240 relations: Active SETI, Addison-Wesley, Allen Telescope Array, Animal cognition, Apsis, Archean, Associated Press, Asthenosphere, Astrobiology, Astronomical unit, Astronomy, Atmospheric escape, Atmospheric pressure, Bar (unit), BBC News, Bernard M. Oliver, Billion years, Biogeochemical cycle, Biosphere, BNO News, Bond albedo, Brown dwarf, Carbon cycle, Carbonate–silicate cycle, Celsius, Centaurus, Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg, Ceres (dwarf planet), Christopher McKay, Circumstellar habitable zone, CNET, Colligative properties, Copernican principle, Cosmic Call, Cryomyces antarcticus, Cryomyces minteri, Cryptobiosis, Desert planet, Donald E. Brownlee, Drake equation, Earth, Earth analog, Earth Similarity Index, Enceladus, Eukaryote, Europa (moon), European Geosciences Union, Evolving the Alien, Exomoon, Exoplanet, ..., Extraterrestrial intelligence, Extraterrestrial life, Extraterrestrial liquid water, ExtremeTech, F-type main-sequence star, Fairy tale, Frost line (astrophysics), G-type main-sequence star, Galactic Center, Galactic habitable zone, Ganymede (moon), Gas giant, Gliese 1214 b, Gliese 163, Gliese 163 c, Gliese 581c, Gliese 581g, Gliese 667, Gliese 667 Cc, Gliese 876, Gliese 876 b, Gliese 876 c, Goldilocks and the Three Bears, Goldilocks principle, Greenhouse effect, Guillermo Gonzalez (astronomer), Habitability of natural satellites, Harlow Shapley, HD 28185 b, HD 40307, HD 40307 g, HD 69830, HD 69830 d, HD 85512 b, Hellas Planitia, Hello from Earth, Hill sphere, Horizontal branch, Hubertus Strughold, Human, Hydrate, Hydrogen, Hydrosphere, Hydroxy group, Hyperthermophile, Hypothetical types of biochemistry, Ian Stewart (mathematician), Inverse-square law, Io (moon), Isaac Asimov, Isaac Newton, Jack Cohen (scientist), James Kasting, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Jill Tarter, Journal of Zoology, Jupiter, K-type main-sequence star, K2-155d, K2-3, K2-3d, Kapteyn b, Kapteyn's Star, Kepler (spacecraft), Kepler-186f, Kepler-22b, Kepler-296e, Kepler-296f, Kepler-438b, Kepler-440b, Kepler-442b, Kepler-452, Kepler-452b, Kepler-62, Kepler-62e, Kepler-62f, Kepler-69, Kepler-69c, LHS 1140, Light-year, List of microorganisms tested in outer space, List of nearest terrestrial exoplanet candidates, Lithosphere, Los Angeles Times, Luyten b, Luyten's Star, Main sequence, Margaret Turnbull, Mars, Mediocrity principle, Metallicity, Methane, Methods of detecting exoplanets, Milky Way, Milnesium tardigradum, Mineralization (geology), Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Moon, Multicellular organism, NASA, Nature (journal), New Scientist, O-type star, Ocean, Ocean planet, Orbital eccentricity, Orbital period, Origin of water on Earth, Outgassing, Parsec, Peter Ward (paleontologist), Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Photodissociation, Photoevaporation, Photosynthesis, Planetary habitability, Planetary surface, Planetary system, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Project Phoenix (SETI), Proxima Centauri b, Radiant energy, Radioactive decay, RAND Corporation, Rare Earth hypothesis, Red dwarf, Red giant, Reviews of Geophysics, Rhizocarpon geographicum, Riftia pachyptila, Rogue planet, Ross 128 b, Runaway greenhouse effect, Sampling bias, Saturn, Science (journal), Science Daily, Season, Seasonal flows on warm Martian slopes, Seawater, Sidereal time, Solar analog, Solar flare, Solar luminosity, Solar System, Solar wind, Solution, Solvent, Space colonization, Space habitat, Space suit, Space.com, Spectral line, Star, Star system, Star Trek, Star Trek planet classification, Starspot, Stellar classification, Su-Shu Huang, Sun, Super-Earth, Tardigrade, Tau Ceti, Teen Age Message, Terrestrial planet, The Astrophysical Journal, The Guardian, The New York Times, Tidal heating, Tidal locking, Titan (moon), TRAPPIST-1, Ultraviolet, University of Puerto Rico at Arecibo, University of Washington, Upsilon Andromedae d, W. M. Keck Observatory, Water, Water distribution on Earth, Water hole (radio), White dwarf, Wired (magazine), Xanthoria elegans, Zoltán Balog (astronomer), 16 Cygni Bb, 47 Ursae Majoris, 55 Cancri, 55 Cancri f, 70 Virginis b. Expand index (190 more) » « Shrink index
Active SETI (Active Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence) is the attempt to send messages to intelligent extraterrestrial life.
Addison-Wesley is a publisher of textbooks and computer literature.
The Allen Telescope Array (ATA), formerly known as the One Hectare Telescope (1hT), is a radio telescope array dedicated to astronomical observations and a simultaneous search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI).
Animal cognition describes the mental capacities of non-human animals and the study of those capacities.
An apsis (ἁψίς; plural apsides, Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in the orbit of an object.
The Archean Eon (also spelled Archaean or Archæan) is one of the four geologic eons of Earth history, occurring (4 to 2.5 billion years ago).
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
The asthenosphere (from Greek ἀσθενής asthenḗs 'weak' + "sphere") is the highly viscous, mechanically weak and ductilely deforming region of the upper mantle of the Earth.
Astrobiology is a branch of biology concerned with the origins, early evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe.
The astronomical unit (symbol: au, ua, or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Atmospheric escape is the loss of planetary atmospheric gases to outer space.
Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).
The bar is a metric unit of pressure, but is not approved as part of the International System of Units (SI).
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Bernard M. Oliver (May 27, 1916 – November 23, 1995), also known as Barney Oliver, was a scientist who made contributions in many fields, including radar, television, and computers.
A billion years (109 years) is a unit of time on the petasecond scale, more precisely equal to seconds.
In geography and Earth science, a biogeochemical cycle or substance turnover or cycling of substances is a pathway by which a chemical substance moves through biotic (biosphere) and abiotic (lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere) compartments of Earth.
The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems.
BNO News is an international news agency headquartered in Tilburg, the Netherlands.
The Bond albedo, named after the American astronomer George Phillips Bond (1825–1865), who originally proposed it, is the fraction of power in the total electromagnetic radiation incident on an astronomical body that is scattered back out into space.
Brown dwarfs are substellar objects that occupy the mass range between the heaviest gas giant planets and the lightest stars, having masses between approximately 13 to 75–80 times that of Jupiter, or approximately to about.
The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.
The carbonate–silicate geochemical cycle describes the transformation of silicate rocks to carbonate rocks by weathering and sedimentation at Earth's surface and the transformation of carbonate rocks back into silicates by metamorphism and magmatism.
The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).
Centaurus is a bright constellation in the southern sky.
The Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS; English translation: Strasbourg Astronomical Data Center) is a data hub which collects and distributes astronomical information.
Ceres (minor-planet designation: 1 Ceres) is the largest object in the asteroid belt that lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, slightly closer to Mars' orbit.
Christopher P. McKay is a planetary scientist at NASA Ames Research Center, studying planetary atmospheres, astrobiology, and terraforming.
In astronomy and astrobiology, the circumstellar habitable zone (CHZ), or simply the habitable zone, is the range of orbits around a star within which a planetary surface can support liquid water given sufficient atmospheric pressure.
CNET (stylized as c|net) is an American media website that publishes reviews, news, articles, blogs, podcasts and videos on technology and consumer electronics globally.
In chemistry, colligative properties are properties of solutions that depend on the ratio of the number of solute particles to the number of solvent molecules in a solution, and not on the nature of the chemical species present.
In physical cosmology, the Copernican principle, is an alternative name of the mediocrity principle, or the principle of relativity, stating that humans (the Earth, or the Solar system) are not privileged observers of the universe.
Cosmic Call was the name of two sets of interstellar radio messages that were sent from RT-70 in Yevpatoria, Crimea in 1999 (Cosmic Call 1) and 2003 (Cosmic Call 2) to various nearby stars.
Cryomyces antarcticus is a fungus of uncertain placement in the class Dothideomycetes, division Ascomycota.
Cryomyces minteri is a fungus of uncertain placement in the class Dothideomycetes, division Ascomycota.
Cryptobiosis is an ametabolic state of life entered by an organism in response to adverse environmental conditions such as desiccation, freezing, and oxygen deficiency.
A desert planet or dry planet is a theoretical type of terrestrial planet with a surface consistency similar to Earth's hot deserts.
Donald Eugene Brownlee (born December 21, 1943) is a professor of astronomy at the University of Washington at Seattle and the principal investigator for NASA's Stardust mission.
The Drake equation is a probabilistic argument used to estimate the number of active, communicative extraterrestrial civilizations in the Milky Way galaxy.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
An Earth analog (also referred to as an Earth twin or Earth-like planet, though this latter term may refer to any terrestrial planet) is a planet or moon with environmental conditions similar to those found on Earth.
The Earth Similarity Index (ESI) is a proposed characterization of how similar a planetary-mass object or natural satellite is to Earth.
Enceladus is the sixth-largest moon of Saturn.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Europa or as Ευρώπη (Jupiter II) is the smallest of the four Galilean moons orbiting Jupiter, and the sixth-closest to the planet.
The European Geosciences Union (EGU) is a non-profit international union in the fields of Earth, planetary, and space sciences.
Evolving the Alien: The Science of Extraterrestrial Life (published in the US, and UK second edition as What Does a Martian Look Like?: The Science of Extraterrestrial Life) is a 2002 popular science book about xenobiology by biologist Jack Cohen and mathematician Ian Stewart.
An exomoon or extrasolar moon is a natural satellite that orbits an exoplanet or other non-stellar extrasolar body.
An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet outside our solar system.
Extraterrestrial intelligence (often abbreviated ETI) refers to hypothetical intelligent extraterrestrial life.
Extraterrestrial life,Where "extraterrestrial" is derived from the Latin extra ("beyond", "not of") and terrestris ("of Earth", "belonging to Earth").
Extraterrestrial liquid water (from the Latin words: extra and terrestris) is water in its liquid state that naturally occurs outside Earth.
ExtremeTech is a technology weblog about hardware, computer software, science and other technologies which launched in May 2001.
An F-type main-sequence star (F V) is a main-sequence, hydrogen-fusing star of spectral type F and luminosity class V. These stars have from 1.0 to 1.4 times the mass of the Sun and surface temperatures between 6,000 and 7,600 K.Tables VII and VIII.
A fairy tale, wonder tale, magic tale, or Märchen is folklore genre that takes the form of a short story that typically features entities such as dwarfs, dragons, elves, fairies, giants, gnomes, goblins, griffins, mermaids, talking animals, trolls, unicorns, or witches, and usually magic or enchantments.
In astronomy or planetary science, the frost line, also known as the snow line or ice line, is the particular distance in the solar nebula from the central protostar where it is cold enough for volatile compounds such as water, ammonia, methane, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide to condense into solid ice grains.
A G-type main-sequence star (Spectral type: G-V), often (and imprecisely) called a yellow dwarf, or G dwarf star, is a main-sequence star (luminosity class V) of spectral type G. Such a star has about 0.84 to 1.15 solar masses and surface temperature of between 5,300 and 6,000 K., G. M. H. J. Habets and J. R. W. Heintze, Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement 46 (November 1981), pp.
The Galactic Center is the rotational center of the Milky Way.
In astrobiology and planetary astrophysics, the galactic habitable zone is the region of a galaxy in which life might most likely develop.
Ganymede (Jupiter III) is the largest and most massive moon of Jupiter and in the Solar System.
A gas giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen and helium.
Gliese 1214 b (often shortened to GJ 1214 b) is an exoplanet that orbits the star Gliese 1214, and was discovered in December 2009.
Gliese 163 is an M3.5V red dwarf located 49 light years (15.0pc) from the sun, in the constellation Dorado.
Gliese 163 c or Gl 163 c is said to be a potentially habitable exoplanet, orbiting within the habitable zone of M dwarf star Gliese 163.
Gliese 581c or Gl 581c is a planet orbiting within the Gliese 581 system.
Gliese 581g, unofficially known as Zarmina (or Zarmina's World), is an unconfirmed (and frequently disputed) exoplanet claimed to orbit within the Gliese 581 system, twenty light-years from Earth.
Gliese 667 (142 G. Scorpii) is a triple-star system in the constellation Scorpius lying at a distance of about 6.8 pc (23.6 ly) from Earth.
Gliese 667 Cc (also known as GJ 667Cc, HR 6426Cc, or HD 156384Cc) is an exoplanet orbiting within the habitable zone of the red dwarf star Gliese 667 C, which is a member of the Gliese 667 triple star system, approximately 23.62 light-years (6.8 parsecs, or about 217,000,000,000,000 km) away in the constellation of Scorpius.
Gliese 876 is a red dwarf approximately 15 light-years away from Earth in the constellation of Aquarius.
Gliese 876 b is an exoplanet orbiting the red dwarf Gliese 876.
Gliese 876 c is an exoplanet orbiting the red dwarf Gliese 876, taking about 30 days to complete an orbit.
"Goldilocks and the Three Bears" (originally titled "The Story of the Three Bears") is a 19th-century fairy tale of which three versions exist.
The Goldilocks principle is named by analogy to the children's story The Three Bears, in which a little girl named Goldilocks tastes three different bowls of porridge, and she finds that she prefers porridge which is neither too hot nor too cold, but has just the right temperature.
The greenhouse effect is the process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without its atmosphere.
Guillermo Gonzalez (born 1963 in Havana, Cuba) is an astrophysicist, proponent of the pseudoscientific principle of intelligent design, and an assistant professor at Ball State University, a public research university, in Muncie, Indiana.
The habitability of natural satellites is a measure of the potential of natural satellites to have environments hospitable to life.
Harlow Shapley (November 2, 1885 – October 20, 1972) was a 20th-century American scientist, head of the Harvard College Observatory (1921–1952), and political activist during the latter New Deal and Fair Deal.
HD 28185 b is an extrasolar planet approximately 138 light-years away from Earth in the constellation of Eridanus.
HD 40307 is an orange (K-type) main-sequence star located approximately 42 light-years away in the constellation of Pictor (the Easel), taking its primary name from its Henry Draper Catalogue designation.
HD 40307 g is an exoplanet orbiting in the habitable zone of HD 40307.
HD 69830 (285 G. Puppis) is a yellow dwarf star located approximately 41 light-years away in the constellation of Puppis.
HD 69830 d is an exoplanet likely orbiting within the habitable zone of the star HD 69830, the outermost of three such planets discovered in the system.
HD 85512 b is an exoplanet orbiting HD 85512, a K-type main-sequence star approximately 36 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Vela.
Hellas Planitia is a plain located within the huge, roughly circular impact basin Hellas located in the southern hemisphere of the planet Mars.
Hello From Earth (HFE) is an Interstellar Radio Message (IRM).
An astronomical body's Hill sphere is the region in which it dominates the attraction of satellites.
The horizontal branch (HB) is a stage of stellar evolution that immediately follows the red giant branch in stars whose masses are similar to the Sun's.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
In chemistry, a hydrate is a substance that contains water or its constituent elements.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
The hydrosphere (from Greek ὕδωρ hydōr, "water" and σφαῖρα sphaira, "sphere") is the combined mass of water found on, under, and above the surface of a planet, minor planet or natural satellite.
A hydroxy or hydroxyl group is the entity with the formula OH.
A hyperthermophile is an organism that thrives in extremely hot environments—from 60 °C (140 °F) upwards.
Hypothetical types of biochemistry are forms of biochemistry speculated to be scientifically viable but not proven to exist at this time.
Ian Nicholas Stewart (born 24 September 1945) is a British mathematician and a popular-science and science-fiction writer.
The inverse-square law, in physics, is any physical law stating that a specified physical quantity or intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of that physical quantity.
Io (Jupiter I) is the innermost of the four Galilean moons of the planet Jupiter.
Isaac Asimov (January 2, 1920 – April 6, 1992) was an American writer and professor of biochemistry at Boston University.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
Jack Cohen, FRSB (born 19 September 1933 in Norwich, United Kingdom) is a British reproductive biologist also known for his science books and involvement with science fiction.
James Fraser Kasting (born January 2, 1953) is an American geoscientist and Distinguished Professor of Geosciences at Penn State University.
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in Pasadena, California, United States, with large portions of the campus in La Cañada Flintridge, California.
Jill Cornell Tarter (born January 16, 1944) is an American astronomer best known for her work on the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI).
The Journal of Zoology is a scientific journal concerning zoology, the study of animals.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
A K-type main-sequence star (K V), also referred to as an orange dwarf or K dwarf, is a main-sequence (hydrogen-burning) star of spectral type K and luminosity class V. These stars are intermediate in size between red M-type main-sequence stars ("red dwarfs") and yellow G-type main-sequence stars.
K2-155d is a potentially habitable Super-Earth exoplanet in the K2-155 system.
K2-3, also known as EPIC 201367065, is a red dwarf with three known planets.
K2-3d, also known as EPIC 201367065 d, is a confirmed massive solid exoplanet orbiting the red dwarf star K2-3, and the outermost of three such planets discovered in the system.
Kapteyn b is a possible exoplanet that orbits within the habitable zone of the red subdwarf Kapteyn's star, located approximately from Earth.
Kapteyn's Star is a class M1 red subdwarf about 12.76 light years from Earth in the southern constellation Pictor; it is the closest halo star to the Solar System.
Kepler is a space observatory launched by NASA to discover Earth-size planets orbiting other stars.
Kepler-186f (also known by its Kepler Object of Interest designation KOI-571.05) is an exoplanet orbiting the red dwarf Kepler-186, about 550 light-years (171 parsecs, or nearly km) from the Earth.
Kepler-22b, also known by its Kepler object of interest designation KOI-087.01, is an extrasolar planet orbiting within the empirical habitable zone of the Sun-like star Kepler-22.
Kepler-296e (also known by its Kepler Object of Interest designation KOI-1422.05) is a confirmed Earth-sized exoplanet orbiting within the habitable zone of Kepler-296.
Kepler-296f (also known by its Kepler Object of Interest designation KOI-1422.04) is a confirmed super-Earth exoplanet orbiting within the habitable zone of Kepler-296.
Kepler-438b (also known by its Kepler Object of Interest designation KOI-3284.01) is a confirmed near-Earth-sized exoplanet, likely rocky, orbiting on the inner edge of the habitable zone of the red dwarf as it receives 1.4 times our solar flux.
Kepler-440b (also known by its Kepler Object of Interest designation KOI-4087.01) is a confirmed super-Earth exoplanet orbiting within the habitable zone of Kepler-440, about from Earth.
Kepler-442b (also known by its Kepler Object of Interest designation KOI-4742.01) is a confirmed near-Earth-sized exoplanet, likely rocky, orbiting within the habitable zone of the K-type main-sequence star Kepler-442, about 1,120 light-years (342 parsecs, or nearly km) from Earth in the constellation Lyra.
Kepler-452 is a G-type main-sequence star located about 1400 light-years away from Earth in the constellation of Cygnus.
Kepler-452b (sometimes nicknamed Earth 2.0 or Earth's Cousin based on its characteristics; known sometimes as Coruscant by NASA, also known by its Kepler Object of Interest designation KOI-7016.01) is an exoplanet orbiting the Sun-like star Kepler-452 about from Earth in the constellation Cygnus.
(Aladin interactive image) --> Kepler-62 is a star somewhat cooler and smaller than the Sun in the constellation Lyra, 990 light years from Earth.
Kepler-62e (also known by its Kepler Object of Interest designation KOI-701.03) is a super-Earth exoplanet (extrasolar planet) discovered orbiting within the habitable zone of Kepler-62, the second outermost of five such planets discovered by NASA's Kepler spacecraft.
Kepler-62f (also known by its Kepler Object of Interest designation KOI-701.04) is a super-Earth exoplanet orbiting within the habitable zone of the star Kepler-62, the outermost of five such planets discovered around the star by NASA's ''Kepler'' spacecraft.
Kepler-69 (KOI-172, 2MASS J19330262+4452080) is a G-type main-sequence star similar to the Sun in the constellation Cygnus, located about from Earth.
Kepler-69c (also known by its Kepler Object of Interest designation KOI-172.02) is a confirmed super-Earth extrasolar planet, likely rocky, orbiting the Sun-like star Kepler-69, the outermost of two such planets discovered by NASA's Kepler spacecraft.
LHS 1140 is a red dwarf in the constellation of Cetus.
The light-year is a unit of length used to express astronomical distances and measures about 9.5 trillion kilometres or 5.9 trillion miles.
The survival of some microorganisms exposed to outer space has been studied using both simulated facilities and low Earth orbit exposures.
This list of nearest space terrestrial exoplanets candidates contains possible terrestrial ("rocky") exoplanets spaced at a distance of up to 50 light-years from the Solar System, ordered by increasing distance.
A lithosphere (λίθος for "rocky", and σφαίρα for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Luyten b (more commonly known as GJ 273b) is a confirmed exoplanet, likely rocky, orbiting within the habitable zone of the nearby red dwarf Luyten's Star.
Luyten's Star (GJ 273) is a red dwarf in the constellation Canis Minor located at a distance of approximately from the Sun.
In astronomy, the main sequence is a continuous and distinctive band of stars that appear on plots of stellar color versus brightness.
Margaret Carol Turnbull is an American astronomer.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
The mediocrity principle is the philosophical notion that "if an item is drawn at random from one of several sets or categories, it's likelier to come from the most numerous category than from any one of the less numerous categories".
In astronomy, metallicity is used to describe the abundance of elements present in an object that are heavier than hydrogen or helium.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
Any planet is an extremely faint light source compared to its parent star.
The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.
Milnesium tardigradum is a cosmopolitan species of tardigrades that can be found in a diverse range of environments.
In geology, mineralization is the deposition of economically important metals in the formation of ore bodies or "lodes" by various process.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.
An O-type star is a hot, blue-white star of spectral type O in the Yerkes classification system employed by astronomers.
An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.
An ocean planet, ocean world, water world, aquaplanet or panthalassic planet is a type of terrestrial planet that contains a substantial amount of water either at its surface or subsurface.
The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle.
The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars, or binary stars.
The origin of water on Earth, or the reason that there is clearly more liquid water on Earth than on the other rocky planets of the Solar System, is not completely understood.
Outgassing (sometimes called offgassing, particularly when in reference to indoor air quality) is the release of a gas that was dissolved, trapped, frozen or absorbed in some material.
The parsec (symbol: pc) is a unit of length used to measure large distances to astronomical objects outside the Solar System.
Peter Douglas Ward (born 1949) is an American paleontologist and professor at the University of Washington, Seattle, and Sprigg Institute of Geobiology at the University of Adelaide.
Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Latin for Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Isaac Newton, in Latin, first published 5 July 1687.
Photodissociation, photolysis, or photodecomposition is a chemical reaction in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons.
Photoevaporation denotes the process where energetic radiation ionises gas and causes it to disperse away from the ionising source.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Planetary habitability is the measure of a planet's or a natural satellite's potential to have habitable environments hospitable to life, or its ability to generate life endogenously.
A planetary surface is where the solid (or liquid) material of the outer crust on certain types of astronomical objects contacts the atmosphere or outer space.
A planetary system is a set of gravitationally bound non-stellar objects in or out of orbit around a star or star system.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
Project Phoenix was a SETI project: in this case a search for extraterrestrial intelligence by analyzing patterns in radio signals.
Proxima Centauri b (also called Proxima b or Alpha Centauri Cb) is an exoplanet orbiting within the habitable zone of the red dwarf star Proxima Centauri, which is the closest star to the Sun and part of a triple star system.
In physics, and in particular as measured by radiometry, radiant energy is the energy of electromagnetic and gravitational radiation.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
RAND Corporation ("Research ANd Development") is an American nonprofit global policy think tank created in 1948 by Douglas Aircraft Company to offer research and analysis to the United States Armed Forces.
In planetary astronomy and astrobiology, the Rare Earth Hypothesis argues that the origin of life and the evolution of biological complexity such as sexually reproducing, multicellular organisms on Earth (and, subsequently, human intelligence) required an improbable combination of astrophysical and geological events and circumstances.
A red dwarf (or M dwarf) is a small and relatively cool star on the main sequence, of M spectral type.
A red giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass (roughly 0.3–8 solar masses) in a late phase of stellar evolution.
Reviews of Geophysics is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the American Geophysical Union.
Rhizocarpon geographicum (the map lichen) is a species of lichen, which grows on rocks in mountainous areas of low air pollution.
Riftia pachyptila, commonly known as giant tube worms, are marine invertebrates in the phylum Annelida (formerly grouped in phylum Pogonophora and Vestimentifera) related to tube worms commonly found in the intertidal and pelagic zones.
A rogue planet (also termed an interstellar planet, nomad planet, free-floating planet, orphan planet, wandering planet, starless planet, or sunless planet) is a planetary-mass object that orbits a galactic center directly.
Ross 128 b is a confirmed Earth-sized exoplanet, likely rocky, orbiting within the inner habitable zone of the red dwarf Ross 128, at a distance of about 11 light-years from Earth;.
A runaway greenhouse effect is a process in which a net positive feedback between surface temperature and atmospheric opacity increases the strength of the greenhouse effect on a planet until its oceans boil away.
In statistics, sampling bias is a bias in which a sample is collected in such a way that some members of the intended population are less likely to be included than others.
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Science Daily is an American website that aggregates press releases and publishes lightly edited press releases (a practice called churnalism) about science, similar to Phys.org and EurekAlert!.
A season is a division of the year marked by changes in weather, ecology, and amount of daylight.
Seasonal flows on warm Martian slopes (also called recurring slope lineae, recurrent slope lineae and RSL) are thought to be salty water flows occurring during the warmest months on Mars, or alternatively, dry grains that "flow" downslope of at least 27 degrees.
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
Sidereal time is a timekeeping system that astronomers use to locate celestial objects.
Solar-type star, solar analogs (also analogues), and solar twins are stars that are particularly similar to the Sun.
A solar flare is a sudden flash of increased Sun's brightness, usually observed near its surface.
The solar luminosity,, is a unit of radiant flux (power emitted in the form of photons) conventionally used by astronomers to measure the luminosity of stars, galaxies and other celestial objects in terms of the output of the Sun.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona.
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
Space colonization (also called space settlement, or extraterrestrial colonization) is permanent human habitation off the planet Earth.
A space habitat (also called a space colony, space settlement, orbital habitat, orbital settlement or orbital colony) is a type of space station, intended as a permanent settlement rather than as a simple way-station or other specialized facility.
A space suit is a garment worn to keep a human alive in the harsh environment of outer space, vacuum and temperature extremes.
Space.com is a space and astronomy news website.
A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
A star system or stellar system is a small number of stars that orbit each other, bound by gravitational attraction.
Star Trek is an American media franchise based on the science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry.
The planet classification used in the Star Trek science fiction media franchise uses letters to refer to classes of planets and planetoids.
Starspots are stellar phenomena.
In astronomy, stellar classification is the classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics.
Su-Shu Huang (黃授書, April 16, 1915 – September 15, 1977) was a Chinese-born American astrophysicist.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
A super-Earth is an extrasolar planet with a mass higher than Earth's, but substantially below the masses of the Solar System's ice giants, Uranus and Neptune, which have masses of 15 and 17 times Earth's, respectively.
Tardigrades (also known colloquially as water bears, or moss piglets) are water-dwelling, eight-legged, segmented micro-animals.
Tau Ceti, Latinized from τ Ceti, is a single star in the constellation Cetus that is spectrally similar to the Sun, although it has only about 78% of the Sun's mass.
The Teen Age Message (TAM) was a series of interstellar radio transmissions sent from the Yevpatoria Planetary Radar to six solar-type stars during August–September 2001.
A terrestrial planet, telluric planet, or rocky planet is a planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals.
The Astrophysical Journal, often abbreviated ApJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics and astronomy, established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Tidal heating (also known as tidal working or tidal flexing) occurs through the tidal friction processes: orbital energy is dissipated as heat in either the surface ocean or interior of a planet or satellite.
Tidal locking (also called gravitational locking or captured rotation) occurs when the long-term interaction between a pair of co-orbiting astronomical bodies drives the rotation rate of at least one of them into the state where there is no more net transfer of angular momentum between this body (e.g. a planet) and its orbit around the second body (e.g. a star); this condition of "no net transfer" must be satisfied over the course of one orbit around the second body.
Titan is the largest moon of Saturn.
TRAPPIST-1, also designated as 2MASS J23062928-0502285, is an ultra-cool red dwarf star that is slightly larger, but much more massive, than the planet Jupiter; it is located from the Sun, in the direction described as the constellation Aquarius.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The University of Puerto Rico at Arecibo (UPRA or UPR-Arecibo) is a state university located in the city of Arecibo, Puerto Rico, and part of the eleven campuses that compose the University of Puerto Rico system.
The University of Washington (commonly referred to as UW, simply Washington, or informally U-Dub) is a public research university in Seattle, Washington.
Upsilon Andromedae d (υ Andromedae d, abbreviated Upsilon And d, υ And d), also named Majriti, is a super-Jupiter exoplanet orbiting within the habitable zone of the Sun-like star Upsilon Andromedae A, approximately 44 light-years (13.5 parsecs, or nearly km) away from Earth in the constellation of Andromeda.
The W. M. Keck Observatory is a two-telescope astronomical observatory at an elevation of 4,145 meters (13,600 ft) near the summit of Mauna Kea in the U.S. state of Hawaii.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Water is distributed across earth.
The waterhole, or water hole, is an especially quiet band of the electromagnetic spectrum between 1,420 and 1,666 megahertz, corresponding to wavelengths of 21 and 18 centimeters respectively.
A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a stellar core remnant composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter.
Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.
Xanthoria elegans, commonly known as the elegant sunburst lichen, is a lichenized species of fungus in the genus Xanthoria, family Teloschistaceae.
Zoltán Balog, PhD (born 1972 in Szolnok, Hungary) is an astronomer with the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, Germany.
16 Cygni Bb or HD 186427 b is an extrasolar planet approximately 69 light-years away in the constellation of Cygnus.
47 Ursae Majoris (abbreviated 47 UMa), also named Chalawan (ชาละวัน), is a yellow dwarf star approximately 46 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Ursa Major.
55 Cancri (abbreviated 55 Cnc) is a binary star approximately 41 light-years away from the Sun in the constellation of Cancer.
55 Cancri f (abbreviated 55 Cnc f), also designated Rho1 Cancri f and named Harriot, is an extrasolar planet approximately 41 light-years away from Earth in the constellation of Cancer (the Crab).
70 Virginis b (abbreviated 70 Vir b) is an extrasolar planet approximately 60 light-years away in the constellation of Virgo.
CHZ (astronomy), Circumstellar Habitable Zones, Comfort zone (astronomy), Continuous habitable zone, Continuously habitable zone, Goldilock's zone, Goldilocks Zone, Goldilocks planet, Goldilocks zone, Habitability zone, Habitable Zone, Habitable zone, Solar Habitable Zone, Solar System Habitable Zone, The Circumstellar habitable zone.