137 relations: Allopatric speciation, Apomixis, Asexual reproduction, Atalantia, Australia, Australian lime, Backcrossing, Bitter orange, Bizzaria, Buddha's hand, Calamondin, Caribbean, Carl Peter Thunberg, Cell (biology), Central America, Charles Sprague Sargent, Chōzaburō Tanaka, China, Citrange, Citrofortunella, Citron, Citrumelo, Citrus, Citrus australasica, Citrus australis, Citrus glauca, Citrus halimii, Citrus ichangensis, Citrus indica, Citrus junos, Citrus micrantha, Citrus tachibana, Citrus taxonomy, Citrus warburgiana, Cleistogamy, Clementine, Cloning, Clymenia (plant), Cold-hardy citrus, Common name, Correct name, Cultivar, David Mabberley, Etrog, F1 hybrid, Flora of China (series), Florentine citron, Florida, Folk taxonomy, Furanocoumarin, ..., Gamete, Genus, Graft-chimaera, Grafting, Grapefruit, Grapefruit–drug interactions, Greek citron, Hybrid (biology), Hybrid name, Hybrid speciation, Indochina, International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, Introgression, Japan, Japanese citrus, Kaffir lime, Key lime, Kumquat, Lemon, Lime (fruit), Limequat, Lumia (citrus), Malay Archipelago, Mandarin orange, Mandarin orange (fruit), Mandelo, Mangshanyegan, Mexico, Meyer lemon, Miocene, Monsoon, Multiplication sign, Offering (Buddhism), Orange (colour), Orange (fruit), Orangelo, Oroblanco, Ovule, Oxanthera, Papeda (citrus), Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Persian lime, Plant breeding, Plant taxonomy, Pliocene, Ploidy, Plus and minus signs, Pollination, Polyphyly, Polyploid, Pomelo, Ponderosa lemon, Ponkan, Rangpur (fruit), Robert Fortune, Rootstock, Rough lemon, Rutaceae, Self-pollination, Sichuan pepper, Somatic fusion, South America, South China, Species, Sport (botany), Subspecies, Sudachi, Sukkot, Sunquat, Sweet lemon, Tangelo, Tangerine, Tangor, Texas, Trifoliate orange, United States, Valid name (zoology), Variety (botany), Vegetative reproduction, Vietnam, Wallace Line, Walter Tennyson Swingle, Yunnan, Yuzuquat, Zanthoxylum fagara, Zygosity. Expand index (87 more) » « Shrink index
Allopatric speciation (from the ancient Greek allos, meaning "other", and patris, meaning "fatherland"), also referred to as geographic speciation, vicariant speciation, or its earlier name, the dumbbell model, is a mode of speciation that occurs when biological populations of the same species become isolated from each other to an extent that prevents or interferes with genetic interchange.
In botany, apomixis was defined by Hans Winkler as replacement of the normal sexual reproduction by asexual reproduction, without fertilization.
Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.
Atalantia is a genus of flowering plants in the citrus family, the Rutaceae.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Australian limes are species of the plant genus Citrus that are native to Australia and Papua New Guinea.
Backcrossing is a crossing of a hybrid with one of its parents or an individual genetically similar to its parent, in order to achieve offspring with a genetic identity which is closer to that of the parent.
Bitter orange, Seville orange, sour orange, bigarade orange, or marmalade orange refers to a citrus tree (Citrus × aurantium) and its fruit.
The Bizzaria of Florence (Citrus medica + C. aurantium), which is probably the first graft chimera obtained, is a graft between the Florentine citron and sour orange.
Citrus medica var.
Calamondin (Citrus microcarpa, × Citrofortunella microcarpa or × Citrofortunella mitis) is an important citrofortunella, meaning that it is an intergeneric hybrid between a member of the genus Citrus (in this case probably the mandarin orange) and the kumquat, formerly considered as belonging to a separate genus Fortunella.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
Carl Peter Thunberg, also known as Karl Peter von Thunberg, Carl Pehr Thunberg, or Carl Per Thunberg (11 November 1743 – 8 August 1828), was a Swedish naturalist and an apostle of Carl Linnaeus.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
Charles Sprague Sargent (April 24, 1841 – March 22, 1927) was an American botanist.
or often Romanized as Tyôzaburô Tanaka (November 3, 1885 in Osaka – June 28, 1976) was a Japanese botanist and mycologist.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The citrange is a citrus hybrid of the sweet orange and the trifoliate orange.
Citrofortunella are a large group of commercial hybrids that cross the kumquat with other citrus.
The citron (Citrus medica) is a large fragrant citrus fruit with a thick rind.
Citrumelo or Citromelo (X Citroncirus spp.) is also called Swingle citrumelo trifoliate hybrid, because it is a cold hardy citrus hybrid between a 'Duncan' grapefruit and a trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.), developed by Walter Tennyson Swingle.
Citrus is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae.
The Australian finger lime (Citrus australasica, sometimes called caviar lime) is a thorny understorey shrub or small tree of lowland subtropical rainforest and rainforest in the coastal border region of Queensland and New South Wales, Australia.
Round lime (Citrus australis), also known as Australian lime or Australian round lime, is a large shrub or small tree producing an edible fruit.
Citrus glauca, commonly known as the desert lime, is a thorny shrub or small tree native to Queensland, New South Wales, and South Australia.
Citrus halimii or Mountain citron is a sour fruit variety belonging to the citrus papedas, not related to the true citron.
Citrus ichangensis, the Ichang papeda (Chinese: 宜昌橙), is a slow-growing species of papeda that has characteristic lemon-scented foliage and flowers.
Citrus indica is a species of Citrus known by the common name Indian wild orange.
Citrus junos or yuzu (from Japanese ユズ) (or more precisely, Citrus × junos) is a citrus fruit and plant in the family Rutaceae.
Citrus micrantha is a species of wild citrus from the papeda group, native to southern Philippines, particularly islands of Cebu and Bohol.
Citrus tachibana or Citrus reticulata tachibana, the tachibana orange, is a plant in the genus citrus.
Citrus taxonomy refers to the botanical classification of the species, varieties, cultivars, and graft hybrids within the genus Citrus and related genera, found in cultivation and in the wild.
Citrus warburgiana (Kakamadu or New Guinea Wild Lime) grows on the south coast of the Papuan Peninsula near Alotau in Papua-New Guinea.
Cleistogamy is a type of automatic self-pollination of certain plants that can propagate by using non-opening, self-pollinating flowers.
A clementine (Citrus × clementina) is a tangor, a hybrid between a willowleaf mandarin orange (''C.'' × ''deliciosa'') and a sweet orange (C. × sinensis), so named in 1902.
Cloning is the process of producing genetically identical individuals of an organism either naturally or artificially.
Clymenia is a small genus of flowering plants in the family Rutaceae.
Cold-hardy citrus is citrus with increased frost tolerance and which may be cultivated far beyond traditional citrus growing regions.
In biology, a common name of a taxon or organism (also known as a vernacular name, English name, colloquial name, trivial name, trivial epithet, country name, popular name, or farmer's name) is a name that is based on the normal language of everyday life; this kind of name is often contrasted with the scientific name for the same organism, which is Latinized.
In botany, the correct name according to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) is the one and only botanical name that is to be used for a particular taxon, when that taxon has a particular circumscription, position and rank.
The term cultivarCultivar has two denominations as explained in Formal definition.
Professor David John Mabberley, (born May 1948) is a British-born botanist, educator and writer.
Etrog (אֶתְרוֹג, plural: etrogim) is the yellow citron or Citrus medica used by Jewish people during the week-long holiday of Sukkot, as one of the four species.
An F1 hybrid (or filial 1 hybrid) is the first filial generation of offspring of distinctly different parental types.
Flora of China is a scientific publication aimed at describing the plants native to China.
The Florentine citron – citron hybrid of Florence (cedrato di Firenze) – is a very fragrant citrus fruit, which is named after its most known origin of cultivation.
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
A folk taxonomy is a vernacular naming system, and can be contrasted with scientific taxonomy.
The furanocoumarins, or furocoumarins, are a class of organic chemical compounds produced by a variety of plants.
A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
In horticulture, a graft-chimaera may arise in grafting at the point of contact between rootstock and scion and will have properties intermediate between those of its "parents".
Grafting or graftage is a horticultural technique whereby tissues of plants are joined so as to continue their growth together.
The grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi) is a subtropical citrus tree known for its sour to semi-sweet, somewhat bitter fruit.
Some fruit juices and fruits can interact with numerous drugs, in many cases causing adverse effects.
The Greek citron variety of Citrus medica (κιτριά, אתרוג קורפו or יְוָנִי) was botanically classified by Adolf Engler as the "variety etrog".
In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.
In botanical nomenclature, a hybrid may be given a hybrid name, which is a special kind of botanical name, but there is no requirement that a hybrid name should be created for plants that are believed to be of hybrid origin.
Hybrid speciation is a form of speciation where hybridization between two different species leads to a new species, reproductively isolated from the parent species.
Indochina, originally Indo-China, is a geographical term originating in the early nineteenth century and referring to the continental portion of the region now known as Southeast Asia.
The International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN) is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal botanical names that are given to plants, fungi and a few other groups of organisms, all those "traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants".
Introgression, also known as introgressive hybridization, in genetics is the movement of a gene (gene flow) from one species into the gene pool of another by the repeated backcrossing of an interspecific hybrid with one of its parent species.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
A number of citrus fruits are grown in or strongly associated with Japan.
Citrus hystrix, called the kaffir lime, makrut lime or Mauritius papeda, is a citrus fruit native to tropical Asia, including India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines.
The Key lime (Citrus × aurantiifolia) is a citrus hybrid (C. micrantha x C. medica) with a spherical fruit, in diameter, that is yellow when ripe but usually picked green commercially.
Kumquats (or cumquats in Australian English,; Citrus japonica) are a group of small fruit-bearing trees in the flowering plant family Rutaceae.
The lemon, Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck, is a species of small evergreen tree in the flowering plant family Rutaceae, native to Asia.
A lime (from French lime, from Arabic līma, from Persian līmū, "lemon") is a hybrid citrus fruit, which is typically round, lime green, in diameter, and contains acidic juice vesicles.
The limequat is a citrofortunella hybrid that is the result of a cross between the key lime and the kumquat, hybridized by Walter Tennyson Swingle in 1909.
The lumia (Citrus lumia Risso. & Poit., or Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm. et Panz.) Swingle var. lumia hort.) is also called the pear lemon (Citrus × lumia 'pyriformis'), since its shape resembles a pear.
The Malay Archipelago (Malaysian & Indonesian: Kepulauan Melayu/Nusantara, Tagalog: Kapuluang Malay, Visayan: Kapupud-ang Malay) is the archipelago between mainland Indochina and Australia.
The mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata;; 桔, jyutping: gat1), also known as the mandarin or mandarine, is a small citrus tree with fruit resembling other oranges, usually eaten plain or in fruit salads.
The mandarin orange, also known as the mandarin, is the fruit of the mandarin tree (or bush).
A mandelo (or Mandalo, also known as a "cocktail grapefruit") is a citrus fruit that is smaller than a grapefruit, has yellow or yellow-green coloured skin and bright yellow or yellow-orange flesh, but is sweeter than a grapefruit.
The Mangshanyegan (Citrus mangshanensis, also known incorrectly as the 'Mangshan mandarin') is a wild citrus fruit species.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Citrus × meyeri, the Meyer lemon, is a hybrid citrus fruit native to China.
The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about (Ma).
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
The multiplication sign, also known as the times sign or the dimension sign, is the symbol ×. While similar to the lowercase letter x, the form is properly a rotationally symmetric saltire.
In Buddhism, symbolic offerings are made to the Triple Gem, giving rise to contemplative gratitude and inspiration.
Orange is the colour between yellow and red on the spectrum of visible light.
The orange is the fruit of the citrus species ''Citrus'' × ''sinensis'' in the family Rutaceae.
An orangelo (Spanish chironja - C. ×paradisi × C. ×sinensis) is a hybrid citrus fruit believed to have originated in Puerto Rico.
An oroblanco, oro blanco (white gold) or sweetie (Citrus grandis Osbeck × C. Paradisi Macf.) is a sweet seedless citrus hybrid fruit similar to grapefruit.
In seed plants, the ovule is the structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells.
Oxanthera is a genus of flowering plants in the citrus family, Rutaceae.
Papeda is the common name for a group of citrus native to tropical Asia that are hardy and slow growing, and produce unpalatable fruit.
Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.
Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.
Persian lime (Citrus × latifolia), also known by other common names such as seedless lime, Bearss lime and Tahiti lime, is a citrus fruit species of hybrid origin, known only in cultivation.
Plant breeding is the art and science of changing the traits of plants in order to produce desired characteristics.
Plant taxonomy is the science that finds, identifies, describes, classifies, and names plants.
The Pliocene (also Pleiocene) Epoch is the epoch in the geologic timescale that extends from 5.333 million to 2.58 million years BP.
Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.
The plus and minus signs (+ and −) are mathematical symbols used to represent the notions of positive and negative as well as the operations of addition and subtraction.
Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a male part of a plant to a female part of a plant, enabling later fertilisation and the production of seeds, most often by an animal or by wind.
A polyphyletic group is a set of organisms, or other evolving elements, that have been grouped together but do not share an immediate common ancestor.
Polyploid cells and organisms are those containing more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes.
The pomelo, Citrus maxima or Citrus grandis, is a natural (non-hybrid) citrus fruit, similar in appearance to a large grapefruit, native to South and Southeast Asia.
The ponderosa lemon (Citrus x pyriformis) is a citrus hybrid of a pomelo and a citron.
Ponkan ((also know in Chinese as 芦柑); Citrus poonensis; "Chinese Honey Orange") is a high-yield sweet Citrus cultivar with large fruits in the size of an orange.
Rangpur, Citrus × limonia or Citrus reticulata x medica, sometimes called the rangpur lime, mandarin lime or lemandarin, is a hybrid between the mandarin orange and the citron.
Robert Fortune (16 September 1812 – 13 April 1880) was a Scottish botanist, plant hunter and traveller, best known for stealing tea plants from China on behalf of the British East India Company.
A rootstock is part of a plant, often an underground part, from which new above-ground growth can be produced.
Rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.) is the fruit and the tree of a citrus hybrid, like the rangpur a cross between mandarin orange and citron.
The Rutaceae are a family, commonly known as the rue in BoDD – Botanical Dermatology Database or citrus family, of flowering plants, usually placed in the order Sapindales.
Self-pollination is when pollen from the same plant arrives at the stigma of a flower (in flowering plants) or at the ovule (in gymnosperms).
Sichuan pepper, Sichuan peppercorn, or Szechuan pepper, is a commonly used spice in Chinese cuisine.
Somatic fusion, also called protoplast fusion, is a type of genetic modification in plants by which two distinct species of plants are fused together to form a new hybrid plant with the characteristics of both, a somatic hybrid.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
South China or Southern China is a geographical and cultural region that covers the southernmost part of China.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
In botany, a sport or bud sport, traditionally called lusus, is a part of a plant that shows morphological differences from the rest of the plant.
In biological classification, the term subspecies refers to a unity of populations of a species living in a subdivision of the species’s global range and varies from other populations of the same species by morphological characteristics.
Sudachi (Citrus sudachi; Japanese: スダチ or 酢橘) is a small, round, green citrus fruit of Japanese origin that is a specialty of Tokushima Prefecture in Japan.
Sukkot (סוכות or סֻכּוֹת,, commonly translated as Feast of Tabernacles or Feast of the Ingathering, traditional Ashkenazi pronunciation Sukkos or Succos, literally Feast of Booths) is a biblical Jewish holiday celebrated on the 15th day of the seventh month, Tishrei (varies from late September to late October).
A sunquat, also known as lemonquat or lemondrop, is a variety of citrus fruit, having an edible rind.
Sweet lemon and sweet lime refer to many citrus hybrids that contain low acid pulp and juice.
The tangelo (C. reticulata × C. maxima or x C. paradisi), Citrus × tangelo, is a citrus fruit hybrid of a tangerine and a grapefruit.
The tangerine (Citrus tangerina) is a group of orange-colored citrus fruit consisting of hybrids of mandarin orange (Citrus reticulata).
The tangor (C. reticulata × C. sinensis) is a citrus fruit hybrid of the mandarin orange (tangerine, Citrus reticulata) and the sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
The trifoliate orange, Poncirus trifoliata or Citrus trifoliata, is a member of the family Rutaceae.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
In zoological nomenclature, the valid name of a taxon is the zoological name that is to be used for that taxon following the rules in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN).
In botanical nomenclature, variety (abbreviated var.; in varietas) is a taxonomic rank below that of species and subspecies but above that of form.
Vegetative reproduction (also known as vegetative propagation, vegetative multiplication or vegetative cloning) is any form of asexual reproduction occurring in plants in which a new plant grows from a fragment of the parent plant or grows from a specialized reproductive structure.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Wallace Line or Wallace's Line is a faunal boundary line drawn in 1859 by the British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace and named by Thomas Henry Huxley, that separates the ecozones of Asia and Wallacea, a transitional zone between Asia and Australia.
Walter Tennyson Swingle (January 8, 1871 – January 19, 1952) was an American agricultural botanist who contributed greatly to the classification and taxonomy of citrus.
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.
A yuzuquat is a trigeneric hybrid between a Yuzu lemon and 'Nagami' kumquat, developed by Dr.
Zanthoxylum fagara or wild lime, is a species of flowering plant that, despite its name, is not actually in the citrus genus with real limes and other fruit, but is a close cousin in the larger citrus family, Rutaceae.
Zygosity is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism.