761 relations: Aberdeen Proving Ground, Advertising, Against His-Story, Against Leviathan, Agenda 21, Agenda 21 for culture, Agora, Agra, Agriculture, Aidan Southall, Air pollution, Airplane, Airport, Akhenaten, Akin Mabogunje, Alexander the Great, Amarna, Amsterdam, Ancient Chinese urban planning, Ancient Greece, Andes, Angkor, Anglesey, Ant, Anti-urbanism, Architecture, Arlie Russell Hochschild, Arnold J. 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Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) (sometimes erroneously called Aberdeen Proving Grounds) is a United States Army facility located adjacent to Aberdeen, Maryland (in Harford County).
Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea.
Against His-Story, Against Leviathan! is a 1983 book by Fredy Perlman, for which he is best known.
Agenda 21 is a non-binding action plan of the United Nations with regard to sustainable development.
Agenda 21 for culture (now also known as Culture 21) is a program for cultural governance developed in 2002–2004 and organized by United Cities and Local Governments.
The agora (ἀγορά agorá) was a central public space in ancient Greek city-states.
Agra is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Aidan Southall (11 September 1920 – 17 May 2009) was a British cultural anthropologist recognised for his fieldwork in urban settings in post-war Africa.
Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.
An airplane or aeroplane (informally plane) is a powered, fixed-wing aircraft that is propelled forward by thrust from a jet engine, propeller or rocket engine.
An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport.
Akhenaten (also spelled Echnaton, Akhenaton, Ikhnaton, and Khuenaten; meaning "Effective for Aten"), known before the fifth year of his reign as Amenhotep IV (sometimes given its Greek form, Amenophis IV, and meaning "Amun Is Satisfied"), was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty who ruled for 17 years and died perhaps in 1336 BC or 1334 BC.
Akin Mabogunje is a Nigerian geographer.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Amarna (al-ʿamārnah) is an extensive Egyptian archaeological site that represents the remains of the capital city newly established and built by the Pharaoh Akhenaten of the late Eighteenth Dynasty, and abandoned shortly after his death (1332 BC).
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
Ancient Chinese encompasses the diverse set of cultural beliefs, social and economic structures, and technological capacities that historically influenced urban design in the early period of Chinese civilization.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.
Angkor (អង្គរ, "Capital City")Headly, Robert K.; Chhor, Kylin; Lim, Lam Kheng; Kheang, Lim Hak; Chun, Chen.
Anglesey (Ynys Môn) is an island situated on the north coast of Wales with an area of.
Ants are eusocial insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera.
Anti-urbanism is hostility toward the city as opposed to the country, a simple rejection of the city, or a wish to destroy the city.
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.
Arlie Russell Hochschild (born January 15, 1940) is an American sociologist and academic.
Arnold Joseph Toynbee (14 April 1889 – 22 October 1975) was a British historian, philosopher of history, research professor of international history at the London School of Economics and the University of London and author of numerous books.
Ashgate Publishing was an academic book and journal publisher based in Farnham (Surrey, United Kingdom).
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Asian Network of Major Cities 21 is a body representing the interests of several of Asia's largest capital cities around common themes of importance, including urban planning, sustainability and crisis management.
Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
Asymmetric warfare (or asymmetric engagement) is war between belligerents whose relative military power differs significantly, or whose strategy or tactics differ significantly.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively.
The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.
Çatalhöyük (also Çatal Höyük and Çatal Hüyük; from Turkish çatal "fork" + höyük "mound") was a very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic proto-city settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately 7500 BC to 5700 BC, and flourished around 7000 BC.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
The Baltimore–Washington Parkway (also referred to as the B–W Parkway) is a highway in the U.S. state of Maryland, running southwest from Baltimore to Washington, D.C. The road begins at an interchange with U.S. Route 50 (US 50) near Cheverly in Prince George's County at the D.C. border, and continues northeast as a parkway maintained by the National Park Service (NPS) to MD 175 near Fort Meade, serving many federal institutions.
A bank is a financial institution that accepts deposits from the public and creates credit.
The Bank of America Tower (BOAT) at One Bryant Park is a skyscraper in the Midtown area of Manhattan in New York City.
In France, a banlieue is a suburb of a large city.
Barbara Ehrenreich (born August 26, 1941) is an American author and political activist who describes herself as "a myth buster by trade" and has been called "a veteran muckraker" by The New Yorker.
In theories of competition in economics, a barrier to entry, or an economic barrier to entry, is a cost that must be incurred by a new entrant into a market that incumbents do not have or have not had to incur.
Batam is the largest city (kota) of Riau Islands Province of Indonesia as well the name of an island.
The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was the largest confrontation of World War II, in which Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
A large number of books and articles have been written on the subject of suburbs and suburban living as a regional, national or worldwide phenomenon.
A bicycle, also called a cycle or bike, is a human-powered, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other.
Bike lanes (US) or cycle lanes (UK) are types of bikeways (cycleways) with lanes on the roadway for cyclists only.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek "", meaning "Origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, "Bərēšīṯ", "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Old Testament.
Booz Allen Hamilton Inc. (informally: Booz Allen) is an American management and information technology consulting firm, sometimes referred to as a government-services company, headquartered in McLean, Virginia, in Greater Washington, D.C., with 80 other offices around the globe.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
A brand is a name, term, design, symbol, or other feature that distinguishes an organization or product from its rivals in the eyes of the customer.
"Bread and circuses" (or bread and games; from panem et circenses) is a figure of speech, specifically referring to a superficial means of appeasement.
The British Agricultural Revolution, or Second Agricultural Revolution, was the unprecedented increase in agricultural production in Britain due to increases in labour and land productivity between the mid-17th and late 19th centuries.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
Broad Top City is a borough in Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania, United States.
Bruges (Brugge; Bruges; Brügge) is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium, in the northwest of the country.
Brussels in Belgium is considered the de facto capital of the European Union, having a long history of hosting the institutions of the European Union within its European Quarter.
Brutalist architecture flourished from 1951 to 1975, having descended from the modernist architectural movement of the early 20th century.
A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory.
In social science, the term built environment, or built world, refers to the human-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity, ranging in scale from buildings to parks.
In the history of the Low Countries, the Burgundian Netherlands (Pays-Bas Bourguignons., Bourgondische Nederlanden, Burgundeschen Nidderlanden, Bas Payis borguignons) were a number of Imperial and French fiefs ruled in personal union by the House of Valois-Burgundy and their Habsburg heirs in the period from 1384 to 1482.
Burial or interment is the ritual act of placing a dead person or animal, sometimes with objects, into the ground.
A bus (archaically also omnibus, multibus, motorbus, autobus) is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers.
A bus lane or bus-only lane is a lane restricted to buses, often on certain days and times, and generally used to speed up public transport that would be otherwise held up by traffic congestion.
Bus rapid transit (BRT, BRTS, busway, transitway) is a bus-based public transport system designed to improve capacity and reliability relative to a conventional bus system.
A business improvement district (BID) is a defined area within which businesses are required to pay an additional tax (or levy) in order to fund projects within the district's boundaries.
Byblos, in Arabic Jbail (جبيل Lebanese Arabic pronunciation:; Phoenician: 𐤂𐤁𐤋 Gebal), is a Middle Eastern city on Levant coast in the Mount Lebanon Governorate, Lebanon.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group (C40) connects 90 of the world’s greatest cities, representing 650+ million people and one quarter of the global economy.
In the biblical Book of Genesis, Cain and Abel are the first two sons of Adam and Eve.
Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.
A campamento ("camp" or "tent city") or población callampa ("mushroom town") are terms given in Chile to shanty towns.
Capital One Financial Corporation is a bank holding company specializing in credit cards, auto loans, banking and savings products headquartered in McLean, Virginia.
Roma Caput Mundi is a Latin phrase taken to mean "Rome capital of the world" and "Roma capitale del mondo" in Italian (literally: "head of the world"; see capital, capitol).
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.
The Carbon Neutral Cities Alliance (CNCA or “Alliance”) is a collaboration of leading global cities working to cut greenhouse gas emissions by 80% or more by 2050 or sooner (“80x50”) — the most aggressive greenhouse gas reduction targets undertaken by any cities across the globe.
A car-free city or car free city is a population center that relies primarily on public transport, walking, or cycling for transport within the urban area.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
"Ceterum censeo Carthaginem esse delendam", or "Ceterum autem censeo Carthaginem esse delendam" (English: "Furthermore, (moreover) I consider that Carthage must be destroyed"), often abbreviated to "Ceterum censeo", "Carthago delenda est", or "Delenda est Carthago" (English: "Carthage must be destroyed"), is a Latin oratorical phrase.
Cash and cash equivalents (CCE) are the most liquid current assets found on a business's balance sheet.
The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus or Felis catus) is a small, typically furry, carnivorous mammal.
Cádiz (see other pronunciations below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain.
Córdoba, also called Cordoba or Cordova in English, is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba.
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population.
A central business district (CBD) is the commercial and business centre of a city.
A central government is the government of a nation-state and is a characteristic of a unitary state.
Central Park Tower (also known as the Nordstrom Tower and 225 West 57th Street, its address) is a supertall mixed-use commercial/residential project being developed by the Extell Development Company and Shanghai Municipal Investment Group in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, in the U.S. state of New York.
Chanakya (IAST:,; fl. c. 4th century BCE) was an Indian teacher, philosopher, economist, jurist and royal advisor.
Charles John Huffam Dickens (7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic.
The Chavín culture is an extinct, prehistoric civilization, named for Chavín de Huantar, the principal archaeological site at which its artifacts have been found.
The Chimú culture was centered on Chimor with the capital city of Chan Chan, a large adobe city in the Moche Valley of present-day Trujillo, Peru.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
In the 1960s, about 60% of the Chinese Labor Force were employed in agriculture.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
The Chrysler Building is an Art Deco–style skyscraper located on the East Side of Midtown Manhattan in New York City, at the intersection of 42nd Street and Lexington Avenue in the Turtle Bay neighborhood of Manhattan.
A citadel is the core fortified area of a town or city.
The Cities Alliance is a global partnership formed jointly by the World Bank and the United Nations Centre for Human Settlements (later known as UN-Habitat) to distribute grants, share information between local governments, and make policy recommendations "to urban poverty in developing countries".
Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.
A city centre is the commercial, cultural and often the historical, political and geographic heart of a city, especially those in the Western world.
The terms city limit and city boundary refer to the defined boundary or border of a city.
City marketing (related to city branding) is the promotion of a city, or a district within it, with the aim of encouraging certain activities to take place there.
The City of London is a city and county that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London.
A city proper is the area contained within city limits.
City region is a term in use since about 1950 by urbanists, economists and urban planners to mean a metropolitan area and hinterland, often having a shared administration.
City status is a symbolic and legal designation given by a national or subnational government.
City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the monarch of the United Kingdom to a select group of communities:, there are 69 cities in the United Kingdom – 51 in England, six in Wales, seven in Scotland and five in Northern Ireland.
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
The civil service is independent of government and composed mainly of career bureaucrats hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadership.
A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
The climate of New York state is generally humid continental, while the extreme southeastern portion of the state (New York City area) lies in the warm Humid Subtropical climate zone.
Close combat means a violent physical confrontation between two or more opponents at short range.
Cross-sectional view of a coaxial cable Coaxial cable, or coax (pronounced), is a type of electrical cable that has an inner conductor surrounded by a tubular insulating layer, surrounded by a tubular conducting shield.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Collective identity is the shared sense of belonging to a group.
A Roman colonia (plural coloniae) was originally a Roman outpost established in conquered territory to secure it.
Command and control or C2 is a "set of organizational and technical attributes and processes...
A commemorative plaque, or simply plaque, or in other places referred to as a historical marker or historic plaque, is a plate of metal, ceramic, stone, wood, or other material, typically attached to a wall, stone, or other vertical surface, and bearing text or an image in relief, or both, to commemorate one or more persons, an event, a former use of the place, or some other thing.
Common land is land owned collectively by a number of persons, or by one person, but over which other people have certain traditional rights, such as to allow their livestock to graze upon it, to collect wood, or to cut turf for fuel.
The common people, also known as the common man, commoners, or the masses, are the ordinary people in a community or nation who lack any significant social status, especially those who are members of neither royalty, nobility, the clergy, nor any member of the aristocracy.
A commune (comuna) is the smallest administrative subdivision in Chile.
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic.
Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.
A commuter town is a town whose residents normally work elsewhere but in which they live, eat and sleep.
Commuting is periodically recurring travel between one's place of residence and place of work, or study, and in doing so exceed the boundary of their residential community.
The Compact of Mayors is a global coalition of city leaders addressing climate change by pledging to cut greenhouse gas emissions and prepare for the future impacts of climate change.
Comprehensive planning is a process that determines community goals and aspirations in terms of community development.
The comune (plural: comuni) is a basic administrative division in Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality.
Concrete, usually Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens over time—most frequently a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement.
Conflict of laws concerns relations across different legal jurisdictions between natural persons, companies, corporations and other legal entities, their legal obligations and the appropriate forum and procedure for resolving disputes between them.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Constantinos Apostolou Doxiadis (also Konstantinos; 14 May 1913 – 28 June 1975), often cited as C. A. Doxiadis, was a Greek architect and town planner.
A constitutional right can be a prerogative or a duty, a power or a restraint of power, recognized and established by a sovereign state or union of states.
Consumerism is a social and economic order and ideology that encourages the acquisition of goods and services in ever-increasing amounts.
Consumption is the process in which consumers (customers or buyers) purchase items on the market.
A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban or industrially developed area.
Cooking or cookery is the art, technology, science and craft of preparing food for consumption.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Corporate social responsibility (CSR, also called corporate sustainability, sustainable business, corporate conscience, corporate citizenship or responsible business) is a type of international private business self-regulation.
A corporation is a company or group of people or an organisation authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.
Corporatization is the process of transforming state assets, government agencies, or municipal organizations into corporations.
A counter-insurgency or counterinsurgency (COIN) can be defined as "comprehensive civilian and military efforts taken to simultaneously defeat and contain insurgency and address its root causes".
In nuclear strategy, a counterforce target is one that has a military value, such as a launch silo for intercontinental ballistic missiles, an airbase at which nuclear-armed bombers are stationed, a homeport for ballistic missile submarines, or a command and control installation.
In military doctrine, countervalue is the targeting of an opponent's assets which are of value but not actually a military threat, such as cities and civilian populations.
The Covenant of Mayors is a European co-operation movement involving local and regional authorities.
A credit rating is an evaluation of the credit risk of a prospective debtor (an individual, a business, company or a government), predicting their ability to pay back the debt, and an implicit forecast of the likelihood of the debtor defaulting.
Crime prevention is the attempt to reduce and deter crime and criminals.
In agriculture, crop yield (also known as "agricultural output") refers to both the measure of the yield of a crop per unit area of land cultivation, and the seed generation of the plant itself (e.g. if three grains are harvested for each grain seeded, the resulting yield is 1:3).
Crown colony, dependent territory and royal colony are terms used to describe the administration of United Kingdom overseas territories that are controlled by the British Government.
In sociology, cultural capital consists of the social assets of a person (education, intellect, style of speech and dress, etc.) that promote social mobility in a stratified society.
Cultural governance is governance of culture.
A cultural institution or cultural organization is an organization within a culture/subculture that works for the preservation or promotion of culture.
Cultural policy is the government actions, laws and programs that regulate, protect, encourage and financially (or otherwise) support activities related to the arts and creative sectors, such as painting, sculpture, music, dance, literature, and filmmaking, among others and culture, which may involve activities related to language, heritage and diversity.
Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.
Cycling, also called bicycling or biking, is the use of bicycles for transport, recreation, exercise or sport.
In Greek mythology, the name Cydon (Κύδων) may refer to.
Dajti standing at above sea level, is a mountain on the edge of Tirana, Albania.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities.
The city of Detroit, in the U.S. state of Michigan, has gone through a major economic and demographic decline in recent decades.
The decorative arts are arts or crafts concerned with the design and manufacture of beautiful objects that are also functional.
The defensible space theory of architect and city planner Oscar Newman encompasses ideas about crime prevention and neighborhood safety.
A defensive wall is a fortification usually used to protect a city, town or other settlement from potential aggressors.
Deindustrialization or deindustrialisation is a process of social and economic change caused by the removal or reduction of industrial capacity or activity in a country or region, especially heavy industry or manufacturing industry.
Demographic transition (DT) is the transition from high birth and death rates to lower birth and death rates as a country or region develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system.
Demography (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies "writing, description or measurement") is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.
A department store is a retail establishment offering a wide range of consumer goods in different product categories known as "departments".
Deregulation is the process of removing or reducing state regulations, typically in the economic sphere.
In finance, a derivative is a contract that derives its value from the performance of an underlying entity.
Design is the creation of a plan or convention for the construction of an object, system or measurable human interaction (as in architectural blueprints, engineering drawings, business processes, circuit diagrams, and sewing patterns).
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Development aid or development cooperation (also development assistance, technical assistance, international aid, overseas aid, official development assistance (ODA), or foreign aid) is financial aid given by governments and other agencies to support the economic, environmental, social, and political development of developing countries.
Discourse (from Latin discursus, "running to and from") denotes written and spoken communications.
In biology, a disturbance is a temporary change in environmental conditions that causes a pronounced change in an ecosystem.
The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any system so that participants may specialize.
Djenné-Djenno (also Jenne-Jeno) is a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in the Niger River Valley in the country of Mali.
The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the gray wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore.
Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.
Downtown is a term primarily used in North America by English-speakers to refer to a city's core or central business district (CBD), often in a geographical or commercial sense.
Dulas or City Dulas is a village in Anglesey, in north-west Wales.
The Dulles Technology Corridor is a business cluster containing many defense and technology companies, located in Northern Virginia near Washington Dulles International Airport.
The Dutch–Hanseatic War was a conflict between the Burgundian Netherlands and the Hanseatic League over the latter's control of Baltic shipping.
In law, a dwelling (also residence, abode) is a self-contained unit of accommodation used by one or more households as a home, such as a house, apartment, mobile home, houseboat, vehicle or other 'substantial' structure.
A dystopia (from the Greek δυσ- "bad" and τόπος "place"; alternatively, cacotopia,Cacotopia (from κακός kakos "bad") was the term used by Jeremy Bentham in his 19th century works kakotopia, or simply anti-utopia) is a community or society that is undesirable or frightening.
Electronic governance or e-governance is the application of information and communication technology (ICT) for delivering government services, exchange of information, communication transactions, integration of various stand-alone systems and services between government-to-citizen (G2C), government-to-business (G2B), government-to-government (G2G), government-to-employees (G2E) as well as back office processes and interactions within the entire government framework.
The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.
The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, the Rio Summit, the Rio Conference, and the Earth Summit (Portuguese: ECO92), was a major United Nations conference held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992.
The ecological footprint measures human demand on nature, i.e., the quantity of nature it takes to support people or an economy.
Ecological succession is the process of change in the species structure of an ecological community over time.
economic development wikipedia Economic development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people.
Economic restructuring refers to the phenomenon of Western urban areas shifting from a manufacturing to a service sector economic base.
An economic system is a system of production, resource allocation and distribution of goods and services within a society or a given geographic area.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
In microeconomics, economies of scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to their scale of operation (typically measured by amount of output produced), with cost per unit of output decreasing with increasing scale.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Ecumenopolis (from οἰκουμένη, meaning "world", and πόλις "city", thus "a city made of the whole world"; pl. ecumenopolises or ecumenopoleis) is the hypothetical concept of a planetwide city.
"Edge city" is an American term for a concentration of business, shopping, and entertainment outside a traditional downtown (or central business district) in what had previously been a residential or rural area.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
The Edwin Mellen Press is a scholarly publishing house with offices in Lewiston, New York, and Lampeter, Wales.
Since the twentieth century, the role of the car has become highly important though controversial.
Egalitarianism – or equalitarianism – is a school of thought that prioritizes equality for all people.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Ekistics concerns the science of human settlements,Doxiadis, Konstantinos Ekistics 1968 including regional, city, community planning and dwelling design.
El Lahun (اللاهون El Lāhūn, alt. Illahun, Lahun, or Kahun) is a village in Faiyum, Egypt.
In electrical engineering, electric machine is a general term for machines using electromagnetic forces, such as electric motors, electric generators, and others.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
Electrification is the process of powering by electricity and, in many contexts, the introduction of such power by changing over from an earlier power source.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
An elevated railway (also known as an El rail, El train or simply an El for short, and, in Europe, as an overhead railway) is a rapid transit railway with the tracks above street level on a viaduct or other elevated structure (usually constructed of steel, concrete, or brick).
In political and sociological theory, the elite (French élite, from Latin eligere) are a small group of powerful people who hold a disproportionate amount of wealth, privilege, political power, or skill in a society.
Elvis Aaron Presley (January 8, 1935 – August 16, 1977) was an American singer and actor.
Eminent domain (United States, Philippines), land acquisition (Singapore), compulsory purchase (United Kingdom, New Zealand, Ireland), resumption (Hong Kong, Uganda), resumption/compulsory acquisition (Australia), or expropriation (France, Italy, Mexico, South Africa, Canada, Brazil, Portugal, Spain, Chile, Denmark, Sweden) is the power of a state, provincial, or national government to take private property for public use.
The Empire State Building is a 102-story Art Deco skyscraper in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
ENGIE (known as GDF Suez prior to April 2015) is a French multinational electric utility company, headquartered in La Défense, Courbevoie, which operates in the fields of electricity generation and distribution, natural gas, nuclear and renewable energy.
Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest of an audience, or gives pleasure and delight.
Environment & Urbanization is a biannual peer-reviewed academic journal covering urban and environmental studies.
Environmental racism is a term used to describe environmental injustice within a racialized context.
Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the environment on humans, animals, plants and non-living matter.
In sociology, an ethnic enclave is a geographic area with high ethnic concentration, characteristic cultural identity, and economic activity.
EUROCITIES is the network of major European cities, founded in 1986 by the mayors of Barcelona, Birmingham, Frankfurt, Lyon, Milan, and Rotterdam.
European integration is the process of industrial, political, legal, economic, social and cultural integration of states wholly or partially in Europe.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Everyday life, daily life or routine life comprises the ways in which people typically act, think, and feel on a daily basis.
A factory or manufacturing plant is an industrial site, usually consisting of buildings and machinery, or more commonly a complex having several buildings, where workers manufacture goods or operate machines processing one product into another.
Faiyum (الفيوم; ̀Ⲫⲓⲟⲙ or Ⲫⲓⲱⲙ) is a city in Middle Egypt.
The Fall of Constantinople (Ἅλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Halōsis tēs Kōnstantinoupoleōs; İstanbul'un Fethi Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army on 29 May 1453.
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.
A fantasy world is a human conceived world created in fictional media, such as literature, film or games.
Fauna is all of the animal life of any particular region or time.
A favela, Brazilian Portuguese for slum, is a low-income historically informal urban area in Brazil.
The Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM, Fédération canadienne des municipalités) is an advocacy group representing over 2000 Canadian municipalities.
A feral animal or plant (from Latin fera, "a wild beast") is one that lives in the wild but is descended from domesticated individuals.
In politics, a figurehead is a person who holds de jure (in name or by law) an important title or office (often supremely powerful), yet de facto (in reality) executes little actual power.
Financial capital is any economic resource measured in terms of money used by entrepreneurs and businesses to buy what they need to make their products or to provide their services to the sector of the economy upon which their operation is based, i.e. retail, corporate, investment banking, etc.
Financial instruments are monetary contracts between parties.
Financial services are the economic services provided by the finance industry, which encompasses a broad range of businesses that manage money, including credit unions, banks, credit-card companies, insurance companies, accountancy companies, consumer-finance companies, stock brokerages, investment funds, individual managers and some government-sponsored enterprises.
Financialization is a term sometimes used to describe the development of financial capitalism during the period from 1980 until 2010, in which debt-to-equity ratios increased and financial services accounted for an increasing share of national income relative to other sectors.
A fire department (American English) or fire brigade (British English), also known as a fire protection district, fire authority or fire and rescue service is an organization that primarily provides firefighting services for a specific geographic area.
Firefighting is the act of attempting to prevent the spread of and extinguish significant unwanted fires in buildings, vehicles, woodlands, etc.
China's Five-Year Plans are a series of social and economic development initiatives.
Fixed capital is a concept in economics and accounting, first theoretically analyzed in some depth by the economist David Ricardo.
A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
The Four Seasons Hotel New York Downtown, also known as 30 Park Place, is a hotel and residential skyscraper in Tribeca, Manhattan, New York City.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
Fredy Perlman (August 20, 1934 – July 26, 1985) was a Czech-born, naturalized American author, publisher, professor, and activist.
A free city (civitas libera, urbs liberae condicionis; ἐλευθέρα καὶ αὐτόνομος πόλις) was a self-governed city during the Hellenistic and Roman Imperial eras.
In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term free and imperial cities (Freie und Reichsstädte), briefly worded free imperial city (Freie Reichsstadt, urbs imperialis libera), was used from the fifteenth century to denote a self-ruling city that had a certain amount of autonomy and was represented in the Imperial Diet.
Friedrich Engels (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.;, sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist and businessman.
Friedrich Christian Anton "Fritz" Lang (December 5, 1890 – August 2, 1976) was an Austrian-German-American filmmaker, screenwriter, and occasional film producer and actor.
Gannett Company, Inc. is a publicly traded American media holding company headquartered in Tysons Corner, Virginia, near McLean in Greater Washington DC.
A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the display, cultivation and enjoyment of plants and other forms of nature.
Garrison (various spellings) (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, "to equip") is the collective term for a body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but now often simply using it as a home base.
Gary Marks (born 1952 in London) is an English academic and an expert on the European Union.
Gary is a city in Lake County, Indiana, United States, from downtown Chicago, Illinois.
Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.
In its modern form, a gated community (or walled community) is a form of residential community or housing estate containing strictly controlled entrances for pedestrians, bicycles, and automobiles, and often characterized by a closed perimeter of walls and fences.
General Dynamics Corporation (GD) is an American aerospace and defense multinational corporation formed by mergers and divestitures.
Gentrification is a process of renovation of deteriorated urban neighborhoods by means of the influx of more affluent residents.
Geographical segregation exists whenever the proportions of population rates of two or more populations are not homogenous throughout a defined space.
Geopolitics (from Greek γῆ gê "earth, land" and πολιτική politikḗ "politics") is the study of the effects of geography (human and physical) on politics and international relations.
The George Bush Center for Intelligence is the headquarters of the Central Intelligence Agency, located in the unincorporated community of Langley in Fairfax County, Virginia, United States.
Ghent (Gent; Gand) is a city and a municipality in the Flemish Region of Belgium.
A ghetto is a part of a city in which members of a minority group live, typically as a result of social, legal, or economic pressure.
A ghost town is an abandoned village, town, or city, usually one that contains substantial visible remains.
Gilgamesh was a historical king of the Sumerian city-state of Uruk, a major hero in ancient Mesopotamian mythology, and the protagonist of the Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem written in Akkadian during the late second millennium BC.
A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city which is a primary node in the global economic network.
Global governance or world governance is a movement towards political cooperation among transnational actors, aimed at negotiating responses to problems that affect more than one state or region.
The Global South is a term that has been emerging in transnational and postcolonial studies to refer to what may also be called the "Third World" (i.e., Africa, Latin America, and the developing countries in Asia), "developing countries," "less developed countries," and "less developed regions." It can also include poorer "southern" regions of wealthy "northern" countries.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
Good governance is an indeterminate term used in the international development literature to describe how public institutions conduct public affairs and manage public resources.
Governance is all of the processes of governing, whether undertaken by a government, a market or a network, over a social system (family, tribe, formal or informal organization, a territory or across territories) and whether through the laws, norms, power or language of an organized society.
Graceland is a mansion on a estate in Memphis, Tennessee, United States, that was owned by Elvis Presley.
A granary is a storehouse or room in a barn for threshed grain or animal feed.
Grants are non-repayable funds or products disbursed or gifted by one party (grant makers), often a government department, corporation, foundation or trust, to a recipient, often (but not always) a nonprofit entity, educational institution, business or an individual.
The Great Leap Forward of the People's Republic of China (PRC) was an economic and social campaign by the Communist Party of China (CPC) from 1958 to 1962.
The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world, consisting of the Kantō region of Japan, including the Tokyo Metropolis, as well as the prefecture of Yamanashi of the neighboring Chūbu region.
Greenfield land is undeveloped land in a city or rural area either used for agriculture or landscape design, or left to evolve naturally.
Grey-collar refers to the balance of employed people not classified as white- or blue collar.
The grid plan, grid street plan, or gridiron plan is a type of city plan in which streets run at right angles to each other, forming a grid.
Herbert George Wells.
Haarlem (predecessor of Harlem in the English language) is a city and municipality in the Netherlands.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
The term Habitat I refers to the first United Nations Conference on Human Settlements, in Vancouver, Canada, 31 May – 11 June 1976, which was convened by the United Nations as governments began to recognize the magnitude and consequences of rapid urbanization.
Habitat II, the Second United Nations Conference on Human Settlements was held in Istanbul, Turkey from June 3–14, 1996, twenty years after Habitat I held in Vancouver in 1976.
Habitat III, the United Nations Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development, took place in Quito, Ecuador, from 17 – 20 October 2016.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
Harappa (Urdu/ہڑپّہ) is an archaeological site in Punjab, Pakistan, about west of Sahiwal.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Haze is traditionally an atmospheric phenomenon in which dust, smoke, and other dry particulates obscure the clarity of the sky.
Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.
Healthy city is a term used in public health and urban design to stress the impact of policy on human health.
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
A herald, or a herald of arms, is an officer of arms, ranking between pursuivant and king of arms.
High technology, often abbreviated to high tech (adjective forms high-technology, high-tech or hi-tech) is technology that is at the cutting edge: the most advanced technology available.
A highway is any public or private road or other public way on land.
Hinterland is a German word meaning "the land behind" (a city, a port, or similar).
Historic preservation (US), heritage preservation or heritage conservation (UK), is an endeavour that seeks to preserve, conserve and protect buildings, objects, landscapes or other artifacts of historical significance.
The history of rail transport began in 6th century BC in Ancient Greece.
The history of the world is the history of humanity (or human history), as determined from archaeology, anthropology, genetics, linguistics, and other disciplines; and, for periods since the invention of writing, from recorded history and from secondary sources and studies.
The development of urban centers in the Low Countries shows the process in which a region, the Low Countries in Western Europe, evolves from a highly rural outpost of the Roman Empire into the largest urbanized area above the Alps by the 15th century CE.
This article delineates the history of urban planning, a technical and political process concerned with the use of land and design of the urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas such as transportation and distribution networks.
The history of water supply and sanitation is one of a logistical challenge to provide clean water and sanitation systems since the dawn of civilization.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Home appliances are electrical/mechanical machines which accomplish some household functions, such as cooking, cleaning, or food preservation.
Homelessness is the circumstance when people are without a permanent dwelling, such as a house or apartment.
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.
The hospitality industry is a broad category of fields within the service industry that includes lodging, event planning, theme parks, transportation, cruise line, and additional fields within the tourism industry.
Housekeeping refers to the management of duties and chores involved in the running of a household, such as cleaning, cooking, home maintenance, shopping, laundry and bill pay.
Housing, or more generally living spaces, refers to the construction and assigned usage of houses or buildings collectively, for the purpose of sheltering people —the planning or provision delivered by an authority, with related meanings.
In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live.
Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) is the technology of indoor and vehicular environmental comfort.
Hygiene is a set of practices performed to preserve health.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability, founded in 1990 as the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives, is an international organization of local governments and national and regional local government organizations that have made a commitment to sustainable development.
In psychology, identity is the qualities, beliefs, personality, looks and/or expressions that make a person (self-identity) or group (particular social category or social group).
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
The Imperial Diet (Dieta Imperii/Comitium Imperiale; Reichstag) was the deliberative body of the Holy Roman Empire.
An Imperial State or Imperial Estate (Status Imperii; Reichsstand, plural: Reichsstände) was a part of the Holy Roman Empire with representation and the right to vote in the Imperial Diet (Reichstag).
The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, "The Four Regions"), also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America, and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century.
Over the centuries the roles of rivers as part of the city has altered many times from the original use for the irrigating crops in nearby fields, as well as being an essential resource in establishing a permanent settlement.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Information economy is an economy with an increased emphasis on informational activities and information industry.
Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.
The inner city or inner town is the central area of a major city or metropolis.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
An insurgency is a rebellion against authority (for example, an authority recognized as such by the United Nations) when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents (lawful combatants).
The intelligentsia (/ɪnˌtelɪˈdʒentsiə/) (intelligentia, inteligencja, p) is a status class of educated people engaged in the complex mental labours that critique, guide, and lead in shaping the culture and politics of their society.
Intensive farming involves various types of agriculture with higher levels of input and output per cubic unit of agricultural land area.
An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
International relations (IR) or international affairs (IA) — commonly also referred to as international studies (IS) or global studies (GS) — is the study of interconnectedness of politics, economics and law on a global level.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
An introduced species (alien species, exotic species, non-indigenous species, or non-native species) is a species living outside its native distributional range, which has arrived there by human activity, either deliberate or accidental.
An investor is a person that allocates capital with the expectation of a future financial return.
Israeli settlements are civilian communities inhabited by Israeli citizens, almost exclusively of Jewish ethnicity, built predominantly on lands within the Palestinian territories, which Israel has militarily occupied since the 1967 Six-Day War, and partly on lands considered Syrian territory also militarily occupied by Israel since the 1967 war.
The Italian city-states were a political phenomenon of small independent states mostly in the central and northern Italian peninsula between the 9th and the 15th centuries.
James Franklin Bell (January 9, 1856 – January 8, 1919) was an officer in the United States Army who served as Chief of Staff of the United States Army from 1906 to 1910.
Jabodetabek or Greater Jakarta is an official and administrative definition of the urban area or megacity surrounding the Indonesia capital city, Jakarta. The original term "Jabotabek" dated from the late 1970s and was revised to "Jabodetabek" in 1999 when "De" (for "Depok") was inserted into the name following its formation. It finally included DKI Jakarta, five cities and three regencies. The area comprises Jakarta and parts of West Java and Banten provinces, specifically the three regencies of those provinces which surround Jakarta - Bekasi and Bogor in West Java, and Tangerang in Banten. Also included were the Kota (formerly Kotamadya) independent municipalities of Bogor, Depok, Bekasi, Tangerang and South Tangerang. The name of the region is taken from the first two (or three) letters of each city's name: Jabo(de)tabek from Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang and Bekasi. The population of Jabodetabek, with an area of 6,392 km2, was over 28.0 million according to the Indonesian Census 2010, and by January 2014 was officially estimated to have increased to over 30.0 millionPenduduk Kabupaten/Kota Umur Tunggal - Tahun 2014. making it the most populous region in Indonesia, as well as the second most populous urban area in the world after Tokyo. The population share of Jabodetabek to national population was increased from 6.1% in 1961 to 11.26% in 2010.Rustiadi et al., Pembangunan Kawasan Transmigrasi Dalam Perspektif Pengembangan Wilayah & Perdesaan, 2012 The region is the center of government, culture, education, and economy of Indonesia. It has pulled many people from throughout of Indonesia to come, live and work. Its economic power makes Jabodetabek the country's premier center for finance, manufacture and commerce. The region was established in 1976 through Presidential Instruction No. 13 in response to the needs to sustain the growing population of capital city. Indonesia's government established Jabotabek Cooperation Body (Badan Kerjasama Pembangunan) of the joint secretariat of Government of DKI Jakarta and West Java province.R.B. Singh, Urban Development Challenges, Risks and Resilience in Asian Mega Cities, 2014.
Jacques Ellul (January 6, 1912 – May 19, 1994) was a French philosopher, sociologist, lay theologian, and professor who was a noted Christian anarchist.
Jakarta, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta (Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia.
James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish novelist, short story writer, and poet.
Jericho (יְרִיחוֹ; أريحا) is a city in the Palestinian Territories and is located near the Jordan River in the West Bank.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Joel A. Tarr (born 1934) is an American historian currently the Richard S. Caliguiri University Professor of History and Policy, History at Carnegie Mellon University.
Juan Eduardo Cirlot Laporta (9 April 1916 – 11 May 1973) was a Spanish poet, art critic, hermeneutist, mythologist, and musician.
Jurisdiction (from the Latin ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined field of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
The Khmer Empire (Khmer: ចក្រភពខ្មែរ: Chakrphup Khmer or អាណាចក្រខ្មែរ: Anachak Khmer), officially the Angkor Empire (Khmer: អាណាចក្រអង្គរ: Anachak Angkor), the predecessor state to modern Cambodia ("Kampuchea" or "Srok Khmer" to the Khmer people), was a powerful Hindu-Buddhist empire in Southeast Asia.
The King assassination riots, also known as the Holy Week Uprising, was a wave of civil disturbance which swept the United States following the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. on April 4, 1968.
Kingsley Davis (August 20, 1908 – February 27, 1997) was an internationally recognized American sociologist and demographer.
The knowledge economy is the use of knowledge (savoir, savoir-faire, savoir-être) to generate tangible and intangible values.
Knowledge spillover is an exchange of ideas among individuals.
Labour economics seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets for wage labour.
Land use involves the management and modification of natural environment or wilderness into built environment such as settlements and semi-natural habitats such as arable fields, pastures, and managed woods.
In urban planning, land-use planning seeks to order and regulate land use in an efficient and ethical way, thus preventing land-use conflicts.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
A law firm or a law company is a business entity formed by one or more lawyers to engage in the practice of law.
Lübeck is a city in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany, and one of the major ports of Germany.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Legal outsourcing, also known as legal process outsourcing (LPO), refers to the practice of a law firm or corporation obtaining legal support services from an outside law firm or legal support services company (LPO provider).
Lewis Mumford (October 19, 1895 – January 26, 1990) was an American historian, sociologist, philosopher of technology, and literary critic.
Lifestyle enclave is a sociological term first used by Robert N. Bellah in his 1985 book, Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life.
Light rail, light rail transit (LRT), or fast tram is a form of urban rail transport using rolling stock similar to a tramway, but operating at a higher capacity, and often on an exclusive right-of-way.
Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light to achieve a practical or aesthetic effect.
The following is a list of adjectival forms of cities in English and their demonymic equivalents, which denote the people or the inhabitants of these cities.
This is a list of known ancient Egyptian towns and cities.
The list of major cities conquered by the Ottoman Empire is below.
This is a list of cities and towns founded by the Romans.
This is a list of the 177 resident embassies in Washington, D.C. For other diplomatic missions in the United States, see List of diplomatic missions in the United States.
Determining the world's largest cities depends on which definitions of city are used.
Literary descriptions of cities (also known as urban descriptiones) form a literary genre that originated in Ancient Greek epideictic rhetoric.
One concept which measures the world's largest cities is that of the metropolitan area, which is based on the concept of a labor market area and is typically defined as an employment core (an area with a high density of available jobs) and the surrounding areas that have strong commuting ties to the core.
This is a list of present-day cities by the time period over which they have been continuously inhabited.
This is a list of cities of Phoenicia proper, modern-day Lebanon, coastal Syria and northern Israel/Palestine and those cities founded or developed by the Phoenicians in the Levant / Eastern Mediterranean area, North Africa, Europe, and the islands of the Mediterranean Sea.
Specialized agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United Nations and each other through the coordinating machinery of the United Nations Economic and Social Council at the intergovernmental level, and through the Chief Executives Board for coordination (CEB) at the inter-secretariat level.
This is a list of lists of cities.
Lobbying, persuasion, or interest representation is the act of attempting to influence the actions, policies, or decisions of officials in their daily life, most often legislators or members of regulatory agencies.
A local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state.
The pattern of local government in England is complex, with the distribution of functions varying according to the local arrangements.
Local government in the United States refers to governmental jurisdictions below the level of the state.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
A lost city is a settlement that fell into terminal decline and became extensively or completely uninhabited, with the consequence that the site's former significance was no longer known to the wider world.
Macrocosm and microcosm refers to a vision of cosmos where the part (microcosm) reflects the whole (macrocosm) and vice versa.
Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body.
Manhattan is the most densely populated borough of New York City, its economic and administrative center, and its historical birthplace.
Manhattan West is a mixed-use development by Brookfield Properties.
Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation.
In economics, marginal cost is the change in the opportunity cost that arises when the quantity produced is incremented by one unit, that is, it is the cost of producing one more unit of a good.
Marketing is the study and management of exchange relationships.
A market, or marketplace, is a location where people regularly gather for the purchase and sale of provisions, livestock, and other goods.
Herbert Marshall McLuhan (July 21, 1911December 31, 1980) was a Canadian professor, philosopher, and public intellectual.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Mass communication is the study of how people exchange information through mass media to large segments of the population at the same time.
The mass media is a diversified collection of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication.
In finance, maturity or maturity date refers to the final payment date of a loan or other financial instrument, at which point the principal (and all remaining interest) is due to be paid.
Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist.
Maya Cities were the centres of population of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization of Mesoamerica.
In many countries, a mayor (from the Latin maior, meaning "bigger") is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
In economics and sociology, the means of production (also called capital goods) are physical non-human and non-financial inputs used in the production of economic value.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
Medieval communes in the European Middle Ages had sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms) among the citizens of a town or city.
A megacity is a very large city, typically with a total population in excess of 10 million people.
A megalopolis (sometimes called a megapolis; also megaregion, or supercity) is typically defined as a chain of roughly adjacent metropolitan areas, which may be somewhat separated or may merge into a continuous urban region.
A megaproject is an extremely large-scale investment project.
Memphis is a city located along the Mississippi River in the southwestern corner of the U.S. state of Tennessee.
Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
A metropolis is a large city or conurbation which is a significant economic, political, and cultural center for a country or region, and an important hub for regional or international connections, commerce, and communications.
Metropolis is a 1927 German expressionist science-fiction drama film directed by Fritz Lang.
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing.
In the United States, a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) is a geographical region with a relatively high population density at its core and close economic ties throughout the area.
A microclimate is a local set of atmospheric conditions that differ from those in the surrounding areas, often with a slight difference but sometimes with a substantial one.
Military urbanism is the militarization of urban spaces.
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the eight international development goals for the year 2015 that had been established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration.
A mining community, also known as a mining town or a mining camp, is a community that houses miners.
The Moche civilization (alternatively, the Mochica culture or the Early, Pre- or Proto-Chimú) flourished in northern Peru with its capital near present-day Moche, Trujillo, Peru from about 100 to 700 AD during the Regional Development Epoch.
Mogadishu (Muqdisho), known locally as Xamar or Hamar, is the capital and most populous city of Somalia.
Mohenjo-daro (موئن جو دڙو, meaning 'Mound of the Dead Men'; موئن جو دڑو) is an archaeological site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan.
A monopoly (from Greek μόνος mónos and πωλεῖν pōleîn) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity.
The monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force, also known as the monopoly on violence (Gewaltmonopol des Staates), is a core concept of modern public law, which goes back to Jean Bodin's 1576 work Les Six livres de la République and Thomas Hobbes' 1651 book Leviathan.
A monument is a type of—usually three-dimensional—structure that was explicitly created to commemorate a person or event, or which has become relevant to a social group as a part of their remembrance of historic times or cultural heritage, due to its artistic, historical, political, technical or architectural importance.
Mortgage Electronic Registration Systems, Inc.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
A motor vehicle is a self-propelled vehicle, commonly wheeled, that does not operate on rails, such as trains or trams and used for the transportation of passengers, or passengers and property.
A mouse (Mus), plural mice, is a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate.
Multi-level (or multilevel) governance is an approach in political science and public administration theory that originated from studies on European integration.
A multinational corporation (MNC) or worldwide enterprise is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country.
A municipal bond, commonly known as a Muni Bond, is a bond issued by a local government or territory, or one of their agencies.
A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) cities, counties, towns, townships, charter townships, villages, and boroughs.
Municipal governance in India has existed since the year 1688, with the formation of Madras Municipal Corporation, and then Calcutta and Bombay Municipal Corporation in 1726.
Municipal services or city services refer to basic services that residents of a city expect the city government to provide in exchange for the taxes which citizens pay.
Municipalidad is a Spanish term for municipality used in many Latin American countries such as Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Colombia, Paraguay, Peru and Puerto Rico.
The municipality (município or concelho) is the second-level administrative subdivision of Portugal, as defined by the 1976 Constitution.
The municipalities of Spain (municipios,, municipis, concellos, udalerriak; sing. municipio)In other languages of Spain.
A municipality is usually a single urban or administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws to which it is subordinate.
Municipio and município are country subdivisions in Italy and several Hispanophone and Lusophone nations, respectively.
A museum (plural musea or museums) is an institution that cares for (conserves) a collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, cultural, historical, or scientific importance.
A nation is a stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, ethnicity or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture.
The National League of Cities (NLC) is an advocacy organization in the United States that represents the country's 19,000 cities, towns, and villages along with 49 state municipal leagues.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
A natural monopoly is a monopoly in an industry in which high infrastructural costs and other barriers to entry relative to the size of the market give the largest supplier in an industry, often the first supplier in a market, an overwhelming advantage over potential competitors.
Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind.
A neighbourhood (British English), or neighborhood (American English; see spelling differences), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area.
Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.
The Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible.
Neon lighting consists of brightly glowing, electrified glass tubes or bulbs that contain rarefied neon or other gases.
Network theory is the study of graphs as a representation of either symmetric relations or asymmetric relations between discrete objects.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, a subsidiary agency of the state-run Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA).
News is information about current events.
A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events.
Niamey is the capital and largest city of the West African country Niger.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nijmegen (Nijmeegs: Nimwegen), historically anglicized as Nimeguen, is a municipality and a city in the Dutch province of Gelderland.
Nimrod (ܢܡܪܘܕ, النمرود an-Namrūd), a biblical figure described as a king in the land of Shinar (Assyria/Mesopotamia), was, according to the Book of Genesis and Books of Chronicles, the son of Cush, therefore the great-grandson of Noah.
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.
The Norte Chico civilization (also Caral or Caral-Supe civilization)The name is disputed.
The North–South divide is broadly considered a socio-economic and political divide.
The Northeast megalopolis (also Boston–Washington corridor or Bos-Wash corridor), the most populous megalopolis in the Western Hemisphere with over 50 million residents, is the most heavily urbanized region of the United States.
Nuclear strategy involves the development of doctrines and strategies for the production and use of nuclear weapons.
Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is a city on the river Pegnitz and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about north of Munich.
Nylonkong, a contraction of New York–London–Hong Kong, is a neologism coined to link New York City, London and Hong Kong as the eperopolis of the Americas, Euro-Africa, and Asia-Pacific that first appeared in the magazine Time in 2008.
An occupational hazard is a hazard experienced in the workplace.
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (commonly known as the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)) is a United Nations agency that works to promote and protect the human rights that are guaranteed under international law and stipulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948.
Offshoring is the relocation of a business process from one country to another—typically an operational process, such as manufacturing, or supporting processes, such as accounting.
The Olmecs were the earliest known major civilization in Mexico following a progressive development in Soconusco.
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.
One World Trade Center (also known as 1 World Trade Center, 1 WTC or Freedom Tower) is the main building of the rebuilt World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan, New York City.
One57, formerly known as Carnegie 57 and nicknamed "The Billionaire Building", is a 75-story (marketed as 90-story) supertall skyscraper at 157 West 57th Street between Sixth and Seventh Avenues in the Midtown neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City.
In war, in the event of the imminent capture of a city, the government/military structure of the nation that controls the city will sometimes declare it an open city, thus announcing that it has abandoned all defensive efforts.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to industrial machinery.
Overcrowding or crowding refers to the condition where more people are located within a given space than is considered tolerable from a safety and health perspective which will depend on current environment and local cultural norms.
Owner-occupancy or home-ownership is a form of housing tenure where a person, called the owner-occupier, owner-occupant, or home owner, owns the home in which he/she lives.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
A park is an area of natural, semi-natural or planted space set aside for human enjoyment and recreation or for the protection of wildlife or natural habitats.
Atmospheric aerosol particles, also known as atmospheric particulate matter, particulate matter (PM), particulates, or suspended particulate matter (SPM) are microscopic solid or liquid matter suspended in Earth's atmosphere.
Path dependence explains how the set of decisions one faces for any given circumstance is limited by the decisions one has made in the past or by the events that one has experienced, even though past circumstances may no longer be relevant.
Sir Patrick Geddes FRSE (2 October 1854 – 17 April 1932) was a Scottish biologist, sociologist, geographer, philanthropist and pioneering town planner.
Paul James (born 1958, Melbourne), is Professor of Globalization and Cultural Diversity at Western Sydney University, and Director of the Institute for Culture and Society where he has been since 2014.
The Peace of Westphalia (Westfälischer Friede) was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster that virtually ended the European wars of religion.
A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees or services to a landlord.
A pedestrian is a person travelling on foot, whether walking or running.
Pedestrian zones (also known as auto-free zones and car-free zones, and as pedestrian precincts in British English) are areas of a city or town reserved for pedestrian-only use and in which most or all automobile traffic may be prohibited.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Peter James Taylor, FBA, FAcSS (born 21 November 1944) is an English geographer.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
The Philippine–American War (also referred to as the Filipino-American War, the Philippine War, the Philippine Insurrection, the Tagalog Insurgency; Filipino: Digmaang Pilipino-Amerikano; Spanish: Guerra Filipino-Estadounidense) was an armed conflict between the First Philippine Republic and the United States that lasted from February 4, 1899, to July 2, 1902.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
A pilgrim (from the Latin peregrinus) is a traveler (literally one who has come from afar) who is on a journey to a holy place.
Place branding (including place marketing and place promotion) is a new umbrella term encompassing nation branding, region branding and city branding.
A planned community, or planned city, is any community that was carefully planned from its inception and is typically constructed on previously undeveloped greenfield land.
Playtime (sometimes written PlayTime) is a 1967 French comedy film directed by Jacques Tati.
In telecommunications, a point-to-point connection refers to a communications connection between two Communication endpoints or nodes.
The points of the compass mark the divisions on a compass, which is primarily divided into four points: north, south, east, and west.
A police force is a constituted body of persons empowered by a state to enforce the law, to protect people and property, and to prevent crime and civil disorder.
Polis (πόλις), plural poleis (πόλεις), literally means city in Greek.
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.
Population density (in agriculture: standing stock and standing crop) is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume; it is a quantity of type number density.
The Population Reference Bureau (PRB) is a private, nonprofit organization that was founded in 1929 by Guy Burch.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
In sociology, the post-industrial society is the stage of society's development when the service sector generates more wealth than the manufacturing sector of the economy.
Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.
In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.
A power station, also referred to as a power plant or powerhouse and sometimes generating station or generating plant, is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).
Priene (Priēnē; Prien) was an ancient Greek city of Ionia (and member of the Ionian League) at the base of an escarpment of Mycale, about north of the then course of the Maeander (now called the Büyük Menderes or "Big Maeander") River, from ancient Anthea, from ancient Aneon and from ancient Miletus.
A primate city (Latin: "prime, first rank") is the largest city in its country or region, disproportionately larger than any others in the urban hierarchy.
Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.
Principles of intelligent urbanism (PIU) is a theory of urban planning composed of a set of ten axioms intended to guide the formulation of city plans and urban designs.
The private sector is the part of the economy, sometimes referred to as the citizen sector, which is run by private individuals or groups, usually as a means of enterprise for profit, and is not controlled by the State.
Privately owned public space (POPS), or alternatively, privately owned public open spaces (POPOS), are terms used to describe a type of public space that, although privately owned, is legally required to be open to the public under a city's zoning ordinance or other land-use law.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
A proclamation (Lat. proclamare, to make public by announcement) is an official declaration issued by a person of authority to make certain announcements known.
A proletarian revolution is a social revolution in which the working class attempts to overthrow the bourgeoisie.
The proletariat (from Latin proletarius "producing offspring") is the class of wage-earners in a capitalist society whose only possession of significant material value is their labour-power (their ability to work).
A property tax or millage rate is an ad valorem tax on the value of a property, usually levied on real estate.
Prostitution is the business or practice of engaging in sexual activity in exchange for payment.
A proto-city is a large village or town of the Neolithic such as Jericho and Çatalhöyük, "On the Konya plain in central Anatolia lies the extraordinary settlement of Catal Huyuk, which was nothing less than a proto-city (perhaps, indeed, the proto-city), founded in the mid-seventh millennium BC." and also any prehistoric settlement which has both rural and urban features.
Psychological warfare (PSYWAR), or the basic aspects of modern psychological operations (PSYOP), have been known by many other names or terms, including MISO, Psy Ops, political warfare, "Hearts and Minds", and propaganda.
Public art is art in any media that has been planned and executed with the intention of being staged in the physical public domain, usually outside and accessible to all.
Public capital is the aggregate body of government-owned assets that are used as a means for productivity.
In international relations, public diplomacy or people's diplomacy, broadly speaking, is the communication with and dissemination of propaganda to the general public of foreign nations to establish a dialogue designed to inform and influence.
Public domain land is land that cannot be sold because it legally belongs to the citizenry.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing the spread of information between an individual or an organization (such as a business, government agency, or a nonprofit organization) and the public.
Public Services International (PSI) is a global union federation of 669 public services trade unions representing 20 million workers in 154 countries.
A public space is a place that is generally open and accessible to people.
The public sphere (German Öffentlichkeit) is an area in social life where individuals can come together to freely discuss and identify societal problems, and through that discussion influence political action.
Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, or mass transit) is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public, typically managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, and that charge a posted fee for each trip.
Public transport bus services are generally based on regular operation of transit buses along a route calling at agreed bus stops according to a published public transport timetable.
A public utility (usually just utility) is an organization that maintains the infrastructure for a public service (often also providing a service using that infrastructure).
Public/social/private partnerships are methods of co-operation between private and government bodies.
A public–private partnership (PPP, 3P or P3) is a cooperative arrangement between two or more public and private sectors, typically of a long-term nature.
In ecology, r/K selection theory relates to the selection of combinations of traits in an organism that trade off between quantity and quality of offspring.
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then becomes heavy enough to fall under gravity.
RAND Corporation ("Research ANd Development") is an American nonprofit global policy think tank created in 1948 by Douglas Aircraft Company to offer research and analysis to the United States Armed Forces.
Rapid transit or mass rapid transit, also known as heavy rail, metro, MRT, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas.
Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents in the superfamily Muroidea.
Real estate is "property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals or water; immovable property of this nature; an interest vested in this (also) an item of real property, (more generally) buildings or housing in general.
Real estate development, or property development, is a business process, encompassing activities that range from the renovation and re-lease of existing buildings to the purchase of raw land and the sale of developed land or parcels to others.
Recreation is an activity of leisure, leisure being discretionary time.
Regulation is an abstract concept of management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends.
Renting, also known as hiring or letting, is an agreement where a payment is made for the temporary use of a good, service or property owned by another.
The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
A resource is a source or supply from which a benefit is produced.
Reston is one of the leading "New Town" planned communities in the United States.
Retail is the process of selling consumer goods or services to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit.
The right to property or right to own property (cf. ownership) is often classified as a human right for natural persons regarding their possessions.
A ring road (also known as beltline, beltway, circumferential (high)way, loop or orbital) is a road or a series of connected roads encircling a town, city, or country.
Rio de Janeiro (River of January), or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas.
The rise of Rome to dominate the overt politics of Europe, North Africa and the Near East completely from the 1st century BC to the 4th century AD, is the subject of a great deal of analysis by historians, military strategists, political scientists, and increasingly also some economists.
Riverside Church is a Christian church in Morningside Heights, Upper Manhattan, New York City.
A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places that has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle, cart, bicycle, or horse.
Road pricing (also road user charges) are direct charges levied for the use of roads, including road tolls, distance or time based fees, congestion charges and charges designed to discourage use of certain classes of vehicle, fuel sources or more polluting vehicles.
Road space rationing, also known as alternate-day travel, driving restriction, no-drive days, (restricción vehicular; rodízio veicular; circulation alternée) is a travel demand management strategy aimed to reduce the negative externalities generated by urban air pollution or peak urban travel demand in excess of available supply or road capacity, through artificially restricting demand (vehicle travel) by rationing the scarce common good road capacity, especially during the peak periods or during peak pollution events.
Robert McCormick Adams Jr. (July 23, 1926 – January 27, 2018) was a U.S. anthropologist and Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution (1984-94).
Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Ruins are the remains of human-made architecture: structures that were once intact have fallen, as time went by, into a state of partial or total disrepair, due to lack of maintenance or deliberate acts of destruction.
In general, a rural area or countryside is a geographic area that is located outside towns and cities.
The Rust Belt is a region of the United States, made up mostly of places in the Midwest and Great Lakes, though the term may be used to include any location where industry declined starting around 1980.
is a city located in Osaka Prefecture, Japan on the edge of Osaka Bay at the mouth of the Yamato River.
Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.
The ancient Indus Valley Civilisation of South Asia, including current day Pakistan and Northwest India, was prominent in hydraulic engineering, and had many water supply and sanitation devices that were the first of their kind.
Saskia Sassen (born January 5, 1947) is a Dutch-American sociologist noted for her analyses of globalization and international human migration.
Secondary succession is one of the two types of ecological succession of plant life.
The term sense of place has been used in many different ways.
Khakheperre Senusret II was the fourth pharaoh of the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt.
Service economy can refer to one or both of two recent economic developments.
Sewage (or domestic wastewater or municipal wastewater) is a type of wastewater that is produced from a community of people.
Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.
A shanty town or squatter area is a settlement of improvised housing which is known as shanties or shacks, made of plywood, corrugated metal, sheets of plastic, and cardboard boxes.
Shaw is a city in Bolivar and Sunflower counties, Mississippi, in the Mississippi Delta region.
A shelter is a basic architectural structure or building that provides protection from the local environment.
Shopping is an activity in which a customer browses the available goods or services presented by one or more retailers with the potential intent to purchase a suitable selection of them.
Shrinking cities or urban depopulation are dense cities that have experienced notable population loss.
Sibyl Moholy-Nagy (October 29, 1903 – January 8, 1971) was an architectural and art historian.
A sidewalk (American English) or pavement (British English), also known as a footpath or footway, is a path along the side of a road.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
A skyscraper is a continuously habitable high-rise building that has over 40 floors and is taller than approximately.
A slum is a highly populated urban residential area consisting mostly of closely packed, decrepit housing units in a situation of deteriorated or incomplete infrastructure, inhabited primarily by impoverished persons.
A smart city is an urban area that uses different types of electronic data collection sensors to supply information which is used to manage assets and resources efficiently.
Smog is a type of air pollutant.
Social change is an alteration in the social order of a society.
Social control is a concept within the disciplines of the social sciences.
Social stratification is a kind of social differentiation whereby a society groups people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political).
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
Springer Nature is an academic publishing company created by the May 2015 merger of Springer Science+Business Media and Holtzbrinck Publishing Group's Nature Publishing Group, Palgrave Macmillan, and Macmillan Education.
A state government is the government of a country subdivision in a federal form of government, which shares political power with the federal or national government.
State schools (also known as public schools outside England and Wales)In England and Wales, some independent schools for 13- to 18-year-olds are known as 'public schools'.
Statista is an online statistics, market research and business intelligence portal.
Status quo is a Latin phrase meaning the existing state of affairs, particularly with regard to social or political issues.
A stock market, equity market or share market is the aggregation of buyers and sellers (a loose network of economic transactions, not a physical facility or discrete entity) of stocks (also called shares), which represent ownership claims on businesses; these may include securities listed on a public stock exchange as well as those only traded privately.
A storm drain, storm sewer (U.S. and Canada), surface water drain/sewer (United Kingdom), or stormwater drain (Australia and New Zealand) is designed to drain excess rain and ground water from impervious surfaces such as paved streets, car parks, parking lots, footpaths, sidewalks, and roofs.
Stormwater, also spelled storm water, is water that originates during precipitation events and snow/ice melt.
Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.
The Strategic Hamlet Program (SHP; Ấp Chiến lược) was a plan by the governments of South Vietnam and the United States during the Vietnam War to combat the communist insurgency by pacifying the countryside and reducing the influence of the communists among the rural population.
A street light, light pole, lamppost, street lamp, light standard, or lamp standard is a raised source of light on the edge of a road or path.
A street network is a system of interconnecting lines and points (called edges and nodes in network science) that represent a system of streets or roads for a given area.
Structural adjustment programmes (SAPs) consist of loans provided by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB) to countries that experienced economic crises.
Subsistence agriculture is a self-sufficiency farming system in which the farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and their entire families.
A suburb is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city.
Suez S.A. was a leading French-based multinational corporation headquartered in the 8th arrondissement of Paris, with operations primarily in water, electricity and natural gas supply, and waste management.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
Surrender, in military terms, is the relinquishment of control over territory, combatants, fortifications, ships or armament to another power.
Smart cities seek to implement information and communication technologies (ICT) in order to improve the efficiency and sustainability of urban spaces while reducing costs and resource consumption.
Sustainability is the process of change, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations.
Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while at the same time sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services upon which the economy and society depend.
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a good collection of 17 global goals set by the United Nations in 2015.
A symbol is a mark, sign or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship.
The Taj Mahal (meaning "Crown of the Palace") is an ivory-white marble mausoleum on the south bank of the Yamuna river in the Indian city of Agra.
A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures.
Tax increment financing (TIF) is a public financing method that is used as a subsidy for redevelopment, infrastructure, and other community-improvement projects in many countries, including the United States.
Technical aspects of urban planning involve the technical processes, considerations and features that are involved in planning for land use, urban design, natural resources, transportation, and infrastructure.
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
A telephone line or telephone circuit (or just line or circuit within the industry) is a single-user circuit on a telephone communication system.
Temenos (Greek: τέμενος; plural: τεμένη, temene).
A temple (from the Latin word templum) is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual rituals and activities such as prayer and sacrifice.
Teotihuacan, (in Spanish: Teotihuacán), is an ancient Mesoamerican city located in a sub-valley of the Valley of Mexico, located in the State of Mexico northeast of modern-day Mexico City, known today as the site of many of the most architecturally significant Mesoamerican pyramids built in the pre-Columbian Americas.
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory.
The arts refers to the theory and physical expression of creativity found in human societies and cultures.
The City is a book by Max Weber, a German economist and sociologist.
The City in History: Its Origins, Its Transformations, and Its Prospects is a 1961 National Book Award winner by American historian Lewis Mumford.
The Communist Manifesto (originally Manifesto of the Communist Party) is an 1848 political pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
The Fast Lady is a 1962 British comedy film, directed by Ken Annakin.
The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.
The Meaning of the City is a theological essay by Jacques Ellul which recounts the story of the city in the Bible and seeks to explain the city's biblical significance.
The New York Times Building is a skyscraper on the west side of Midtown Manhattan, New York City that was completed in 2007.
The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located in Arlington County, Virginia, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C. As a symbol of the U.S. military, The Pentagon is often used metonymically to refer to the U.S. Department of Defense.
Planning theory is the body of scientific concepts, definitions, behavioral relationships, and assumptions that define the body of knowledge of urban planning.
A think tank, think factory or policy institute is a research institute/center and organisation that performs research and advocacy concerning topics such as social policy, political strategy, economics, military, technology, and culture.
The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO or the Communist Bloc.
Time Warner Center is a mixed use (office/commercial and residential) twin-tower building in New York City.
Times Square is a major commercial intersection, tourist destination, entertainment center and neighborhood in the Midtown Manhattan section of New York City at the junction of Broadway and Seventh Avenue.
Tirana (—; Tiranë; Tirona) is the capital and most populous city of Albania.
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.
Traffic on roads consists of road users including pedestrians, ridden or herded animals, vehicles, streetcars, buses and other conveyances, either singly or together, while using the public way for purposes of travel.
Traffic congestion is a condition on transport networks that occurs as use increases, and is characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased vehicular queueing.
Traffic lights, also known as traffic signals, traffic lamps, traffic semaphore, signal lights, stop lights, robots (in South Africa and most of Africa), and traffic control signals (in technical parlance), are signalling devices positioned at road intersections, pedestrian crossings, and other locations to control flows of traffic.
A tram (also tramcar; and in North America streetcar, trolley or trolley car) is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets, and also sometimes on a segregated right of way.
A transit mall is a street, or set of streets, in a city or town along which automobile traffic is prohibited or greatly restricted and only public transit vehicles, bicycles, and pedestrians are permitted.
The terms transition town, transition initiative and transition model refer to grassroot community projects that aim to increase self-sufficiency to reduce the potential effects of peak oil, climate destruction, and economic instability.
The transmigration program (Transmigrasi, from Dutch, transmigratie) was an initiative of the Dutch colonial government, and later continued by the Indonesian government to move landless people from densely populated areas of Indonesia to less populous areas of the country.
Transport or transportation is the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to another.
A tribe is viewed developmentally, economically and historically as a social group existing outside of or before the development of states.
A tunnel is an underground passageway, dug through the surrounding soil/earth/rock and enclosed except for entrance and exit, commonly at each end.
Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.
Tyre (صور, Ṣūr; Phoenician:, Ṣūr; צוֹר, Ṣōr; Tiberian Hebrew, Ṣōr; Akkadian:, Ṣurru; Greek: Τύρος, Týros; Sur; Tyrus, Տիր, Tir), sometimes romanized as Sour, is a district capital in the South Governorate of Lebanon.
Tysons, also known as Tysons Corner, is a census-designated place (CDP) and unincorporated community in Fairfax County, Virginia, United States.
An umbrella organization is an association of (often related, industry-specific) institutions, who work together formally to coordinate activities or pool resources.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG); French: Cités et Gouvernements Locaux Unis (CGLU); Spanish: Ciudades y Gobiernos Locales Unidos (CGLU); is an umbrella organisation for cities, local and regional governments, and municipal associations throughout the world.
The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) is part of the United Nations Secretariat and is responsible for the follow-up to major United Nations Summits and Conferences, as well as services to the United Nations Economic and Social Council and the Second and Third Committees of the United Nations General Assembly.
The United Nations Development Group (UNDG) is a consortium of many United Nations agencies, created by the Secretary-General of the United Nations in 1997 to improve the effectiveness of UN development activities at the country level.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency of United Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.
The United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN–Habitat) is the United Nations agency for human settlements and sustainable urban development.
The United Nations System consists of the United Nations, and the six principal organs of the United Nations: the General Assembly, Security Council, Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), Trusteeship Council, International Court of Justice (ICJ), and the UN Secretariat, specialized agencies, and affiliated organizations.
The United States Conference of Mayor is the official non-partisan organization of cities with populations of 30,000 or more.
A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
Urban agriculture, urban farming, or urban gardening is the practice of cultivating, processing and distributing food in or around a village, town, or city.
An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.
Urban decay (also known as urban rot and urban blight) is the process by which a previously functioning city, or part of a city, falls into disrepair and decrepitude.
Urban density is a term used in urban planning and urban design to refer to the number of people inhabiting a given urbanized area.
Urban economics is broadly the economic study of urban areas; as such, it involves using the tools of economics to analyze urban issues such as crime, education, public transit, housing, and local government finance.
Urban geography is the subdiscipline of geography that derives from a study of cities and urban processes.
Urban planning is a technical and political process concerned with the development and design of land use in an urban environment, including air, water, and the infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation, communications, and distribution networks.
Urban renewal (also called urban regeneration in the United Kingdom, urban renewal or urban redevelopment in the United States) is a program of land redevelopment in cities, often where there is urban decay.
Urban sociology is the sociological study of life and human interaction in metropolitan areas.
Urban sprawl or suburban sprawl describes the expansion of human populations away from central urban areas into low-density, monofunctional and usually car-dependent communities, in a process called suburbanization.
Urban structure is the arrangement of land use in urban areas, in other words, how the land use of a city is set out.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
Urbanization in China increased in speed following the initiation of the reform and opening policy.
Uruk (Cuneiform: URUUNUG; Sumerian: Unug; Akkadian: Uruk; وركاء,; Aramaic/Hebrew:; Orḥoē, Ὀρέχ Oreḥ, Ὠρύγεια Ōrugeia) was an ancient city of Sumer (and later of Babylonia), situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates river, on the dried-up, ancient channel of the Euphrates, some 30 km east of modern Samawah, Al-Muthannā, Iraq.
A utopia is an imagined community or society that possesses highly desirable or nearly perfect qualities for its citizens.
Varanasi, also known as Benares, Banaras (Banāras), or Kashi (Kāśī), is a city on the banks of the Ganges in the Uttar Pradesh state of North India, south-east of the state capital, Lucknow, and east of Allahabad.
A velocipede is a human-powered land vehicle with one or more wheels.
Veolia Water (formerly Vivendi Water, originally Compagnie Générale des Eaux), is the water division of the French company Veolia Environnement and the world's largest supplier of water services.
Verisign, Inc. is an American company based in Reston, Virginia, United States that operates a diverse array of network infrastructure, including two of the Internet's thirteen root nameservers, the authoritative registry for the,, and generic top-level domains and the and country-code top-level domains, and the back-end systems for the,, and top-level domains.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
A village is a clustered human settlement or community, larger than a hamlet but smaller than a town, with a population ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand.
Vivendi SA is a French mass media conglomerate headquartered in Paris.
Wage labour (also wage labor in American English) is the socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer, where the worker sells his or her labour under a formal or informal employment contract.
Walking (also known as ambulation) is one of the main gaits of locomotion among legged animals.
In American English, walkway is a composite or umbrella term for all engineered surfaces or structures which support the use of trails.
War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.
The Wari (Huari) were a Middle Horizon civilization that flourished in the south-central Andes and coastal area of modern-day Peru, from about AD 500 to 1000.
The Washington metropolitan area is the metropolitan area centered on Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Waste (or wastes) are unwanted or unusable materials.
Waste management or waste disposal are all the activities and actions required to manage waste from its inception to its final disposal.
Wastewater (or waste water) is any water that has been affected by human use.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
The water industry provides drinking water and wastewater services (including sewage treatment) to residential, commercial, and industrial sectors of the economy.
Water resource management is the activity of planning, developing, distributing and managing the optimum use of water resources.
Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities commercial organisations, community endeavors or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes.
A water supply system or water supply network is a system of engineered hydrologic and hydraulic components which provide water supply.
Western philosophy is the philosophical thought and work of the Western world.
White people is a racial classification specifier, used mostly for people of European descent; depending on context, nationality, and point of view, the term has at times been expanded to encompass certain persons of North African, Middle Eastern, and South Asian descent, persons who are often considered non-white in other contexts.
Wilderness or wildland is a natural environment on Earth that has not been significantly modified by human activity.
Witold Rybczynski (born 1 March 1943, in Edinburgh, Scotland) is a Canadian American architect, professor and writer.
The Woolworth Building, at 233 Broadway, Manhattan, New York City, designed by architect Cass Gilbert and constructed between 1910 and 1912, is an early US skyscraper.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.6 billion people as of May 2018.
The World Trade Center is a partially completed complex of buildings in Lower Manhattan, New York City, U.S., replacing the original seven World Trade Center buildings on the same site that were destroyed in the September 11 attacks.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Xiamen, formerly romanized as Amoy, is a sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian province, People's Republic of China, beside the Taiwan Strait.
With its comprehensive coverage of UN engagement in political and security matters, human rights issues, economic and social questions, legal issues, and institutional, administrative and budgetary matters, the Yearbook of the United Nations stands as the authoritative reference work on the annual activities and concerns of the Organization.
Ypres (Ieper) is a Belgian municipality in the province of West Flanders.
The Zapotec civilization was an indigenous pre-Columbian civilization that flourished in the Valley of Oaxaca in Mesoamerica.
Zürich or Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich.
Zoning is the process of dividing land in a municipality into zones (e.g. residential, industrial) in which certain land uses are permitted or prohibited.
10 Hudson Yards, also known as the South Tower, is an office building that was completed in 2016 in Manhattan's West Side.
15 Hudson Yards is a residential building currently under construction on Manhattan's West Side.
The 1st millennium BC encompasses the Iron Age and sees the rise of many successive empires, and spanned from 1000 BC to 1 BC.
220 Central Park South is a residential skyscraper currently under construction, being developed by Vornado Realty Trust.
3 World Trade Center (also known as 175 Greenwich Street) is a skyscraper constructed as part of the rebuilding of the World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan, New York City.
35 Hudson Yards (also Tower E or Equinox Tower) is a mixed-use building currently under construction in Manhattan's West Side and is slated to be composed of apartment units and a hotel.
The 3rd millennium BC spanned the years 3000 through 2001 BC.
4 Times Square, also formerly known as the Condé Nast Building, is a skyscraper in Times Square in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
4 World Trade Center (also known by its street address, 150 Greenwich Street) is a skyscraper that is part of the World Trade Center complex in New York City.
40 Wall Street, also known as the Trump Building, is a 71-story neo-gothic skyscraper between Nassau Street and William Street in Manhattan, New York City.
432 Park Avenue is a residential skyscraper in New York City that overlooks Central Park.
The 4th millennium BC spanned the years 4000 through 3001 BC.
53W53, also known as the MoMA Expansion Tower and 53 West 53rd Street, and formerly known as Tower Verre is a supertall skyscraper currently under construction by the real estate companies Hines, Pontiac Land Group and Goldman Sachs, located in Midtown Manhattan, New York City adjacent to The Museum of Modern Art.
55 Hudson Yards (originally known as One Hudson Yards or One Hudson Boulevard) is a future tower just outside the Hudson Yards Redevelopment Project.
56 Leonard Street is an tall, 57-story skyscraper on Leonard Street in Tribeca, New York City, United States.
70 Pine Street – formerly known as the American International Building, 60 Wall Tower and originally as the Cities Service Building – is a 67-story, 952-foot (290 m) residential building located at the corner of Pearl Street and running to Cedar Street in the Financial District of Manhattan, New York City, New York, United States.
8 Spruce Street, originally known as Beekman Tower and currently marketed as New York by Gehry, is a 76-story skyscraper designed by architect Frank Gehry in the New York City borough of Manhattan at 8 Spruce Street, between William and Nassau Streets, in Lower Manhattan, just south of City Hall Park and the Brooklyn Bridge.
The 8th millennium BC spanned the years 8000 through 7001 BC.
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