172 relations: Abydos (Hellespont), Achaemenid Empire, Aegean Sea, Aegina, Agesilaus II, Alcibiades, Alexander I of Epirus, Alexander the Great, Aliartos, Amphipolis, Amyntas IV of Macedon, Anatolia, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek architecture, Ancient Greek art, Ancient Greek philosophy, Archaic Greece, Archidamus II, Argos, Aristotle, Artaphernes, Artaxerxes II of Persia, Artemisium, Athens, Attic talent, Attica, Battle of Abydos, Battle of Aegospotami, Battle of Artemisium, Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC), Battle of Coronea (394 BC), Battle of Crocus Field, Battle of Cynoscephalae (364 BC), Battle of Cyzicus, Battle of Lade, Battle of Leuctra, Battle of Mantinea (362 BC), Battle of Mantinea (418 BC), Battle of Marathon, Battle of Mycale, Battle of Naupactus, Battle of Plataea, Battle of Pylos, Battle of Salamis, Battle of Tegyra, Battle of Thermopylae, Boeotia, Byzantium, Caranus (son of Philip II), Chalkidiki, ..., Classic, Classical antiquity, Classics, Cleisthenes, Cleomenes I, Cleopatra Eurydice of Macedon, Cleopatra of Macedon, Conspiracy of Cinadon, Corfu, Corinth, Corinthian War, Dardanelles, Darius I, Datis, Death of Alexander the Great, Delian League, Delos, Deme, Demosthenes, Diadochi, Diarchy, Egypt, Epaminondas, Epidamnos, Eponymous archon, Euboea, Eurysthenes, Exchequer, First Persian invasion of Greece, Halicarnassus, Hellenistic period, Helots, Hercules, Hermes, Hippias (tyrant), History of Greece, Hoplite, Illyrians, India, Ionia, Ionian Revolt, Isagoras, Isonomia, Isthmus of Corinth, Laconia, Leonidas I, Leotychidas, List of kings of Sparta, Literature, Lysander, Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Mantineia, Mardonius, Megarian decree, Messene, Miletus, Miltiades, Mount Athos, Mycenaean Greece, Navarch, Naxos, Nea Poteidaia, Nicias, Ostracism, Oxyrhynchus, Paeonia (kingdom), Pausanias (general), Peace of Antalcidas, Peace of Nicias, Peisistratos, Pella, Pelopidas, Peloponnese, Peloponnesian War, Pericles, Persian people, Philip II of Macedon, Phocion, Phocis, Phocis (ancient region), Piraeus, Plague of Athens, Plataea, Plutarch, Polis, Politics, Pontoon bridge, Potidaea, Procles, Pydna, Roman Empire, Samos, Second Persian invasion of Greece, Sicilian Expedition, Sicily, Siege of Melos, Sparta, Spartan hegemony, Struma (river), Syracuse, Sicily, Tegea, Theatre of ancient Greece, Theban hegemony, Thebes, Greece, Themistocles, Thespiae, Thirty Tyrants, Thirty Years' Peace, Thomas R. Martin, Thrace, Thracians, Thucydides, Tribute, Trireme, Trittys, Trojan War, Turkey, Various authors, Western culture, Will Durant, Xenophon, Xerxes I. Expand index (122 more) » « Shrink index
Abydos (Ἄβυδος) or Abydus, was an ancient city in Mysia in northwestern Asia Minor, near the modern city of Çanakkale (Turkey).
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
Aegina (Αίγινα, Aígina, Αἴγῑνα) is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece in the Saronic Gulf, from Athens.
Agesilaus II (Ἀγησίλαος Agesilaos; c. 444 – c. 360 BC), was a Eurypontid king of the Ancient Greek city-state of Sparta, ruling from 398 to about 360 BC, during most of which time he was, in Plutarch's words, "as good as though commander and king of all Greece," and was for the whole of it greatly identified with his country's deeds and fortunes.
Alcibiades, son of Cleinias, from the deme of Scambonidae (Greek: Ἀλκιβιάδης Κλεινίου Σκαμβωνίδης, transliterated Alkibiádēs Kleiníou Skambōnídēs; c. 450–404 BC), was a prominent Athenian statesman, orator, and general.
Alexander I of Epirus (Ἀλέξανδρος Α' τῆς Ἠπείρου, 370 BC – 331 BC), also known as Alexander Molossus (Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μολοσσός), was a king of Epirus (350–331 BC) of the Aeacid dynasty.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Aliartos (Αλίαρτος) is a small town and municipality in the Boeotia regional unit, Greece, at 109 kilometres from Athens.
Amphipolis (Αμφίπολη - Amfipoli; Ἀμφίπολις, Amphípolis) is best known for being a magnificent ancient Greek polis (city), and later a Roman city, whose impressive remains can still be seen.
Amyntas IV (Greek: Ἀμύντας Δ΄) was a titular king of Macedonia in 359 BC and member of the Argead dynasty.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The architecture of ancient Greece is the architecture produced by the Greek-speaking people (Hellenic people) whose culture flourished on the Greek mainland, the Peloponnese, the Aegean Islands, and in colonies in Anatolia and Italy for a period from about 900 BC until the 1st century AD, with the earliest remaining architectural works dating from around 600 BC.
Ancient Greek art stands out among that of other ancient cultures for its development of naturalistic but idealized depictions of the human body, in which largely nude male figures were generally the focus of innovation.
Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.
Archaic Greece was the period in Greek history lasting from the eighth century BC to the second Persian invasion of Greece in 480 BC, following the Greek Dark Ages and succeeded by the Classical period.
Archidamus II (Ἀρχίδαμος Β΄) was a Eurypontid king of Sparta who reigned from approximately 476 BC to 427 BC.
Argos (Modern Greek: Άργος; Ancient Greek: Ἄργος) is a city in Argolis, the Peloponnese, Greece and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Artaphernes (Ἀρταφέρνης, Old Persian: Artafarna, from Median Rtafarnah), was the brother of the Achaemenid king of Persia, Darius I, satrap of Sardis and a Persian general.
Artaxerxes II Mnemon (𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂, meaning "whose reign is through truth") was the Xšâyathiya Xšâyathiyânâm (King of Kings) of Persia from 404 BC until his death in 358 BC.
Artemisium or Artemision (Greek: Ἀρτεμίσιον) is a cape in northern Euboea, Greece.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
The Attic talent (a talent of the Attic standard), also known as the Athenian talent or Greek talent (τάλαντον, talanton), is an ancient unit of mass equal to 26 kg, as well as a unit of value equal to this amount of pure silver.
Attica (Αττική, Ancient Greek Attikḗ or; or), or the Attic peninsula, is a historical region that encompasses the city of Athens, the capital of present-day Greece.
The Battle of Abydos was an Athenian naval victory in the Peloponnesian War.
The naval Battle of Aegospotami took place in 405 BC and was the last major battle of the Peloponnesian War.
The Battle of Artemisium, or Battle of Artemision, was a series of naval engagements over three days during the second Persian invasion of Greece.
The Battle of Chaeronea was fought in 338 BC, near the city of Chaeronea in Boeotia, between the Macedonians led by Philip II of Macedon and an alliance of some of the Greek city-states led by Athens and Thebes.
The Battle of Coronea in 394 BC was a battle in the Corinthian War, in which the Spartans and their allies under King Agesilaus II defeated a force of Thebans and Argives that was attempting to block their march back into the Peloponnese.
The so-called Battle of Crocus Field (Krokion pedion) was a battle in the Third Sacred War, fought between the armies of Phocis, under Onomarchos, and the combined Thessalian and Macedonian army under Philip II of Macedon.
At the Battle of Cynoscephalae (364 BC), the Theban forces of Pelopidas fought against the Thessalian troops of Alexander of Pherae in a battle in which Pelopidas was killed; nevertheless, the Thebans won.
The naval Battle of Cyzicus took place in 410 BC during the Peloponnesian War.
For war between the navy of Rhodes and the navy of Macedon in 201 BC, see Battle of Lade (201 BC). The Battle of Lade (Ναυμαχία τῆς Λάδης, Naumachia tēs Ladēs) was a naval battle which occurred during the Ionian Revolt, in 494 BC.
The Battle of Leuctra (Λεῦκτρα, Leûktra) was a battle fought on 6 July 371 BC between the Boeotians led by Thebans and the Spartans along with their allies amidst the post-Corinthian War conflict.
The Second Battle of Mantinea was fought on July 4, 362 BC between the Thebans, led by Epaminondas and supported by the Arcadians and the Boeotian league against the Spartans, led by King Agesilaus II and supported by the Eleans, Athenians, and Mantineans.
The First Battle of Mantinea of 418 BC was a significant engagement in the Peloponnesian War.
The Battle of Marathon (Greek: Μάχη τοῦ Μαραθῶνος, Machē tou Marathōnos) took place in 490 BC, during the first Persian invasion of Greece.
The Battle of Mycale (Μάχη τῆς Μυκάλης; Machē tēs Mykalēs) was one of the two major battles that ended the second Persian invasion of Greece during the Greco-Persian Wars.
The Battle of Naupactus was a naval battle in the Peloponnesian War.
The Battle of Plataea was the final land battle during the second Persian invasion of Greece.
The naval Battle of Pylos took place in 425 BC during the Peloponnesian War at the peninsula of Pylos, on the present-day Bay of Navarino in Messenia, and was an Athenian victory over Sparta.
The Battle of Salamis (Ναυμαχία τῆς Σαλαμῖνος, Naumachia tēs Salaminos) was a naval battle fought between an alliance of Greek city-states under Themistocles and the Persian Empire under King Xerxes in 480 BC which resulted in a decisive victory for the outnumbered Greeks.
The Battle of Tegyra (375 BC) (also known as the Battle of Tegyrae)Plutarch, was an ancient Greek battle between Theban and Spartan hoplite forces.
The Battle of Thermopylae (Greek: Μάχη τῶν Θερμοπυλῶν, Machē tōn Thermopylōn) was fought between an alliance of Greek city-states, led by King Leonidas of Sparta, and the Persian Empire of Xerxes I over the course of three days, during the second Persian invasion of Greece.
Boeotia, sometimes alternatively Latinised as Boiotia, or Beotia (Βοιωτία,,; modern transliteration Voiotía, also Viotía, formerly Cadmeis), is one of the regional units of Greece.
Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul.
Caranus (Greek: Κάρανος) was the son of Philip and a half-brother of Alexander the Great.
Chalkidiki, also spelt Chalkidike, Chalcidice or Halkidiki (Χαλκιδική, Chalkidikí), is a peninsula and regional unit of Greece, part of the Region of Central Macedonia in Northern Greece.
A classic is an outstanding example of a particular style; something of lasting worth or with a timeless quality; of the first or highest quality, class, or rank – something that exemplifies its class.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity.
Cleisthenes (Κλεισθένης, Kleisthénēs; also Clisthenes or Kleisthenes) was an ancient Athenian lawgiver credited with reforming the constitution of ancient Athens and setting it on a democratic footing in 508/7 BC.
Cleomenes (though some older reference works give the pronunciation with the accent on the next to last syllable, which is closer to the Greek; Greek Κλεομένης Kleomenes; died c. 489 BC) was an Agiad King of Sparta in the late 6th and early 5th centuries BC.
Eurydice (Greek: Εὐρυδίκη), born Cleopatra (Greek: Κλεοπάτρα) was a mid-4th century BC Macedonian noblewoman, niece of Attalus, and last of the seven wives of Philip II of Macedon.
Cleopatra of Macedonia (Κλεοπάτρα; c. 355/354 BC – 308 BC), or Cleopatra of Epirus, was a Greek Epirote-Macedonian princess and later queen regent of Epirus.
The conspiracy of Cinadon was an attempted coup d'état which took place in Sparta in the 4th century BC during the first years of the reign of Eurypontid King Agesilaus II (398 BC-358 BC).
Corfu or Kerkyra (translit,; translit,; Corcyra; Corfù) is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea.
Corinth (Κόρινθος, Kórinthos) is an ancient city and former municipality in Corinthia, Peloponnese, which is located in south-central Greece.
The Corinthian War was an ancient Greek conflict lasting from 395 BC until 387 BC, pitting Sparta against a coalition of four allied states, Thebes, Athens, Corinth, and Argos, who were initially backed by Persia.
The Dardanelles (Çanakkale Boğazı, translit), also known from Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont (Ἑλλήσποντος, Hellespontos, literally "Sea of Helle"), is a narrow, natural strait and internationally-significant waterway in northwestern Turkey that forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, and separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey.
Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: rtl Dāryuš;; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.
Datis or Datus (Old Persian: Dâtiça), was a Median admiral who served the Persian Empire, under Darius the Great.
The death of Alexander the Great and subsequent related events have been the subjects of debates.
The Delian League, founded in 478 BC, was an association of Greek city-states, with the amount of members numbering between 150 to 330under the leadership of Athens, whose purpose was to continue fighting the Persian Empire after the Greek victory in the Battle of Plataea at the end of the Second Persian invasion of Greece.
The island of Delos (Δήλος; Attic: Δῆλος, Doric: Δᾶλος), near Mykonos, near the centre of the Cyclades archipelago, is one of the most important mythological, historical, and archaeological sites in Greece.
In Ancient Greece, a deme or demos (δῆμος) was a suburb of Athens or a subdivision of Attica, the region of Greece surrounding Athens.
Demosthenes (Δημοσθένης Dēmosthénēs;; 384 – 12 October 322 BC) was a Greek statesman and orator of ancient Athens.
The Diadochi (plural of Latin Diadochus, from Διάδοχοι, Diádokhoi, "successors") were the rival generals, families, and friends of Alexander the Great who fought for control over his empire after his death in 323 BC.
A diarchy (from Greek δι-, di-, "double", and -αρχία, -arkhía, "ruled").
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Epaminondas (Ἐπαμεινώνδας, Epameinondas; d. 362 BC) was a Theban general and statesman of the 4th century BC who transformed the Ancient Greek city-state of Thebes, leading it out of Spartan subjugation into a pre-eminent position in Greek politics.
The ancient Greek city of Epidamnos or Epidamnus (Ἐπίδαμνος), later the Roman Dyrrachium (modern Durrës, Albania, c. 30 km W of Tirana) was founded in 627 BC in Illyria by a group of colonists from Corinth and Corcyra (modern Corfu).
In ancient Greece the chief magistrate in various Greek city states was called eponymous archon (ἐπώνυμος ἄρχων, epōnymos archōn).
Euboea or Evia; Εύβοια, Evvoia,; Εὔβοια, Eúboia) is the second-largest Greek island in area and population, after Crete. The narrow Euripus Strait separates it from Boeotia in mainland Greece. In general outline it is a long and narrow island; it is about long, and varies in breadth from to. Its geographic orientation is from northwest to southeast, and it is traversed throughout its length by a mountain range, which forms part of the chain that bounds Thessaly on the east, and is continued south of Euboea in the lofty islands of Andros, Tinos and Mykonos. It forms most of the regional unit of Euboea, which also includes Skyros and a small area of the Greek mainland.
In Greek mythology, Eurysthenes (Εὐρυσθένης, "widely ruling") was one of the Heracleidae, a great-great-great-grandson of Heracles, and a son of Aristodemus and Argia.
In the civil service of the United Kingdom, Her Majesty’s Exchequer, or just the Exchequer, is the accounting process of central government and the government's current account i.e. money held from taxation and other government revenues in the Consolidated Fund.
The first Persian invasion of Greece, during the Persian Wars, began in 492 BC, and ended with the decisive Athenian victory at the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC.
Halicarnassus (Ἁλικαρνᾱσσός, Halikarnāssós or Ἀλικαρνασσός, Alikarnāssós, Halikarnas) was an ancient Greek city which stood on the site of modern Bodrum in Turkey.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
The helots (εἵλωτες, heílotes) were a subjugated population group that formed the main population of Laconia and Messenia, the territory controlled by Sparta.
Hercules is a Roman hero and god.
Hermes (Ἑρμῆς) is an Olympian god in Greek religion and mythology, the son of Zeus and the Pleiad Maia, and the second youngest of the Olympian gods (Dionysus being the youngest).
Hippias of Athens (Ἱππίας ὁ Ἀθηναῖος) was one of the sons of Peisistratus, and was tyrant of Athens between about 527 BC and 510 BC when Cleomenes I of Sparta successfully invaded Athens and forced Hippias to leave Athens.
The history of Greece encompasses the history of the territory of the modern nation state of Greece as well as that of the Greek people and the areas they inhabited and ruled historically.
Hoplites were citizen-soldiers of Ancient Greek city-states who were primarily armed with spears and shields.
The Illyrians (Ἰλλυριοί, Illyrioi; Illyrii or Illyri) were a group of Indo-European tribes in antiquity, who inhabited part of the western Balkans.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Ionia (Ancient Greek: Ἰωνία, Ionía or Ἰωνίη, Ioníe) was an ancient region on the central part of the western coast of Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, which was historically Smyrna.
The Ionian Revolt, and associated revolts in Aeolis, Doris, Cyprus and Caria, were military rebellions by several Greek regions of Asia Minor against Persian rule, lasting from 499 BC to 493 BC.
Isagoras (Ἰσαγόρας), son of Tisander, was an Athenian aristocrat in the late 6th century BC.
Isonomia (ἰσονομία "equality of political rights,"Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English LexiconThe Athenian Democracy in the Age of Demosthenes", Mogens Herman Hansen,, p. 81-84 from the Greek ἴσος isos, "equal," and νόμος nomos, "usage, custom, law,") was a word used by ancient Greek writers such as HerodotusHerodotus 3.80 and Thucydides to refer to some kind of popular government.
The Isthmus of Corinth is the narrow land bridge which connects the Peloponnese peninsula with the rest of the mainland of Greece, near the city of Corinth.
Laconia (Λακωνία, Lakonía), also known as Lacedaemonia, is a region in the southeastern part of the Peloponnese peninsula.
Leonidas I (or; Doric Λεωνίδας, Leōnídas; Ionic and Attic Greek: Λεωνίδης, Leōnídēs; "son of the lion"; died 11 August 480 BC) was a warrior king of the Greek city-state of Sparta.
Leotychidas (also Leotychides, Latychidas; Λεωτυχίδας; c. 545 BC–c. 469 BC) was a ruler of Sparta in 491–476 BC.
This list of kings of Sparta details the important rulers of the Greek city-state of Sparta in the Peloponnesus.
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.
Lysander (died 395 BC, Λύσανδρος, Lýsandros) was a Spartan admiral who commanded the Spartan fleet in the Hellespont which defeated the Athenians at Aegospotami in 405 BC.
Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.
Mantineia (also Mantinea; Μαντίνεια; also Koine Greek Ἀντιγόνεια Antigoneia) was a city in ancient Arcadia, Greece that was the site of two significant battles in Classical Greek history.
Mardonius (Μαρδόνιος Mardonios, Old Persian: Marduniya, literally: "the mild one"; died 479 BC) was a leading Persian military commander during the Persian Wars with Greece in the early 5th century BC who died at the Battle of Plataea.
The Megarian Decree was a set of economic sanctions levied upon Megara c. 432 BC by the Athenian Empire shortly before the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War.
Messene (Greek: Μεσσήνη Messini), officially Ancient Messene, is a local community (topiki koinotita) of the municipal unit (dimotiki enotita) Ithomi, of the municipality (dimos) of Messini within the regional unit (perifereiaki enotita) of Messenia in the region (perifereia) of Peloponnese, one of 13 regions into which Greece has been divided.
Miletus (Milētos; Hittite transcription Millawanda or Milawata (exonyms); Miletus; Milet) was an ancient Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia, near the mouth of the Maeander River in ancient Caria.
Miltiades (Μιλτιάδης; c. 550 – 489 BC), also known as Miltiades the Younger, was an Athenian citizen known mostly for his role in the Battle of Marathon, as well as for his downfall afterwards.
Mount Athos (Άθως, Áthos) is a mountain and peninsula in northeastern Greece and an important centre of Eastern Orthodox monasticism.
Mycenaean Greece (or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece, spanning the period from approximately 1600–1100 BC.
Navarch (ναύαρχος; pronounced návarchos) is a Greek word meaning "leader of the ships", which in some states became the title of an office equivalent to that of a modern admiral.
Naxos (Greek: Νάξος) is a Greek island and the largest of the Cyclades.
Nea Poteidaia (Νέα Ποτείδαια, also Νέα Ποτίδαια) is a small town in the Moudania municipal unit, in Chalkidiki, Greece.
Nicias (Νικίας Nikias; c. 470–413 BC), was an Athenian politician and general during the period of the Peloponnesian War.
Ostracism (ὀστρακισμός, ostrakismos) was a procedure under the Athenian democracy in which any citizen could be expelled from the city-state of Athens for ten years.
Oxyrhynchus (Ὀξύρρυγχος Oxýrrhynkhos; "sharp-nosed"; ancient Egyptian Pr-Medjed; Coptic Pemdje; modern Egyptian Arabic El Bahnasa) is a city in Middle Egypt, located about 160 km south-southwest of Cairo, in the governorate of Al Minya.
In antiquity, Paeonia or Paionia (Παιονία) was the land and kingdom of the Paeonians (Παίονες).
Pausanias (Παυσανίας; died c. 470 BC) was a Spartan regent, general, and war leader for the Greeks who was suspected of conspiring with the Persian king, Xerxes I, during the Greco-Persian Wars.
The King's Peace (387 BC), also known as the Peace of Antalcidas, was a peace treaty guaranteed by the Persian King Artaxerxes II that ended the Corinthian War in ancient Greece.
The Peace of Nicias, also known as the Fifty-Year Peace, was a peace treaty signed between the Greek city-states of Athens and Sparta in March 421 BC, ending the first half of the Peloponnesian War.
Peisistratos (Πεισίστρατος; died 528/7 BC), Latinized Pisistratus, the son of Hippocrates, was a ruler of ancient Athens during most of the period between 561 and 527 BC.
Pella (Πέλλα, Pélla) is an ancient city located in Central Macedonia, Greece, best known as the historical capital of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and birthplace of Alexander the Great.
Pelopidas (Πελοπίδας; died 364 BC) was an important Theban statesman and general in Greece.
The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Πελοπόννησος, Peloponnisos) is a peninsula and geographic region in southern Greece.
The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek war fought by the Delian League led by Athens against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta.
Pericles (Περικλῆς Periklēs, in Classical Attic; c. 495 – 429 BC) was a prominent and influential Greek statesman, orator and general of Athens during the Golden Age — specifically the time between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
Philip II of Macedon (Φίλιππος Β΄ ὁ Μακεδών; 382–336 BC) was the king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon from until his assassination in.
Phocion (Φωκίων Phokion; c. 402 – c. 318 BC; nicknamed The Good) was an Athenian statesman and strategos, and the subject of one of Plutarch's Parallel Lives.
Phocis (Φωκίδα,, Φωκίς) is one of the regional units of Greece.
Phocis was an ancient region in the central part of Ancient Greece, which included Delphi.
Piraeus (Πειραιάς Pireás, Πειραιεύς, Peiraieús) is a port city in the region of Attica, Greece.
The Plague of Athens (Λοιμός των Αθηνών) was an epidemic that devastated the city-state of Athens in ancient Greece during the second year of the Peloponnesian War (430 BC) when an Athenian victory still seemed within reach.
Plataea or Plataeae (Πλαταιαί) was an ancient city, located in Greece in southeastern Boeotia, south of Thebes.
Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.
Polis (πόλις), plural poleis (πόλεις), literally means city in Greek.
Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.
A pontoon bridge (or ponton bridge), also known as a floating bridge, uses floats or shallow-draft boats to support a continuous deck for pedestrian and vehicle travel.
Potidaea (Ποτίδαια, Potidaia) was a colony founded by the Corinthians around 600 BC in the narrowest point of the peninsula of Pallene, the westernmost of three peninsulas at the southern end of Chalcidice in northern Greece.
In Greek legends, Procles (Προκλῆς, "the renowned") was one of the Heracleidae, a great-great-great-grandson of Heracles, and a son of Aristodemus and Argia.
Pydna (in Greek: Πύδνα, older transliteration: Pýdna) was a Greek city in ancient Macedon, the most important in Pieria.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Samos (Σάμος) is a Greek island in the eastern Aegean Sea, south of Chios, north of Patmos and the Dodecanese, and off the coast of Asia Minor, from which it is separated by the -wide Mycale Strait.
The second Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC) occurred during the Greco-Persian Wars, as King Xerxes I of Persia sought to conquer all of Greece.
The Sicilian Expedition was an Athenian military expedition to Sicily, which took place during the period from 415 BC to 413 BC (during the Peloponnesian War).
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
The Siege of Melos occurred in 416 BC during the Peloponnesian War, a war fought between Athens and Sparta.
Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, Spártā; Attic Greek: Σπάρτη, Spártē) was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece.
The polis of Sparta was the greatest military land power of classical Greek antiquity.
The Struma or Strymónas (Струма; Στρυμόνας; (Struma) Karasu, 'black water') is a river in Bulgaria and Greece.
Syracuse (Siracusa,; Sarausa/Seragusa; Syrācūsae; Συράκουσαι, Syrakousai; Medieval Συρακοῦσαι) is a historic city on the island of Sicily, the capital of the Italian province of Syracuse.
Tegea (Τεγέα) was a settlement in ancient Arcadia, and it is also a former municipality in Arcadia, Peloponnese, Greece.
The ancient Greek drama was a theatrical culture that flourished in ancient Greece from c. 700 BC.
The Theban hegemony lasted from the Theban victory over the Spartans at Leuctra in 371 BC to their defeat of a coalition of Peloponnesian armies at Mantinea in 362 BC, though Thebes sought to maintain its position until finally eclipsed by the rising power of Macedon in 346 BC.
Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai,;. Θήβα, Thíva) is a city in Boeotia, central Greece.
Themistocles (Θεμιστοκλῆς Themistoklẽs; "Glory of the Law"; c. 524–459 BC) was an Athenian politician and general.
Thespiae (Greek: Θεσπιαί, Thespiaí) was an ancient Greek city (polis) in Boeotia.
The Thirty Tyrants (οἱ τριάκοντα τύραννοι, hoi triákonta týrannoi) were a pro-Spartan oligarchy installed in Athens after its defeat in the Peloponnesian War in 404 BCE.
The Thirty Years' Peace was a treaty, signed between the ancient Greek city-states Athens and Sparta, in the year 446/445 BCE.
Thomas R. Martin (born 1947) is an American historian who is a specialist in the history of the Greco-Roman world.
Thrace (Modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.
The Thracians (Θρᾷκες Thrāikes; Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Eastern and Southeastern Europe.
Thucydides (Θουκυδίδης,, Ancient Attic:; BC) was an Athenian historian and general.
A tribute (/ˈtrɪbjuːt/) (from Latin tributum, contribution) is wealth, often in kind, that a party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often the case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance.
A trireme (derived from Latin: trirēmis "with three banks of oars"; τριήρης triērēs, literally "three-rower") was an ancient vessel and a type of galley that was used by the ancient maritime civilizations of the Mediterranean, especially the Phoenicians, ancient Greeks and Romans.
Trittyes (τριττύες; singular trittys, τριττύς) were population divisions in ancient Attica, established by the reforms of Cleisthenes in 508 BC.
In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The expression "various authors," abbreviated with the acronym Vv.Aa., is rarely used in English except by non-native speakers, who look for an exact equivalent to similar terms (usually abbreviated Aa.Vv.) in Italian, Spanish, and some other languages.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
William James "Will" Durant (November 5, 1885 – November 7, 1981) was an American writer, historian, and philosopher.
Xenophon of Athens (Ξενοφῶν,, Xenophōn; – 354 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates.
Xerxes I (𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠 x-š-y-a-r-š-a Xšayaṛša "ruling over heroes", Greek Ξέρξης; 519–465 BC), called Xerxes the Great, was the fourth king of kings of the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia.
Causes of the Peloponnesian War, Classic Greece, Classical Greek culture, Classical Greek period, Classical Greek world, Classical period (Greece), Classical period in Greece, Greece in classical antiquity, Hellenic Greece, Hellenic period.