosawa

The legacy of filmmaking technique left by Akira Kurosawa for subsequent generations of filmmakers has been diverse and of international influence.

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Focal length

The focal length of an optical system is a measure of how strongly the system converges or diverges light.

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Focus puller

A focus puller, or 1st assistant camera, is a member of a film crew's camera department whose primary responsibility is to maintain image sharpness on whatever subject or action is being filmed.

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Foreshadowing is a literary device in which a writer gives an advance hint of what is to come later in the story.

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Forlì (Furlè; Forum Livii) is a comune and city in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy, and is the capital of the province of Forlì-Cesena.

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Frame line

A frame line is the unused space that separates two adjacent images, or film frames, on the release print of a motion picture.

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Frame rate

Frame rate (expressed in or fps) is the frequency (rate) at which consecutive images called frames appear on a display.

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Francis Ronalds

Sir Francis Ronalds FRS (21 February 1788 – 8 August 1873) was an English scientist and inventor, and arguably the first electrical engineer.

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Garrett Brown

Garrett Brown (born April 6, 1942) is an American inventor, best known as the inventor of the Steadicam.

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Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.

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George Albert Smith (film pioneer)

George Albert Smith (4 January 1864 – 17 May 1959) was an English stage hypnotist, psychic, magic lantern lecturer, Fellow of the Royal Astronomical Society, inventor and a key member of the loose association of early film pioneers dubbed the Brighton School by French film historian Georges Sadoul.

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George Lucas

George Walton Lucas Jr. (born May 14, 1944) is an American filmmaker and entrepreneur.

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Georges Méliès

Marie-Georges-Jean Méliès, known as Georges Méliès (8 December 1861 – 21 January 1938), was a French illusionist and film director who led many technical and narrative developments in the earliest days of cinema.

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Glossary of motion picture terms

Most of the terms listed in Wikipedia glossaries are already defined and explained within Wikipedia itself.

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Gregg Toland

Gregg Toland, A.S.C. (May 29, 1904 – September 28, 1948) was an American cinematographer noted for his innovative use of lighting and techniques such as deep focus, examples of which can be found in his work on Orson Welles' Citizen Kane, William Wyler's The Best Years of Our Lives, and John Ford's The Long Voyage Home.

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Grip (job)

In the U.S. and Canada, grips are technicians in the filmmaking and video production industries.

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Hand-held camera

Hand-held camera or hand-held shooting is a filmmaking and video production technique in which a camera is held in the camera operator's hands as opposed to being mounted on a tripod or other base.

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HDCAM, introduced in 1997, is a high-definition video digital recording videocassette version of digital Betacam, using an 8-bit discrete cosine transform (DCT) compressed 3:1:1 recording, in 1080i-compatible down-sampled resolution of 1440×1080, and adding 24p and 23.976 progressive segmented frame (PsF) modes to later models.

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High-definition video

High-definition video is video of higher resolution and quality than standard-definition.

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History of film

Although the start of the history of film is not clearly defined, the commercial, public screening of ten of Lumière brothers' short films in Paris on 28 December 1895 can be regarded as the breakthrough of projected cinematographic motion pictures.

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History of television

The invention of the television was the work of many individuals in the late 19th century and early 20th century.

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Human eye

The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.

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Image sensor

An image sensor or imaging sensor is a sensor that detects and conveys the information that constitutes an image.

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In-camera effect

An in-camera effect is any special effect in a video or movie that is created solely by using techniques in and on the camera and/or its parts.

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Index of video-related articles

The following is a list of video-related topics.

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Indigenous peoples of the Americas

The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.

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Julia and Julia

Julia and Julia (Giulia e Giulia) is a 1987 Italian drama film directed by Peter Del Monte.

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Kinemacolor was the first successful color motion picture process, used commercially from 1908 to 1914.

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The Kinetoscope is an early motion picture exhibition device.

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Kodachrome is a brand name for a non-substantive, color reversal film introduced by Eastman Kodak in 1935.

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Latent image

A latent image is an invisible image produced by the exposure to light of a photosensitive material such as photographic film.

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Leeds is a city in the metropolitan borough of Leeds, in the county of West Yorkshire, England.

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Lens (optics)

A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction.

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Lighting technician

Electrical lighting technicians (ELT) or simply lighting tech., are involved with rigging stage and location sets and controlling artificial, electric lights for art and entertainment venues (theatre or live music venues) or in video, television, or film production.

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List of cinema of the world

This is a list of cinema of the world by continent and country.

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List of motion picture film formats

This list of film formats catalogues formats developed for shooting or viewing motion pictures, ranging from the Chronophotographe format from 1888, to mid-20th century formats such as the 1953 CinemaScope format, to more recent formats such as the 1992 IMAX HD format.

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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Long-focus lens

In photography, a long-focus lens is a camera lens which has a focal length that is longer than the diagonal measure of the film or sensor that receives its image.

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Louis Le Prince

Louis Aimé Augustin Le Prince (28 August 1841 – vanished 16 September 1890) was a French artist and the inventor of an early motion picture camera, possibly being the first person to shoot a moving picture sequence using a single lens camera and a strip of (paper) film.

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Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.

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Macro photography

Macro photography (or photomacrography or macrography, and sometimes macrophotography), is extreme close-up photography, usually of very small subjects and living organisms like insects, in which the size of the subject in the photograph is greater than life size (though macrophotography technically refers to the art of making very large photographs).

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Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.

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Mass communication

Mass communication is the study of how people exchange information through mass media to large segments of the population at the same time.

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Matte (filmmaking)

Mattes are used in photography and special effects filmmaking to combine two or more image elements into a single, final image.

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Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.

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Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.

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Movie camera

The movie camera, film camera or cine-camera is a type of photographic camera which takes a rapid sequence of photographs on an image sensor or on a film.

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Movie projector

A movie projector is an opto-mechanical device for displaying motion picture film by projecting it onto a screen.

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Multiple exposure

In photography and cinematography, a multiple exposure is the superimposition of two or more exposures to create a single image, and double exposure has a corresponding meaning in respect of two images.

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Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.

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Narrative film

Narrative film, fictional film or fiction film is a film that tells a fictional or fictionalized story, event or narrative.

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Nice (Niçard Niça, classical norm, or Nissa, nonstandard,; Nizza; Νίκαια; Nicaea) is the fifth most populous city in France and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes département.

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NTSC, named after the National Television System Committee,National Television System Committee (1951–1953),, 17 v. illus., diagrs., tables.

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Optical printer

An optical printer is a device consisting of one or more film projectors mechanically linked to a movie camera.

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Orson Welles

George Orson Welles (May 6, 1915 – October 10, 1985) was an American actor, director, writer, and producer who worked in theatre, radio, and film.

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Outline of film

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to film: Film – refers to motion pictures as individual projects and to the field in general.

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Phase Alternating Line (PAL) is a color encoding system for analogue television used in broadcast television systems in most countries broadcasting at 625-line / 50 field (25 frame) per second (576i).

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Panavision is an American motion picture equipment company specializing in cameras and lenses, based in Woodland Hills, California.

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Panning (camera)

In cinematography and photography panning means swivelling a still or video camera horizontally from a fixed position.

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Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Persistence of vision

Persistence of vision refers to the optical illusion that occurs when visual perception of an object does not cease for some time after the rays of light proceeding from it have ceased to enter the eye.

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Perspective (graphical)

Perspective (from perspicere "to see through") in the graphic arts is an approximate representation, generally on a flat surface (such as paper), of an image as it is seen by the eye.

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Phantom ride

Phantom rides or panoramas were an early genre of film popular in Britain and the US at the end of the 19th century.

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The Phantoscope was a film projection machine, a creation of Charles Francis Jenkins.

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The phénakisticope (better known as phenakistiscope or the later misspelling phenakistoscope) was the first widespread animation device that created a fluid illusion of motion.

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Photographic developer

In the processing of photographic films, plates or papers, the photographic developer (or just developer) is one or more chemicals that convert the latent image to a visible image.

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Photographic emulsion

Photographic emulsion is a light-sensitive colloid used in film-based photography.

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Photographic film

Photographic film is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals.

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Photographic filter

In photography and videography, a filter is a camera accessory consisting of an optical filter that can be inserted into the optical path.

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Photographic processing

Photographic processing or development is the chemical means by which photographic film or paper is treated after photographic exposure to produce a negative or positive image.

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In digital imaging, a pixel, pel, dots, or picture element is a physical point in a raster image, or the smallest addressable element in an all points addressable display device; so it is the smallest controllable element of a picture represented on the screen.

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Polyvision was the name given by the French film critic Émile Vuillermoz to a specialized widescreen film format devised exclusively for the filming and projection of Abel Gance's 1927 film Napoleon.

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Positive (photography)

A positive is a film or paper record of a scene that represents the color and luminance of objects in that scene with the same colors and luminances (as near as the medium will allow).

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Post-production is part of the process of filmmaking, video production, and photography.

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Prime lens

In film and photography, a prime lens is a fixed focal length photographic lens (as opposed to a zoom lens, typically with a maximum aperture from f2.8 to f1.2. The term can also mean the primary lens in a combination lens system. Confusion between these two meanings can occur if context doesn't make the interpretation clear. People sometimes use alternate terms—primary focal length, fixed focal length, or FFL to avoid ambiguity.

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Professional video camera

A professional video camera (often called a television camera even though the use has spread beyond television) is a high-end device for creating electronic moving images (as opposed to a movie camera, that earlier recorded the images on film).

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Push processing

Push processing in photography, sometimes called uprating, refers to a film developing technique that increases the effective sensitivity of the film being processed.

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Racking focus

A rack focus in filmmaking and television production is the practice of changing the focus of the lens during a shot.

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Real image

In optics, a real image is an image which is located in the plane of convergence for the light rays that originate from a given object.

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Reversal film

In photography, reversal film is a type of photographic film that produces a positive image on a transparent base.

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Reverse motion

Reverse motion (also known as reverse motion photography or reverse action) is a special effect in cinematography whereby the action that is filmed is shown backwards (i.e. time-reversed) on screen.

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Robert W. Paul

Robert William Paul (3 October 1869 – 28 March 1943) was an English electrician, scientific instrument maker, and early pioneer of British film.

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Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).

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Roundhay is a large suburb and city council ward in north-east Leeds, West Yorkshire, England.

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Roundhay Garden Scene

Roundhay Garden Scene is an 1888 short silent actuality film recorded by French inventor Louis Le Prince.

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Sallie Gardner at a Gallop

Sallie Gardner at a Gallop, also known as The Horse in Motion, is a series of photographs consisting of a galloping horse, the result of a photographic experiment by Eadweard Muybridge on June 15, 1878.

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Santa Claus (1898 film)

Santa Claus is a 1898 British short silent drama film, directed by George Albert Smith, which features Santa Claus visiting a house on Christmas Eve.

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R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.

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Seidlitz powders

Seidlitz powders is the generic name under which a commonly known laxative and digestion regulator was marketed and sold by numerous manufacturers under names such as "Rexall Seidlitz Powders", particularly in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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Shallow focus

Shallow focus is a photographic and cinematographic technique incorporating a small depth of field.

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Slow motion

Slow motion (commonly abbreviated as slo-mo or slow-mo) is an effect in film-making whereby time appears to be slowed down.

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Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers

The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) (rarely), founded in 1916 as the Society of Motion Picture Engineers or SMPE, is a global professional association, of engineers, technologists, and executives working in the media and entertainment industry.

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is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Kōnan, Minato, Tokyo.

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Sony HDVS is a range of high-definition video equipment developed in the 1980s to support an early analog high-definition television system thought to be the broadcast television systems that would be in use today.

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Special effect

Special effects (often abbreviated as SFX, SPFX, or simply FX) are illusions or visual tricks used in the film, television, theatre, video game and simulator industries to simulate the imagined events in a story or virtual world.

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Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace

Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace is a 1999 American epic space opera written and directed by George Lucas, produced by Lucasfilm and distributed by 20th Century Fox.

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Steadicam is a brand of camera stabilizer mounts for motion picture cameras invented by Garrett Brown and introduced in 1975 by Cinema Products Corporation.

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Stop motion

Stop motion is an animated-film making technique in which objects are physically manipulated in small increments between individually photographed frames so that they appear to exhibit independent motion when the series of frames is played back as a fast sequence.

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A stroboscope also known as a strobe, is an instrument used to make a cyclically moving object appear to be slow-moving, or stationary.

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Super 35

Super 35 (originally known as Superscope 235) is a motion picture film format that uses exactly the same film stock as standard 35 mm film, but puts a larger image frame on that stock by using the negative space normally reserved for the optical analog sound track.

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Super 8 film

Super 8mm film is a motion picture film format released in 1965 by Eastman Kodak as an improvement over the older "Double" or "Regular" 8 mm home movie format.

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Technicolor is a series of color motion picture processes, the first version dating from 1916, and followed by improved versions over several decades.

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The Corsican Brothers

The Corsican Brothers (Les Frères corses) is a novella by Alexandre Dumas, père, first published in 1844.

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The Execution of Mary Stuart

The Execution of Mary Stuart is a short film produced in 1895.

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The Four Troublesome Heads

The Four Troublesome Heads (Un homme de têtes, "A Man of Heads") is an 1898 French silent film directed by Georges Méliès.

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The Last Broadcast (film)

The Last Broadcast is a 1998 American found footage horror film made by Stefan Avalos and Lance Weiler.

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The Matrix

The Matrix is a 1999 science fiction action film written and directed by The Wachowskis (credited as The Wachowski Brothers) and starring Keanu Reeves, Laurence Fishburne, Carrie-Anne Moss, Hugo Weaving, and Joe Pantoliano.

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The Vanishing Lady

The Vanishing Lady or The Conjuring of a Woman at the House of Robert Houdin (Escamotage d'une dame chez Robert-Houdin) is an 1896 French short silent trick film directed by Georges Méliès.

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Thomas Edison

Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman, who has been described as America's greatest inventor.

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Time-lapse photography

Time-lapse photography is a technique whereby the frequency at which film frames are captured (the frame rate) is much lower than that used to view the sequence.

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Tracking shot

A tracking shot is any shot where the camera moves alongside the object(s) it is recording.

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Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.

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Video file format

A video file format is a type of file format for storing digital video data on a computer system.

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Video processing

In electronics engineering, video processing is a particular case of signal processing, which often employs video filters and where the input and output signals are video files or video streams.

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Videography refers to the process of capturing moving images on electronic media (e.g., videotape, direct to disk recording, or solid state storage) and even streaming media.

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Visions of Light

Visions of Light is a 1992 documentary film directed by Arnold Glassman, Todd McCarthy and Stuart Samuels.

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Warwick Trading Company

The Warwick Trading Company was a British film production and distribution company, which operated between 1898 and 1915.

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In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.

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Wide-angle lens

In photography and cinematography, a wide-angle lens refers to a lens whose focal length is substantially smaller than the focal length of a normal lens for a given film plane.

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Widescreen images are images that are displayed within a set of aspect ratios (relationship of image width to height) that is used in film, television and computer screens.

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William Kennedy Dickson

William Kennedy-Laurie Dickson (3 August 1860 – 28 September 1935) was a Scottish inventor who devised an early motion picture camera under the employment of Thomas Edison (post-dating the work of Louis Le Prince).

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Worm drive

A worm drive is a gear arrangement in which a worm (which is a gear in the form of a screw) meshes with a worm gear (which is similar in appearance to a spur gear).

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A zoetrope is one of several pre-film animation devices that produce the illusion of motion by displaying a sequence of drawings or photographs showing progressive phases of that motion.

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Zoom lens

A zoom lens is a mechanical assembly of lens elements for which the focal length (and thus angle of view) can be varied, as opposed to a fixed focal length (FFL) lens (see prime lens).

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The zoöpraxiscope (initially named zoographiscope and zoogyroscope) is an early device for displaying moving images and is considered an important predecessor of the movie projector.

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16 mm film

16 mm film is a historically popular and economical gauge of film.

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35 mm film

35 mm film (millimeter) is the film gauge most commonly used for motion pictures and chemical still photography (see 135 film).

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3D film

A three-dimensional stereoscopic film (also known as three-dimensional sangu, 3D film or S3D film) is a motion picture that enhances the illusion of depth perception, hence adding a third dimension.

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70 mm film

70 mm film (or 65 mm film) is a wide high-resolution film gauge for motion picture photography, with higher resolution than the standard 35 mm motion picture film format.

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8 mm film

8 mm film is a motion picture film format in which the film strip is eight millimeters wide.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cinematography

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