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Circular dichroism

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Circular dichroism (CD) is dichroism involving circularly polarized light, i.e., the differential absorption of left- and right-handed light. [1]

95 relations: Aarhus, Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), Acetate, Acetonitrile, Aimé Cotton, Alpha helix, Amino acid, Atomic orbital, Augustin-Jean Fresnel, Beer–Lambert law, Beta sheet, Biological membrane, Biomolecular structure, Borate, Carbohydrate, Carbonate, Charge-transfer complex, Chirality (chemistry), Chloroform, Circular polarization, Clockwise, Cytochrome c, Dextrorotation and levorotation, Dichloromethane, Dichroism, Disulfide, Electric dipole moment, Electric field, Electromagnetic radiation, Electron, Electronic structure, Enthalpy, Euclidean vector, Fused quartz, Gibbs free energy, Group theory, Guanidine, Hemoglobin, Infrared, Irradiance, Jean-Baptiste Biot, John Wiley & Sons, Kramers–Kronig relations, Light, Linear dichroism, Linear polarization, Magnetic circular dichroism, Magnetic dipole, Molar concentration, Molecule, ..., Natural logarithm, Nitrogen, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of proteins, Nucleic acid, Nucleic acid double helix, Onium compound, Operator (mathematics), Optical rotation, Optical rotatory dispersion, Oxford University Press, Oxygen, Peptide bond, PH, Phosphate, Point group, Polarization (waves), Protein circular dichroism data bank, Protein secondary structure, Quantum information, Quantum mechanics, Radian, Radiant intensity, Random coil, Rotation, Salinity, Solvent, Spectroscopy, Spin angular momentum of light, Sulfate, Synchrotron, Taylor series, Temperature, Tetrahydrofuran, Transition metal, Translation (geometry), Transverse wave, Turn (biochemistry), Two-photon circular dichroism, Ultraviolet, Urea, Vibrational circular dichroism, Wavelength, X-ray crystallography, Xenon arc lamp, 2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol. Expand index (45 more) »

Aarhus

Aarhus (officially spelled Århus from 1948 until 31 December 2010) is the second-largest city in Denmark and the seat of Aarhus municipality.

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Absorption (electromagnetic radiation)

In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom.

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Acetate

An acetate is a salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, metallic or nonmetallic and other base.

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Acetonitrile

Acetonitrile is the chemical compound with the formula.

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Aimé Cotton

Aimé Auguste Cotton (9 October 1869 – 16 April 1951) was a French physicist known for his studies of the interaction of light with chiral molecules.

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Alpha helix

The alpha helix (α-helix) is a common motif in the secondary structure of proteins and is a righthand-spiral conformation (i.e. helix) in which every backbone N−H group donates a hydrogen bond to the backbone C.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Atomic orbital

In quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function that describes the wave-like behavior of either one electron or a pair of electrons in an atom.

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Augustin-Jean Fresnel

Augustin-Jean Fresnel (10 May 178814 July 1827) was a French civil engineer and physicist whose research in optics led to the almost unanimous acceptance of the wave theory of light, excluding any remnant of Newton's corpuscular theory, from the late 1830s until the end of the 19th century.

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Beer–Lambert law

The Beer–Lambert law, also known as Beer's law, the Lambert–Beer law, or the Beer–Lambert–Bouguer law relates the attenuation of light to the properties of the material through which the light is travelling.

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Beta sheet

The β-sheet (also β-pleated sheet) is a common motif of regular secondary structure in proteins.

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Biological membrane

A biological membrane or biomembrane is an enclosing or separating membrane that acts as a selectively permeable barrier within living things.

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Biomolecular structure

Biomolecular structure is the intricate folded, three-dimensional shape that is formed by a molecule of protein, DNA, or RNA, and that is important to its function.

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Borate

Borates are the name for a large number of boron-containing oxyanions.

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Carbohydrate

A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).

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Carbonate

In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.

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Charge-transfer complex

A charge-transfer complex (CT complex) or electron-donor-acceptor complex is an association of two or more molecules, or of different parts of one large molecule, in which a fraction of electronic charge is transferred between the molecular entities.

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Chirality (chemistry)

Chirality is a geometric property of some molecules and ions.

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Chloroform

Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.

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Circular polarization

In electrodynamics, circular polarization of an electromagnetic wave is a polarization state in which, at each point, the electric field of the wave has a constant magnitude but its direction rotates with time at a steady rate in a plane perpendicular to the direction of the wave.

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Clockwise

Two-dimensional rotation can occur in two possible directions.

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Cytochrome c

The cytochrome complex, or cyt c is a small hemeprotein found loosely associated with the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.

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Dextrorotation and levorotation

Dextrorotation and levorotation (also spelled as laevorotation)The first word component dextro- comes from Latin word for dexter "right (as opposed to left)".

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Dichloromethane

Methylene dichloride (DCM, or methylene chloride, or dichloromethane) is a geminal organic compound with the formula CH2Cl2.

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Dichroism

In optics, a dichroic material is either one which causes visible light to be split up into distinct beams of different wavelengths (colours) (not to be confused with dispersion), or one in which light rays having different polarizations are absorbed by different amounts.

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Disulfide

In chemistry, a disulfide refers to a functional group with the structure R−S−S−R′.

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Electric dipole moment

The electric dipole moment is a measure of the separation of positive and negative electrical charges within a system, that is, a measure of the system's overall polarity.

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Electric field

An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.

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Electromagnetic radiation

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

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Electron

The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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Electronic structure

In quantum chemistry, electronic structure is the state of motion of electrons in an electrostatic field created by stationary nuclei.

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Enthalpy

Enthalpy is a property of a thermodynamic system.

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Euclidean vector

In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction.

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Fused quartz

Fused quartz or fused silica is glass consisting of silica in amorphous (non-crystalline) form.

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Gibbs free energy

In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy (IUPAC recommended name: Gibbs energy or Gibbs function; also known as free enthalpy to distinguish it from Helmholtz free energy) is a thermodynamic potential that can be used to calculate the maximum of reversible work that may be performed by a thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure (isothermal, isobaric).

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Group theory

In mathematics and abstract algebra, group theory studies the algebraic structures known as groups.

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Guanidine

Guanidine is the compound with the formula HNC(NH2)2.

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Hemoglobin

Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.

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Infrared

Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.

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Irradiance

In radiometry, irradiance is the radiant flux (power) received by a surface per unit area.

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Jean-Baptiste Biot

Jean-Baptiste Biot (21 April 1774 – 3 February 1862) was a French physicist, astronomer, and mathematician who established the reality of meteorites, made an early balloon flight, and studied the polarization of light.

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John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.

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Kramers–Kronig relations

The Kramers–Kronig relations are bidirectional mathematical relations, connecting the real and imaginary parts of any complex function that is analytic in the upper half-plane.

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Light

Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Linear dichroism

Linear dichroism (LD) or diattenuation describes the property of a material whose transmittance depends on the orientation of linearly polarized light incident upon it.

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Linear polarization

In electrodynamics, linear polarization or plane polarization of electromagnetic radiation is a confinement of the electric field vector or magnetic field vector to a given plane along the direction of propagation.

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Magnetic circular dichroism

Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) is the differential absorption of left and right circularly polarized (LCP and RCP) light, induced in a sample by a strong magnetic field oriented parallel to the direction of light propagation.

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Magnetic dipole

A magnetic dipole is the limit of either a closed loop of electric current or a pair of poles as the dimensions of the source are reduced to zero while keeping the magnetic moment constant.

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Molar concentration

Molar concentration (also called molarity, amount concentration or substance concentration) is a measure of the concentration of a chemical species, in particular of a solute in a solution, in terms of amount of substance per unit volume of solution.

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Molecule

A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Natural logarithm

The natural logarithm of a number is its logarithm to the base of the mathematical constant ''e'', where e is an irrational and transcendental number approximately equal to.

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Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of proteins

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of proteins (usually abbreviated protein NMR) is a field of structural biology in which NMR spectroscopy is used to obtain information about the structure and dynamics of proteins, and also nucleic acids, and their complexes.

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Nucleic acid

Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.

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Nucleic acid double helix

In molecular biology, the term double helix refers to the structure formed by double-stranded molecules of nucleic acids such as DNA.

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Onium compound

In chemistry, an onium ion, is a cation formally obtained by the protonation of mononuclear parent hydride of a pnictogen (group 15 of the periodic table), chalcogen (group 16), or halogen (group 17).

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Operator (mathematics)

In mathematics, an operator is generally a mapping that acts on the elements of a space to produce other elements of the same space.

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Optical rotation

Optical rotation or optical activity (sometimes referred to as rotary polarization) is the rotation of the plane of polarization of linearly polarized light as it travels through certain materials.

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Optical rotatory dispersion

Optical rotatory dispersion is the variation in the optical rotation of a substance with a change in the wavelength of light.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Oxygen

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Peptide bond

A peptide bond is a covalent chemical bond linking two consecutive amino acid monomers along a peptide or protein chain.

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PH

In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.

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Phosphate

A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.

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Point group

In geometry, a point group is a group of geometric symmetries (isometries) that keep at least one point fixed.

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Polarization (waves)

Polarization (also polarisation) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations.

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Protein circular dichroism data bank

The Protein Circular Dichroism Data Bank (PCDDB) is a database of circular dichroism and synchrotron radiation.

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Protein secondary structure

Protein secondary structure is the three dimensional form of local segments of proteins.

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Quantum information

In physics and computer science, quantum information is information that is held in the state of a quantum system.

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Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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Radian

The radian (SI symbol rad) is the SI unit for measuring angles, and is the standard unit of angular measure used in many areas of mathematics.

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Radiant intensity

In radiometry, radiant intensity is the radiant flux emitted, reflected, transmitted or received, per unit solid angle, and spectral intensity is the radiant intensity per unit frequency or wavelength, depending on whether the spectrum is taken as a function of frequency or of wavelength.

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Random coil

A random coil is a polymer conformation where the monomer subunits are oriented randomly while still being bonded to adjacent units.

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Rotation

A rotation is a circular movement of an object around a center (or point) of rotation.

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Salinity

Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).

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Solvent

A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.

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Spectroscopy

Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.

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Spin angular momentum of light

The spin angular momentum of light (SAM) is the component of angular momentum of light that is associated with the quantum spin and the wave's circular or elliptical polarization.

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Sulfate

The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.

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Synchrotron

A synchrotron is a particular type of cyclic particle accelerator, descended from the cyclotron, in which the accelerating particle beam travels around a fixed closed-loop path.

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Taylor series

In mathematics, a Taylor series is a representation of a function as an infinite sum of terms that are calculated from the values of the function's derivatives at a single point.

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Temperature

Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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Tetrahydrofuran

Tetrahydrofuran (THF) is an organic compound with the formula (CH2)4O.

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Transition metal

In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.

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Translation (geometry)

In Euclidean geometry, a translation is a geometric transformation that moves every point of a figure or a space by the same distance in a given direction.

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Transverse wave

A transverse wave is a moving wave that consists of oscillations occurring perpendicular (right angled) to the direction of energy transfer (or the propagation of the wave).

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Turn (biochemistry)

A turn is an element of secondary structure in proteins where the polypeptide chain reverses its overall direction.

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Two-photon circular dichroism

Two-photon circular dichroism (TPCD), the nonlinear counterpart of electronic circular dichroism (ECD), is defined as the differences between the two-photon absorption (TPA) cross-sections obtained using left circular polarized light and right circular polarized light (see Figure 1).

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Ultraviolet

Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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Urea

Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.

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Vibrational circular dichroism

Vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) is a spectroscopic technique which detects differences in attenuation of left and right circularly polarized light passing through a sample.

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Wavelength

In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.

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X-ray crystallography

X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.

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Xenon arc lamp

A xenon arc lamp is a highly specialized type of gas discharge lamp, an electric light that produces light by passing electricity through ionized xenon gas at high pressure.

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2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol

2,2,2-Trifluoroethanol is the organic compound with the formula CF3CH2OH.

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CD spectroscopy, Circular Dichroism, Circular Dichromism, Circular dichroic spectroscopy, Circular dichroism spectroscopy.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circular_dichroism

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