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Index Circus

A circus is a company of performers who put on diverse entertainment shows that include clowns, acrobats, trained animals, trapeze acts, musicians, dancers, hoopers, tightrope walkers, jugglers, magicians, unicyclists, as well as other object manipulation and stunt-oriented artists. [1]

275 relations: Acrobatics, Aerial silk, Allen Campbell, American Civil War, Amphithéâtre Anglais, Andrew Ducrow, Animal Defenders International, Animal rights, Animal training, Animal welfare, Animal Welfare Act of 1966, Anthony Newley, Antonio Franconi, Archaos, Argentina, Ashgabat, At the Circus, B movie, Bandwagon (magazine), Barnum (musical), Bear, Being for the Benefit of Mr. Kite!, Big Apple Circus, Big cat, Bill Irwin, Billy Rose's Jumbo, Bird, Blackpool Tower, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brass instrument, Burt Lancaster, Calliope (music), Camel, Capital Circus of Budapest, Carl Zuckmayer, Carnivàle, Carré Theatre, Cat, Cecil B. DeMille, Chapeaugraphy, Charles Dibdin, Charlie Chaplin, Chautauqua, Chile, Chinese State Circus, Christopher Chope, Circus (building), Circus (TV series), Circus clown, ..., Circus Flaminius, Circus Krone, Circus Krone Building, Circus Maximus, Circus of Horrors, Circus of Maxentius, Circus of Pepin and Breschard, Circus Oz, Circus Royale, Circus Smirkus, Circus train, Circus World (film), Cirkus (Stockholm), Cirkus Cirkör, Cirque Éloize, Cirque d'hiver, Cirque du Freak, Cirque du Soleil, Clown, Clown alley, Colombia, Contemporary circus, Contortion, Corde lisse, Costa Rica, Costume design, Croatia, Cy Coleman, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Dan Rice, Dance, Darren Shan, DD National, Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Dog, Dog and pony show, Dralion, Dumbo, Ecuador, Eduard Bass, El Salvador, Elephant, Elephant goad, EMI, Emmett Kelly, Entrance of the Gladiators, Estonia, Federation of Veterinarians of Europe, Federico Fellini, Feld Entertainment, Fire breathing, Fire eating, Fire performance, Flea circus, Fratellini family, Freak show, Freaks, Fresnel lens, Gary Jennings, George Martin, George Speaight, George Washington, Glockenspiel, Great Yarmouth, Greek language, Grock, Gymnastics, He Who Gets Slapped, Herbert Farjeon, Hey, Rube!, Hippodrome, Hippodrome, London, Homeric Greek, Honolulu, Hooping, Horse, Human cannonball, Humane Society of the United States, I clowns, Impalement arts, Ingmar Bergman, International Circus Festival of Monte-Carlo, Isaac A. Van Amburgh, Israel, James Anthony Bailey, Jean-Pierre Thiollet, Jim Rose Circus, John Barrymore, John Bill Ricketts, John Lennon, John Philip Sousa, John Wayne, Joseph Grimaldi, Juggling, Julius Fučík (composer), Jungle Emperor Leo, Kakaako, Kenneth Feld, La Strada, Latin, Lennon Bros Circus, Leonid Andreyev, Lighting designer, Lion taming, Lionel Monckton, List of circus skills, List of circuses and circus owners, Llama, Los Angeles, Mabel Stark, Magic (illusion), Malta, Margaret Mayo (playwright), Mark Bramble, Marx Brothers, Master of ceremonies, Maxentius, Menagerie, Mera Naam Joker, Metathesis (linguistics), Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Mexico, Moira Orfei, Monte Carlo, Moscow Circus on Tsvetnoy Boulevard, Moscow State Circus, Munich, Musical film, Musician, New York City, Nofit State Circus, Northern England, Object manipulation, P. T. Barnum, Pablo Fanque, Pachydermata, Palm Bay, Florida, Panama, Paraguay, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, Peru, Philadelphia, Philip Astley, Pickle Family Circus, Plate spinning, Quebec, Ra-Ra Zoo, Raj Kapoor, Reese Witherspoon, Reuters, Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus, Ringmaster (circus), Rob Mermin, Robert Pattinson, Roger Gale, Rolling globe, Roman Empire, Romani people, Romanization, Rupert Croft-Cooke, Rusty Russell, San Francisco, Sara Gruen, Sea lion, Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, Shah Rukh Khan, Shanghai, Shanghai Circus World, Sideshow, Singapore, Slovenia, Soviet Union, Spangle (novel), Stereotypy (non-human), Stilts, Strongman (strength athlete), Stunt performer, Super Commando Dhruva, Surrey Theatre, Sword swallowing, Taiwan, Teatro ZinZanni, The Beatles, The Circus (film), The Doll Family, The Greatest Show on Earth (film), The Stars and Stripes Forever, The Tiger Lillies, The Wagons Roll at Night, The Washington Post, Thomas Taplin Cooke, Tightrope walking, Toby Tyler, Trampoline, Trapeze, Trapeze (film), Tumbling (gymnastics), Turkmen State Circus, Tyke (elephant), Tyrone Guthrie, Unicycle, United States Department of Agriculture, United States district court, University of Oxford, UniverSoul Circus, Vazquez Hermanos Circus, Victor Pépin, Victoria Chaplin, Vienna, Vladimir Lenin, Wageningen University and Research, Wales, Walt Disney Animation Studios, Water for Elephants, Water for Elephants (film), WildCRU, Wildlife, William Batty, William C. Coup, William Kite, Zebra, Zip the Pinhead, 3 Ring Circus, 4 Devils. Expand index (225 more) »


Acrobatics (from Greek ἀκροβατέω akrobateō, "walk on tiptoe, strut") is the performance of extraordinary human feats of balance, agility, and motor coordination.

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Aerial silk

Aerial silks (also known as aerial contortion, aerial ribbons, aerial tissues, fabric, ribbon, or tissu, depending on personal preference) is a type of performance in which one or more artists perform aerial acrobatics while hanging from a fabric.

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Allen Campbell

Allen Campbell (December 30, 1956 - August 20, 1994) was a zookeeper and elephant trainer and handler in his hometown of Jacksonville, Florida before moving to work in the Baton Rouge Zoo in the mid-1970s as the elephant keeper and trainer.

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American Civil War

The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.

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Amphithéâtre Anglais

The Amphithéâtre Anglais in Paris, also known as the Amphithéâtre d'Astley, was opened in 1782 by Philip Astley, the English inventor of the modern circus ring (hence Anglais), as the first purpose-built circus in France.

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Andrew Ducrow

Andrew Ducrow (1793–1842) was a British circus performer, often called the "Father of British circus equestrianism" and "the Colossus of equestrians".

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Animal Defenders International

Animal Defenders International (ADI) is an American major international campaigning group, with offices in London, Los Angeles and Bogota, who lobby to protect animals on issues such as animals in entertainment and their use in experiments, worldwide traffic in endangered species, factory farming, pollution and conservation.

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Animal rights

Animal rights is the idea in which some, or all, non-human animals are entitled to the possession of their own lives and that their most basic interests—such as the need to avoid suffering—should be afforded the same consideration as similar interests of human beings.

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Animal training

Animal training refers to teaching animals specific responses to specific conditions or stimuli.

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Animal welfare

Animal welfare is the well-being of animals.

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Animal Welfare Act of 1966

The Animal Welfare Act (Laboratory Animal Welfare Act of 1966, P.L. 89-544) was signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson on August 24, 1966.

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Anthony Newley

Anthony Newley (24 September 1931 – 14 April 1999) was an English actor, singer and songwriter.

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Antonio Franconi

Antonio Franconi (1738 in Venice, Italy - 1836 in Paris, France) was an Italian equestrian.

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Archaos (Cirque Archaos) is a French contemporary circus created by Pierrot Bidon in 1986.

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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.

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Ashgabat (Aşgabat,; ɐʂxɐˈbat) — named Poltoratsk (p) between 1919 and 1927, is the capital and the largest city of Turkmenistan in Central Asia, situated between the Karakum Desert and the Kopet Dag mountain range.

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At the Circus

At the Circus (also called The Marx Brothers at the Circus) is a 1939 Marx Brothers comedy film released by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in which they help save a circus from bankruptcy.

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B movie

A B movie or B film is a low-budget commercial movie, but not an arthouse film.

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Bandwagon (magazine)

Bandwagon is the bimonthly journal of the Circus Historical Society.

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Barnum (musical)

Barnum is an American musical with a book by Mark Bramble, lyrics by Michael Stewart, and music by Cy Coleman.

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Bears are carnivoran mammals of the family Ursidae.

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Being for the Benefit of Mr. Kite!

"Being for the Benefit of Mr.

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Big Apple Circus

The Big Apple Circus is a circus based in New York City.

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Big cat

The informal term "big cat" is typically used to refer to any of the five living members of the genus Panthera, namely tiger, lion, jaguar, leopard and snow leopard.

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Bill Irwin

William Mills Irwin (born April 11, 1950) is an American actor, clown, and comedian.

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Billy Rose's Jumbo

Billy Rose's Jumbo is a 1962 American musical film released by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and starring Doris Day, Stephen Boyd, Jimmy Durante, and Martha Raye.

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Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.

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Blackpool Tower

Blackpool Tower is a tourist attraction in Blackpool, Lancashire, England, which was opened to the public on 14 May 1894.

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Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.

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Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.

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Brass instrument

A brass instrument is a musical instrument that produces sound by sympathetic vibration of air in a tubular resonator in sympathy with the vibration of the player's lips.

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Burt Lancaster

Burton Stephen Lancaster (November 2, 1913 – October 20, 1994) was an American actor and producer.

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Calliope (music)

A calliope (see below for pronunciation) is a musical instrument that produces sound by sending a gas, originally steam or more recently compressed air, through large whistles—originally locomotive whistles.

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A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back.

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Capital Circus of Budapest

The Capital Circus of Budapest (Fővárosi Nagycirkusz) is a circus building located in Budapest, Hungary.

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Carl Zuckmayer

Carl Zuckmayer (27 December 1896 – 18 January 1977) was a German writer and playwright.

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Carnivàle is an American television series set in the United States during the Great Depression and Dust Bowl.

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Carré Theatre

The Royal Theatre Carré (Dutch) is a Neo-Renaissance theatre in Amsterdam, located near the river Amstel.

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The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus) is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal.

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Cecil B. DeMille

Cecil Blount DeMille (August 12, 1881 – January 21, 1959) was an American filmmaker.

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Chapeaugraphy, occasionally anglicised to chapography, is a novelty act and panhandling trick in which a ring-shaped piece of felt is manipulated to look like various types of hats.

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Charles Dibdin

Charles Dibdin (before 4 March 1745 – 25 July 1814) was a British composer, musician, dramatist, novelist and actor.

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Charlie Chaplin

Sir Charles Spencer Chaplin (16 April 1889 – 25 December 1977) was an English comic actor, filmmaker, and composer who rose to fame in the era of silent film.

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Chautauqua was an adult education movement in the United States, highly popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Chinese State Circus

The Chinese State Circus is a touring circus that aims to present Chinese circus arts to European audiences.

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Christopher Chope

Sir Christopher Robert Chope (born 19 May 1947) is a British barrister and Conservative politician.

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Circus (building)

The Roman circus (from Latin, "circle") was a large open-air venue used for public events in the ancient Roman Empire.

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Circus (TV series)

Circus is a 1989 Indian television series directed by Aziz Mirza & Kundan Shah, set in a circus troupe, and starring popular Hindi film actor of today, Shahrukh Khan when he was a newcomer, and Ashutosh Gowariker who subsequently directed movies such as Jodha-Akbar, Swades, Lagaan, & Baazi.

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Circus clown

Clowns have always been an integral part of the circus, offering a source of amusement for patrons and providing relief from the array of animal acts and performances by acrobats and novelty artistes.

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Circus Flaminius

The Circus Flaminius was a large, circular area in ancient Rome, located in the southern end of the Campus Martius near the Tiber River.

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Circus Krone

Circus Krone, based in Munich, is one of the largest circuses in Europe and one of the few in Western Europe to also occupy a building (Cirque d'hiver de Paris, Cirque d'hiver d'Amiens and Cirque Royal in Brussels are some other examples of European circuses occupying a building).

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Circus Krone Building

The Circus Krone Building is the headquarters and main winter venue for Circus Krone in Munich, Germany.

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Circus Maximus

The Circus Maximus (Latin for greatest or largest circus; Italian: Circo Massimo) is an ancient Roman chariot-racing stadium and mass entertainment venue located in Rome, Italy.

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Circus of Horrors

Circus of Horrors is a 1960 British horror film directed by Sidney Hayers.

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Circus of Maxentius

The Circus of Maxentius (known until the 19th century as the Circus of Caracalla) is an ancient structure in Rome, Italy; it is part of a complex of buildings erected by emperor Maxentius on the Via Appia between AD 306 and 312.

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Circus of Pepin and Breschard

The equestrian theatre company of Pépin and Breschard, American Victor Pépin and Frenchman Jean Baptiste Casmiere Breschard, arrived in the United States of America from Madrid, Spain (where they had performed during the 1805 and 1806 seasons), in November 1807.

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Circus Oz

Circus Oz is an Australian animal-free circus troupe incorporating theatre, satire and rock'n'roll.

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Circus Royale

Circus Royale is an Australian circus troupe owned by Damian Syred.

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Circus Smirkus

Circus Smirkus is a non-profit, award-winning, international youth circus founded in 1987 by Rob Mermin.

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Circus train

A circus train is a method of conveyance for circus troupes.

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Circus World (film)

Circus World (released as The Magnificent Showman in the United Kingdom) is a 1964 drama film starring John Wayne, Claudia Cardinale and Rita Hayworth.

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Cirkus (Stockholm)

Cirkus (Cirkus Arena och Restaurang AB) is an arena in Djurgården, Stockholm, that holds 1,650 people.

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Cirkus Cirkör

Cirkus Cirkör is a Swedish circus company, and is today Scandinavia's leading performing circus company within the art form of contemporary circus.

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Cirque Éloize

Cirque Éloize is a Montreal-born contemporary circus company founded in 1993 by Daniel Cyr, Claudette Morin and Jeannot Painchaud.

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Cirque d'hiver

The Cirque d'Hiver ("Winter Circus"), located at 110 rue Amelot (at the juncture of the rue des Filles Calvaires and rue Amelot, Paris 11ème), has been a prominent venue for circuses, exhibitions of dressage, musical concerts, and other events, including exhibitions of Turkish wrestling and even fashion shows.

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Cirque du Freak

Cirque du Freak (also known as Cirque du Freak: A Living Nightmare) is the first novel in The Saga of Darren Shan by Darren Shan, published in January 2000.

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Cirque du Soleil

Cirque du Soleil ("Circus of the Sun" or "Sun Circus") is a Canadian entertainment company.

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Clowns are comic performers who employ slapstick or similar types of physical comedy, often in a mime style.

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Clown alley

The clown alley in a circus is a backstage area, usually very near the animal pens, where clowns change into their costumes and apply makeup.

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Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.

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Contemporary circus

New or Contemporary Circus, also known as nouveau cirque or cirque contemporain in French-speaking countries, is a genre of performing arts developed in the late 20th century in which a story or theme is conveyed through traditional circus skills.

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Contortion (sometimes contortionism) is a performance art in which performers, contortionists, showcase their skills of extreme physical flexibility.

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Corde lisse

Corde lisse is an aerial circus skill or act that involves acrobatics on a vertically hanging rope.

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Costa Rica

Costa Rica ("Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.

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Costume design

Costume design is the investing of clothing and the overall appearance of a character or performer.

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Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.

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Cy Coleman

Cy Coleman (born Seymour Kaufman; June 14, 1929 – November 18, 2004) was an American composer, songwriter, and jazz pianist.

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Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.

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Czech Republic

The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.

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Dan Rice

Dan Rice (January 23, 1823 – February 22, 1900) was an American entertainer of many talents, most famously as a clown, who was pre-eminent before the American Civil War.

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Dance is a performing art form consisting of purposefully selected sequences of human movement.

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Darren Shan

Darren O'Shaughnessy (born 2 July 1972 in London, England), who commonly writes under the pen name Darren Shan, is an Irish author.

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DD National

DD National (DD1) is a state-owned general interest terrestrial television channel in India.

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Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs

The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) is the government department responsible for environmental protection, food production and standards, agriculture, fisheries and rural communities in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

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The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the gray wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore.

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Dog and pony show

"Dog and pony show" is a colloquial term which has come to mean a highly promoted, often over-staged performance, presentation, or event designed to sway or convince opinion for political, or less often, commercial ends.

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Dralion (pronounced Drah-lee-on) was a touring production by the Canadian entertainment company Cirque du Soleil.

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Dumbo is a 1941 American animated film produced by Walt Disney Productions and released by RKO Radio Pictures.

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Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Eduard Bass

Eduard Bass, born Eduard Schmidt, (1 January 1888, in Prague – 2 October 1946, in Prague) was a Czech prose writer, journalist, singer, and actor.

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El Salvador

El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.

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Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea.

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Elephant goad

The elephant goad, bullhook, or ankus (from Sanskrit or ankusha) is a tool employed by mahout in the handling and training of elephants.

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EMI Group Limited (originally an initialism for Electric and Musical Industries and also referred to as EMI Records Ltd.) was a British multinational conglomerate founded in March 1931 in London.

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Emmett Kelly

Emmett Leo Kelly (December 9, 1898March 28, 1979) was an American circus performer, who created the memorable clown figure "Weary Willie", based on the hobos of the Depression era.

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Entrance of the Gladiators

"Entrance of the Gladiators" op.

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Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.

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Federation of Veterinarians of Europe

The Federation of Veterinarians of Europe (FVE) is a non-profit umbrella organisation of veterinary organisations from 38 European countries.

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Federico Fellini

Federico Fellini, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI (20 January 1920 – 31 October 1993) was an Italian film director and screenwriter.

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Feld Entertainment

Feld Entertainment Inc. is a live show production company which owns a number of traveling shows and the now defunct Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus.

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Fire breathing

Fire breathing is the act of making a plume or stream of fire by creating a precise mist of fuel from the mouth over an open flame.

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Fire eating

Fire eating is the act of putting a flaming object into the mouth and extinguishing it.

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Fire performance

Fire performance is a group of performance arts or skills that involve the manipulation of fire.

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Flea circus

A flea circus is a circus sideshow attraction in which fleas are attached (or appear to be attached) to miniature carts and other items, and encouraged to perform circus acts within a small housing.

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Fratellini family

The Fratellini Family was a famous European circus family in the late 1900s and 1920s.

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Freak show

A freak show is an exhibition of biological rarities, referred to in popular culture as "freaks of nature".

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Freaks is a 1932 American MGM pre-Code horror film produced and directed by Tod Browning.

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Fresnel lens

A Fresnel lens is a type of compact lens originally developed by French physicist Augustin-Jean Fresnel for lighthouses.

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Gary Jennings

Gary Jennings (September 20, 1928 – February 13, 1999) was an American author who wrote children's and adult novels.

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George Martin

Sir George Henry Martin (3 January 19268 March 2016) was an English record producer, arranger, composer, conductor, audio engineer, and musician.

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George Speaight

George Victor Speaight (6 September 1914 – 22 December 2005) was a theatre historian, author and performer and the leading authority on 19th-century toy theatre.

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George Washington

George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.

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A glockenspiel (or, Glocken: bells and Spiel: set) is a percussion instrument composed of a set of tuned keys arranged in the fashion of the keyboard of a piano.

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Great Yarmouth

Great Yarmouth, often known to locals as Yarmouth, is a coastal town in Norfolk, England.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Grock (January 10, 1880 – July 14, 1959), born Charles Adrien Wettach, was a Swiss clown, composer and musician.

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Gymnastics is a sport that requires balance, strength, flexibility, agility, coordination, and endurance.

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He Who Gets Slapped

He Who Gets Slapped is a 1924 American silent drama film starring Lon Chaney, Norma Shearer, and John Gilbert, and directed by Victor Sjöström.

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Herbert Farjeon

Herbert Farjeon (5 March 1887 – 3 May 1945) was a major figure in the British theatre from 1910 until his death.

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Hey, Rube!

"Hey, Rube!" is a slang phrase most commonly used in the United States by circus and traveling carnival workers ("carnies"), with origins in the middle 19th century.

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The hippodrome (ἱππόδρομος) was an ancient Grecian stadium for horse racing and chariot racing.

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Hippodrome, London

The Hippodrome is a building on the corner of Cranbourn Street and Charing Cross Road in the City of Westminster, London.

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Homeric Greek

Homeric Greek is the form of the Greek language that was used by Homer in the Iliad and Odyssey and in the Homeric Hymns.

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Honolulu is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Hawaiokinai.

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Hooping (also called hula hooping or hoop dance) generally refers to manipulation of and artistic movement or dancing with a hoop (or hoops).

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The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.

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Human cannonball

The human cannonball act is a performance in which a person who acts as the "cannonball" is ejected from a specially designed "cannon".

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Humane Society of the United States

The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS), based in Washington, D.C., is an American nonprofit organization founded by journalist Fred Myers and Helen Jones, Larry Andrews, and Marcia Glaser in 1954, to address what they saw as animal-related cruelties of national scope, and to resolve animal welfare problems by applying strategies beyond the resources or abilities of local organizations.

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I clowns

I clowns (also known as The Clowns) is a 1970 film by Federico Fellini about the human fascination with clowns and circuses.

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Impalement arts

Impalement arts are a type of performing art in which a performer plays the role of human target for a fellow performer who demonstrates accuracy skills in disciplines such as knife throwing and archery.

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Ingmar Bergman

Ernst Ingmar Bergman (14 July 1918 – 30 July 2007) was a Swedish director, writer, and producer who worked in film, television, theatre and radio.

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International Circus Festival of Monte-Carlo

The International Circus Festival of Monte-Carlo, known as Festival International du Cirque de Monte-Carlo in French, is an annual festival held since 1974 in Monte Carlo, Monaco.

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Isaac A. Van Amburgh

Isaac A. Van Amburgh (1811–1865) was an American animal trainer who developed the first trained wild animal act in modern times.

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Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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James Anthony Bailey

James Anthony Bailey (July 4, 1847 – April 11, 1906), born James Anthony McGinnis, was an American circus ringmaster.

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Jean-Pierre Thiollet

Jean-Pierre Thiollet (born December 9, 1956 in Poitiers) is a French writer and journalist.

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Jim Rose Circus

The Jim Rose Circus is a modern-day version of a circus sideshow.

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John Barrymore

John Barrymore (born John Sidney Blyth; February 14 or 15, 1882 – May 29, 1942) was an American actor on stage, screen and radio.

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John Bill Ricketts

John Bill Ricketts (1769–1800) was an English equestrian who brought the first modern circus to the United States.

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John Lennon

John Winston Ono Lennon (9 October 19408 December 1980) was an English singer, songwriter, and peace activist who co-founded the Beatles, the most commercially successful band in the history of popular music.

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John Philip Sousa

John Philip Sousa (November 6, 1854 – March 6, 1932) was an American composer and conductor of the late Romantic era, known primarily for American military and patriotic marches.

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John Wayne

Marion Mitchell Morrison (born Marion Robert Morrison; May 26, 1907 – June 11, 1979), known professionally as John Wayne and nicknamed "The Duke", was an American actor and filmmaker.

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Joseph Grimaldi

Joseph Grimaldi (18 December 1778 – 31 May 1837) was an English actor, comedian and dancer, who became the most popular English entertainer of the Regency era.

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Juggling is a physical skill, performed by a juggler, involving the manipulation of objects for recreation, entertainment, art or sport.

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Julius Fučík (composer)

Julius Fučík (18 July 1872 – 25 September 1916) was a Czech composer and conductor of military bands.

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Jungle Emperor Leo

Jungle Emperor Leo, known in Japan as is a 1997 animated movie focusing on the last half of Osamu Tezuka's manga, Jungle Taitei (known in earlier US productions as Kimba the White Lion and Leo the Lion).

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Kakaako is a commercial and retail district of Honolulu, Hawaiokinai between Ala Moana near Waikīkī to the east and downtown Honolulu and Honolulu Harbor to the west.

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Kenneth Feld

Kenneth Jeffrey Feld (born 1948 in Washington, DC) is the CEO of Feld Entertainment, which has operated the Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus (closed in 2017), Disney on Ice, Doodlebops Live, Disney Live, Monster Jam, International Hot Rod Association, and AMA Supercross Championship.

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La Strada

La Strada is a 1954 Italian drama film directed by Federico Fellini from his own screenplay co-written with Tullio Pinelli and Ennio Flaiano.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Lennon Bros Circus

Lennon's Circus (established circa 1890) is a circus that tours in Australia.

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Leonid Andreyev

Leonid Nikolaievich Andreyev (Леони́д Никола́евич Андре́ев, – 12 September 1919) was a Russian playwright, novelist and short-story writer, who is considered to be a father of Expressionism in Russian literature.

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Lighting designer

A theatre lighting designer (or LD) works with the director, choreographer, set designer, costume designer, and sound designer to create the lighting, atmosphere, and time of day for the production in response to the text, while keeping in mind issues of visibility, safety, and cost.

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Lion taming

Lion taming is the taming and training of lions either for protection, or more commonly, entertainment, particularly in the circus.

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Lionel Monckton

Lionel John Alexander Monckton (18 December 1861 – 15 February 1924) was an English writer and composer of musical theatre.

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List of circus skills

Circus skills are a group of pursuits that have been performed as entertainment in circus, sideshow, busking, or variety, vaudeville or music hall shows.

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List of circuses and circus owners

There have been many famous modern circuses since the first modern circus was staged by Philip Astley in London on January 9, 1768.

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The llama (Lama glama) is a domesticated South American camelid, widely used as a meat and pack animal by Andean cultures since the Pre-Columbian era.

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Los Angeles

Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.

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Mabel Stark

Mabel Stark, whose real name was Mary Haynie (December 10, 1889 – April 20, 1968), was a renowned tiger trainer of the 1920s and she was referred to as one of the world's first women tiger trainers/tamers.

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Magic (illusion)

Magic, along with its subgenres of, and sometimes referred to as illusion, stage magic or street magic is a performing art in which audiences are entertained by staged tricks or illusions of seemingly impossible feats using natural means.

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Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.

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Margaret Mayo (playwright)

Margaret Mayo, born Lillian Elizabeth Slatten (November 19, 1882 in Brownsville, Illinois – February 25, 1951), was an American actress, playwright and screenwriter.

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Mark Bramble

Mark Bramble (born December 7, 1950) is an American theatre director, author, and producer.

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Marx Brothers

The Marx Brothers were an American family comedy act that was successful in vaudeville, on Broadway, and in motion pictures from 1905 to 1949.

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Master of ceremonies

A master of ceremonies, abbreviated M.C. or emcee, also called compère and announcer, is the official host of a ceremony, a staged event or similar performance.

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Maxentius (Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius Augustus; c. 278 – 28 October 312) was Roman Emperor from 306 to 312.

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A menagerie is a collection of captive animals, frequently exotic, kept for display; or the place where such a collection is kept, a precursor to the modern zoological garden.

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Mera Naam Joker

Mera Naam Joker (translation: My Name is Joker) is a 1970 Indian Hindi drama film, directed by Raj Kapoor, with screenplay written by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas.

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Metathesis (linguistics)

Metathesis (from Greek, from "I put in a different order"; Latin: trānspositiō) is the transposition of sounds or syllables in a word or of words in a sentence.

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Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios Inc. (initialized as MGM or hyphenated as M-G-M, also known as Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Pictures, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer or simply Metro, and for a former interval known as Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer/United Artists, or MGM/UA) is an American media company, involved primarily in the production and distribution of feature films and television programs.

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Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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Moira Orfei

Moira Orfei (born Miranda Orfei; 21 December 1931 – 15 November 2015) was an Italian actress and television personality of Romani origin.

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Monte Carlo

Monte Carlo (Monte-Carlo, or colloquially Monte-Carl; Monégasque: Monte-Carlu) officially refers to an administrative area of the Principality of Monaco, specifically the ward of Monte Carlo/Spélugues, where the Monte Carlo Casino is located.

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Moscow Circus on Tsvetnoy Boulevard

Moscow Circus on Tsvetnoi Boulevard, or Nikulin's Circus, is located on Tsvetnoi Boulevard in the Tverskoy District of central Moscow.

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Moscow State Circus

The title Moscow State Circus is used for a variety of circuses.

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Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.

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Musical film

The musical film is a film genre in which songs sung by the characters are interwoven into the narrative, sometimes accompanied by dancing.

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A musician is a person who plays a musical instrument or is musically talented.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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Nofit State Circus

NoFit State Circus is a contemporary circus company based in Cardiff, Wales.

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Northern England

Northern England, also known simply as the North, is the northern part of England, considered as a single cultural area.

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Object manipulation

Object manipulation is a form of dexterity play or performance in which one or more people physically interact with one or more objects.

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P. T. Barnum

Phineas Taylor Barnum (July 5, 1810 – April 7, 1891) was an American showman, politician and businessman remembered for promoting celebrated hoaxes and for founding the Barnum & Bailey Circus (1871–2017).

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Pablo Fanque

Pablo Fanque (born William Darby 30 March 1810 in Norwich,Gretchen Holrook Gerzina, Editor, "Black Victorians-Black Victoriana" (Rutgers University Press: New Brunswick, NJ, 2003) England; died 4 May 1871 in Stockport, England) was an English equestrian performer and circus proprietor, the first recorded non-white British circus owner in Britain.

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Pachydermata (from two Greek words παχύς pachys, "thick" and δερμα derma, "skin", meaning 'thick skin') is an obsolete order of mammals described by Gottlieb Storr, Georges Cuvier and others, at one time recognized by many systematists.

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Palm Bay, Florida

Palm Bay is a city in Brevard County, Florida.

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Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.

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Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.

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People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA; stylized PeTA) is an American animal rights organization based in Norfolk, Virginia, and led by Ingrid Newkirk, its international president.

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Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.

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Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.

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Philip Astley

Philip Astley (8 January 1742 – 27 January 1814) was an English equestrian, circus owner, and inventor, regarded as being the "father of the modern circus".

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Pickle Family Circus

The Pickle Family Circus was a small circus founded in 1974 in San Francisco, California, United States.

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Plate spinning

Plate spinning is a circus manipulation art where a person spins plates, bowls and other flat objects on poles, without them falling off.

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Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.

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Ra-Ra Zoo

Ra-Ra Zoo was an English-based new circus theatre company, active (August 1984 - September 1994), a seminal group who created self devised physical theatre performance for theatres using comedy and circus skills.

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Raj Kapoor

Ranbir Raj Kapoor (14 December 1924 – 2 June 1988), also known as "the greatest showman of Hindi cinema", was a noted Indian film actor, producer and director of Indian cinema.

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Reese Witherspoon

Laura Jeanne Reese Witherspoon (born March 22, 1976) is an American actress, producer, and entrepreneur.

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Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.

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Ringling Bros. and Barnum & Bailey Circus

Ringling Bros.

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Ringmaster (circus)

A ringmaster, or ringmistress or sometimes a ringleader, is a significant performer in the many circuses.

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Rob Mermin

Rob Mermin is the founder of the award-winning international touring youth circus Circus Smirkus.

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Robert Pattinson

Robert Douglas Thomas Pattinson (born 13 May 1986) is an English actor, producer, model, and musician.

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Roger Gale

Sir Roger James Gale (born 20 August 1943) is a British Conservative politician.

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Rolling globe

The rolling globe is a circus skill in which the performer balances atop a large sphere, sometimes taller than the performer.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Romani people

The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.

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Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so.

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Rupert Croft-Cooke

Rupert Croft-Cooke (30 June 1903 – 10 June 1979) was an English writer, a prolific author of fiction and non-fiction, including screenplays and biographies under his own name and detective stories under the pseudonym of Leo Bruce.

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Rusty Russell

Rusty Russell is an Australian free software programmer and advocate, known for his work on the Linux kernel's networking subsystem and the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard.

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San Francisco

San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.

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Sara Gruen

Sara Gruen (born 1969 in Vancouver) is an author with dual Canadian and American citizenship.

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Sea lion

Sea lions are sea mammals characterized by external ear flaps, long foreflippers, the ability to walk on all fours, short, thick hair, and a big chest and belly.

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Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band


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Shah Rukh Khan

Shah Rukh Khan (born Shahrukh Khan; 2 November 1965), also known as SRK, is an Indian film actor, producer and television personality.

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Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.

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Shanghai Circus World

Shanghai Circus World is a large, permanent indoor circus in the city of Shanghai, China.

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In America, a sideshow is an extra, secondary production associated with a circus, carnival, fair, or other such attraction.

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Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.

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Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Spangle (novel)

Spangle is a historical novel written by Gary Jennings and first published in 1987.

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Stereotypy (non-human)

In animal behaviour, stereotypy, stereotypical or stereotyped behaviour has several meanings, leading to ambiguity in the scientific literature.

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Stilts are poles, posts or pillars used to allow a person or structure to stand at a height above the ground.

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Strongman (strength athlete)

A strongman is a man who competes in strength athletics.

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Stunt performer

A stunt performer, often referred to as a stuntman, stuntwoman, or daredevil, is a trained professional who performs stunts, often as a career.

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Super Commando Dhruva

Super Commando Dhruva (सुपर कमांडो ध्रुव in Devanagari script) is a fictional character, an Indian comic book superhero, who appears in comic books published by Raj Comics.

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Surrey Theatre

The Surrey Theatre, London began life in 1782 as the Royal Circus and Equestrian Philharmonic Academy, one of the many circuses that provided contemporary London entertainment of both horsemanship and drama.

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Sword swallowing

Sword swallowing is a skill in which the performer passes a sword through the mouth and down the esophagus to the stomach.

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Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.

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Teatro ZinZanni

Teatro ZinZanni is a circus dinner theater that began in the neighborhood of Lower Queen Anne in Seattle, Washington.

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The Beatles

The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960.

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The Circus (film)

The Circus is a 1928 silent film written and directed by Charlie Chaplin.

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The Doll Family

The Doll Family, also billed as The Dancing Dolls, were an American quartet of dwarf siblings born in Germany, who were popular performers in circuses and sideshows in the United States from the mid-1910s until their retirement in the late-1950s.

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The Greatest Show on Earth (film)

The Greatest Show on Earth is a 1952 American drama film produced and directed by Cecil B. DeMille, shot in Technicolor, and released by Paramount Pictures.

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The Stars and Stripes Forever

"The Stars and Stripes Forever" is a patriotic American march widely considered to be the magnum opus of composer John Philip Sousa.

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The Tiger Lillies

The Tiger Lillies are a cult British musical trio formed in 1989 by singer-songwriter Martyn Jacques.

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The Wagons Roll at Night

The Wagons Roll at Night is a 1941 circus film directed by Ray Enright, starring Humphrey Bogart as traveling carnival owner Nick Coster, Sylvia Sidney as his girlfriend, and Eddie Albert as a newcomer who falls in love with Nick's sister, played by Joan Leslie.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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Thomas Taplin Cooke

Thomas Taplin Cooke (1782–1866) was an eminent English showman, born in Warwick, who toured in America as well as his own country.

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Tightrope walking

Tightrope walking, also called funambulism, is the skill of walking along a thin wire or rope.

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Toby Tyler

Toby Tyler is a film produced by Walt Disney Productions and distributed by Buena Vista Distribution Company on January 21, 1960.

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A trampoline is a device consisting of a piece of taut, strong fabric stretched between a steel frame using many coiled springs.

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A trapeze is a short horizontal bar hung by ropes or metal straps from a support.

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Trapeze (film)

Trapeze is a 1956 circus film directed by Carol Reed and starring Burt Lancaster, Tony Curtis and Gina Lollobrigida, making her debut in American films.

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Tumbling (gymnastics)

Tumbling, also known as power tumbling, is an acrobatic sporting discipline which combines skills of artistic gymnastics with those of trampolining.

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Turkmen State Circus

Turkmen State Circus (Türkmenistanyň Döwlet Sirki, Түркменистаның Дөвлет Сирки) - is the main arena circus of Ashgabat, capital of Turkmenistan.

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Tyke (elephant)

Tyke (1974 – August 20, 1994) was an African bush elephant from Mozambique who performed with Circus International of Honolulu, Hawaii.

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Tyrone Guthrie

Sir William Tyrone Guthrie (2 July 1900 – 15 May 1971) was an English theatrical director instrumental in the founding of the Stratford Festival of Canada, the Guthrie Theater in Minneapolis, Minnesota, and the Tyrone Guthrie Centre at his family's ancestral home, Annaghmakerrig, near Newbliss in County Monaghan, Ireland.

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A unicycle is a vehicle that touches the ground with only one wheel.

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United States Department of Agriculture

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.

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United States district court

The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system.

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University of Oxford

The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.

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UniverSoul Circus

The UniverSoul Circus is a single ring circus, established in 1994 by Cedric Walker, an African American man who had a vision of creating a circus with a large percentage of people of color performing.

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Vazquez Hermanos Circus

Circo Hermanos Vazquez is a big-top American-style travelling circus with three performance rings, one of the big five out of more than four hundred Mexican circuses.

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Victor Pépin

Victor Adolphus Pépin (March 8, 1780 – 1845) was an American circus performer and circus owner most famous for being a partner in the Circus of Pépin and Breschard.

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Victoria Chaplin

Victoria Chaplin (born May 19, 1951) is a British-American circus performer.

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Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.

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Vladimir Lenin

Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.

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Wageningen University and Research

Wageningen University & Research (also known as Wageningen UR; abbreviation: WUR) is a Dutch public university in Wageningen, Netherlands.

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Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.

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Walt Disney Animation Studios

Walt Disney Animation Studios (WDAS), also referred to as Disney Animation, headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California, is an American animation studio that creates animated feature films, short films, and television specials for The Walt Disney Company.

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Water for Elephants

Water for Elephants is a historical novel by Sara Gruen, written as part of National Novel Writing Month.

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Water for Elephants (film)

Water for Elephants is a 2011 American romantic drama film directed by Francis Lawrence and written by Richard LaGravenese, based on Sara Gruen's 2006 novel of the same name.

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The Wildlife Conservation Research Unit (WildCRU) is part of the Department of Zoology at the University of Oxford in England.

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Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal species, but has come to include all plants, fungi, and other organisms that grow or live wild in an area without being introduced by humans.

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William Batty

William Batty (1801–1868) was an equestrian performer, circus proprietor, and longtime operator of Astley's Amphitheatre in London.

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William C. Coup

William Cameron Coup (August 4, 1836 – March 4, 1895) was a Wisconsin businessman who partnered with P. T. Barnum and Dan Castello in 1870 to form the "P.

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William Kite

William Kite was a 19th-century circus performer, best known as being the "Mr.

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Zebras are several species of African equids (horse family) united by their distinctive black and white striped coats.

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Zip the Pinhead

William Henry Johnson (c. 1857 – April 9, 1926) known as Zip the Pinhead was an American freak show performer famous for his tapered head.

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3 Ring Circus

3 Ring Circus is a 1954 American comedy film directed by Joseph Pevney and starring Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis.

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4 Devils

4 Devils (also known as Four Devils) is a lost 1928 American silent drama film directed by German film director F. W. Murnau and starring Janet Gaynor.

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3 ring circus, Big top (circus), Circus (performing art), Circus (performing arts), Circus elephant, Circus performer, Circus ring, Circus tent, Circus troupe, Circuses, History of circuses, History of the circus, The Circus, Three ring circus, Three-ring circus, Traveling circus, Travelling circus, 🎪.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circus

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