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Citroën 2CV

Index Citroën 2CV

The Citroën 2CV ("deux chevaux" i.e. "deux chevaux-vapeur" (lit. "two steam horses", "two tax horsepower") is an air-cooled front-engine, front-wheel-drive economy car introduced at the 1948 Paris Mondial de l'Automobile and manufactured by Citroën for model years 1948–1990. Conceived by Citroën Vice-President Pierre Boulanger to help motorise the large number of farmers still using horses and carts in 1930s France, the 2CV has a combination of innovative engineering and utilitarian, straightforward metal bodywork — initially corrugated for added strength without added weight. The 2CV featured low cost; simplicity of overall maintenance; an easily serviced air-cooled engine (originally offering 9 hp); low fuel consumption; and an extremely long-travel suspension offering a soft ride and light off-road capability. Often called "an umbrella on wheels", the fixed-profile convertible bodywork featured a full-width, canvas, roll-back sunroof, which accommodated oversized loads and until 1955 reached almost to the car's rear bumper. Notably, Michelin introduced and first commercialized the radial tyre with the introduction of the 2CV. Manufactured in France between 1948 and 1988 (and in Portugal from 1988 to 1990), more than 3.8 million 2CVs were produced, along with over 1.2 million small 2CV-based delivery vans known as fourgonnettes. Citroën ultimately offered several mechanically identical variants including the Ami (over 1.8 million); the Dyane (over 1.4 million); the Acadiane (over 250,000); and the Mehari (over 140,000). In total, Citroën manufactured almost 9 million 2CVs and variants. The purchase price of the 2CV was low relative to its competition. In West Germany during the 1960s, for example, it cost about half as much as a Volkswagen Beetle. From the mid-1950s economy car competition had increased – internationally in the form of the 1957 Fiat 500 and 1955 Fiat 600, and 1959 Austin Mini. By 1952, Germany produced a price competitive car – the Messerschmitt KR175, followed in 1955 by the Isetta – these were microcars, not complete four-door cars like the 2CV. On the French home market, from 1961, the small Simca 1000 using licensed Fiat technology, and the larger Renault 4 hatchback had become available. The R4 was the biggest threat to the 2CV, eventually outselling it. A 1953 technical review in Autocar described "the extraordinary ingenuity of this design, which is undoubtedly the most original since the Model T Ford". In 2011, The Globe and Mail called it a "car like no other". The motoring writer L. J. K. Setright described the 2CV as "the most intelligent application of minimalism ever to succeed as a car", and a car of "remorseless rationality". [1]

196 relations: Abidjan, Aerodynamics, Afghanistan, Air-cooled engine, Ammeter, André Lefèbvre, Argentina, Arica, Aube, Auto motor und sport, Autocar (magazine), Automotive lighting, Baby-Brousse, Belgium, Bellcrank, Belt (mechanical), Bernon, Blackjack Cars, BMW, Brake fluid, British Empire, Buenos Aires, Burton (car), Canvas, Car (magazine), Caster angle, Centrifugal clutch, Chassis, Chile, Chrysler CCV, Citroën, Citroën Acadiane, Citroën Ami, Citroën AX, Citroën Bijou, Citroën DS, Citroën Dyane, Citroën FAF, Citroën GS, Citroën H Van, Citroën Méhari, Citroën Prototype C, Citroën Traction Avant, Citroën Visa, Coil spring, Colin Chapman, Commonwealth of Nations, Consumerism, Controlled-access highway, Coupé utility, ..., Crankcase, Crankcase ventilation system, Crankshaft, Crashworthiness, Crumple zone, Cylinder head, Deutsches Institut für Normung, Disc brake, Dog clutch, Drop (liquid), Drum brake, Dynamo, Economy car, Euro NCAP, European Economic Community, Fan (machine), Fender skirts, Fiat 500, Fiat 500 "Topolino", Fiat 600, Fixed-wing aircraft, Flaminio Bertoni, Flat engine, Flat twin engine, Flat-four engine, For Your Eyes Only (film), Ford Fiesta, Ford Model T, Forest, Belgium, Four-wheel drive, French Resistance, Front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout, Front-wheel drive, Gallic rooster, Gasification, Gasket, German military administration in occupied France during World War II, Gestapo, Greece, Hammock, Hatchback, Haynes Manual, Hindustan Ambassador, Hippie, HMS Albion (R07), HMS Bulwark (R08), Horse, Ignition system, Indigenous peoples, Iran, Iran Khodro, Iranian Revolution, Isetta, Ivory Coast, James Bond, Jasper Carrott, Jeppener, Buenos Aires, Joint venture, Kabul, Kate Humble, Koper, L. J. K. Setright, Leaf spring, Levallois-Perret, Liège, Lodève, Lomax (auto), Lotus Cars, Lotus Elite, Low technology, Magnesium, Mangualde, Manual transmission, Marshall Plan, Messerschmitt KR175, Messerschmitt KR200, Michelin, Microcar, Mini, Montevideo, Morgan Motor Company, Morris Oxford Series II, Namco (automobiles), Niche market, North America, Off-road vehicle, Off-roading, Overhead valve engine, Paris Motor Show, Paul-Marie Pons, Persepolis, Peugeot 202, Pickup truck, Pierre-Jules Boulanger, Portugal, Prototype, PSA Vigo Plant, Pullstring, Rack and pinion, Radial tire, Recoilless rifle, Reed valve, Renault 4, Renault 4CV, Renault 5, Renault Juvaquatre, Robert Delpire, Roger Moore, Royal Navy, Sahara, Sedan (automobile), Simca 1000, Slough, Slovenia, South America, Steering, Suicide door, Sunroof, Supermini, Swingarm, Tax horsepower, Ténéré, The Globe and Mail, The New York Times, Thermostat, Tomos, Trunk (car), Tuned mass damper, Tunis, Unsprung mass, Van, Vietnam, Vigo, Volkswagen Beetle, Volkswagen Kübelwagen, Volkswagen Polo, Volkswagen Type 2, Wasted spark, West Germany, Wheelbase, Windscreen wiper, Yugoslavia, 1973 Chilean coup d'état, 1973 oil crisis, 1986 FIFA World Cup, 2CV 24 Hour Race. Expand index (146 more) »


Abidjan is the economic capital of Côte d'Ivoire and is one of the most populous French-speaking cities in Africa.

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Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer (air) + δυναμική (dynamics), is the study of the motion of air, particularly its interaction with a solid object, such as an airplane wing.

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Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Air-cooled engine

Air-cooled engines rely on the circulation of air directly over hot parts of the engine to cool them.

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An ammeter (from Ampere Meter) is a measuring instrument used to measure the current in a circuit.

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André Lefèbvre

André Lefebvre (19 August 1894 – 4 May 1964) was a French automobile engineer.

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Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.

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Arica is a commune and a port city with a population of 196,590 in the Arica Province of northern Chile's Arica y Parinacota Region.

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Aube is a French department in the Grand Est region of north-eastern France.

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Auto motor und sport

Auto motor und sport, often abbreviated to AMS or AMuS, is a leading German automobile magazine.

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Autocar (magazine)

Autocar is a weekly British automobile magazine published by Haymarket Motoring Publications Ltd.

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Automotive lighting

The lighting system of a motor vehicle consists of lighting and signalling devices mounted or integrated to the front, rear, sides, and in some cases the top of a motor vehicle.

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The Baby-Brousse is a Citroën 2CV-based utility vehicle, initially privately built, that later spawned the FAF series of vehicles.

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Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.

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A bellcrank is a type of crank that changes motion through an angle.

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Belt (mechanical)

A belt is a loop of flexible material used to link two or more rotating shafts mechanically, most often parallel.

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Bernon is a commune in the Aube department in north-central France.

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Blackjack Cars

Blackjack cars, founded by Richard Oakes in 1996, is a manufacturer of three-wheeled kit cars based in Helston, Cornwall, England.

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BMW (Bayerische Motoren Werke in German, or Bavarian Motor Works in English) is a German multinational company which currently produces luxury automobiles and motorcycles, and also produced aircraft engines until 1945.

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Brake fluid

Brake fluid is a type of hydraulic fluid used in hydraulic brake and hydraulic clutch applications in automobiles, motorcycles, light trucks, and some bicycles.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.

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Buenos Aires

Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina.

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Burton (car)

The Burton is a Dutch sports car based on French 2CV technology.

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Canvas is an extremely durable plain-woven fabric used for making sails, tents, marquees, backpacks, and other items for which sturdiness is required.

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Car (magazine)

Car is a British automotive enthusiast magazine published monthly by Bauer Consumer Media.

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Caster angle

θ is the caster angle, the red line is the pivot line, and the grey area is the tire. The caster angle or castor angle is the angular displacement of the steering axis from the vertical axis of a steered wheel in a car, motorcycle, bicycle or other vehicle, measured in the longitudinal direction.

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Centrifugal clutch

A centrifugal clutch is a clutch that uses centrifugal force to connect two concentric shafts, with the driving shaft nested inside the driven shaft.

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A chassis (plural chassis) is the internal framework of an artificial object, which supports the object in its construction and use.

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Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Chrysler CCV

The Chrysler CCV (CCV stands for Composite Concept Vehicle) was a concept car designed by Bryan Nesbitt to illustrate new means of construction suitable for developing nations.

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Citroën is a French automobile manufacturer, part of the PSA Peugeot Citroën group since 1976, founded in 1919 by French industrialist André-Gustave Citroën (1878–1935).

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Citroën Acadiane

The Citroën Acadiane is a small commercial vehicle derived from the Dyane and only available in left-hand drive, produced from 1977 to 1987.

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Citroën Ami

The Citroën Ami is a four-door, front-wheel drive supermini (B-segment), manufactured and marketed by Citroën from 1961 to 1978.

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Citroën AX

The Citroën AX is a city car which was built by the French manufacturer Citroën from 1986 to 1998.

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Citroën Bijou

The Citroën Bijou is a small coupé manufactured by Citroën at the premises they had occupied since 1925 in Slough, England.

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Citroën DS

The Citroën DS is a front-engine, front-wheel-drive executive car that was manufactured and marketed by the French company Citroën from 1955 to 1975 in sedan, wagon/estate and convertible body configurations.

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Citroën Dyane

The Citroën Dyane is an economy car/supermini produced by the French automaker Citroën from 1967 to 1983.

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Citroën FAF

The Citroën FAF is a version of small utility vehicle produced by the French manufacturer Citroën from 1968 until 1987.

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Citroën GS

The GS is a small family car manufactured and marketed by Citroën for model years 1970-1986 in saloon and estate bodystyles (1970-1980), over a single generation.

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Citroën H Van

The Citroën H Van, Type H, H-Type or HY was a panel van (light truck) produced by the French automaker Citroën between 1947 and 1981.

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Citroën Méhari

The Citroën Méhari was an off-road compact SUV produced by the French car maker Citroën, a variant of the 2CV.

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Citroën Prototype C

The Citroën Prototype C was a range of vehicles created by Citroën from 1955 to 1956 under the direction of André Lefèbvre.

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Citroën Traction Avant

The Citroën Traction Avant is an executive car produced by the French manufacturer Citroën from 1934 to 1957.

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Citroën Visa

The Citroën Visa is a five-door, front-engine, front wheel drive supermini manufactured and marketed by Citroën from 1978 to 1988 in gasoline and diesel variants.

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Coil spring

A coil spring, also known as a helical spring, is a mechanical device which is typically used to store energy and subsequently release it, to absorb shock, or to maintain a force between contacting surfaces.

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Colin Chapman

Anthony Colin Bruce Chapman, (19 May 1928 – 16 December 1982) was an influential English design engineer, inventor, and builder in the automotive industry, and founder of Lotus Cars.

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Commonwealth of Nations

The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.

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Consumerism is a social and economic order and ideology that encourages the acquisition of goods and services in ever-increasing amounts.

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Controlled-access highway

A controlled-access highway is a type of highway which has been designed for high-speed vehicular traffic, with all traffic flow and ingress/egress regulated.

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Coupé utility

In the 1930s, the term coupe utility (or coupé utility) was used to distinguish passenger-car based two-door vehicles with an integrated cargo tray from traditional pickup trucks.

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A crankcase is the housing for the crankshaft in a reciprocating internal combustion engine.

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Crankcase ventilation system

A crankcase ventilation system (CVS) is a one way passage for the blow-by gases to escape in a controlled manner from the crankcase of an internal combustion engine.

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A crankshaft—related to crank—is a mechanical part able to perform a conversion between reciprocating motion and rotational motion.

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Crashworthiness is the ability of a structure to protect its occupants during an impact.

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Crumple zone

The crumple zone is a structural safety feature mainly used in automobiles to absorb the energy from the impact during a collision by controlled deformation, and recently also incorporated into railcars.

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Cylinder head

In an internal combustion engine, the cylinder head (often informally abbreviated to just head) sits above the cylinders on top of the cylinder block.

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Deutsches Institut für Normung

Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V. (DIN; in English, the German Institute for Standardization) is the German national organization for standardization and is the German ISO member body.

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Disc brake

A disc brake is a type of brake that uses calipers to squeeze pairs of pads against a disc or "rotor" to create friction.

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Dog clutch

A dog clutch is a type of clutch that couples two rotating shafts or other rotating components not by friction but by interference.

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Drop (liquid)

A drop or droplet is a small column of liquid, bounded completely or almost completely by free surfaces.

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Drum brake

A drum brake is a brake that uses friction caused by a set of shoes or pads that press outward against a rotating cylinder-shaped part called a brake drum.

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A dynamo is an electrical generator that creates direct current using a commutator.

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Economy car

An economy car is an automobile that is designed for low-cost purchase and operation.

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The European New Car Assessment Programme (Euro NCAP) is a European car safety performance assessment programme (i.e. a New Car Assessment Program) based in Brussels (Belgium) and founded in 1997 by the Transport Research Laboratory for the UK Department for Transport and backed by several European governments, as well as by the European Union.

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European Economic Community

The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.

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Fan (machine)

A mechanical fan is a powered machine used to create flow within a fluid, typically a gas such as air.

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Fender skirts

Fender skirts, known in Australia and the United Kingdom as spats, are pieces of bodywork on the fender that cover the upper portions of the rear tires of an automobile.

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Fiat 500

The Fiat 500 (Cinquecento) is a rear-engined, four seat, small city car that was manufactured and marketed by Fiat Automobiles from 1957 to 1975 over a single generation in two-door saloon and two-door station wagon bodystyles.

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Fiat 500 "Topolino"

The Fiat 500, commonly known as "Topolino", is an Italian city car produced and manufactured by Fiat from 1936 to 1955.

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Fiat 600

The Fiat 600 (Seicento) is a city car produced by the Italian manufacturer Fiat from 1955 to 1969.

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Fixed-wing aircraft

A fixed-wing aircraft is an aircraft, such as an airplane or aeroplane (note the two different spellings), which is capable of flight using wings that generate lift caused by the vehicle's forward airspeed and the shape of the wings.

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Flaminio Bertoni

Flaminio Bertoni (Masnago, Italy, 10 January 1903 – Paris, France, 7 February 1964) was an Italian automobile designer from the years preceding World War II until his death in 1964.

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Flat engine

A flat engine is an internal combustion engine with horizontally-opposed cylinders.

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Flat twin engine

A flat-twin is a two-cylinder internal combustion engine with the cylinders on opposite sides of the crankshaft.

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Flat-four engine

A flat-four or horizontally opposed-four is a flat engine with four cylinders arranged in two horizontal banks of two, each bank lying opposite the other, a crankcase between them.

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For Your Eyes Only (film)

For Your Eyes Only is a 1981 British spy film, the twelfth in the ''James Bond'' series produced by Eon Productions, and the fifth to star Roger Moore as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond.

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Ford Fiesta

The Ford Fiesta is a supermini marketed by Ford since 1976 over seven generations and manufactured globally, including in Europe, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, China, India, Thailand, and South Africa.

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Ford Model T

The Ford Model T (colloquially known as the Tin Lizzie, Leaping Lena, or flivver) is an automobile produced by Ford Motor Company from October 1, 1908, to May 26, 1927.

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Forest, Belgium

Forest (French name,; Vorst) is one of the nineteen municipalities located in the Brussels-Capital Region of Belgium.

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Four-wheel drive

Four-wheel drive, also called 4×4 ("four by four") or 4WD, refers to a two-axled vehicle drivetrain capable of providing torque to all of its wheels simultaneously.

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French Resistance

The French Resistance (La Résistance) was the collection of French movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and against the collaborationist Vichy régime during the Second World War.

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Front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout

In automotive design, an FF, or front-engine, front-wheel-drive (FWD) layout places both the internal combustion engine and driven roadwheels at the front of the vehicle.

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Front-wheel drive

Front-wheel drive (FWD) is a form of engine and transmission layout used in motor vehicles, where the engine drives the front wheels only.

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Gallic rooster

The Gallic rooster (coq gaulois) is an unofficial national symbol of France as a nation, as opposed to Marianne representing France as a State, and its values: the Republic.

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Gasification is a process that converts organic- or fossil fuel-based carbonaceous materials into carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide.

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gasket A gasket is a mechanical seal which fills the space between two or more mating surfaces, generally to prevent leakage from or into the joined objects while under compression.

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German military administration in occupied France during World War II

The Military Administration in France (Militärverwaltung in Frankreich; Occupation de la France par l'Allemagne) was an interim occupation authority established by Nazi Germany during World War II to administer the occupied zone in areas of northern and western France.

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The Gestapo, abbreviation of Geheime Staatspolizei (Secret State Police), was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe.

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No description.

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A hammock (from Spanish hamaca, borrowed from Taino and Arawak hamaka) is a sling made of fabric, rope, or netting, suspended between two or more points, used for swinging, sleeping, or resting.

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A hatchback is a car with a hatch-type rear door that opens upwards and often a shared volume for the passenger and cargo areas.

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Haynes Manual

The Haynes Owner's Workshop Manuals (commonly known as simply Haynes Manuals) are a series of practical manuals from the British publisher Haynes Publishing Group.

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Hindustan Ambassador

The Hindustan Ambassador was an automobile manufactured by Hindustan Motors of India.

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A hippie (sometimes spelled hippy) is a member of a counterculture, originally a youth movement that began in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread to other countries around the world.

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HMS Albion (R07)

HMS Albion (R07), nicknamed "The Old Grey Ghost of the Borneo Coast", was a 22,000 ton light fleet carrier of the Royal Navy.

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HMS Bulwark (R08)

The sixth HMS Bulwark of the Royal Navy was a 22,000 tonne light fleet aircraft carrier.

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The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.

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Ignition system

An ignition system generates a spark or heats an electrode to a high temperature to ignite a fuel-air mixture in spark ignition internal combustion engines oil-fired and gas-fired boilers, rocket engines, etc.

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Indigenous peoples

Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Iran Khodro

Iran Khodro (ایران‌خودرو), branded as IKCO, is an Iranian multinational automaker headquartered in Tehran. The company's original name was Iran National (ایران ناسیونال). IKCO was founded in 1962 and it produced 688,000 passenger cars in 2009. IKCO manufactures vehicles, including Samand, Peugeot and Renault cars, and trucks, minibuses and buses.

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Iranian Revolution

The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.

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The Isetta is an Italian-designed microcar built under license in a number of different countries, including Argentina, Spain, Belgium, France, Brazil, Germany, and the United Kingdom.

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Ivory Coast

Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a sovereign state located in West Africa.

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James Bond

The James Bond series focuses on a fictional British Secret Service agent created in 1953 by writer Ian Fleming, who featured him in twelve novels and two short-story collections.

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Jasper Carrott

Jasper Carrott, OBE (born Robert Norman Davis; 14 March 1945) is an English comedian, actor, television presenter, and personality.

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Jeppener, Buenos Aires

Jeppener is a town in Brandsen Partido in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina.

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Joint venture

A joint venture (JV) is a business entity created by two or more parties, generally characterized by shared ownership, shared returns and risks, and shared governance.

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Kabul (کابل) is the capital of Afghanistan and its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country.

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Kate Humble

Katherine Humble (born 12 December 1968) is an English television presenter and narrator, mainly working for the BBC, specialising in wildlife and science programmes.

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Koper (Capodistria) is a city in southwestern Slovenia, with the other Slovenian coastal towns Ankaran, Izola, Piran, and Portorož, situated along the country's 47-kilometre coastline, in the Istrian Region, approximately five kilometres from its border with Italy.

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L. J. K. Setright

Leonard John Kensell Setright (10 August 1931 – 7 September 2005) was an English motoring journalist and author.

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Leaf spring

A leaf spring is a simple form of spring commonly used for the suspension in wheeled vehicles.

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Levallois-Perret is a commune in the northwestern suburbs of Paris, France.

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Liège (Lidje; Luik,; Lüttich) is a major Walloon city and municipality and the capital of the Belgian province of Liège. The city is situated in the valley of the Meuse, in the east of Belgium, not far from borders with the Netherlands (Maastricht is about to the north) and with Germany (Aachen is about north-east). At Liège, the Meuse meets the River Ourthe. The city is part of the sillon industriel, the former industrial backbone of Wallonia. It still is the principal economic and cultural centre of the region. The Liège municipality (i.e. the city proper) includes the former communes of Angleur, Bressoux, Chênée, Glain, Grivegnée, Jupille-sur-Meuse, Rocourt, and Wandre. In November 2012, Liège had 198,280 inhabitants. The metropolitan area, including the outer commuter zone, covers an area of 1,879 km2 (725 sq mi) and had a total population of 749,110 on 1 January 2008. Population of all municipalities in Belgium on 1 January 2008. Retrieved on 2008-10-19. Definitions of metropolitan areas in Belgium. The metropolitan area of Liège is divided into three levels. First, the central agglomeration (agglomeratie) with 480,513 inhabitants (2008-01-01). Adding the closest surroundings (banlieue) gives a total of 641,591. And, including the outer commuter zone (forensenwoonzone) the population is 810,983. Retrieved on 2008-10-19. This includes a total of 52 municipalities, among others, Herstal and Seraing. Liège ranks as the third most populous urban area in Belgium, after Brussels and Antwerp, and the fourth municipality after Antwerp, Ghent and Charleroi.

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Lodève (Lodeva) is a commune in the Hérault département in the Occitanie region in southern France.

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Lomax (auto)

The Lomax is a British kit car based on mechanical components of the Citroën 2CV.

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Lotus Cars

Lotus Cars is a British automotive company that manufactures sports cars and racing cars in its headquarters in Hethel, United Kingdom.

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Lotus Elite

The Lotus Elite name has been used for two production vehicles and one concept vehicle from Lotus Cars.

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Low technology

Low technology, often abbreviated low tech (adjective forms low-technology, low-tech, lo-tech) is simple technology, often of a traditional or non-mechanical kind, such as crafts and tools that pre-date the Industrial Revolution.

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Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.

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Mangualde is a municipality in the subregion of Dão-Lafões (historical Beira Interior), central region of Portugal.

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Manual transmission

A manual transmission, also known as a manual gearbox, a standard transmission or colloquially in some countries (e.g. the United States) as a stick shift is a type of transmission used in motor vehicle applications.

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Marshall Plan

The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion (nearly $ billion in US dollars) in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.

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Messerschmitt KR175

The Messerschmitt KR175 microcar (1953–1955) was the first vehicle built by Messerschmitt under its 1952 agreement with Fritz Fend.

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Messerschmitt KR200

The Messerschmitt KR200, or Kabinenroller (Cabin Scooter), was a three-wheeled bubble car designed by the aircraft engineer Fritz Fend and produced in the factory of the German aircraft manufacturer Messerschmitt from 1955 to 1964.

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Michelin (full name: SCA Compagnie Générale des Établissements Michelin) is a French tyre manufacturer based in Clermont-Ferrand in the Auvergne région of France.

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A microcar is the smallest automobile classification, usually applied to very small cars (smaller than city cars).

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The Mini is a small economy car produced by the English-based British Motor Corporation (BMC) and its successors from 1959 until 2000.

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Montevideo is the capital and largest city of Uruguay.

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Morgan Motor Company

The Morgan Motor Company is a family-owned British motor car manufacturer that was founded in 1910 by Henry Frederick Stanley Morgan.

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Morris Oxford Series II

Morris Oxford is a series of motor car models produced by Morris Motors of the United Kingdom, from the 1913 bullnose Oxford to the Farina Oxfords V and VI.

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Namco (automobiles)

NAMCO (National Motor Company of Greece) is a Greek vehicle manufacturer.

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Niche market

A niche market is the subset of the market on which a specific product is focused.

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North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.

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Off-road vehicle

An off-road vehicle is considered to be any type of vehicle which is capable of driving on and off paved or gravel surface.

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Off-roading is the activity of driving or riding a vehicle on unsurfaced roads or tracks, made of materials such as sand, gravel, riverbeds, mud, snow, rocks, and other natural terrain.

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Overhead valve engine

An overhead valve engine (OHV engine), or "pushrod engine", is a reciprocating piston engine whose poppet valves are sited in the cylinder head.

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Paris Motor Show

The Paris Motor Show (Mondial de l'Automobile) is a biennial auto show in Paris.

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Paul-Marie Pons

Paul-Marie Pons (Born 24 June 1904 Longwy: died 24 October 1966 Paris) was a French naval engineer who became a senior civil servant.

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Persepolis (𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿) was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire.

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Peugeot 202

The Peugeot 202 is a supermini developed and designed by the French car manufacturer Peugeot.

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Pickup truck

A pickup truck is a light-duty truck having an enclosed cab and an open cargo area with low sides and tailgate.

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Pierre-Jules Boulanger

Pierre-Jules Boulanger, often known simply as Pierre Boulanger (10 March 1885 – 12 November 1950), was a French engineer and businessman.

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Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.

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A prototype is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from.

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PSA Vigo Plant

The PSA Vigo plant (Centro de Vigo de PSA Peugeot Citroën) is a Spanish car manufacturing and assembly plant owned by the French car company PSA Peugeot Citroën.

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A pullstring (pull string, pull-string), pullcord (pull cord, pull-cord), or pullchain (pull-chain, pull chain) is a string, cord, or chain wound on a spring-loaded spindle that engages a mechanism when it is pulled.

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Rack and pinion

A rack and pinion is a type of linear actuator that comprises a pair of gears which convert rotational motion into linear motion.

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Radial tire

A radial tire (more properly, a radial-ply tire) is a particular design of vehicular tire.

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Recoilless rifle

A recoilless rifle (RCLR) or recoilless gun is a type of lightweight tube artillery that is designed to allow some of the propellant gases to escape out the rear of the weapon at the moment of ignition, creating forward thrust that counteracts some of the weapon's recoil.

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Reed valve

Reed valves are a type of check valve which restrict the flow of fluids to a single direction, opening and closing under changing pressure on each face.

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Renault 4

The Renault 4, also known as the 4L (pronounced "Quatrelle"), is a hatchback economy car produced by the French automaker Renault between 1961 and 1994.

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Renault 4CV

The Renault 4CV (quatre chevaux, as if spelled quat'chevaux) is a rear-engined, rear-wheel-drive, 4-door economy supermini manufactured and marketed by the French manufacturer Renault from August 1947 through July 1961.

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Renault 5

The Renault 5 is a supermini produced by French automaker Renault.

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Renault Juvaquatre

The Renault Juvaquatre is a small family car / compact car automobile produced by the French manufacturer Renault between 1937 and 1960, although production stopped or slowed to a trickle during the war years.

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Robert Delpire

Robert Delpire (24 January 1926 – 26 September 2017) was an art publisher, editor, curator, film producer and graphic designer who lived and worked in Paris.

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Roger Moore

Sir Roger George Moore (14 October 1927 – 23 May 2017) was an English actor.

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Royal Navy

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.

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The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.

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Sedan (automobile)

A sedan (American, Canadian, Australian, and New Zealand English) or saloon (British, Irish and Indian English) is a passenger car in a three-box configuration with A, B & C-pillars and principal volumes articulated in separate compartments for engine, passenger and cargo.

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Simca 1000

The Simca 1000 is a small, rear-engined, four-door saloon which was manufactured by the French automaker Simca from 1961 to 1978.

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Slough is a large town in Berkshire, England, on the western fringes of the Greater London Urban Area, west of central London, north of Windsor, east of Maidenhead, south-east of High Wycombe and north-east of the county town of Reading.

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Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.

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South America

South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

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Steering is the collection of components, linkages, etc.

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Suicide door

A "suicide door" is the slang term for an automobile door hinged at its rear rather than the front.

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An automotive sunroof is a movable (typically glass) panel that is operable to uncover an opening in an automobile roof, which allows light and/or fresh air to enter the passenger compartment.

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Supermini (also called B-segment across Europe) is a class of car larger than a city car but smaller than a small family car.

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A swingarm, or "swinging arm" (UK), originally known as a swing fork or pivoted fork, is the main component of the rear suspension of most modern motorcycles and ATVs.

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Tax horsepower

The tax horsepower or taxable horsepower was an early system by which taxation rates for automobiles were reckoned in some European countries, such as Britain, Belgium, Germany, France, and Italy; some US states like Illinois charged license plate purchase and renewal fees for passenger automobiles based on taxable horsepower.

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The Ténéré (Berber: Tiniri, literally: desert, wilderness) is a desert region in the south central Sahara.

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The Globe and Mail

The Globe and Mail is a Canadian newspaper printed in five cities in western and central Canada.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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A thermostat is a component which senses the temperature of a physical system and performs actions so that the system's temperature is maintained near a desired setpoint.

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Tomos, an acronym for TOvarna MOtornih koles Sežana, Slovenian for Motorcycle Company Sežana, is a moped manufacturer based in Koper, Slovenia.

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Trunk (car)

The trunk (North American English), boot (British English) or compartment (South-East Asia) of a car is the vehicle's main storage compartment.

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Tuned mass damper

A tuned mass damper, also known as a harmonic absorber or seismic damper, is a device mounted in structures to reduce the amplitude of mechanical vibrations.

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Tunis (تونس) is the capital and the largest city of Tunisia.

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Unsprung mass

In a ground vehicle with a suspension, the unsprung mass (or the unsprung weight) is the mass of the suspension, wheels or tracks (as applicable), and other components directly connected to them, rather than supported by the suspension (the mass of the body and other components supported by the suspension is the sprung mass).

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A van is a type of road vehicle used for transporting goods or people.

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Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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Vigo is a city and municipality in the province of Pontevedra, in Galicia, northwest Spain on the Atlantic Ocean.

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Volkswagen Beetle

The Volkswagen Beetle – officially the Volkswagen Type 1, informally in German the Käfer (literally "beetle"), in parts of the English-speaking world the Bug, and known by many other nicknames in other languages – is a two-door, rear-engine economy car, intended for five passengers, that was manufactured and marketed by German automaker Volkswagen (VW) from 1938 until 2003.

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Volkswagen Kübelwagen

The Volkswagen Kübelwagen (literally, "Tub" car, previously mostly used for rail, industrial or agricultural hopper cars) was a light military vehicle designed by Ferdinand Porsche and built by Volkswagen during World War II for use by the German military (both Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS).

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Volkswagen Polo

The Volkswagen Polo is a car produced by the German manufacturer Volkswagen since 1975.

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Volkswagen Type 2

The Volkswagen Type 2, known officially (depending on body type) as the Transporter, Kombi or Microbus, or, informally, as the Bus (US) or Camper (UK), is a forward control panel van introduced in 1950 by the German automaker Volkswagen as its second car model.

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Wasted spark

The wasted spark system is an ignition system used in some four-stroke cycle internal combustion engines.

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West Germany

West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.

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In both road and rail vehicles, the wheelbase is the distance between the centers of the front and rear wheels.

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Windscreen wiper

A windscreen wiper or windshield wiper (American English) is a device used to remove rain, snow, ice and debris from a windscreen or windshield.

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Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.

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1973 Chilean coup d'état

The 1973 Chilean coup d'état was a watershed moment in both the history of Chile and the Cold War.

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1973 oil crisis

The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.

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1986 FIFA World Cup

The 1986 FIFA World Cup, the 13th FIFA World Cup, was held in Mexico from 31 May to 29 June 1986.

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2CV 24 Hour Race

The Elim Citroen 2CV 24 Hour Race is an annual 24-hour endurance race for Citroën 2CVs, held in August at the Anglesey Circuit in North Wales.

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Redirects here:

2 CV, 2CV, Citroen 2CV, Citroen 2cv, Citroën 2CV Sahara, Citröen CV, Deux Chevaux, Duex Chevaux, Duex chevaux, Spaček, Tin snail.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citroën_2CV

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