608 relations: A. G. Gaston, A. Philip Randolph, Aaron Henry, AARP, Abolitionism in the United States, Abraham Joshua Heschel, Acadiana, Adam Roberts (scholar), African Americans, African-American middle class, Afro, Alabama, Alabama National Guard, Alabama State University, Albany Movement, Albany, Georgia, Albert Cleage, Albert Raby, Alex Haley, Alexandria, Virginia, All-white jury, Amelia Boynton Robinson, America in the King Years, American Civil War, American Jewish Committee, American Jewish Congress, American Jews, American Nazi Party, Amicus curiae, Amos T. Akerman, Amzie Moore, An Appeal for Human Rights, And you are lynching Negroes, Andrew Goodman, Andrew Young, Anne Braden, Anne Moody, Annie Bell Robinson Devine, Annie Lee Cooper, Anniston, Alabama, Anti-Defamation League, Apartheid, Appalachia, Arkansas, Asian Pacific American, Assassination of John F. Kennedy, Atlanta, Atlanta Student Movement, Atlanta University Center, Atlantic City, New Jersey, ..., Attorney general, Autherine Lucy, Backlash (sociology), Baldwin–Kennedy meeting, Baltimore, Baltimore Afro-American, Baltimore riot of 1968, Barbara Ehrenreich, Barbara Jordan, Barbara Ransby, Barry Goldwater, Battle of Hayes Pond, Bayard Rustin, Bedford–Stuyvesant, Brooklyn, Bernard Lafayette, Billboard Year-End, Birmingham campaign, Birmingham Civil Rights National Monument, Birmingham riot of 1963, Birmingham, Alabama, Black Belt (U.S. region), Black Guerrilla Family, Black Lives Matter, Black nationalism, Black Panther Party, Black Power, Black Power movement, Black separatism, Bob Moses (activist), Bobby Seale, Booker T. Washington, Border states (American Civil War), Boynton v. Virginia, Brandeis University, Brooklyn, Browder v. Gayle, Brown v. Board of Education, Brownsville, Brooklyn, Bull Connor, C. T. Vivian, California, California Proposition 14 (1964), Cambridge riot of 1963, Cambridge, Maryland, Carl Braden, Cattle prod, Charles E. Cobb Jr., Charles Evers, Charles Kenzie Steele, Charles M. Payne, Charles Mathias, Charles McDew, Charles Sherrod, Charlotte, North Carolina, Chicago Freedom Movement, Chicago race riot of 1919, Christian, Cicero, Illinois, Cincinnati, Citizens' Councils, Civil and political rights, Civil disobedience, Civil Rights Act of 1957, Civil Rights Act of 1960, Civil Rights Act of 1964, Civil Rights Act of 1968, Civil Rights Congress, Civil rights movement (1896–1954), Clara Luper, Claude Black, Claudette Colvin, Cleveland Sellers, Clyde Kennard, COINTELPRO, Cold War, Colorectal cancer, Columbus, Ohio, Committee on Appeal for Human Rights, Communist Party USA, Congress of Racial Equality, Constitutionality, Contempt of court, Convict lease, Coretta Scott King, Council of Federated Organizations, Covenant (law), Cruel and unusual punishment, Cumming v. 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Frederic Morrow, Eastern Shore of Maryland, Edmund Pettus Bridge, Eldridge Cleaver, Elizabeth Eckford, Ella Baker, Emmett Till, Employment discrimination, Enforcement Acts, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Ernest Green, Ernest Nathan Morial, Esau Jenkins, Everett Dirksen, Executive Order 8802, Executive Order 9981, Exploitation of labour, Eyes on the Prize, Ezell Blair Jr., F. W. Woolworth Company, Fair Employment Practice Committee, Fair Housing Act, Fannie Lou Hamer, Fay Bellamy Powell, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Federal government of the United States, Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Filibuster, Fisk University, Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Frankie Muse Freeman, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Franklin McCain, Fred Gray (attorney), Fred Shuttlesworth, Frederick D. Reese, Freedom Riders, Freedom Riders (film), Freedom Riders National Monument, Freedom Schools, Freedom Summer, Funeral of Martin Luther King Jr., G.I. Bill, Gastonia, North Carolina, Gates v. Collier, Genocide, Genocide Convention, George Jackson (activist), George Lincoln Rockwell, George Raymond Jr., George W. Romney, George Wallace, Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia General Assembly, Georgia's 5th congressional district, Ghetto, Gloria Johnson-Powell, Gloria Richardson, Grassroots, Great Migration (African American), Greensboro sit-ins, Greensboro, North Carolina, Greenwood, Mississippi, Greyhound Bus Station (Montgomery, Alabama), Gwendolyn Elaine Armstrong, Hair straightening, Harlem, Harlem Youth Opportunities Unlimited, Harry S. Truman, Harry T. Moore, Hartman Turnbow, Harvey Johnson Jr., Hattiesburg, Mississippi, Highlander Research and Education Center, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Historically black colleges and universities, Holly Springs, Mississippi, Hosea Williams, Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs, Hough riots, Housing discrimination (United States), Housing segregation in the United States, Huey P. 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Johnson Jr., Paul Robeson, PBS, Peace and Freedom Party, Penal labour, Pittsburgh Courier, Plessy v. Ferguson, Police brutality, Poor People's Campaign, Poor White, Post–civil rights era in African-American history, Prathia Hall, Private foundation, Project Uplift, Public accommodations, Queens College, City University of New York, Racial segregation, Racial segregation in the United States, Racism in the United States, Radio Free Dixie, Raleigh, North Carolina, Ralph Abernathy, Rayford Logan, Raylawni Branch, Read's Drug Store, Realpolitik, Reconstruction Amendments, Reconstruction era, Red Summer, Redlining, Regional Council of Negro Leadership, Report to the American People on Civil Rights, Republican Party (United States), Residential segregation in the United States, Richard J. Daley, Richmond, Virginia, Robert F. Kennedy, Robert F. Williams, Robert Hayling, Robert Russa Moton Museum, Rosa Parks, Ross Barnett, Ruby Doris Smith-Robinson, Rutledge Pearson, Samuel Wilbert Tucker, San Francisco, San Quentin State Prison, Sarah Mae Flemming, School segregation in the United States, Scottsboro Boys, Sea Islands, Seattle, Seattle Civil Rights and Labor History Project, Second Great Migration (African American), Self-determination, Selma to Montgomery marches, Selma, Alabama, Separate but equal, Septima Poinsette Clark, Shaw University, Sherwood Eddy, Sit-in, Smith v. Allwright, Social movement, Socialism, Solid South, Soul On Ice (book), South Carolina, South Los Angeles, Southern Christian Leadership Conference, Southern Poverty Law Center, Southern Student Organizing Committee, Southern Unionist, Southwestern United States, St. Augustine, Florida, Stand in the Schoolhouse Door, Stanley Levison, Stephen Tuck, Stokely Carmichael, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, Suburb, Supreme Court of California, Supreme Court of the United States, Swarthmore College, T. J. Jemison, T. R. M. Howard, Tacoma, Washington, Tallahassee, Florida, Tallahatchie River, Taylor Branch, Teaching for Change, Tear gas, Television News of the Civil Rights Era 1950–1970, Tennessee, The Autobiography of Malcolm X, The Ballot or the Bullet, The Bronx, The Diplomat, The Moscow Times, The National Archives (United Kingdom), Theodore Roosevelt, Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Thurgood Marshall, Tim Weiner, Timothy Garton Ash, Tommie Smith, Tougaloo College, Trade union, Trusty system (prison), Twenty-fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Ulysses S. Grant, Uncle Tom, Unita Blackwell, United Automobile Workers, United Kingdom, United States Ambassador to the United Nations, United States Army, United States Attorney General, United States Commission on Civil Rights, United States Congress, United States congressional apportionment, United States Constitution, United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit, United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, United States Department of Justice, United States Department of Justice Civil Rights Division, United States House of Representatives, United States Marshals Service, United States presidential election, 1876, University of Alabama, University of Mississippi, University of Natal, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, University of Southern Mississippi, University of Virginia, Urban riots, Victoria Gray Adams, Vienna summit, Vietnam War, Viola Liuzzo, Virginia, Vivian Malone Jones, Voice of America, Voter Education Project, Voting Rights Act of 1965, W. W. Law, Walter Mondale, Walter Reuther, Washington Monument, Watts riots, Watts, Los Angeles, We Charge Genocide, We Shall Overcome, White ethnic, White flight, White House, White privilege, White supremacy, Whitney Young, Wichita, Kansas, William Colbert Keady, William David McCain, William L. Patterson, William Moyer, Winson Hudson, Wolf-whistling, Women's Political Council, Woodrow Wilson, Wyatt Tee Walker, 101st Airborne Division, 16th Street Baptist Church bombing, 1964 Democratic National Convention, 1964 Philadelphia race riot, 1967 Detroit riot, 1967 Newark riots, 1968 Chicago riots, 1968 Summer Olympics, 1968 Washington, D.C. riots, 501(c)(3) organization. Expand index (558 more) » « Shrink index
Arthur George Gaston (July 4, 1892 – January 19, 1996) was an American businessman who established a number of businesses in Birmingham, Alabama, and who played a significant role in the struggle to integrate Birmingham in 1963.
Asa Philip Randolph (April 15, 1889 – May 16, 1979) was a leader in the Civil Rights Movement, the American labor movement, and socialist political parties.
Aaron Henry (July 2, 1922 – May 19, 1997) was an American civil rights leader, politician, and head of the Mississippi branch of the NAACP.
AARP (formerly American Association of Retired Persons) is a United States-based interest group whose stated mission is "empowering people to choose how they live as they age." According to the organization, as of 2018, it had more than 38 million members.
Abolitionism in the United States was the movement before and during the American Civil War to end slavery in the United States.
Abraham Joshua Heschel (January 11, 1907 – December 23, 1972) was a Polish-born American rabbi and one of the leading Jewish theologians and Jewish philosophers of the 20th century.
Acadiana, or The Heart of Acadiana (French and Cajun French: L'Acadiane), is the official name given to the French Louisiana region that is home to a large Francophone population.
Sir Adam Roberts (born 29 August 1940) is Emeritus Professor of International Relations at Oxford University, a senior research fellow in Oxford University's Department of Politics and International Relations, and an emeritus fellow of Balliol College, Oxford.
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
The black middle class consists of black Americans who have middle-class status within the American class structure.
Afro, sometimes abbreviated to 'fro or described as a Jew fro under specific circumstances, is a hairstyle worn naturally outward by people with lengthy or even medium length kinky hair texture (wherein it is known as a natural), or specifically styled in such a fashion by individuals with naturally curly or straight hair.
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The Alabama National Guard is the National Guard of the U.S State of Alabama, and consists of the Alabama Army National Guard and the Alabama Air National Guard.
Alabama State University (ASU), founded in 1867, is a public historically black university located in Montgomery, Alabama, United States.
The Albany Movement was a desegregation and voter's rights coalition formed in Albany, Georgia, in November of 1961.
Albany is a city in the U.S. state of Georgia.
Albert B. Cleage, Jr.
Albert Anderson Raby (1933 – November 23, 1988) was a teacher at Chicago's Hess Upper Grade Center who secured the support of Martin Luther King Jr. to desegregate schools and housing in Chicago between 1965 and 1967.
Alexander Murray Palmer Haley (August 11, 1921 – February 10, 1992) was an American writer and the author of the 1976 book Roots: The Saga of an American Family. ABC adapted the book as a television miniseries of the same name and aired it in 1977 to a record-breaking audience of 130 million viewers.
Alexandria is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
An all-white jury is a sworn body composed only of white people convened to render an impartial verdict in a legal proceeding.
Amelia Isadora Platts Boynton Robinson (August 18, 1911 – August 26, 2015) was an American activist who was a leader of the American Civil Rights Movement in Selma, Alabama and a key figure in the 1965 Selma to Montgomery marches.
America in the King Years is a three-volume history of Martin Luther King Jr. and the Civil Rights Movement by Taylor Branch, which he wrote between 1982 and 2006.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
American Jewish Committee (AJC) is a Jewish advocacy group established on November 11, 1906.
The American Jewish Congress is as an association of Jewish Americans organized to defend Jewish interests at home and abroad through public policy advocacy, using diplomacy, legislation, and the courts.
American Jews, or Jewish Americans, are Americans who are Jews, whether by religion, ethnicity or nationality.
The American Nazi Party (ANP) is a far-right American political party founded by George Lincoln Rockwell with its headquarters in Arlington, Virginia.
An amicus curiae (literally, "friend of the court"; plural, amici curiae) is someone who is not a party to a case and may or may not have been solicited by a party, who assists a court by offering information, expertise, or insight that has a bearing on the issues in the case, and is typically presented in the form of a brief.
Amos Tappan Akerman (February 23, 1821 – December 21, 1880) served as United States Attorney General under President Ulysses S. Grant from 1870 to 1871.
Amzie Moore (September 23, 1911 – February 1, 1982) was an African-American civil rights leader, and entrepreneur in the Mississippi Delta.
An Appeal for Human Rights was drafted by Roslyn Pope and other students of the Atlanta University Center after the students, led by Lonnie King and Julian Bond, were encouraged by the six presidents of the Atlanta University Center to draft a document released on March 15, 1960.
"And you are lynching Negroes" ("А у вас негров линчуют") and the later "And you are hanging blacks" are catchphrases satirizing Soviet propaganda's response to American criticisms of its human rights violations.
Andrew Goodman (November 23, 1943 – June 21, 1964) was one of three American activists of the Civil Rights Movement and also a social worker, murdered near Philadelphia, Mississippi, during Freedom Summer in 1964 by members of the Ku Klux Klan.
Andrew Jackson Young Jr. (born March 13, 1932) is an American politician, diplomat, and activist.
Anne McCarty Braden (July 28, 1924 – March 6, 2006) was an American civil rights activist, journalist, and educator dedicated to the cause of racial equality.
Anne Moody (September 15, 1940 – February 5, 2015) was an American author who wrote about her experiences growing up poor and black in rural Mississippi, and her involvement in the Civil Rights Movement through the NAACP, CORE and SNCC.
Annie Bell Robinson Devine (1912–2000) was an activist in the Civil Rights Movement.
Annie Lee Wilkerson Cooper (June 2, 1910 – November 24, 2010) was an African-American civil rights activist in the 1965 Selma Voting Rights Movement who is best known for punching Dallas County, Alabama Sheriff Jim Clark.
Anniston is a city in Calhoun County in the state of Alabama.
The Anti-Defamation League (ADL; formerly known as the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith) is an international Jewish non-governmental organization based in the United States.
Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.
Appalachia is a cultural region in the Eastern United States that stretches from the Southern Tier of New York to northern Alabama, Mississippi and Georgia.
Arkansas is a state in the southeastern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2017.
Asian-Pacific American (APA) or Asian-Pacific Islander (API) is a term sometimes used in the United States to include both Asian Americans and Pacific Islands Americans.
John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, was assassinated on Friday, November 22, 1963, at 12:30 p.m. in Dallas, Texas, while riding in a presidential motorcade through Dealey Plaza.
Atlanta is the capital city and most populous municipality of the state of Georgia in the United States.
The Atlanta Student Movement was formed between February and March 1960 in Atlanta by students of the campuses Atlanta University Center (AUC).
The Atlanta University Center Consortium (AUC Consortium) is the largest contiguous consortium of African Americans in higher education in the United States.
Atlantic City is a resort city in Atlantic County, New Jersey, United States, known for its casinos, boardwalk, and beaches.
In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General (sometimes abbreviated as AG) or Attorney-General (plural: Attorneys General (traditional) or Attorney Generals) is the main legal advisor to the government, and in some jurisdictions, they may also have executive responsibility for law enforcement, prosecutions or even responsibility for legal affairs generally.
Autherine Juanita Lucy (born October 5, 1929) was the first African-American student to attend the University of Alabama, in 1956.
A "backlash" is an adverse reaction to something which has gained popularity, prominence, or influence.
The Baldwin–Kennedy meeting of May 24, 1963 was an attempt to improve race relations in the United States.
Baltimore is the largest city in the U.S. state of Maryland, and the 30th-most populous city in the United States.
The Baltimore Afro-American, commonly known as The Afro, is a weekly newspaper published in Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
The Baltimore riot of 1968 was a period of civil unrest that lasted from April 6 to April 14, 1968 in Baltimore.
Barbara Ehrenreich (born August 26, 1941) is an American author and political activist who describes herself as "a myth buster by trade" and has been called "a veteran muckraker" by The New Yorker.
Barbara Charline Jordan (February 21, 1936 – January 17, 1996) was an American lawyer, educator and politician who was a leader of the Civil Rights Movement.
Barbara Ransby (born May 12, 1957) is a writer, historian, professor, and activist.
Barry Morris Goldwater (January 2, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was an American politician, businessman, and author who was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–65, 1969–87) and the Republican Party's nominee for President of the United States in 1964.
The Battle of Hayes Pond was an armed confrontation between the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan and the Lumbee Indians at a Klan rally near Maxton, North Carolina, on the night of January 18, 1958.
Bayard Rustin (March 17, 1912 – August 24, 1987) was an American leader in social movements for civil rights, socialism, nonviolence, and gay rights.
Bedford–Stuyvesant (colloquially known as Bed–Stuy and Bedford-Stuy) is a neighborhood of 153,000 inhabitants in the north central portion of the New York City borough of Brooklyn.
Bernard Lafayette (or LaFayette), Jr. (born July 29, 1940) is a longtime civil rights activist and organizer, who was a leader in the Civil Rights Movement.
Billboard Year-End charts are a cumulative measure of a single or album's performance in the United States, based upon the Billboard magazine charts during any given chart year.
The Birmingham campaign, or Birmingham movement, was a movement organized in early 1963 by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) to bring attention to the integration efforts of African Americans in Birmingham, Alabama.
The Birmingham Civil Rights National Monument is a United States National Monument in Birmingham, Alabama established in 2017 to preserve and commemorate the work of the Civil Rights Movement.
The Birmingham riot of 1963 was a civil disorder in Birmingham, Alabama, that was provoked by bombings on the night of May 11, 1963.
Birmingham is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Alabama and the seat of Jefferson County.
During the first half of the nineteenth century, as many as one million enslaved Africans were transported through sales in the domestic slave trade to the Deep South in a forced migration to work as laborers for the region's cotton plantations.
The Black Guerilla Family, or BGF (also known as the Black Family or the Black Vanguard) is an African-American prison and street gang founded in 1966 by George Jackson, George “Big Jake” Lewis, and W.L. Nolen while they were incarcerated at San Quentin State Prison in Marin County, California.
Black Lives Matter (BLM) is an international activist movement, originating in the African-American community, that campaigns against violence and systemic racism toward black people.
Black nationalism is a type of nationalism which espouses the belief that black people are a nation and seeks to develop and maintain a black identity.
The Black Panther Party or the BPP (originally the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was a political organization founded by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton in October 1966.
Black Power is a political slogan and a name for various associated ideologies aimed at achieving self-determination for people of African descent.
The Black Power movement was a political movement that intended to achieve Black Power.
Black separatism is a separatist political movement that seeks separate economic and cultural development for those of African descent in societies, particularly in the United States.
Robert Parris Moses (born January 31, 1935) is an American educator and civil rights activist, known for his work as a leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee on voter education and registration in Mississippi during the Civil Rights Movement.
Robert George "Bobby" Seale (born October 22, 1936) is an American political activist.
Booker Taliaferro Washington (– November 14, 1915) was an American educator, author, orator, and advisor to presidents of the United States.
In the context of the American Civil War (1861–65), the border states were slave states that did not declare a secession from the Union and did not join the Confederacy.
Boynton v. Virginia, 364 U.S. 454 (1960), was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States.
Brandeis University is an American private research university in Waltham, Massachusetts, 9 miles (14 km) west of Boston.
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with a census-estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017.
Browder v. Gayle, 142 F. Supp.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
Brownsville is a residential neighborhood located in eastern Brooklyn in New York City.
Theophilus Eugene Connor (July 11, 1897 – March 10, 1973), known as Bull Connor, was an American politician who served as an elected Commissioner of Public Safety for the city of Birmingham, Alabama, for more than two decades.
Cordy Tindell Vivian, usually known as C. T. Vivian (born July 30, 1924), is a minister, author, and was a close friend and lieutenant of Martin Luther King Jr. during the Civil Rights Movement.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
California Proposition 14 was a November 1964 ballot proposition that amended the California state constitution, nullifying the Rumford Fair Housing Act.
The Cambridge Riots of 1963, were race riots that occurred during the summer of 1963 in Cambridge, Maryland, a small town on the Eastern Shore.
Cambridge is a city in Dorchester County, Maryland, United States.
Carl Braden (June 24, 1914 – February 18, 1975) was a left-wing trade unionist, journalist, and social justice activist who was known for his work in civil rights.
A cattle prod, also called a stock prod, is a handheld device commonly used to make cattle or other livestock move by striking or poking them.
Charles E. "Charlie" Cobb Jr. (born June 23, 1943) is a journalist, professor, and former activist with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC).
James Charles Evers (born September 11, 1922) is an American civil rights activist and former politician.
Charles Kenzie Steele (born in McDowell County, West Virginia; died in Tallahassee, Florida) was a preacher and a civil rights activist.
Charles M. Payne, Jr. (born March 14, 1948) is an American academic whose areas of study include civil rights activism, urban education reform, social inequality, and modern African-American history.
Charles McCurdy "Mac" Mathias Jr. (July 24, 1922 – January 25, 2010) was a Republican member of the United States Senate, representing Maryland from 1969 to 1987.
Charles "Chuck" McDew (June 23, 1938 – April 3, 2018), African American Register.
Charles Sherrod (born 1937) was a key member and organizer of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) during the Civil Rights Movement.
Charlotte is the most populous city in the U.S. state of North Carolina.
The Chicago Freedom Movement, also known as the Chicago open housing movement, was led by Martin Luther King Jr., James Bevel and Al Raby.
The Chicago race riot of 1919 was a major racial conflict that began in Chicago, Illinois, on July 27, 1919, and ended on August 3.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Cicero (originally known as Hawthorne) is a suburb of Chicago and an incorporated town in Cook County, Illinois, United States.
The Citizens' Councils (also referred to as White Citizens' Councils) were an associated network of white supremacist, extreme right, organizations in the United States, concentrated in the South.
Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations, and private individuals.
Civil disobedience is the active, professed refusal of a citizen to obey certain laws, demands, orders or commands of a government or occupying international power.
The Civil Rights Act of 1957,, a federal voting rights bill, was the first federal civil rights legislation passed by the United States Congress since the Civil Rights Act of 1875.
The Civil Rights Act of 1960 was a United States federal law that established federal inspection of local voter registration polls and introduced penalties for anyone who obstructed someone's attempt to register to vote.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a landmark civil rights and US labor law in the United States that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
The Civil Rights Act of 1968,, also known as the Fair Housing Act, is a landmark part of legislation in the United States that provided for equal housing opportunities regardless of race, religion, or national origin and made it a federal crime to “by force or by threat of force, injure, intimidate, or interfere with anyone … by reason of their race, color, religion, or national origin.” The Act was signed into law during the King assassination riots by President Lyndon B. Johnson, who had previously signed the Civil Rights Act and Voting Rights Act into law.
The Civil Rights Congress (CRC) was a United States civil rights organization, formed in 1946 at a national conference for radicals and disbanded in 1956.
The African-American civil rights movement (1896–1954) was a long, primarily nonviolent series of events to bring full civil rights and equality under the law to all Americans.
Clara Shepard Luper (born Clara Mae Shepard May 3, 1923 – June 8, 2011) was a civic leader, retired schoolteacher, and a pioneering leader in the American Civil Rights Movement.
Claude William Black, Jr.
Claudette Colvin (born September 5, 1939) is a pioneer of the Civil Rights Movement.
Cleveland Sellers, Jr. (born November 8, 1944) is an American educator and veteran civil rights activist.
Clyde Kennard (June 12, 1927July 4, 1963) was an American Korean War veteran and civil rights pioneer from Hattiesburg, Mississippi, during the Civil Rights Movement.
COINTELPRO (Portmanteau derived from '''CO'''unter '''INTEL'''ligence PROgram) (1956-1971) was a series of covert, and at times illegal, projects conducted by the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) aimed at surveilling, infiltrating, discrediting, and disrupting domestic political organizations.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).
Columbus is the state capital and the most populous city in Ohio.
The Committee on the Appeal for Human Rights (COAHR) was a group of Atlanta University Center students formed in February 1960.
The Communist Party USA (CPUSA) is a communist political party in the United States established in 1919 after a split in the Socialist Party of America.
The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) is an African-American civil rights organization in the United States that played a pivotal role for African Americans in the Civil Rights Movement.
Constitutionality is the condition of acting in accordance with an applicable constitution; the status of a law, a procedure, or an act's accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable constitution.
Contempt of court, often referred to simply as "contempt", is the offense of being disobedient to or discourteous toward a court of law and its officers in the form of behavior that opposes or defies the authority, justice and dignity of the court.
Convict leasing was a system of penal labor practiced in the Southern United States.
Coretta Scott King (April 27, 1927January 30, 2006) was an American author, activist, civil rights leader, and the wife of Martin Luther King, Jr.
The Council of Federated Organizations (COFO) was a coalition of the major Civil Rights Movement organizations operating in Mississippi.
A covenant in its most general sense and historical sense, is a solemn promise to engage in or refrain from a specified action.
Cruel and unusual punishment is a phrase describing punishment that is considered unacceptable due to the suffering, pain, or humiliation it inflicts on the person subjected to it.
Cumming v. Richmond County Board of Education, 175 U.S. 528 (1899), ("Richmond") was a class action suit decided by the Supreme Court of the United States.
Daisy Lee Gatson Bates (November 11, 1914 – November 4, 1999) was an American civil rights activist, publisher, journalist, and lecturer who played a leading role in the Little Rock Integration Crisis of 1957.
Dallas County is a county of the U.S. state of Alabama.
The dashiki is a colorful garment for women and men worn mostly in West Africa.
David Nolan is an American author and civil rights activist.
In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.
The Deacons for Defense and Justice was an armed African-American self-defense group founded in November 1964, during the civil rights era in the United States, in the mill town of Jonesboro, Louisiana.
Dean Gooderham Acheson (pronounced; April 11, 1893 – October 12, 1971) was an American statesman and lawyer.
Death row is a special section of a prison that houses inmates who are awaiting execution after being sentenced to death for the conviction of capital crimes.
The Deep South is a cultural and geographic subregion in the Southern United States.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
Dempsey Travis (February 25, 1920 – July 2, 2009) was a real estate entrepreneur and civil rights activist who, later in life, became a prominent historian and author, writing extensively on African-American history, politics, social issues, and music.
Donna Denise Nicholas (born July 12, 1944) is an American actress and social activist who was involved in the Civil Rights Movement.
Desegregation is the process of ending the separation of two groups usually referring to races.
Desegregation busing in the United States (also known as forced busing or simply busing) is the practice of assigning and transporting students to schools so as to redress prior racial segregation of schools, or to overcome the effects of residential segregation on local school demographics.
Detroit is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Michigan, the largest city on the United States–Canada border, and the seat of Wayne County.
The Detroit Fire Department (DFD) provides fire protection and emergency medical services to the U.S. city of Detroit, Michigan.
The Detroit Police Department (DPD) is a municipal police force responsible for the U.S. city of Detroit, Michigan.
Diane Judith Nash (born May 15, 1938) is an American civil rights activist, and a leader and strategist of the student wing of the Civil Rights Movement.
Richard Claxton Gregory (October 12, 1932 – August 19, 2017) was an African-American comedian, civil rights activist, social critic, writer, entrepreneur, conspiracy theorist,, NPR, July 12, 2005.
The Digital Library of Georgia (DLG) is an online, public collection of documents and media about the history and culture of the state of Georgia, United States.
Direct action occurs when a group takes an action which is intended to reveal an existing problem, highlight an alternative, or demonstrate a possible solution to a social issue.
The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation is the head of the FBI, the United States' primary federal law enforcement agency, and is responsible for its day-to-day operations.
Discrimination is the process by which two stimuli differing in some aspect are responded to differently.
Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era in the United States of America was based on a series of laws, new constitutions, and practices in the South that were deliberately used to prevent black citizens from registering to vote and voting.
Disfranchisement (also called disenfranchisement) is the revocation of the right of suffrage (the right to vote) of a person or group of people, or through practices, prevention of a person exercising the right to vote.
The Dockum Drug Store sit-in was one of the first organized lunch counter sit-ins for the purpose of integrating segregated establishments in the United States.
Doris Derby is an activist, documentary photographer and retired adjunct associate professor of anthropology at the Georgia State University.
Dorothy Cotton (January 5, 1930 – June 10, 2018) was an American civil rights activist, who was a leader in the Civil Rights Movement in the United States and a member of the inner-circle of one of its main organizations, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC).
Doug McAdam (born August 31, 1951) is Professor of Sociology at Stanford University.
Dual power is a concept in the theory and practice of leftist politics, proposed in different forms by communists and anarchists.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
Edgar Daniel Nixon (July 12, 1899 – February 25, 1987), known as E. D. Nixon, was an African-American civil rights leader and union organizer in Alabama who played a crucial role in organizing the landmark Montgomery Bus Boycott there in 1955.
Everett Frederic Morrow (c. 1906–July 20, 1994) was the first African American to hold an executive position at the White House.
The Eastern Shore of Maryland is a part of the U.S. state of Maryland that lies predominantly on the east side of the Chesapeake Bay and consists of nine counties.
The Edmund Pettus Bridge carries U.S. Route 80 Business (US 80 Bus.) across the Alabama River in Selma, Alabama.
Leroy Eldridge Cleaver (August 31, 1935 – May 1, 1998) was an American writer and political activist who became an early leader of the Black Panther Party.
Elizabeth Eckford (born October 4, 1941) was one of the Little Rock Nine, a group of African-American students who, in 1957, were the first black students ever to attend classes at Little Rock Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas.
Ella Josephine Baker (December 13, 1903 – December 13, 1986) was an African-American civil rights and human rights activist.
Emmett Louis Till (July 25, 1941 – August 28, 1955) was a 14-year-old African-American who was lynched in Mississippi in 1955, after a white woman said she was offended by him in her family's grocery store.
Employment discrimination is a form of discrimination based on race, gender, religion, national origin, physical or mental disability, age, sexual orientation, and gender identity by employers.
The Enforcement Acts were three bills passed by the United States Congress between 1870 and 1871.
The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is a federal agency that administers and enforces civil rights laws against workplace discrimination.
Ernest Gideon Green (born September 22, 1941) was one of the Little Rock Nine, a group of African-American students who, in 1957, were the first black students ever to attend classes at Little Rock Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas.
Ernest Nathan Morial, known as Dutch Morial (October 9, 1929 – December 24, 1989), was an American political figure and a leading civil rights advocate.
Esau Jenkins (July 3, 1910 - October 30, 1972) was a South Carolina Afro-American Human Rights leader, businessman, and community organizer.
Everett McKinley Dirksen (January 4, 1896 – September 7, 1969) was an American politician of the Republican Party.
Executive Order 8802 was signed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on June 25, 1941, to prohibit racial discrimination in the national defense industry.
Executive Order 9981 was an executive order issued on July 26, 1948, by President Harry S. Truman.
Exploitation of labour is the act of treating one's workers unfairly for one's own benefit.
Eyes on the Prize is an American television series and 14-part documentary about the Civil Rights Movement in the United States.
Jibreel Khazan (born Ezell Alexander Blair Jr.; October 18, 1941) is a civil rights activist who is best known as a member of the Greensboro Four; a group of African American college students who, on February 1, 1960, sat down at a segregated Woolworth's lunch counter in downtown Greensboro, North Carolina challenging the store's policy of denying service to non-white customers.
The F. W. Woolworth Company (often referred to as Woolworth's or Woolworth) was a retail company and one of the original pioneers of the five-and-dime store.
The Fair Employment Practice Committee (FEPC) was created in 1941 in the United States to implement Executive Order 8802 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, "banning discriminatory employment practices by Federal agencies and all unions and companies engaged in war-related work.", Our Documents, Executive Order 8802 dated June 25, 1941, General Records of the United States Government; Record Group 11; National Archives This was shortly before the United States entered World War II.
The Fair Housing Act is a federal act in the United States intended to protect the buyer or renter of a dwelling from seller or landlord discrimination.
Fannie Lou Hamer (Townsend; October 6, 1917 – March 14, 1977) was an American voting and women's rights activist, community organizer, and a leader in the civil rights movement.
Fay D. Bellamy Powell (May 1, 1938 – January 5, 2013) was an African-American civil rights activist.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
The Fifteenth Amendment (Amendment XV) to the United States Constitution prohibits the federal and state governments from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude".
A filibuster is a political procedure where one or more members of parliament or congress debate over a proposed piece of legislation so as to delay or entirely prevent a decision being made on the proposal.
Fisk University is a private historically black university in Nashville, Tennessee.
The Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments.
Marie Frankie Muse Freeman (née Muse; November 24, 1916 – January 12, 2018) was an American civil rights attorney, and the first woman to be appointed to the United States Commission on Civil Rights (1964–79), a federal fact-finding body that investigates complaints alleging discrimination.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
Franklin Eugene McCain (January 3, 1941 – January 9, 2014) was an American civil rights activist and member of the Greensboro Four.
Fred David Gray (born December 14, 1930) is a civil rights attorney, preacher and activist who practices law in Alabama.
Frederick Lee "Fred" Shuttlesworth (born Fred Lee Robinson, March 18, 1922 – October 5, 2011), was a U.S. civil rights activist who led the fight against segregation and other forms of racism as a minister in Birmingham, Alabama.
Frederick Douglas Reese, or F. D. Reese (November 28, 1929 – April 5, 2018), was an American civil rights activist, educator and minister from Selma, Alabama.
Freedom Riders were civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States in 1961 and subsequent years to challenge the non-enforcement of the United States Supreme Court decisions Morgan v. Virginia (1946) and Boynton v. Virginia (1960), which ruled that segregated public buses were unconstitutional.
Freedom Riders is a 2010 American historical documentary film, produced by Firelight Media for PBS American Experience.
The Freedom Riders National Monument is a United States National Monument in Anniston, Alabama established by President Barack Obama in January 2017 to preserve and commemorate the Freedom Riders during the Civil Rights Movement.
Freedom Schools were temporary, alternative, and free schools for African Americans mostly in the South.
Freedom Summer, or the Mississippi Summer Project, was a volunteer campaign in the United States launched in June 1964 to attempt to register as many African-American voters as possible in Mississippi.
The first memorial service following the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. on April 4, 1968, took place the following day at the R.S. Lewis Funeral Home in Memphis, Tennessee.
The Serviceman's Readjustment Act of 1944, also known as the G.I. Bill, was a law that provided a range of benefits for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as G.I.s).
Gastonia is the largest city and county seat of Gaston County, North Carolina, United States.
Gates v. Collier, 501 F.2d 1291 (5th Cir. 1974), was a landmark case decided in U.S. federal court that brought an end to the Trusty system and the flagrant inmate abuse that accompanied it at Mississippi State Penitentiary (Parchman) in Sunflower County, Mississippi.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 9 December 1948 as General Assembly Resolution 260.
George Lester Jackson (September 23, 1941 – August 21, 1971) was an African-American activist and author.
George Lincoln Rockwell (March 9, 1918 – August 25, 1967) was an American neo-Nazi and the founder of the American Nazi Party.
George Raymond, Jr. (January 1, 1943 – March 8, 1973) was an African-American civil rights activist, a member of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party, a Freedom Rider, and head of the Congress of Racial Equality in Mississippi in the 1960s.
George Wilcken Romney (July 8, 1907 – July 26, 1995) was an American businessman and Republican Party politician.
George Corley Wallace Jr. (August 25, 1919 – September 13, 1998) was an American politician and the 45th Governor of Alabama, having served two nonconsecutive terms and two consecutive terms as a Democrat: 1963–1967, 1971–1979 and 1983–1987.
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States.
The Georgia General Assembly is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Georgia.
Georgia's 5th congressional district is a congressional district in the U.S. state of Georgia.
A ghetto is a part of a city in which members of a minority group live, typically as a result of social, legal, or economic pressure.
Gloria Johnson-Powell (born Gloria Johnson, 1936 – October 11, 2017) was a child psychiatrist who was also an important figure in the Civil Rights Movement and was one of the first African-American women to attain tenure at Harvard Medical School.
Gloria Richardson Dandridge (born Gloria St. Clair Hayes, May 6, 1922) is best known as the leader of the Cambridge movement, a civil rights struggle in Cambridge, Maryland in the early 1960s.
A grassroots movement (often referenced in the context of a left-wing political movement) is one which uses the people in a given district, region, or community as the basis for a political or economic movement.
The Great Migration was the movement of 6 million African-Americans out of the rural Southern United States to the urban Northeast, Midwest, and West that occurred between 1916 and 1970.
The Greensboro sit-ins were a series of nonviolent protests in Greensboro, North Carolina, in 1960,, history, Retrieved February 25, 2015 which led to the Woolworth department store chain removing its policy of racial segregation in the Southern United States.
Greensboro (formerly Greensborough) is a city in the U.S. state of North Carolina.
Greenwood is a city in and the county seat of Leflore County, Mississippi, located at the eastern edge of the Mississippi Delta, approximately 96 miles north of the state capital, Jackson, Mississippi, and 130 miles south of the riverport of Memphis, Tennessee.
The Greyhound Bus Station at 210 South Court Street in Montgomery, Alabama, was the site of a violent attack on participants in the 1961 Freedom Ride during the Civil Rights Movement.
Gwendolyn Elaine Armstrong was a black Mississippi pioneer in the Civil Rights Movement.
Hair straightening is a hair styling technique used since the 1890s involving the flattening and straightening of hair in order to give it a smooth, streamlined, and sleek appearance.
Harlem is a large neighborhood in the northern section of the New York City borough of Manhattan.
Harlem Youth Opportunities Unlimited, more commonly called HARYOU, was an American social activism organization founded by psychologists Kenneth Clark and Mamie Phipps Clark in 1962.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Harry Tyson Moore (November 18, 1905 – December 25, 1951) was an African-American educator, a pioneer leader of the civil rights movement, and founder of the first branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in Brevard County, Florida.
Hartman Turnbow (March 20, 1905 – August 15, 1988) was an American farmer and activist during the Civil Rights Movement.
Harvey Johnson Jr. (born December 21, 1946), is an American politician from Mississippi.
Hattiesburg is a city in the U.S. state of Mississippi, primarily in Forrest County (where it is the county seat) and extending west into Lamar County.
The Highlander Research and Education Center, formerly known as the Highlander Folk School, is a social justice leadership training school and cultural center in New Market, Tennessee.
Hispanic Americans and Latino Americans (Estadounidenses hispanos) are people in the United States who are descendants of people from countries of Latin America and Spain.
Historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) are institutions of higher education in the United States that were established before the Civil Rights Act of 1964 with the intention of primarily serving the African-American community.
Holly Springs is a city in and county seat of Marshall County, Mississippi, United States at the border with southern Tennessee.
Hosea Lorenzo Williams (January 5, 1926 – November 16, 2000), was an American civil rights leader, activist, ordained minister, businessman, philanthropist, scientist, and politician.
The Hot R&B/Hip-Hop/Rap Songs is a record chart that ranks the most popular R&B and hip hop songs in the United States and is published weekly by Billboard.
The Hough riots were riots in the predominantly African-American community of Hough (pronounced "Huff") in Cleveland, Ohio, which took place from July 18 to July 23, 1966.
Housing discrimination is discrimination in which an individual or family is treated unequally when trying to buy, rent, lease, sell or finance a home based on certain characteristics, such as race, class, sex, religion, national origin, and familial status.
Housing segregation is the practice of denying African American or other minority groups equal access to housing through the process of misinformation, denial of realty and financing services, and racial steering.
Huey Percy Newton was an African-American political activist and communist revolutionary who, along with Bobby Seale, co-founded the Black Panther Party in 1966.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
"I Have a Dream" is a public speech delivered by American civil rights activist Martin Luther King Jr. during the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom on August 28, 1963, in which he calls for an end to racism in the United States and called for civil and economic rights.
"I've Been to the Mountaintop" is the popular name of the last speech delivered by Martin Luther King Jr. at Stanford University, including transcript of audience responses.
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.
An injunction is an equitable remedy in the form of a court order that compels a party to do or refrain from specific acts.
The International Labor Defense (ILD) (1925–1946) was a legal advocacy organization established in 1925 in the United States as the American section of the Comintern's International Red Aid network.
Interracial marriage in the United States has been legal in all U.S. states since the 1967 Supreme Court decision Loving v. Virginia that deemed "anti-miscegenation" laws unconstitutional.
The Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) was a regulatory agency in the United States created by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887.
Joseph Charles Jones (born August 23, 1937) is a civil rights leader, attorney, co-founder of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), and former chairperson of the SNCC's direct action committee.
John Edgar Hoover (January 1, 1895 – May 2, 1972) was an American law enforcement administrator and the first Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) of the United States.
John Millard Tawes (April 8, 1894June 25, 1979), a member of the United States Democratic Party, was the 54th Governor of Maryland in the United States from 1959 to 1967.
Jack Greenberg (December 22, 1924 – October 12, 2016) was an American attorney and legal scholar.
Jack Minnis (died 2005) was an American activist, and the founder and director of opposition research for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee in the Civil Rights Movement era.
Jack Roosevelt Robinson (January 31, 1919 – October 24, 1972) was an American professional baseball player who became the first African American to play in Major League Baseball (MLB) in the modern era.
Jackson, officially the City of Jackson, is the capital city and largest urban center of the U.S. state of Mississippi.
Jacksonville is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Florida and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States.
James Arthur "Jimmy" Baldwin (August 2, 1924 – December 1, 1987) was an American novelist and social critic.
James Luther Bevel (October 19, 1936 – December 19, 2008) was a minister and leader of the Civil Rights Movement in the United States.
James Joseph Brown (May 3, 1933 – December 25, 2006) was an American singer, songwriter, dancer, musician, record producer and bandleader.
James Earl Chaney (May 30, 1943 – June 21, 1964), from Meridian, Mississippi, was one of three American civil rights workers who was murdered during Freedom Summer by members of the Ku Klux Klan near Philadelphia, Mississippi.
James Leonard Farmer Jr. (January 12, 1920 – July 9, 1999) was a civil rights activist and leader in the Civil Rights Movement "who pushed for nonviolent protest to dismantle segregation, and served alongside Martin Luther King Jr." He was the initiator and organizer of the 1961 Freedom Ride, which eventually led to the desegregation of interstate transportation in the United States.
James Forman (October 4, 1928 – January 10, 2005) was a prominent African-American leader in the civil rights movement.
Father James Edmund Groppi (November 16, 1930 – November 4, 1985) was a Roman Catholic priest and noted civil rights activist based in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
James Alexander Hood (November 10, 1942 – January 17, 2013) was one of the first African Americans to enroll at the University of Alabama in 1963 and was made famous when Alabama Governor George Wallace blocked him from enrolling at the all-white university, an incident which became known as the "Stand in the Schoolhouse Door".
James Morris Lawson, Jr. (born September 22, 1928) is an American activist and university professor.
James Howard Meredith (born June 25, 1933) is a Civil Rights Movement figure, writer, political adviser and Air Force veteran.
James Edward Orange, MLK March website biography.
James Peck (December 19, 1914July 12, 1993) was an American activist who practiced nonviolent resistance during World War II and in the Civil Rights Movement.
James Reeb (January 1, 1927 – March 11, 1965) was an American Unitarian Universalist minister, pastor and activist during the Civil rights movement in Washington, D.C. and Boston, Massachusetts.
James Zwerg (born November 28, 1939) is an American former minister who was involved with the Freedom Riders in the early 1960s.
Jason Sokol is an American historian and an associate professor at the University of New Hampshire.
Jeep is a brand of American automobiles that is a division of FCA US LLC (formerly Chrysler Group, LLC), a wholly owned subsidiary of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles.
Jesse Louis Jackson Sr. (né Burns; born October 8, 1941) is an American civil rights activist, Baptist minister, and politician.
The Jewish Theological Seminary (JTS) is a religious education organization located in New York, New York.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
James Gardner Clark, Jr. (September 17, 1922 – June 4, 2007), AP via MSNBC, June 6, 2007 was the sheriff of Dallas County, Alabama, from 1955 to 1966.
Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States.
Jo Ann Gibson Robinson (April 17, 1912 – August 29, 1992) was an activist during the Civil Rights Movement and educator in Montgomery, Alabama.
John Wesley Carlos (born June 5, 1945) is an American former track and field athlete and professional football player.
John Dittmer (born 1939) is an American historian, and Professor Emeritus of DePauw University.
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
John Robert Lewis (born February 21, 1940) is an American politician and is a prominent civil rights leader.
Johns Island, also spelled John's Island, is an island in Charleston County, South Carolina, United States, and is the largest island in the state of South Carolina.
Jonathan Myrick Daniels (March 20, 1939 – August 20, 1965) was an Episcopal seminarian and civil rights activist.
Joseph Echols Lowery (born October 6, 1921) is an American minister in the United Methodist Church and leader in the Civil Rights Movement.
Joseph Alfred McNeil (born March 25, 1942) is a retired major general in the United States Air Force who is best known as a member of the Greensboro Four; a group of African American college students who, on February 1, 1960, sat down at a segregated Woolworth's lunch counter in downtown Greensboro, North Carolina challenging the store's policy of denying service to non-white customers.
Joyce Ann Ladner (born October 12, 1943) is an American civil rights activist, author, civil servant and sociologist.
Juan Antonio Williams (born April 10, 1954) is a Panamanian-born American journalist and political analyst for Fox News Channel.
Horace Julian Bond (January 14, 1940 – August 15, 2015) was an American social activist and leader in the Civil Rights Movement, politician, professor and writer.
Karl Fleming (August 30, 1927 – August 11, 2012) was an American journalist who made a significant contribution to the Civil Rights Movement through his work for Newsweek magazine in the 1960s.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
The National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders, known as the Kerner Commission after its chair, Governor Otto Kerner, Jr. of Illinois, was an 11-member Presidential Commission established by President Lyndon B. Johnson in to investigate the causes of the 1967 race riots in the United States and to provide recommendations for the future.
The King assassination riots, also known as the Holy Week Uprising, was a wave of civil disturbance which swept the United States following the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. on April 4, 1968.
The Kissing Case (1958) is the arrest, conviction and lengthy sentencing of two young African-American boys that year in Monroe, North Carolina.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
The Ku Klux Klan, commonly called the KKK or simply the Klan, refers to three distinct secret movements at different points in time in the history of the United States.
Landlord–tenant law is a part of the common law that details the rights and duties of landlords and tenants.
Laurel is a city in and the second county seat of Jones County, Mississippi, United States.
Laurie Pritchett (December 9, 1926 – November 13, 2000) is best known for his actions in 1961 and 1962 as the Chief of Police in Albany, Georgia in suppressing the city's civil rights demonstrations by the Albany Movement.
A lawsuit (or suit in law) is "a vernacular term for a suit, action, or cause instituted or depending between two private persons in the courts of law." A lawsuit is any proceeding by a party or parties against another in a court of law.
The Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights (The Leadership Conference), formerly called the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights, is an umbrella group of American civil rights interest groups.
The Letter from Birmingham Jail, also known as the Letter from Birmingham City Jail and The Negro Is Your Brother, is an open letter written on April 16, 1963, by Martin Luther King Jr. The letter defends the strategy of nonviolent resistance to racism.
Elizabeth Lloyd Holzman, best known as Libby Holman (May 23, 1904 – June 18, 1971), was an American singer and actress who also achieved notoriety for her complex and unconventional personal life.
The Library of America (LOA) is a nonprofit publisher of classic American literature.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
Life was an American magazine that ran regularly from 1883 to 1972 and again from 1978 to 2000.
Life imprisonment (also known as imprisonment for life, life in prison, a life sentence, a life term, lifelong incarceration, life incarceration or simply life) is any sentence of imprisonment for a crime under which convicted persons are to remain in prison either for the rest of their natural life or until paroled.
The Lincoln Memorial is an American national monument built to honor the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln.
Civil rights leaders are influential figures in the promotion and implementation of political freedom and the expansion of personal civil liberties and rights.
The Governor of Arkansas is the chief executive of the U.S. state of Arkansas.
The Governor of Mississippi is the head of the executive branch of Mississippi's state government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces.
This is a historical list of women from Kentucky who were involved in civil rights activism from 1920 until the 1970s.
Beginning with the murder of Emmett Till in 1955, photography and photographers played an important role in advancing the civil rights movement by documenting the public and private acts of racial discrimination against African Americans and the nonviolent response of the movement.
Landmark court decisions, in present-day common law legal systems, establish precedents that determine a significant new legal principle or concept, or otherwise substantially affect the interpretation of existing law.
A literacy test assesses a person's literacy skills: their ability to read and write.
Little Rock Central High School (LRCHS) is an accredited comprehensive public high school in Little Rock, Arkansas, United States.
The Little Rock Nine was a group of nine African American students enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 1957.
Little Rock is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Arkansas.
Lobbying, persuasion, or interest representation is the act of attempting to influence the actions, policies, or decisions of officials in their daily life, most often legislators or members of regulatory agencies.
Lola Mae Haynes Hendricks (née Haynes) (born December 1932) was corresponding secretary for Fred Shuttlesworth's Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights from 1956 to 1963.
Long, hot summer of 1967 refers to the 159 race riots that erupted across the United States in 1967.
Lonnie C. King Jr., together with Atlanta University Center students, including Roslyn Pope, Julian Bond, Herschelle Sullivan, Carolyn Long, Frank Smith, Joseph Pierce and others, authored An Appeal for Human Rights which was published March 9, 1960 as an advertisement in various Atlanta area newspapers.
Loren Miller (January 20, 1903 - July 14, 1967) was an American journalist, civil rights activist, attorney and judge.
Lorraine Vivian Hansberry (May 19, 1930 – January 12, 1965) was an African-American playwright and writer.
Louis Austin (1898-1971) was an African American journalist, leader and social activist.
Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Loving v. Virginia, is a landmark civil rights decision of the United States Supreme Court, which invalidated laws prohibiting interracial marriage.
The Lower East Side, sometimes abbreviated as LES, is a neighborhood in the southeastern part of the New York City borough of Manhattan, roughly located between the Bowery and the East River, and Canal Street and Houston Street.
A lunch counter (also known as a luncheonette) is a small restaurant, much like a diner, where the patron sits on a stool on one side of the counter and the server or person preparing the food serves from the other side of the counter, where the kitchen or limited food preparation area is.
Lynching is a premeditated extrajudicial killing by a group.
Lynching is the practice of murder by a group by extrajudicial action.
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
The M48 Patton is a main battle tank (MBT) that was designed in the United States.
Mae Mallory (June 9, 1927 – 2007) was an activist of the Civil Rights Movement and a Black Power movement leader active in the 1950s and 1960s.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.
Malcolm X (19251965) was an African-American Muslim minister and human rights activist.
Mamie Elizabeth Till-Mobley (born Mamie Elizabeth Carthan; November 23, 1921 – January 6, 2003) was the mother of Emmett Till, who was murdered in Mississippi on August 28, 1955, at the age of 14, after being accused for flirting with a white cashier woman, Carolyn Bryant, at the grocery store.
Manhattan is the most densely populated borough of New York City, its economic and administrative center, and its historical birthplace.
William Manning Marable (May 13, 1950 – April 1, 2011) was an American professor of public affairs, history and African-American Studies at Columbia University.
The March Against Fear was a major 1966 demonstration in the Civil Rights Movement in the South.
The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, the March on Washington, or The Great March on Washington, was held in Washington, D.C. on Wednesday, August 28, 1963.
The March on Washington Movement (MOWM), 1941–1946, organized by activists A. Philip Randolph and Bayard Rustin as a tool to produce a mass march on Washington, D.C., was designed to pressure the U.S. government into desegregating the armed forces and providing fair working opportunities for African Americans.
Marian Wright Edelman (born June 6, 1939) is an American activist for the rights of children.
Marion Shepilov Barry (born Marion Barry Jr.; March 6, 1936 – November 23, 2014) was an American politician who served as the second Mayor of the District of Columbia from 1979 to 1991, and again as the fourth mayor from 1995 to 1999.
Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public.
Martin Luther King Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1954 until his death in 1968.
Mary Fair Burks (July 31, 1914 – July 21, 1991) was an American educator, scholar, and activist during the Civil Rights Movement from Montgomery, Alabama.
A mass arrest occurs when police apprehend large numbers of suspects at once.
Mass racial violence in the United States, also called race riots, can include such disparate events as.
Massive resistance was a strategy declared by U.S. Senator Harry F. Byrd, Sr. of Virginia along with his brother-in-law as the leader in the Virginia General Assembly, Democrat Delegate James M. Thomson of Alexandria, to unite white politicians and leaders in Virginia in a campaign of new state laws and policies to prevent public school desegregation, particularly after the Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision in 1954.
The Mau Mau Uprising (1952–1964), also known as the Mau Mau Rebellion, the Kenya Emergency, and the Mau Mau Revolt, was a war in the British Kenya Colony (1920–63).
Maya Angelou (born Marguerite Annie Johnson; April 4, 1928 – May 28, 2014) was an American poet, singer, memoirist, and civil rights activist.
McComb is a city in Pike County, Mississippi, United States, approximately south of Jackson.
Medgar Wiley Evers (July 2, 1925June 12, 1963) was an African American civil rights activist in Mississippi and the state's field secretary of the NAACP.
The Medical Committee for Human Rights (MCHR) was a group of American health care professionals that initially organized in June 1964 to provide medical care for civil rights workers, community activists, and summer volunteers working in Mississippi during the "Freedom Summer" project.
The Memphis sanitation strike began in February 1968 in Memphis, Tennessee.
Memphis is a city located along the Mississippi River in the southwestern corner of the U.S. state of Tennessee.
Michael Paul Rogin (June 29, 1937 – November 25, 2001) was an American political scientist who taught at the University of California, Berkeley.
Michael Henry "Mickey" Schwerner (November 6, 1939 – June 21, 1964), was one of three Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) field/social workers killed in Philadelphia, Mississippi, by members of the Ku Klux Klan.
The Michigan Army National Guard is the Army component of the Michigan National Guard and a reserve component of the United States Army.
Minnijean Brown-Trickey (born September 11, 1941) was one of a group of African American teenagers known as the "Little Rock Nine." On September 25, 1957, under the gaze of 1,200 armed soldiers and a worldwide audience, Minnijean Brown-Trickey faced down an angry mob and helped to desegregate Central High.
The Mississippi Delta, also known as the Yazoo-Mississippi Delta, is the distinctive northwest section of the U.S. state of Mississippi (and small portions of Arkansas and Louisiana) which lies between the Mississippi and Yazoo Rivers.
The Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP), also referred to as the Freedom Democratic Party, was an American political party created in 1964 as a branch of the populist Freedom Democratic organization in the state of Mississippi during the Civil Rights Movement.
Mississippi State Penitentiary (MSP), also known as Parchman Farm, is a prison farm, the oldest prison, and the only maximum security prison for men in the state of Mississippi.
The Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission (also called the Sov-Com) was a state agency which operated from 1956 to 1977.
Modjeska Monteith Simkins (December 5, 1899 – April 9, 1992) was an important leader of African-American public health reform, social reform and the Civil Rights Movement in South Carolina.
A Molotov cocktail, also known as a petrol bomb, bottle bomb, poor man's grenade, Molotovin koktaili (Finnish), polttopullo (Finnish), fire bomb (not to be confused with an actual fire bomb) or just Molotov, commonly shortened as Molly, is a generic name used for a variety of bottle-based improvised incendiary weapons.
The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama.
The Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA) was formed on December 5, 1955 by black ministers and community leaders in Montgomery, Alabama.
Montgomery is the capital city of the U.S. state of Alabama and the county seat of Montgomery County.
Muhammad Ali (born Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr.; January 17, 1942 – June 3, 2016) was an American professional boxer, activist, and philanthropist.
Jimmie Lee Jackson (December 16, 1938 – February 26, 1965) was an African American civil rights activist in Marion, Alabama and a deacon in the Baptist church.
The murders of Chaney, Goodman, and Schwerner, also known as the Freedom Summer murders, the Mississippi civil rights workers' murders or the Mississippi Burning murders, involved three activists that were abducted and murdered in Neshoba County, Mississippi in June 1964 during the Civil Rights Movement.
Myles Falls Horton (July 9, 1905 – January 19, 1990) was an American educator, socialist and cofounder of the Highlander Folk School, famous for its role in the Civil Rights Movement (Movement leader James Bevel called Horton "The Father of the Civil Rights Movement").
Myrlie Louise Evers–Williams (née Beasley; born March 17, 1933) is an American civil rights activist of the Civil Rights Movement and journalist who worked for over three decades to seek justice for the murder of her civil rights activist husband Medgar Evers in 1963.
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is a civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909 as a bi-racial organization to advance justice for African Americans by a group, including, W. E. B. Du Bois, Mary White Ovington and Moorfield Storey.
The NAACP Youth Council is a branch of the NAACP in which youth are actively involved.
According to historian Rayford Logan, the nadir of American race relations was the period in the history of the Southern United States from the end of Reconstruction in 1877 through the early 20th century, when racism in the country was worse than in any other period after the American Civil War.
Nan Grogan Orrock (born November 8, 1943) is a Democratic state senator in the Georgia State Senate for the district 36.
The Nashville sit-ins, which lasted from February 13 to May 10, 1960, were part of a nonviolent direct action campaign to end racial segregation at lunch counters in downtown Nashville, Tennessee.
Nashville is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Tennessee and the seat of Davidson County.
Natchez is the county seat and only city of Adams County, Mississippi, United States.
The Nation of Islam, abbreviated as NOI, is an African American political and religious movement, founded in Detroit, Michigan, United States, by Wallace D. Fard Muhammad on July 4, 1930.
The National Council of Negro Women (NCNW) is a non-profit organization with the mission to advance the opportunities and the quality of life for African-American women, their families and communities.
The National Guard of the United States, part of the reserve components of the United States Armed Forces, is a reserve military force, composed of National Guard military members or units of each state and the territories of Guam, the Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia, for a total of 54 separate organizations.
The National Park Service (NPS) is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations.
The National Urban League (NUL), formerly known as the National League on Urban Conditions Among Negroes, is a nonpartisan civil rights organization based in New York City that advocates on behalf of African Americans and against racial discrimination in the United States.
The original United States Naturalization Law of March 26, 1790 provided the first rules to be followed by the United States in the granting of national citizenship.
Neshoba County is a county located in the U.S. state of Mississippi.
Nevada (see pronunciations) is a state in the Western, Mountain West, and Southwestern regions of the United States of America.
The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms and regulations enacted in the United States 1933-36, in response to the Great Depression.
New Orleans (. Merriam-Webster.; La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The New York City teachers' strike of 1968 was a months-long confrontation between the new community-controlled school board in the largely black Ocean Hill–Brownsville neighborhoods of Brooklyn, and New York City’s United Federation of Teachers.
Nina Simone (born Eunice Kathleen Waymon; February 21, 1933 – April 21, 2003) was an American singer, songwriter, pianist, arranger, and activist in the Civil Rights Movement.
The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
Nonviolence is the personal practice of being harmless to self and others under every condition.
Nonviolent resistance (NVR or nonviolent action) is the practice of achieving goals such as social change through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, satyagraha, or other methods, while being nonviolent.
North Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University (also known as North Carolina A&T State University, North Carolina A&T, N.C. A&T, or simply A&T) is a public, coeducational, historically black, research university located in Greensboro, North Carolina, United States.
North Louisiana (Louisiane du Nord) (also known locally as "Sportsman's Paradise", a name sometimes attributed to the state as a whole) is a region in the U.S. state of Louisiana.
Oakland is the largest city and the county seat of Alameda County, California, United States.
The Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity (FHEO) is an agency within the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development.
Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States.
Oklahoma City, often shortened to OKC, is the capital and largest city of the U.S. state of Oklahoma.
The Omaha race riot occurred in Omaha, Nebraska, September 28–29, 1919.
Operation Breadbasket was an organization dedicated to improving the economic conditions of black communities across the United States of America.
Opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War began with demonstrations in 1964 against the escalating role of the U.S. military in the Vietnam War and grew into a broad social movement over the ensuing several years.
The Organization of Afro-American Unity (OAAU) was a Pan-Africanist organization founded by Malcolm X in 1964.
Orval Eugene Faubus (January 7, 1910 – December 14, 1994) was an American politician who served as 36th Governor of Arkansas from 1955 to 1967.
The Ozarks, also referred to as the Ozark Mountains and Ozark Plateau, is a physiographic region in the U.S. states of Arkansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Kansas.
A paramilitary is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military, but which is not included as part of a state's formal armed forces.
Paratroopers are military parachutists—military personnel trained in parachuting into an operation and usually functioning as part of an airborne force.
Patriarchy is a social system in which males hold primary power and predominate in roles of political leadership, moral authority, social privilege and control of property.
Paul Burney Johnson Jr. (January 23, 1916October 14, 1985) was an American attorney and Democratic politician from Mississippi, serving as governor from 1964 until January 1968.
Paul Leroy Robeson (April 9, 1898 – January 23, 1976) was an American bass baritone concert artist and stage and film actor who became famous both for his cultural accomplishments and for his political activism.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
The Peace and Freedom Party (PFP) is a left-wing political party with affiliates and former members in more than a dozen American states, including California, Colorado, Florida, Hawaii, Indiana and Utah, but none now have ballot status besides California.
Penal labour is a generic term for various kinds of unfree labour which prisoners are required to perform, typically manual labour.
The Pittsburgh Courier was an African-American weekly newspaper published in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, from 1907 until October 22, 1966.
Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896),.
Police brutality is one of several forms of police misconduct which involves undue violence by police members.
ca The Poor People's Campaign, or Poor People's March on Washington, was a 1968 effort to gain economic justice for poor people in the United States.
In the United States, Poor White (or Poor Whites of the South for clarity) is the historical classification for an American sociocultural group,Flynt, J. Wayne.
The post–civil rights era in African-American history is defined as the time period in the United States after the Congressional passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, major federal legislation that ended legal segregation, gained federal oversight and enforcement of voter registration and electoral practices in states or areas with a history of discriminatory practices, and ended discrimination in renting or buying housing.
Prathia Hall (January 1, 1940 – August 12, 2002) was a leader and activist in the Civil Rights Movement, a womanist theologian, and ethicist.
A private foundation is a legal entity set up by an individual, a family or a group of individuals, for a purpose such as philanthropy or other legal economic object.
Project Uplift was a major short-term program of the Great Society.
Public accommodations, in US law, are generally defined as facilities, both public and private, used by the public.
Queens College (QC) is one of the four-year colleges in the City University of New York system.
Racial segregation is the separation of people into racial or other ethnic groups in daily life.
Racial segregation in the United States, as a general term, includes the segregation or separation of access to facilities, services, and opportunities such as housing, medical care, education, employment, and transportation along racial lines.
Racism in the United States against non-whites is widespread and has been so the colonial era.
Radio Free Dixie was a radio program started by Robert F. Williams when he was forced in exile to Cuba from Monroe, North Carolina during the American Civil Rights Movement.
Raleigh is the capital of the state of North Carolina and the seat of Wake County in the United States.
Ralph David Abernathy Sr. (March 11, 1926 – April 17, 1990) was an American civil rights activist and Christian minister.
Rayford Whittingham Logan (January 7, 1897 – November 4, 1982) was an African-American historian and Pan-African activist.
Raylawni Branch (born 1941, Hattiesburg, Forrest County, Mississippi, United States) is a black Mississippi pioneer of the Civil Rights Movement, a professional nursing educator and US Air Force Reserve officer.
Read's Drug Store was a chain of stores based in Baltimore, Maryland.
Realpolitik (from real; "realistic", "practical", or "actual"; and Politik; "politics") is politics or diplomacy based primarily on considerations of given circumstances and factors, rather than explicit ideological notions or moral and ethical premises.
The Reconstruction Amendments are the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth amendments to the United States Constitution, adopted between 1865 and 1870, the five years immediately following the Civil War.
The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 (the Presidential Proclamation of December 8, 1863) to 1877.
The Red Summer refers to the summer and early autumn of 1919, which was marked by hundreds of deaths and higher casualties across the United States, as a result of racial riots that occurred in more than three dozen cities and one rural county.
In the United States, redlining is the systematic denial of various services to residents of specific, often racially associated, neighborhoods or communities, either directly or through the selective raising of prices.
The Regional Council of Negro Leadership (RCNL) was a society in Mississippi founded by T. R. M. Howard in 1951 to promote a program of civil rights, self-help, and business ownership.
The Report to the American People on Civil Rights was a speech on civil rights, delivered on radio and television by United States President John F. Kennedy from the Oval Office on June 11, 1963 in which he proposed legislation that would later become the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
Residential segregation in the United States is the physical separation of two or more groups into different neighborhoods, or a form of segregation that "sorts population groups into various neighborhood contexts and shapes the living environment at the neighborhood level".
Richard Joseph Daley (May 15, 1902 – December 20, 1976) was an American politician who served as the 38th Mayor of Chicago for a total of 21 years beginning on April 20, 1955, until his death on December 20, 1976.
Richmond is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
Robert Francis "Bobby" Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968) was an American politician and lawyer who served as the 64th United States Attorney General from January 1961 to September 1964, and as a U.S. Senator for New York from January 1965 until his assassination in June 1968.
Robert Franklin Williams (February 26, 1925 – October 15, 1996) was an American civil rights leader and author best known for serving as president of the Monroe, North Carolina chapter of the NAACP in the 1950s and into 1961.
Robert Bagner Hayling (November 20, 1929 – December 20, 2015) was an American dentist and civil rights activist.
The Robert Russa Moton Museum (popularly known as the "Moton Museum" or "Moton") is a historic site and museum at 900 Griffin Boulevard in Farmville, Prince Edward County, Virginia.
Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005) was an activist in the civil rights movement best known for her pivotal role in the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
Ross Robert Barnett (January 22, 1898November 6, 1987) was the Governor of Mississippi from 1960 to 1964.
Ruby Doris Smith-Robinson (April 25, 1942 – October 7, 1967) worked with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) from its earliest days in 1960 until her death in October 1967.
Rutledge Pearson (September 9, 1929 - May 1967) was an educator, civil rights leader and human rights activist.
Samuel Wilbert Tucker (June 18, 1913 – October 19, 1990) was an American lawyer and a cooperating attorney with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
San Francisco (initials SF;, Spanish for 'Saint Francis'), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural, commercial, and financial center of Northern California.
San Quentin State Prison (SQ) is a California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation state prison for men, located north of San Francisco in the unincorporated town of San Quentin in Marin County.
Sarah Mae Flemming Brown (June 28, 1933 – June 16, 1993) was an African-American woman who was expelled from a bus in Columbia, South Carolina, seventeen months before Rosa Parks refused to surrender her seat on an Alabama bus in 1955.
School segregation in the United States has a long history.
The Scottsboro Boys were nine African American teenagers, ages 13 to 20, accused in Alabama of raping two White American women on a train in 1931.
The Sea Islands are a chain of tidal and barrier islands on the Atlantic Ocean coast of the Southeastern United States.
Seattle is a seaport city on the west coast of the United States.
The Seattle Civil Rights and Labor History Project, one of the Pacific Northwest Labor and Civil Rights History Projects, is dedicated to social movements and labor history in the Pacific Northwest.
In the context of the 20th-century history of the United States, the Second Great Migration was the migration of more than 5 million African Americans from the South to the North, Midwest and West.
The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.
The Selma to Montgomery marches were three protest marches, held in 1965, along the 54-mile (87 km) highway from Selma, Alabama to the state capital of Montgomery.
Selma is a city in and the county seat of Dallas County, in the Black Belt region of south central Alabama and extending to the west.
Separate but equal was a legal doctrine in United States constitutional law according to which racial segregation did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, adopted during the Reconstruction Era, which guaranteed "equal protection" under the law to all citizens.
Septima Poinsette Clark (May 3, 1898 – December 15, 1987) was an American educator and civil rights activist.
Shaw University, founded as the Raleigh Institute, is a private liberal arts institution and historically black university (HBCU) in Raleigh, North Carolina, United States.
Sherwood Eddy (1871–1963) was a leading American Protestant missionary, administrator and educator.
A sit-in or sit-down is a form of direct action that involves one or more people occupying an area for a protest, often to promote political, social, or economic change.
Smith v. Allwright,, was a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court with regard to voting rights and, by extension, racial desegregation.
A social movement is a type of group action.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
The Solid South or Southern bloc was the electoral voting bloc of the states of the Southern United States for issues that were regarded as particularly important to the interests of Democrats in the southern states.
Soul On Ice is a memoir and collection of essays by Eldridge Cleaver.
South Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
South Los Angeles is a region in southern Los Angeles County, California lying to south of downtown Los Angeles, California.
The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) is an African-American civil rights organization.
The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) is an American nonprofit legal advocacy organization specializing in civil rights and public interest litigation.
The Southern Student Organizing Committee (SSOC) was a student activist group in the southern United States during the 1960s, which focused on many political and social issues including: African-American civil rights, opposition to the Vietnam War, worker's rights, and feminism.
In the United States, Southern Unionists were White Southerners living in the Confederate States of America, opposed to secession, and against the Civil War.
The Southwestern United States (Suroeste de Estados Unidos; also known as the American Southwest) is the informal name for a region of the western United States.
The Stand in the Schoolhouse Door took place at Foster Auditorium at the University of Alabama on June 11, 1963.
Stanley David Levison (May 2, 1912 – September 12, 1979) was an American businessman and lawyer who became a lifelong activist in progressive causes.
Stephen Tuck is a British historian.
Kwame Ture (born Stokely Carmichael, June 29, 1941November 15, 1998) was a Trinidadian-born prominent organizer in the Civil Rights Movement in the United States and the global Pan-African movement.
The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC, often pronounced) was one of the major Civil Rights Movement organizations of the 1960s.
A suburb is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city.
The Supreme Court of California is the court of last resort in the courts of the State of California.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
Swarthmore College is a private liberal arts college located in Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, southwest of Philadelphia.
Theodore Judson Jemison (August 1, 1918 – November 15, 2013), better known as T. J. Jemison, was the president of the National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc. from 1982 to 1994.
Theodore Roosevelt Mason "T.
Tacoma is a mid-sized urban port city and the county seat of Pierce County, Washington, United States.
Tallahassee is the capital of the U.S. state of Florida.
The Tallahatchie River is a river in Mississippi which flows from Tippah County, through Tallahatchie County, to Leflore County, where it joins the Yalobusha River to form the Yazoo River.
Taylor Branch (born January 14, 1947) is an American author and historian best known for his trilogy of books chronicling the life of Martin Luther King, Jr. and much of the history of the American Civil Rights Movement.
Teaching for Change is a non-profit organization founded in 1989 and based in Washington D.C. with the motto of "building social justice, starting in the classroom." This organization uses publications, professional development, and parent organizing programs to accomplish this goal.
Tear gas, formally known as a lachrymator agent or lachrymator (from the Latin lacrima, meaning "tear"), sometimes colloquially known as mace,"Mace" is a brand name for a tear gas spray is a chemical weapon that causes severe eye and respiratory pain, skin irritation, bleeding, and even blindness.
"Television News of the Civil Rights Era 1950-1970" is a digital history project produced by Dr.
Tennessee (translit) is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States.
The Autobiography of Malcolm X was published in 1965, the result of a collaboration between human rights activist Malcolm X and journalist Alex Haley.
"The Ballot or the Bullet" is the title of a public speech by human rights activist Malcolm X. In the speech, which was delivered on April 3, 1964, at Cory Methodist Church in Cleveland, Ohio, Malcolm X advised African Americans to judiciously exercise their right to vote, but he cautioned that if the government continued to prevent African Americans from attaining full equality, it might be necessary for them to take up arms.
The Bronx is the northernmost of the five boroughs of New York City, in the U.S. state of New York.
The Diplomat is an online international news magazine covering politics, society, and culture in the Asia-Pacific region.
The Moscow Times is an English-language weekly newspaper published in Moscow, with a circulation of 55,000 copies.
The National Archives (TNA) is a non-ministerial government department.
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was an American statesman and writer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909.
The Thirteenth Amendment (Amendment XIII) to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.
Thurgood Marshall (July 2, 1908January 24, 1993) was an American lawyer, serving as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from October 1967 until October 1991.
Tim Weiner (born June 20, 1956) is an American reporter and author.
Timothy Garton Ash CMG FRSA (born 12 July 1955) is a British historian, author and commentator.
Tommie C. Smith (born June 6, 1944) is an American former track & field athlete and wide receiver in the American Football League.
Tougaloo College is a private, co-educational, historically black, liberal arts institution of higher education founded in 1869, in Madison County, north of Jackson, Mississippi, United States.
A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.
The "trusty system" (sometimes homophonically but perhaps incorrectly called "trustee system") was a strict system of discipline and security in the United States that was made compulsory under Mississippi state law but was used in other states as well, such as Arkansas, Alabama, Louisiana, New York and Texas The method of controlling and working inmates at Mississippi State Penitentiary at Parchman, Mississippi's only prison, was designed to replace convict leasing.
The Twenty-fourth Amendment (Amendment XXIV) of the United States Constitution prohibits both Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax.
Ulysses Simpson Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant; April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American soldier and statesman who served as Commanding General of the Army and the 18th President of the United States, the highest positions in the military and the government of the United States.
Uncle Tom is the title character of Harriet Beecher Stowe's 1852 novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin.
Unita Zelma Blackwell (born March 18, 1933) is an American civil rights activist who was the first African American woman, and the tenth African American, to be elected mayor in the U.S. state of Mississippi.
The International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace, and Agricultural Implement Workers of America, better known as the United Automobile Workers (UAW), is an American labor union that represents workers in the United States (including Puerto Rico) and Canada.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States Ambassador to the United Nations is the leader of the U.S. delegation, the U.S. Mission to the United Nations.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Attorney General (A.G.) is the head of the United States Department of Justice per, concerned with all legal affairs, and is the chief lawyer of the United States government.
The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights is a bipartisan, independent commission of the United States federal government, created in 1957, that is charged with the responsibility for investigating, reporting on, and making recommendations concerning civil rights issues in the United States.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
United States congressional apportionment is the process by which seats in the United States House of Representatives are distributed among the 50 states according to the most recent constitutionally mandated decennial census.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit (in case citations, 5th Cir.) is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following federal judicial districts.
The United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is a Cabinet department in the Executive branch of the United States federal government.
The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions.
The U.S. Department of Justice Civil Rights Division is the institution within the federal government responsible for enforcing federal statutes prohibiting discrimination on the basis of race, sex, disability, religion, and national origin.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
The United States Marshals Service (USMS) is a federal law-enforcement agency within the U.S. Department of Justice.
The United States presidential election of 1876 was the 23rd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 7, 1876.
The University of Alabama (Alabama or UA) is a public research university located in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, United States, and the flagship of the University of Alabama System.
The University of Mississippi (colloquially known as Ole Miss) is an American public research university located in Oxford, Mississippi.
The University of Natal was a university in Natal and later became KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa.
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, also known as UNC, UNC Chapel Hill, the University of North Carolina, or simply Carolina, is a public research university located in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States.
The University of North Carolina Press (or UNC Press), founded in 1922, is a university press that is part of the University of North Carolina.
The University of Southern Mississippi (USM), known informally as Southern Miss, is a public research university with its main campus located in Hattiesburg, Mississippi.
The University of Virginia (U.Va. or UVA), frequently referred to simply as Virginia, is a public research university and the flagship for the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Riots often occur in reaction to a perceived grievance or out of dissent.
Victoria Jackson Gray Adams (November 5, 1926 – August 12, 2006) was an American civil rights activist from Hattiesburg, Mississippi.
The Vienna summit was a summit meeting held on June 4, 1961, in Vienna, Austria, between President John F. Kennedy of the United States and Premier Nikita Khrushchev of the Soviet Union.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
Viola Fauver Gregg Liuzzo (April 11, 1925 – March 25, 1965) was a Unitarian Universalist civil rights activist from Michigan.
Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
Vivian Juanita Malone Jones (July 15, 1942 – October 13, 2005) was one of the first two black students to enroll at the University of Alabama in 1963, and in 1965 became the university's first black graduate.
Voice of America (VOA) is a U.S. government-funded international radio broadcast source that serves as the United States federal government's official institution for non-military, external broadcasting.
Voter Education Project (VEP) raised and distributed foundation funds to civil rights organizations for voter education and registration work in the southern United States from 1962 to 1968.
The Voting Rights Act of 1965 is a landmark piece of federal legislation in the United States that prohibits racial discrimination in voting.
Westley Wallace Law (January 1, 1923 – July 29, 2002) was a civil rights leader from Savannah, Georgia.
Walter Frederick "Fritz" Mondale (born January 5, 1928) is an American politician, diplomat, and lawyer who served as the 42nd Vice President of the United States from 1977 to 1981, and as a United States Senator from Minnesota (1964–76).
Walter Philip Reuther (September 1, 1907 – May 9, 1970) was an American leader of organized labor and civil rights activist who built the United Automobile Workers (UAW) into one of the most progressive labor unions in American history.
The Washington Monument is an obelisk on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., built to commemorate George Washington, once commander-in-chief of the Continental Army and the first President of the United States.
The Watts riots, sometimes referred to as the Watts Rebellion, took place in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles from August 11 to 16, 1965.
Watts is a neighborhood in southern Los Angeles, California.
We Charge Genocide: The Crime of Government Against the Negro People is a paper accusing the United States government of genocide based on the UN Genocide Convention.
"We Shall Overcome" is a gospel song which became a protest song and a key anthem of the Civil Rights Movement.
White ethnic is a term used to refer to White Americans who are not Old Stock or White Anglo-Saxon Protestant.
White flight is a term that originated in the United States, starting in the 1950s and 1960s, and applied to the large-scale migration of people of various European ancestries from racially mixed urban regions to more racially homogeneous suburban or exurban regions.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
White privilege (or white skin privilege) is the societal privilege that benefits people whom society identifies as white in some countries, beyond what is commonly experienced by non-white people under the same social, political, or economic circumstances.
White supremacy or white supremacism is a racist ideology based upon the belief that white people are superior in many ways to people of other races and that therefore white people should be dominant over other races.
Whitney Moore Young Jr. (July 31, 1921 – March 11, 1971) was an American civil rights leader.
Wichita is the largest city in the U.S. state of Kansas.
William Colbert Keady (April 2, 1913 – June 16, 1989) was a United States federal judge.
William David McCain (March 29, 1907, in Bellefontaine, MS – September 5, 1993) was a recognized leader of the Mississippi political establishment and a leader in its struggle in the 1950s and 1960s to maintain the "southern way of life" including racial segregationism.
William Lorenzo Patterson (August 27, 1891 – March 5, 1980) was an African-American leader in the Communist Party USA and head of the International Labor Defense, a group that offered legal representation to communists, trade unionists, and African Americans in cases involving issues of political or racial persecution.
Bill Moyer (September 17, 1933 – October 21, 2002), was a United States social change activist who was a principal organizer in the 1966 Chicago Open Housing Movement.
Winson Hudson, born Anger Winson Gates (November 17, 1916 in Carthage, Mississippi – May 1, 2004) was an American civil rights activist.
A wolf whistle is a distinctive two-note whistled sound made to show high interest in or approval of something or someone, especially a woman viewed as physically or sexually attractive.
The Women's Political Council, founded in Montgomery, Alabama, was an organization that was part of the Civil Rights Movement that was formed to address the racial issues in the city.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
Wyatt Tee Walker (August 16, 1928 – January 23, 2018) was an African-American pastor, national civil rights leader, theologian, and cultural historian.
The 101st Airborne Division ("Screaming Eagles") is an elite modular specialized light infantry division of the US Army.
The 16th Street Baptist Church bombing was an act of white supremacist terrorism which occurred at the African American 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama, on Sunday, September 15, 1963, when four members of the Ku Klux Klan planted at least 15 sticks of dynamite attached to a timing device beneath the steps located on the east side of the church.
The 1964 Democratic National Convention of the Democratic Party, took place at Boardwalk Hall in Atlantic City, New Jersey from August 24 to 27, 1964.
The Philadelphia race riot took place in the predominantly black neighborhoods of North Philadelphia from August 28 to August 30, 1964.
The 1967 Detroit riot, also known as the 12th Street riot was the bloodiest race riot in the "Long, hot summer of 1967".
The 1967 Newark riots was one of 159 race riots that swept cities in the United States during the "Long Hot Summer of 1967".
The 1968 Chicago riots, in the U.S., were sparked in part by the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. King was shot while standing on the balcony of his room at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis, Tennessee, on April 4, 1968, at 6:01 pm.
The 1968 Summer Olympics (Spanish: Juegos Olímpicos de Verano de 1968), officially known as the Games of the XIX Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Mexico City, Mexico, in October 1968.
The Washington, D.C. riots of 1968 were 4 days of riots in Washington, D.C. that followed the assassination of civil rights activist Martin Luther King Jr. on April 4, 1968.
A 501(c)(3) organization is a corporation, trust, unincorporated association, or other type of organization exempt from federal income tax under section 501(c)(3) of Title 26 of the United States Code.
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