119 relations: Acetyl-CoA, Acetyl-CoA carboxylase, Acid dissociation constant, Acid dye, Acid salt, Acid strength, Acidifier, Acidity regulator, Acids in wine, Acidulant, Aconitase, Aconitic acid, Adenosine triphosphate, Aerobic organism, Albert Szent-Györgyi, Alcohol, Alpha hydroxy acid, Ammonium ferric citrate, Anhydrous, Apatite, Aspergillus niger, Bath bomb, Bath salts, Benedict's reagent, Benzene, Biochemistry, British Pharmacopoeia, Buffer solution, Buffering agent, Calcium citrate, Calcium hydroxide, Carbon disulfide, Carl Wehmer, Carl Wilhelm Scheele, Chelation, Chloroform, Citrate synthase, Citric acid cycle, Citric acid/potassium-sodium citrate, Citrique Belge, Citrus, Commodity chemicals, Contingency (philosophy), Corn starch, Corn steep liquor, Cultivar, Decarboxylation, Dietary supplement, Dimethyl sulfoxide, E number, ..., E. coli long-term evolution experiment, Effervescence, Elution, Escherichia coli, Ester, Ethanol, Ether, Ethyl acetate, Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, European Union, Fatty acid synthesis, Flavor, Food and Agriculture Organization, Food Chemicals Codex, Food coloring, Fructose 6-phosphate, Glucose, Glycolysis, Gram per litre, Hans Adolf Krebs, Hard water, Hepatitis, Heroin, Hydrate, Isocitric acid, Japanese Pharmacopoeia, Lanthanide, Lemon, Lime (fruit), Limescale, Malonyl-CoA, Manhattan Project, Medication, Metabolism, Mitochondrion, Molar concentration, Mold, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Needle exchange programme, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Organic acid, Oxaloacetic acid, Passivation (chemistry), Penicillium, Petroleum, Pfizer, PH, Phosphofructokinase, Photographic developer, Photographic film, Polyatomic ion, Precipitation (chemistry), Propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, Richard Lenski, Salt (chemistry), Sigma-Aldrich, Sodium bicarbonate, Sodium citrate, Sol–gel process, Stability constants of complexes, Stainless steel, Stop bath, Sucrose, Sulfuric acid, Toluene, Triethyl citrate, Trisodium citrate, United States Pharmacopeia, Zachary Blount. Expand index (69 more) » « Shrink index
Acetyl-CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) is a biotin-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the irreversible carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to produce malonyl-CoA through its two catalytic activities, biotin carboxylase (BC) and carboxyltransferase (CT).
An acid dissociation constant, Ka, (also known as acidity constant, or acid-ionization constant) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution.
An acid dye is a dye that is typically applied to a textile at low pH.
Acid salt is a class of salts that produces an acidic solution after being dissolved in a solvent.
The strength of an acid refers to its ability or tendency to lose a proton (H+).
Acidifiers are inorganic chemicals that, put into a human (or other mammalian) body, either produce or become acid.
Acidity regulators, or pH control agents, are food additives used to change or maintain pH (acidity or basicity).
The acids in wine are an important component in both winemaking and the finished product of wine.
Acidulants are chemical compounds that confer a tart, sour, or acidic flavor to foods.
Aconitase (aconitate hydratase) is an enzyme that catalyses the stereo-specific isomerization of citrate to isocitrate via cis-aconitate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, a non-redox-active process.
Aconitic acid is an organic acid.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment.
Albert Szent-Györgyi von Nagyrápolt (nagyrápolti Szent-Györgyi Albert; September 16, 1893 – October 22, 1986) was a Hungarian biochemist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1937.
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a carbon.
α-Hydroxy acids, or alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs), are a class of chemical compounds that consist of a carboxylic acid substituted with a hydroxyl group on the adjacent carbon.
Ammonium ferric citrate has the formula (NH4)5.
A substance is anhydrous if it contains no water.
Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals, usually referring to hydroxylapatite, fluorapatite and chlorapatite, with high concentrations of OH−, F− and Cl− ions, respectively, in the crystal.
Aspergillus niger is a fungus and one of the most common species of the genus Aspergillus.
Bath bombs are hard-packed mixtures of dry ingredients which effervesce when wet.
Bath salts are water-soluble, pulverised minerals that are added to water to be used for bathing.
Benedict's reagent (often called Benedict's qualitative solution or Benedict's solution) is a chemical reagent named after American chemist Stanley Rossiter Benedict.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
The British Pharmacopoeia (BP) is the national pharmacopoeia of the United Kingdom.
A buffer solution (more precisely, pH buffer or hydrogen ion buffer) is an aqueous solution consisting of a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base, or vice versa.
A buffering agent is a weak acid or base used to maintain the acidity (pH) of a solution near a chosen value after the addition of another acid or base.
Calcium citrate is the calcium salt of citric acid.
Calcium hydroxide (traditionally called slaked lime) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2.
Carbon disulfide is a colorless volatile liquid with the formula CS2.
Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Wehmer (20 September 1858, Freiburg, Kingdom of Hanover - 11 January 1935, Hannover, Germany), was a German chemist and mycologist.
Carl Wilhelm Scheele (9 December 1742 – 21 May 1786) was a Swedish Pomeranian and German pharmaceutical chemist.
Chelation is a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions.
Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.
The enzyme citrate synthase E.C. 126.96.36.199 (previously 188.8.131.52) exists in nearly all living cells and stands as a pace-making enzyme in the first step of the citric acid cycle (or Krebs cycle).
The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into carbon dioxide and chemical energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Citric acid/potassium-sodium citrate is a drug used in the treatment of metabolic acidosis (a disorder in which the blood is too acidic).
Citrique Belge or Citric Belge, located in Tienen is a Belgian biotech company and one of the biggest producers of citric acid.
Citrus is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae.
Commodity chemicals (or bulk commodities or bulk chemicals) are a group of chemicals that are made on a very large scale to satisfy global markets.
In philosophy and logic, contingency is the status of propositions that are neither true under every possible valuation (i.e. tautologies) nor false under every possible valuation (i.e. contradictions).
Corn starch, cornstarch, cornflour or maize starch or maize is the starch derived from the corn (maize) grain.
Corn steep liquor is a by-product of corn wet-milling.
The term cultivarCultivar has two denominations as explained in Formal definition.
Decarboxylation is a chemical reaction that removes a carboxyl group and releases carbon dioxide (CO2).
A dietary supplement is a manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid.
Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an organosulfur compound with the formula (CH3)2SO.
E numbers are codes for substances that are permitted to be used as food additives for use within the European Union and EFTA.
The E. coli long-term evolution experiment (LTEE) is an ongoing study in experimental evolution led by Richard Lenski that has been tracking genetic changes in 12 initially identical populations of asexual Escherichia coli bacteria since 24 February 1988.
Effervescence is the escape of gas from an aqueous solution and the foaming or fizzing that results from that release.
In analytical and organic chemistry, elution is the process of extracting one material from another by washing with a solvent; as in washing of loaded ion-exchange resins to remove captured ions.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
In chemistry, an ester is a chemical compound derived from an acid (organic or inorganic) in which at least one –OH (hydroxyl) group is replaced by an –O–alkyl (alkoxy) group.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups.
Ethyl acetate (systematically ethyl ethanoate, commonly abbreviated EtOAc or EA) is the organic compound with the formula, simplified to.
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), also known by several other names, is a chemical originating in multiseasonal plants with dormancy stages as a lipidopreservative which helps to develop the stem, currently used for both industrial and medical purposes.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Fatty acid synthesis is the creation of fatty acids from acetyl-CoA and NADPH through the action of enzymes called fatty acid synthases.
Flavor (American English) or flavour (British English; see spelling differences) is the sensory impression of food or other substance, and is determined primarily by the chemical senses of taste and smell.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
The Food Chemicals Codex (FCC) is a collection of internationally recognized standards for the purity and identity of food ingredients.
Food coloring, or color additive, is any dye, pigment or substance that imparts color when it is added to food or drink.
Fructose 6-phosphate (sometimes called the Neuberg ester) is a derivative of fructose, which has been phosphorylated at the 6-hydroxy group.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glycolysis (from glycose, an older term for glucose + -lysis degradation) is the metabolic pathway that converts glucose C6H12O6, into pyruvate, CH3COCOO− + H+.
A gram per litre or gram per liter (g/L or g/l) is a unit of measurement of mass concentration that shows how many grams of a certain substance are present in one litre of a usually liquid or gaseous mixture.
Sir Hans Adolf Krebs (25 August 1900 – 22 November 1981) was a German-born British physician and biochemist.
Hard water is water that has high mineral content (in contrast with "soft water").
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue.
Heroin, also known as diamorphine among other names, is an opioid most commonly used as a recreational drug for its euphoric effects.
In chemistry, a hydrate is a substance that contains water or its constituent elements.
Isocitric acid is a structural isomer of citric acid.
The is the official Pharmacopoeia of Japan.
The lanthanide or lanthanoid series of chemical elements comprises the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum through lutetium.
The lemon, Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck, is a species of small evergreen tree in the flowering plant family Rutaceae, native to Asia.
A lime (from French lime, from Arabic līma, from Persian līmū, "lemon") is a hybrid citrus fruit, which is typically round, lime green, in diameter, and contains acidic juice vesicles.
Limescale is the hard, off-white, chalky deposit found in kettles, hot-water boilers and the inside of inadequately maintained hot-water central heating systems.
Malonyl-CoA is a coenzyme A derivative of malonic acid.
The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
Molar concentration (also called molarity, amount concentration or substance concentration) is a measure of the concentration of a chemical species, in particular of a solute in a solution, in terms of amount of substance per unit volume of solution.
A mold or mould (is a fungus that grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
A needle and syringe programme (NSP), syringe-exchange programme (SEP), or needle exchange program (NEP) is a social service that allows injecting drug users (IDUs) to obtain hypodermic needles and associated paraphernalia at little or no cost.
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.
An organic acid is an organic compound with acidic properties.
Oxaloacetic acid (also known as oxalacetic acid) is a crystalline organic compound with the chemical formula HO2CC(O)CH2CO2H.
Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, refers to a material becoming "passive," that is, less affected or corroded by the environment of future use.
Penicillium ascomycetous fungi are of major importance in the natural environment as well as food and drug production.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
Pfizer Inc. is an American pharmaceutical conglomerate headquartered in New York City, with its research headquarters in Groton, Connecticut.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Phosphofructokinase is a kinase enzyme that phosphorylates fructose 6-phosphate in glycolysis.
In the processing of photographic films, plates or papers, the photographic developer (or just developer) is one or more chemicals that convert the latent image to a visible image.
Photographic film is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals.
A polyatomic ion, also known as a molecular ion, is a charged chemical species (ion) composed of two or more atoms covalently bonded or of a metal complex that can be considered to be acting as a single unit.
Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.
Propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, also known as tricarballylic acid, carballylic acid, and β-carboxyglutaric acid, is a tricarboxylic acid.
Richard Eimer Lenski (born August 13, 1956) is an American evolutionary biologist, a MacArthur "genius" fellow, a Hannah Distinguished Professor of Microbial Ecology at Michigan State University, and a member of the National Academy of Sciences.
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.
Sigma-Aldrich Corporation is an American chemical, life science and biotechnology company owned by Merck KGaA.
Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3.
Sodium citrate may refer to any of the sodium salts of citrate (though most commonly the third).
In materials science, the sol–gel process is a method for producing solid materials from small molecules.
A stability constant (formation constant, binding constant) is an equilibrium constant for the formation of a complex in solution.
In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French inoxydable (inoxidizable), is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium content by mass.
Stop bath is a chemical bath usually used in processing traditional black-and-white photographic films, plates, and paper used after the material has finished developing.
Sucrose is common table sugar.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Toluene, also known as toluol, is an aromatic hydrocarbon.
Triethyl citrate is an ester of citric acid.
Trisodium citrate has the chemical formula of Na3C6H5O7.
The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) is a pharmacopeia (compendium of drug information) for the United States published annually by the United States Pharmacopeial Convention (usually also called the USP), a nonprofit organization that owns the trademark and copyright.
Zachary D. Blount is an American evolutionary biologist best known for his work in deciphering the evolution of a key innovation in one of the twelve populations of the ''E. coli'' long-term evolution experiment.
2-hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, 3-hydroxypentanedioic acid-3-carboxylic acid, ATC code A09AB04, ATCvet code QA09AB04, Acid of lemon, Citrate, Citrate ion, Citrates, Citric (acid), Citric Acid, Citrus acid, E 330, E330, HOOCCH2(OH)C(COOH)CH2COOH, Hydrogen citrate, Sour salt.