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Circulatory system

Index Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis. [1]

225 relations: Abdominal aorta, Acute coronary syndrome, Adaptive immune system, Amato Lusitano, Amino acid, Amphibian, Anastomosis, Ancient Egyptian medicine, Ancient Greek medicine, Ancient Iranian medicine, André Frédéric Cournand, Andreas Vesalius, Aneurysm, Angioplasty, Animal locomotion, Annelid, Aorta, Aortic arches, Aortic valve, Arteriole, Artery, Arthropod, Atheroma, Atherosclerosis, Atrium (heart), Avicenna, Ayurveda, Bilateria, Biological system, Bird, Blood, Blood cell, Blood plasma, Blood pressure, Blood vessel, Body cavity, Brainstem, Bronchial circulation, Calcium, Cannula, Capillary, Carbohydrate, Carbon dioxide, Cardiac catheterization, Cardiac cycle, Cardiac muscle, Cardiology, Cardiothoracic surgery, Cardiovascular disease, Cardiovascular examination, ..., Cardiovascular physiology, Catheter, Celiac artery, Cell (biology), Cephalopod, Chlorine, Circle of Willis, Circulatory system, Congenital heart defect, Coronary arteries, Coronary artery bypass surgery, Coronary catheterization, Coronary circulation, Coronary sinus, Coronary stent, Crocodilia, CT pulmonary angiogram, Deep vein thrombosis, Diana McSherry, Dickinson W. Richards, Diffusion, Diploblasty, Dorsal aorta, Earthworm, Ebers Papyrus, Ectotherm, Electrocardiography, Electrolyte, Embolus, Embryo, Endothelium, Erasistratus, Evolution, Extracellular fluid, Fetal circulation, Fetus, Fish, Flatworm, Galen, Gas exchange, Gastrointestinal tract, Gastrovascular cavity, Gill, Gonadal artery, Heart, Heart murmur, Heart rate, Heart valve, Hemocyanin, Hemoglobin, Hemolymph, Herophilos, Hieronymus Fabricius, Hippocrates, History of India, Homeostasis, Hormone, Human body, Human digestive system, Human embryogenesis, Human variability, Ibn al-Nafis, Immune system, Inferior mesenteric artery, Inferior suprarenal artery, Inferior vena cava, Inorganic chemistry, Intercostal arteries, Internal carotid artery, Internal iliac artery, International Journal of Zoology, Interventricular septum, Intravascular ultrasound, Invertebrate, Jellyfish, Kidney, Left coronary artery, Lifestyle disease, Lipid, List of Nobel laureates in Physiology or Medicine, Liver, Lung, Lymph, Lymph capillary, Lymph duct, Lymph node, Lymphatic disease, Lymphatic system, Lymphatic vessel, Magnesium, Magnetic resonance angiography, Mammal, Marcello Malpighi, Maxillary artery, Medicine in the medieval Islamic world, Michael Servetus, Microcirculation, National Informatics Centre, National Institutes of Health, Nutrient, Octopus, Organic chemistry, Oxygen, Oxygenate, Papyrus, Persistent fetal circulation, PH, Pharynx, Phylum, Placenta, Platelet, Portal vein, Posterior cardinal vein, Potassium, Protein, Pulmonary artery, Pulmonary circulation, Pulmonary embolism, Pulmonary valve, Pulmonary vein, Pulmonary wedge pressure, Pulse, Pulse pressure, Realdo Colombo, Red blood cell, Renal artery, Reptile, Right coronary artery, Rome, Salt (chemistry), Sinus venosus, Smallest cardiac veins, Sodium, Sphincter, Sphygmomanometer, Squid, Stapedial branch of posterior auricular artery, Starling equation, State University of New York, Stent, Stethoscope, Stroke, Superior mesenteric artery, Superior vena cava, Sushruta, The Canon of Medicine, Thermoregulation, Thrombus, Transient ischemic attack, Tricuspid valve, Truncus arteriosus, Ultrasonography of chronic venous insufficiency of the legs, Ultrasonography of deep vein thrombosis, Umbilical artery, Umbilical cord, Umbilical vein, University of Padua, Valve of coronary sinus, Vascular resistance, Vascular surgery, Vasculogenesis, Vein, Vein stripping, Venae cavae, Ventricle (heart), Venule, Vertebral artery, Vertebrate, Vital heat, Vitelline arteries, Vitelline veins, Water, Werner Forssmann, White blood cell, William Harvey. Expand index (175 more) »

Abdominal aorta

The abdominal aorta is the largest artery in the abdominal cavity.

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Acute coronary syndrome

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a syndrome (set of signs and symptoms) due to decreased blood flow in the coronary arteries such that part of the heart muscle is unable to function properly or dies.

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Adaptive immune system

The adaptive immune system, also known as the acquired immune system or, more rarely, as the specific immune system, is a subsystem of the overall immune system that is composed of highly specialized, systemic cells and processes that eliminate pathogens or prevent their growth.

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Amato Lusitano

João Rodrigues de Castelo Branco, better known as Amato Lusitano and Amatus Lusitanus (1511–1568), was a notable Portuguese Jewish physician of the 16th century.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.

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An anastomosis (plural anastomoses) is a connection or opening between two things (especially cavities or passages) that are normally diverging or branching, such as between blood vessels, leaf veins, or streams.

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Ancient Egyptian medicine

The medicine of the ancient Egyptians is some of the oldest documented.

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Ancient Greek medicine

Ancient Greek medicine was a compilation of theories and practices that were constantly expanding through new ideologies and trials.

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Ancient Iranian medicine

The practice and study of medicine in Persia has a long and prolific history.

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André Frédéric Cournand

André Frédéric Cournand (September 24, 1895 – February 19, 1988) was a French physician and physiologist.

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Andreas Vesalius

Andreas Vesalius (31 December 1514 – 15 October 1564) was a 16th-century Flemish anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body).

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An aneurysm is a localized, abnormal, weak spot on a blood vessel wall that causes an outward bulging, likened to a bubble or balloon.

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Angioplasty, also known as balloon angioplasty and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), is a minimally invasive, endovascular procedure to widen narrowed or obstructed arteries or veins, typically to treat arterial atherosclerosis.

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Animal locomotion

Animal locomotion, in ethology, is any of a variety of movements or methods that animals use to move from one place to another.

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The annelids (Annelida, from Latin anellus, "little ring"), also known as the ringed worms or segmented worms, are a large phylum, with over 22,000 extant species including ragworms, earthworms, and leeches.

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The aorta is the main artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries (the common iliac arteries).

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Aortic arches

The aortic arches or pharyngeal arch arteries (previously referred to as branchial arches in human embryos) are a series of six paired embryological vascular structures which give rise to the great arteries of the neck and head.

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Aortic valve

The aortic valve is a valve in the human heart between the left ventricle and the aorta.

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An arteriole is a small-diameter blood vessel in the microcirculation that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries.

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An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).

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An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.

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An atheroma is a reversible accumulation of degenerative material in the inner layer of an artery wall.

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Atherosclerosis is a disease in which the inside of an artery narrows due to the build up of plaque.

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Atrium (heart)

The atrium is the upper chamber in which blood enters the heart.

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Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.

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Ayurveda is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent.

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The Bilateria or bilaterians, or triploblasts, are animals with bilateral symmetry, i.e., they have a head (anterior) and a tail (posterior) as well as a back (dorsal) and a belly (ventral); therefore they also have a left side and a right side.

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Biological system

A biological system is a complex network of biologically relevant entities.

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Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

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Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.

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Blood cell

A blood cell, also called a haematopoietic cell, hemocyte, or hematocyte, is a cell produced through hematopoiesis and found mainly in the blood.

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Blood plasma

Blood plasma is a yellowish coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension; this makes plasma the extracellular matrix of blood cells.

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Blood pressure

Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.

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Blood vessel

The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.

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Body cavity

A body cavity is any fluid-filled space in a multicellular organism other than those of vessels (such as blood vessels and lymph vessels).

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The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.

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Bronchial circulation

The bronchial circulation is the part of the circulatory system that supplies nutrients and oxygen to the cells that constitute the lungs, as well as carrying waste products away from them.

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Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.

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A cannula (from Latin "little reed"; plural cannulae or cannulas) is a tube that can be inserted into the body, often for the delivery or removal of fluid or for the gathering of data.

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A capillary is a small blood vessel from 5 to 10 micrometres (µm) in diameter, and having a wall one endothelial cell thick.

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A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Cardiac catheterization

Cardiac catheterization (heart cath) is the insertion of a catheter into a chamber or vessel of the heart.

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Cardiac cycle

The cardiac cycle is the performance of the human heart from the beginning of one heartbeat to the beginning of the next.

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Cardiac muscle

Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is one of the three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle.

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Cardiology (from Greek καρδίᾱ kardiā, "heart" and -λογία -logia, "study") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system.

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Cardiothoracic surgery

Cardiothoracic surgery (also known as thoracic surgery) is the field of medicine involved in surgical treatment of organs inside the thorax (the chest)—generally treatment of conditions of the heart (heart disease) and lungs (lung disease).

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Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

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Cardiovascular examination

The cardiovascular examination is a portion of the physical examination that involves evaluation of the cardiovascular system.

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Cardiovascular physiology

Cardiovascular physiology is the study of the circulatory system, specifically addressing the physiology of the heart ("cardio") and blood vessels ("vascular").

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In medicine, a catheter is a thin tube made from medical grade materials serving a broad range of functions.

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Celiac artery

The celiac (or coeliac) artery, also known as the celiac trunk, or truncus coeliacus, is the first major branch of the abdominal aorta.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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A cephalopod is any member of the molluscan class Cephalopoda (Greek plural κεφαλόποδα, kephalópoda; "head-feet") such as a squid, octopus or nautilus.

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Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

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Circle of Willis

The circle of Willis (also called Willis' circle, loop of Willis, cerebral arterial circle, and Willis polygon) is a circulatory anastomosis that supplies blood to the brain and surrounding structures.

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Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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Congenital heart defect

A congenital heart defect (CHD), also known as a congenital heart anomaly or congenital heart disease, is a problem in the structure of the heart that is present at birth.

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Coronary arteries

The coronary arteries are the arteries of the coronary circulation that transport blood into and out of the cardiac muscle.

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Coronary artery bypass surgery

Coronary artery bypass surgery, also known as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG, pronounced "cabbage") surgery, and colloquially heart bypass or bypass surgery, is a surgical procedure to restore normal blood flow to an obstructed coronary artery.

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Coronary catheterization

A coronary catheterization is a minimally invasive procedure to access the coronary circulation and blood filled chambers of the heart using a catheter.

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Coronary circulation

Coronary circulation is the circulation of blood in the blood vessels of the heart muscle (myocardium).

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Coronary sinus

The coronary sinus is a collection of veins joined together to form a large vessel that collects blood from the heart muscle (myocardium).

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Coronary stent

A coronary stent is a tube-shaped device placed in the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart, to keep the arteries open in the treatment of coronary heart disease.

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Crocodilia (or Crocodylia) is an order of mostly large, predatory, semiaquatic archosaurian reptiles, known as crocodilians.

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CT pulmonary angiogram

CT pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) is a medical diagnostic test that employs computed tomography (CT) angiography to obtain an image of the pulmonary arteries.

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Deep vein thrombosis

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), is the formation of a blood clot in a deep vein, most commonly the legs.

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Diana McSherry

Diana McSherry (born 1945) is an American computer scientist and biophysicist.

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Dickinson W. Richards

Dickinson Woodruff Richards, Jr. (October 30, 1895 – February 23, 1973) was an American physician and physiologist.

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Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.

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Diploblasty is a condition of the blastula in which there are two primary germ layers: the ectoderm and endoderm.

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Dorsal aorta

The dorsal aortae are paired (left and right) embryological vessels which progress to form the descending aorta.

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An earthworm is a tube-shaped, segmented worm found in the phylum Annelida.

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Ebers Papyrus

The Ebers Papyrus, also known as Papyrus Ebers, is an Egyptian medical papyrus of herbal knowledge dating to circa 1550 BC.

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An ectotherm (from the Greek ἐκτός (ektós) "outside" and θερμός (thermós) "hot"), is an organism in which internal physiological sources of heat are of relatively small or quite negligible importance in controlling body temperature.

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Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin.

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An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.

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An embolus (plural emboli; from the Greek ἔμβολος "wedge", "plug") is an unattached mass that travels through the bloodstream and is capable of clogging arterial capillary beds (create an arterial occlusion) at a site distant from its point of origin.

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An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.

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Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.

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Erasistratus (Ἐρασίστρατος; c. 304 – c. 250 BC) was a Greek anatomist and royal physician under Seleucus I Nicator of Syria.

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Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Extracellular fluid

Extracellular fluid (ECF) denotes all body fluid outside the cells.

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Fetal circulation

In animals that give live birth, the fetal circulation is the circulatory system of a fetus.

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A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.

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Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.

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The flatworms, flat worms, Platyhelminthes, Plathelminthes, or platyhelminths (from the Greek πλατύ, platy, meaning "flat" and ἕλμινς (root: ἑλμινθ-), helminth-, meaning "worm") are a phylum of relatively simple bilaterian, unsegmented, soft-bodied invertebrates.

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Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.

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Gas exchange

Gas exchange is the physical process by which gases move passively by diffusion across a surface.

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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.

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Gastrovascular cavity

The gastrovascular cavity is the primary organ of digestion and circulation in two major animal phyla: the Cnidaria (including jellyfish and corals) and Platyhelminthes (flatworms).

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A gill is a respiratory organ found in many aquatic organisms that extracts dissolved oxygen from water and excretes carbon dioxide.

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Gonadal artery

The term gonadal artery is a generic term for a paired artery, with one arising from the abdominal aorta for each gonad.

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The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.

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Heart murmur

Heart murmurs are heart sounds produced when blood flows across one of the heart valves that are loud enough to be heard with a stethoscope.

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Heart rate

Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat measured by the number of contractions of the heart per minute (bpm).

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Heart valve

A heart valve normally allows blood to flow in only one direction through the heart.

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Hemocyanins (also spelled haemocyanins and abbreviated Hc) are proteins that transport oxygen throughout the bodies of some invertebrate animals.

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Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.

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Hemolymph, or haemolymph, is a fluid, analogous to the blood in vertebrates, that circulates in the interior of the arthropod body remaining in direct contact with the animal's tissues.

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Herophilos (Ἡρόφιλος; 335–280 BC), sometimes Latinised Herophilus, was a Greek physician deemed to be the first anatomist.

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Hieronymus Fabricius

Hieronymus Fabricius or Girolamo Fabrizio, known also by his full Latin and Italian names, Fabricius ab Aquapendente or Girolamo Fabrizi d'Acquapendente, (20 May 1537 – 21 May 1619) was a pioneering anatomist and surgeon known in medical science as "The Father of Embryology.".

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Hippocrates of Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos), also known as Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most outstanding figures in the history of medicine.

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History of India

The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.

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Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal environment in a stable state.

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A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

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Human body

The human body is the entire structure of a human being.

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Human digestive system

The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder).

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Human embryogenesis

Human embryogenesis is the process of cell division and cellular differentiation of the embryo that occurs during the early stages of development.

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Human variability

Human variability, or human variation, is the range of possible values for any characteristic, physical or mental, of human beings.

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Ibn al-Nafis

Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi (Arabic: علاء الدين أبو الحسن عليّ بن أبي حزم القرشي الدمشقي), known as Ibn al-Nafis (Arabic: ابن النفيس), was an Arab physician mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood.

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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Inferior mesenteric artery

In human anatomy, the inferior mesenteric artery, often abbreviated as IMA, is the third main branch of the abdominal aorta and arises at the level of L3, supplying the large intestine from the left colic (or splenic) flexure to the upper part of the rectum, which includes the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and part of the rectum.

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Inferior suprarenal artery

The inferior suprarenal arteries usually (variations are common) originate at the trunk of the renal artery before its terminal division, and usually present substantially different diameters corresponding to the age variable.

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Inferior vena cava

The inferior vena cava (or IVC) is a large vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the lower and middle body into the right atrium of the heart.

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Inorganic chemistry

Inorganic chemistry deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds.

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Intercostal arteries

The intercostal arteries are a group of arteries that supply the area between the ribs ("costae"), called the intercostal space.

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Internal carotid artery

The internal carotid artery is a major paired artery, one on each side of the head and neck, in human anatomy.

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Internal iliac artery

The internal iliac artery (formerly known as the hypogastric artery) is the main artery of the pelvis.

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International Journal of Zoology

The International Journal of Zoology is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal covering all areas of zoology.

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Interventricular septum

The interventricular septum (IVS, or ventricular septum, or during development septum inferius), is the stout wall separating the lower chambers (the ventricles) of the heart from one another.

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Intravascular ultrasound

Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is a medical imaging methodology using a specially designed catheter with a miniaturized ultrasound probe attached to the distal end of the catheter.

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Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.

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Jellyfish or sea jelly is the informal common name given to the medusa-phase of certain gelatinous members of the subphylum Medusozoa, a major part of the phylum Cnidaria.

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The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.

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Left coronary artery

The left coronary artery (abbreviated LCA) is an artery that arises from the aorta above the left cusp of the aortic valve and feeds blood to the left side of the heart.

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Lifestyle disease

Lifestyle diseases are defined as diseases linked with the way people live their life.

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In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.

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List of Nobel laureates in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin) is awarded annually by the Swedish Karolinska Institute to scientists and doctors in the various fields of physiology or medicine.

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The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.

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Lymph is the fluid that circulates throughout the lymphatic system.

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Lymph capillary

Lymph capillaries or lymphatic capillaries are tiny, thin-walled vessels located in the spaces between cells (except in the central nervous system and non-vascular tissues) which serve to drain and process extra-cellular fluid.

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Lymph duct

A lymph duct is a great lymphatic vessel that empties lymph into one of the subclavian veins.

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Lymph node

A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.

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Lymphatic disease

Lymphatic disease is a class of disorders which directly affect the components of the lymphatic system.

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Lymphatic system

The lymphatic system is part of the vascular system and an important part of the immune system, comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin, lympha meaning "water") directionally towards the heart.

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Lymphatic vessel

The lymphatic vessels (or lymph vessels or lymphatics) are thin-walled vessels structured like blood vessels, that carry lymph.

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Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.

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Magnetic resonance angiography

Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is a group of techniques based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to image blood vessels.

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Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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Marcello Malpighi

Marcello Malpighi (10 March 1628 – 29 November 1694) was an Italian biologist and physician, who is referred to as the "Father of microscopical anatomy, histology, physiology and embryology".

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Maxillary artery

The maxillary artery supplies deep structures of the face.

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Medicine in the medieval Islamic world

In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine is the science of medicine developed in the Islamic Golden Age, and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of Islamic civilization.

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Michael Servetus

Michael Servetus (Miguel Serveto, Michel Servet), also known as Miguel Servet, Miguel Serveto, Michel Servet, Revés, or Michel de Villeneuve (29 September 1509 or 1511 – 27 October 1553), was a Spanish (then French) theologian, physician, cartographer, and Renaissance humanist.

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Microcirculation is the circulation of the blood in the smallest blood vessels, present within organ tissues.

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National Informatics Centre

The National Informatics Centre (NIC) (Rashtriya Suchna Vigyan Kendra) is the premier science & technology organisation of Government of India in informatics services and information and communication technology (ICT) applications.

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National Institutes of Health

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.

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A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.

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The octopus (or ~) is a soft-bodied, eight-armed mollusc of the order Octopoda.

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Organic chemistry

Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Oxygenated chemical compounds contain oxygen as a part of their chemical structure.

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Papyrus is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface.

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Persistent fetal circulation

Persistent fetal circulation (also called persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, PPHN) is a condition caused by a failure in the systemic circulation and pulmonary circulation to convert from the antenatal circulation pattern to the "normal" pattern.

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In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.

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The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.

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In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.

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The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.

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Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.

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Portal vein

The portal vein or hepatic portal vein is a blood vessel that carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder, pancreas and spleen to the liver.

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Posterior cardinal vein

The postcardinal veins or posterior cardinal veins join with the corresponding right and left cardinal veins to form the left common cardinal veins, which empty in the sinus venosus.

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Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Pulmonary artery

A pulmonary artery is an artery in the pulmonary circulation that carries deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs.

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Pulmonary circulation

The pulmonary circulation is the portion of the circulatory system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the right ventricle of the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood to the left atrium and ventricle of the heart.

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Pulmonary embolism

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blockage of an artery in the lungs by a substance that has moved from elsewhere in the body through the bloodstream (embolism).

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Pulmonary valve

The pulmonary valve (sometimes referred to as the pulmonic valve) is the semilunar valve of the heart that lies between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery and has three cusps.

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Pulmonary vein

The pulmonary veins are the veins that transfer oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.

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Pulmonary wedge pressure

The pulmonary wedge pressure or PWP, or cross-sectional pressure (also called the pulmonary arterial wedge pressure or PAWP, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure or PCWP, or pulmonary artery occlusion pressure or PAOP), is the pressure measured by wedging a pulmonary catheter with an inflated balloon into a small pulmonary arterial branch.

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In medicine, a pulse represents the tactile arterial palpation of the heartbeat by trained fingertips.

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Pulse pressure

Pulse pressure is the difference between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

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Realdo Colombo

Realdo Colombo (c. 1515, Cremona – 1559, Rome) was an Italian professor of anatomy and a surgeon at the University of Padua between 1544 and 1559.

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Red blood cell

Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.

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Renal artery

The renal arteries normally arise off the left interior side of the abdominal aorta, immediately below the superior mesenteric artery, and supply the kidneys with blood.

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Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.

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Right coronary artery

In the coronary circulation, the right coronary artery (RCA) is an artery originating above the right cusp of the aortic valve, at the right aortic sinus in the heart.

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Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).

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Salt (chemistry)

In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.

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Sinus venosus

The sinus venosus is a large quadrangular cavity which precedes the atrium on the venous side of the chordate heart.

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Smallest cardiac veins

The smallest cardiac veins (or Thebesian veins) are minute valveless veins in the walls of all four heart chambers.

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Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.

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A sphincter is a circular muscle that normally maintains constriction of a natural body passage or orifice and which relaxes as required by normal physiological functioning.

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A sphygmomanometer, also known as a blood pressure meter, blood pressure monitor, or blood pressure gauge, is a device used to measure blood pressure, composed of an inflatable cuff to collapse and then release the artery under the cuff in a controlled manner, and a mercury or mechanical manometer to measure the pressure.

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Squid are cephalopods of the two orders Myopsida and Oegopsida, which were formerly regarded as two suborders of the order Teuthida, however recent research shows Teuthida to be paraphyletic.

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Stapedial branch of posterior auricular artery

In human anatomy, the stapedial branch of posterior auricular artery, or stapedial artery for short, is a small artery supplying the stapedius muscle in the inner ear.

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Starling equation

The Starling equation for fluid filtration is named for the British physiologist Ernest Starling, who is also recognised for the Frank–Starling law of the heart.

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State University of New York

The State University of New York (SUNY) is a system of public institutions of higher education in New York, United States.

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In medicine, a stent is a metal or plastic tube inserted into the lumen of an anatomic vessel or duct to keep the passageway open, and stenting is the placement of a stent.

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The stethoscope is an acoustic medical device for auscultation, or listening to the internal sounds of an animal or human body.

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A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.

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Superior mesenteric artery

In human anatomy, the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) arises from the anterior surface of the abdominal aorta, just inferior to the origin of the celiac trunk, and supplies the intestine from the lower part of the duodenum through two-thirds of the transverse colon, as well as the pancreas.

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Superior vena cava

The superior vena cava (SVC) is the superior of the two venae cavae, the great venous trunks that return deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation to the right atrium of the heart.

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Sushruta, or Suśruta (Sanskrit: सुश्रुत, lit. "well heard") was an ancient Indian physician during 1500 BCE to 1000 BCE, known as the main author of the treatise The Compendium of Suśruta (Sanskrit: ''Suśruta-saṃhitā'').

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The Canon of Medicine

The Canon of Medicine (القانون في الطب al-Qānūn fī al-Ṭibb) is an encyclopedia of medicine in five books compiled by Persian philosopher Avicenna (Ibn Sina) and completed in 1025.

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Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.

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A thrombus, colloquially called a blood clot, is the final product of the blood coagulation step in hemostasis.

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Transient ischemic attack

A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a brief episode of neurological dysfunction caused by loss of blood flow (ischemia) in the brain, spinal cord, or retina, without tissue death (infarction).

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Tricuspid valve

The tricuspid valve, or right atrioventricular valve, is on the right dorsal side of the mammalian heart, between the right atrium and the right ventricle.

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Truncus arteriosus

The truncus arteriosus is a structure that is present during embryonic development.

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Ultrasonography of chronic venous insufficiency of the legs

Ultrasonography of suspected or previously confirmed chronic venous insufficiency of leg veins is a risk-free, non-invasive procedure.

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Ultrasonography of deep vein thrombosis

Ultrasonography in suspected deep vein thrombosis focuses primarily on the femoral vein and the popliteal vein, because thrombi in these veins are associated with the greatest risk of harmful pulmonary embolism.

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Umbilical artery

The umbilical artery is a paired artery (with one for each half of the body) that is found in the abdominal and pelvic regions.

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Umbilical cord

In placental mammals, the umbilical cord (also called the navel string, birth cord or funiculus umbilicalis) is a conduit between the developing embryo or fetus and the placenta.

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Umbilical vein

The umbilical vein is a vein present during fetal development that carries oxygenated blood from the placenta into the growing fetus.

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University of Padua

The University of Padua (Università degli Studi di Padova, UNIPD) is a premier Italian university located in the city of Padua, Italy.

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Valve of coronary sinus

The valve of the coronary sinus (Thebesian valve) is a semicircular fold of the lining membrane of the right atrium, at the orifice of the coronary sinus.

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Vascular resistance

Vascular resistance is the resistance that must be overcome to push blood through the circulatory system and create flow.

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Vascular surgery

Vascular surgery is a surgical subspecialty in which diseases of the vascular system, or arteries, veins and lymphatic circulation, are managed by medical therapy, minimally-invasive catheter procedures, and surgical reconstruction.

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Vasculogenesis is the process of blood vessel formation occurring by a de novo production of endothelial cells.

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Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.

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Vein stripping

Vein stripping is a surgical procedure done under general or local anaesthetic to aid in the treatment of varicose veins and other manifestations of chronic venous disease.

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Venae cavae

The venae cavae (from the Latin for "hollow veins", singular "vena cava") are two large veins (venous trunks) that return deoxygenated blood from the body into the heart.

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Ventricle (heart)

A ventricle is one of two large chambers in the heart that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs.

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A venule is a very small blood vessel in the microcirculation that allows blood to return from the capillary beds to drain into the larger blood vessels, the veins.

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Vertebral artery

The vertebral arteries are major (main) arteries of the neck.

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Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Vital heat

Vital heat, also called innate or natural heat, or calidum innatum, is a term in Ancient Greek medicine and philosophy that has generally referred to the heat produced within the body, usually the heat produced by the heart and the circulatory system.

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Vitelline arteries

The vitelline arteries are the arterial counterpart to the vitelline veins.

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Vitelline veins

The vitelline veins are veins which drain blood from the yolk sac.

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Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.

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Werner Forssmann

Werner Theodor Otto Forßmann (Forssmann in English; 29 August 1904 – 1 June 1979) was a physician from Germany who shared the 1956 Nobel Prize in Medicine (with Andre Frederic Cournand and Dickinson W. Richards) for developing a procedure that allowed cardiac catheterization.

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White blood cell

White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.

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William Harvey

William Harvey (1 April 1578 – 3 June 1657) was an English physician who made seminal contributions in anatomy and physiology.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circulatory_system

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