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Classical liberalism

Index Classical liberalism

Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom. [1]

182 relations: A Letter Concerning Toleration, Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601, Adam Ferguson, Adam Smith, Adrian Wooldridge, Alan Bullock, Alan Wolfe, Alexis de Tocqueville, American Revolution, An Essay on the Principle of Population, Ancient constitution of England, Andrew Jackson, Anti-Corn Law League, Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr., Atheism, Austrian School, Benjamin Constant, Benjamin Disraeli, Bernard Mandeville, Capitalism, Catholic Church, Cato Institute, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Chandran Kukathas, Charles Wood, 1st Viscount Halifax, Civil liberties, Classical economics, Classical liberalism, Classical republicanism, Common law, Conservatism, Conservatism in the United States, Conservative liberalism, Conservative Party (UK), Constitutional liberalism, Constitutional republic, Constitutionalism, Corn Laws, Cross of Gold speech, David Hume, David Kelley, David Ricardo, Deepak Lal, Democracy, Depression (economics), Direct democracy, Dissenter, Donald Markwell, East India Company, Economic freedom, ..., Economic interventionism, Economic liberalism, Edmund Burke, Edwin Lawrence Godkin, Empiricism, Encyclopédistes, English Dissenters, Europe, Factory Acts, Federalist No. 10, Francis Lieber, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Free market, Free trade, Friedrich Hayek, Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft, Georgism, Glorious Revolution, Great Depression, Great Depression in the United States, Great Famine (Ireland), Guido De Ruggiero, Harriet Martineau, Herbert Spencer, History of liberalism, Ideology, Immanuel Kant, Imperialism, Individual and group rights, Individualism, Industrial Revolution, Inequality of bargaining power, Invisible hand, Iron law of wages, Jacksonian democracy, James Kurth, James Madison, James Mill, James Wilson (businessman), Jane Marcet, Jean-Baptiste Say, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Jeffersonian democracy, Jeremy Bentham, John Bright, John Locke, John Maynard Keynes, John Micklethwait, John Rawls, John Stuart Mill, Joseph Priestley, Josiah Tucker, Joyce Appleby, Labor theory of value, Laissez-faire, Landed property, Liberal conservatism, Liberal democracy, Liberal Party (UK), Liberalism, Libertarian conservatism, Libertarianism, Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness, Limited government, Manchester Liberalism, Manifest destiny, Market (economics), Marquis de Condorcet, Marshall Plan, Maurice Shock, Montesquieu, Natural and legal rights, Natural law, Negative and positive rights, Neoliberalism, New Deal, Night-watchman state, Nonconformist, Norman Angell, One-nation conservatism, Physiocracy, Poor Law Amendment Act 1834, Poor Relief Act 1662, Populism, President of the United States, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Principles of Political Economy, Principles of Political Economy (Malthus), Profit motive, Radicalism (historical), Reform Act 1832, Richard Cobden, Richard Price, Richard Rosecrance, Right-libertarianism, Robert E. Lerner, Robert Skidelsky, Baron Skidelsky, Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829, Roy Harrod, Rule of law, SAGE Publications, Say's law, Separation of powers, Social Darwinism, Social liberalism, Social network, Social progress, Sociology, State of nature, The dismal science, The Economist, The Great Illusion, The Nation, The Wealth of Nations, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine, Thomas Robert Malthus, Time immemorial, Traditionalist conservatism, United States, United States Declaration of Independence, Urbanization, Utilitarianism, Welfare state, Whigs (British political party), William Ewart Gladstone, William Graham Sumner, William Jennings Bryan, William Paley, World peace, Yeoman. Expand index (132 more) »

A Letter Concerning Toleration

A Letter Concerning Toleration by John Locke was originally published in 1689.

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Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601

The Poor Relief Act 1601 (43 Eliz 1 c 2) was an Act of the Parliament of England.

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Adam Ferguson

Adam Ferguson, FRSE (Scottish Gaelic: Adhamh MacFhearghais), also known as Ferguson of Raith (1 JulyGregorian Calendar/20 JuneJulian Calendar 1723 – 22 February 1816), was a Scottish philosopher and historian of the Scottish Enlightenment.

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Adam Smith

Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.

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Adrian Wooldridge

Adrian Wooldridge is the Management Editor and, since 1 April 2017, the 'Bagehot' columnist for The Economist newspaper.

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Alan Bullock

Alan Louis Charles Bullock, Baron Bullock, (13 December 1914 – 2 February 2004) was a British historian.

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Alan Wolfe

Alan Wolfe (born 1942) is a political scientist and a sociologist and is on the faculty of Boston College and serves as director of the Boisi Center for Religion and American Public Life.

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Alexis de Tocqueville

Alexis Charles Henri Clérel, Viscount de Tocqueville (29 July 180516 April 1859) was a French diplomat, political scientist and historian.

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American Revolution

The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.

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An Essay on the Principle of Population

The book An Essay on the Principle of Population was first published anonymously in 1798, but the author was soon identified as Thomas Robert Malthus.

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Ancient constitution of England

The ancient constitution of England was a 17th-century political theory about the common law, used at the time in particular to oppose the royal prerogative.

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Andrew Jackson

Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845) was an American soldier and statesman who served as the seventh President of the United States from 1829 to 1837.

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Anti-Corn Law League

The Anti-Corn Law League was a successful political movement in Great Britain aimed at the abolition of the unpopular Corn Laws, which protected landowners’ interests by levying taxes on imported wheat, thus raising the price of bread at a time when factory-owners were trying to cut wages.

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Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr.

Arthur Meier Schlesinger Jr. (born Arthur Bancroft Schlesinger; October 15, 1917 – February 28, 2007) was an American historian, social critic, and public intellectual.

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Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.

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Austrian School

The Austrian School is a school of economic thought that is based on methodological individualism—the concept that social phenomena result from the motivations and actions of individuals.

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Benjamin Constant

Henri-Benjamin Constant de Rebecque (25 October 1767 – 8 December 1830), or simply Benjamin Constant, was a Swiss-French political activist and writer on politics and religion.

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Benjamin Disraeli

Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield, (21 December 1804 – 19 April 1881) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who twice served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.

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Bernard Mandeville

Bernard Mandeville, or Bernard de Mandeville (15 November 1670 – 21 January 1733), was an Anglo-Dutch philosopher, political economist and satirist.

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Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.

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Cato Institute

The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.

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Chancellor of the Exchequer

The Chancellor and Under-Treasurer of Her Majesty's Exchequer, commonly known as the Chancellor of the Exchequer, or simply the Chancellor, is a senior official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of Her Majesty's Treasury.

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Chandran Kukathas

Chandran Kukathas (born 12 September 1957) is a Malaysian-born Australian political theorist and the author of several books.

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Charles Wood, 1st Viscount Halifax

Charles Wood, 1st Viscount Halifax, GCB, PC (20 December 1800 – 8 August 1885), known as Sir Charles Wood, 3rd Bt between 1846 and 1866, was a British Whig politician and Member of Parliament.

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Civil liberties

Civil liberties or personal freedoms are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation, without due process.

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Classical economics

Classical economics or classical political economy (also known as liberal economics) is a school of thought in economics that flourished, primarily in Britain, in the late 18th and early-to-mid 19th century.

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Classical liberalism

Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.

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Classical republicanism

Classical republicanism, also known as civic republicanism or civic humanism, is a form of republicanism developed in the Renaissance inspired by the governmental forms and writings of classical antiquity, especially such classical writers as Aristotle, Polybius, and Cicero.

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Common law

Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.

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Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.

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Conservatism in the United States

American conservatism is a broad system of political beliefs in the United States that is characterized by respect for American traditions, republicanism, support for Judeo-Christian values, moral absolutism, free markets and free trade, anti-communism, individualism, advocacy of American exceptionalism, and a defense of Western culture from the perceived threats posed by socialism, authoritarianism, and moral relativism.

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Conservative liberalism

Conservative liberalism is a variant of liberalism, combining liberal values and policies with conservative stances, or simply representing the right-wing of the liberal movement.

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Conservative Party (UK)

The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.

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Constitutional liberalism

Constitutional liberalism describes a form of government that upholds the principles of classical liberalism and the rule of law.

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Constitutional republic

A Constitutional republic is a republic that operates under a system of separation of powers, where both the chief executive and members of the legislature are elected by the citizens and must govern within an existing written constitution.

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Constitutionalism is "a complex of ideas, attitudes, and patterns of behavior elaborating the principle that the authority of government derives from and is limited by a body of fundamental law".

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Corn Laws

The Corn Laws were tariffs and other trade restrictions on imported food and grain ("corn") enforced in Great Britain between 1815 and 1846.

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Cross of Gold speech

The Cross of Gold speech was delivered by William Jennings Bryan, a former United States Representative from Nebraska, at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago on July 9, 1896.

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David Hume

David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.

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David Kelley

David Kelley (born June 23, 1949) is an American philosopher.

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David Ricardo

David Ricardo (18 April 1772 – 11 September 1823) was a British political economist, one of the most influential of the classical economists along with Thomas Malthus, Adam Smith and James Mill.

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Deepak Lal

Deepak (Kumar) Lal (born 1940) is a British neo-liberal economist, originally of India.

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Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.

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Depression (economics)

In economics, a depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies.

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Direct democracy

Direct democracy or pure democracy is a form of democracy in which people decide on policy initiatives directly.

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A dissenter (from the Latin dissentire, "to disagree") is one who disagrees in matters of opinion, belief, etc.

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Donald Markwell

For the Montgomery, Alabama, talk radio personality, see Don Markwell Donald John "Don" Markwell (born 19 April 1959) is an Australian social scientist, who has been described as a "renowned Australian educational reformer".

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East India Company

The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.

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Economic freedom

Economic freedom or economic liberty is the ability of people of a society to take economic actions.

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Economic interventionism

Economic interventionism (sometimes state interventionism) is an economic policy perspective favoring government intervention in the market process to correct the market failures and promote the general welfare of the people.

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Economic liberalism

Economic liberalism is an economic system organized on individual lines, which means the greatest possible number of economic decisions are made by individuals or households rather than by collective institutions or organizations.

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Edmund Burke

Edmund Burke (12 January 17309 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman born in Dublin, as well as an author, orator, political theorist and philosopher, who after moving to London in 1750 served as a member of parliament (MP) between 1766 and 1794 in the House of Commons with the Whig Party.

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Edwin Lawrence Godkin

Edwin Lawrence Godkin (October 2, 1831 – May 21, 1902) was an Irish-born American journalist and newspaper editor.

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In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.

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The Encyclopédistes were members of the Société des gens de lettres, a French writer's society, who contributed to the development of the Encyclopédie from June 1751 to December 1765 under editors Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond d'Alembert.

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English Dissenters

English Dissenters or English Separatists were Protestant Christians who separated from the Church of England in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Factory Acts

The Factory Acts were a series of UK labour law Acts passed by the Parliament of the United Kingdom to regulate the conditions of industrial employment.

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Federalist No. 10

Federalist No.

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Francis Lieber

Francis Lieber (March 18, 1798 or 1800 – October 2, 1872), known as Franz Lieber in Germany, was a German-American jurist, gymnast and political philosopher.

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Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.

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Free market

In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.

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Free trade

Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.

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Friedrich Hayek

Friedrich August von Hayek (8 May 189923 March 1992), often referred to by his initials F. A. Hayek, was an Austrian-British economist and philosopher best known for his defense of classical liberalism.

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Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft

Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft, generally translated as "community and society", are categories which were used by the German sociologist Ferdinand Tönnies in order to categorize social ties into two dichotomous sociological types which define each other.

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Georgism, also called geoism and single tax (archaic), is an economic philosophy holding that, while people should own the value they produce themselves, economic value derived from land (including natural resources and natural opportunities) should belong equally to all members of society.

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Glorious Revolution

The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.

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Great Depression

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.

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Great Depression in the United States

The Great Depression began in August 1929, when the United States economy first went into an economic recession.

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Great Famine (Ireland)

The Great Famine (an Gorta Mór) or the Great Hunger was a period of mass starvation, disease, and emigration in Ireland between 1845 and 1849.

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Guido De Ruggiero

Guido De Ruggiero (Naples, 23 March 1888 – Rome, December 29, 1948) was an historian of philosophy, university professor and Italian politician.

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Harriet Martineau

Harriet Martineau (12 June 1802 – 27 June 1876) was a British social theorist and Whig writer, often cited as the first female sociologist.

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Herbert Spencer

Herbert Spencer (27 April 1820 – 8 December 1903) was an English philosopher, biologist, anthropologist, sociologist, and prominent classical liberal political theorist of the Victorian era.

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History of liberalism

Liberalism, the belief in freedom and human rights, is historically associated with thinkers such as John Locke and Montesquieu.

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An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.

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Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.

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Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.

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Individual and group rights

Group rights, also known as collective rights, are rights held by a group qua group rather than by its members severally; in contrast, individual rights are rights held by individual people; even if they are group-differentiated, which most rights are, they remain individual rights if the right-holders are the individuals themselves.

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Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual.

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Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

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Inequality of bargaining power

In law, economics and the social sciences, inequality of bargaining power is where one party to a "bargain", contract or agreement, has more and better alternatives than the other party.

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Invisible hand

The invisible hand is a term used by Adam Smith to describe the unintended social benefits of an individual's self-interested actions.

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Iron law of wages

The iron law of wages is a proposed law of economics that asserts that real wages always tend, in the long run, toward the minimum wage necessary to sustain the life of the worker.

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Jacksonian democracy

Jacksonian democracy is a 19th-century political philosophy in the United States that espoused greater democracy for the common man as that term was then defined.

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James Kurth

James Kurth is the Claude C. Smith Professor Emeritus of Political Science at Swarthmore College, where he taught defense policy, foreign policy, and international politics.

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James Madison

James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fourth President of the United States from 1809 to 1817.

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James Mill

James Mill (born James Milne, 6 April 1773 – 23 June 1836) was a Scottish historian, economist, political theorist, and philosopher.

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James Wilson (businessman)

James Wilson (3 June 1805 – 11 August 1860) was a Scottish businessman, economist, and Liberal politician who founded The Economist weekly and the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China, which merged with Standard Bank in 1969 to form Standard Chartered.

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Jane Marcet

Jane Marcet (née Haldimand) (1 January 1769 – 28 June 1858) was an innovative writer of popular introductory science books.

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Jean-Baptiste Say

Jean-Baptiste Say (5 January 1767 – 15 November 1832) was a French economist and businessman who had classically liberal views and argued in favor of competition, free trade and lifting restraints on business.

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Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.

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Jeffersonian democracy

Jeffersonian democracy, named after its advocate Thomas Jefferson, was one of two dominant political outlooks and movements in the United States from the 1790s to the 1820s.

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Jeremy Bentham

Jeremy Bentham (15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.

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John Bright

John Bright (16 November 1811 – 27 March 1889) was a British Radical and Liberal statesman, one of the greatest orators of his generation and a promoter of free trade policies.

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John Locke

John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".

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John Maynard Keynes

John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes (5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946), was a British economist whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments.

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John Micklethwait

Richard John Micklethwait CBE (born 11 August 1962) is editor-in-chief of Bloomberg News, a position he has held since February 2015.

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John Rawls

John Bordley Rawls (February 21, 1921 – November 24, 2002) was an American moral and political philosopher in the liberal tradition.

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John Stuart Mill

John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.

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Joseph Priestley

Joseph Priestley FRS (– 6 February 1804) was an 18th-century English Separatist theologian, natural philosopher, chemist, innovative grammarian, multi-subject educator, and liberal political theorist who published over 150 works.

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Josiah Tucker

Josiah Tucker (also Josias) (December 1713 – 4 November 1799), also known as Dean Tucker, was a Welsh churchman, known as an economist and political writer.

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Joyce Appleby

Joyce Oldham Appleby (April 9, 1929 – December 23, 2016) was an American historian.

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Labor theory of value

The labor theory of value (LTV) is a theory of value that argues that the economic value of a good or service is determined by the total amount of "socially necessary labor" required to produce it, rather than by the use or pleasure its owner gets from it (demand) and its scarcity value (supply).

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Laissez-faire (from) is an economic system in which transactions between private parties are free from government intervention such as regulation, privileges, tariffs and subsidies.

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Landed property

In real estate, a landed property or landed estate is a property that generates income for the owner without the owner having to do the actual work of the estate.

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Liberal conservatism

Liberal conservatism is a political ideology combining conservative policies with liberal stances, especially on ethical and social issues, or a brand of political conservatism strongly influenced by liberalism.

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Liberal democracy

Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.

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Liberal Party (UK)

The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom – with the opposing Conservative Party – in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

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Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.

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Libertarian conservatism

Libertarian conservatism is a political philosophy and ideology that combines right-libertarian politics and conservative values.

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Libertarianism (from libertas, meaning "freedom") is a collection of political philosophies and movements that uphold liberty as a core principle.

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Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness

"Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness" is a well-known phrase in the United States Declaration of Independence.

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Limited government

In political philosophy, limited government is where the government is empowered by law from a starting point of having no power, or where governmental power is restricted by law, usually in a written constitution.

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Manchester Liberalism

Manchester Liberalism, Manchester School, Manchester Capitalism and Manchesterism are terms for the political, economic and social movements of the 19th century that originated in Manchester, England.

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Manifest destiny

In the 19th century, manifest destiny was a widely held belief in the United States that its settlers were destined to expand across North America.

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Market (economics)

A market is one of the many varieties of systems, institutions, procedures, social relations and infrastructures whereby parties engage in exchange.

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Marquis de Condorcet

Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas de Caritat, Marquis of Condorcet (17 September 1743 – 29 March 1794), known as Nicolas de Condorcet, was a French philosopher, mathematician, and early political scientist whose Condorcet method in voting tally selects the candidate who would beat each of the other candidates in a run-off election.

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Marshall Plan

The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion (nearly $ billion in US dollars) in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.

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Maurice Shock

Sir Maurice Shock (born 15 April 1926) is a retired British university administrator and educationalist.

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Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, and political philosopher.

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Natural and legal rights

Natural and legal rights are two types of rights.

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Natural law

Natural law (ius naturale, lex naturalis) is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature, endowed by nature—traditionally by God or a transcendent source—and that these can be understood universally through human reason.

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Negative and positive rights

Negative and positive rights are rights that oblige either action (positive rights) or inaction (negative rights).

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Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.

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New Deal

The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms and regulations enacted in the United States 1933-36, in response to the Great Depression.

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Night-watchman state

In libertarian political philosophy, a night-watchman state is a model of a state whose only functions are to provide its citizens with the military, the police and courts, thus protecting them from aggression, theft, breach of contract and fraud and enforcing property laws.

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In English church history, a nonconformist was a Protestant who did not "conform" to the governance and usages of the established Church of England.

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Norman Angell

Sir Ralph Norman Angell (26 December 1872 – 7 October 1967) was an English lecturer, journalist, author, and Member of Parliament for the Labour Party.

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One-nation conservatism

One-nation conservatism (also known as one-nationism, or Tory democracy) is a form of British political conservatism advocating preservation of established institutions and traditional principles combined with political democracy, and a social and economic programme designed to benefit the common man.

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Physiocracy (from the Greek for "government of nature") is an economic theory developed by a group of 18th century Enlightenment French economists who believed that the wealth of nations was derived solely from the value of "land agriculture" or "land development" and that agricultural products should be highly priced.

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Poor Law Amendment Act 1834

The Poor Law Amendment Act 1834 (PLAA), known widely as the New Poor Law, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed by the Whig government of Earl Grey.

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Poor Relief Act 1662

The Poor Relief Act 1662 (14 Car 2 c 12) was an Act of the Cavalier Parliament of England.

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In politics, populism refers to a range of approaches which emphasise the role of "the people" and often juxtapose this group against "the elite".

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President of the United States

The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.

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Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.

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Principles of Political Economy

Principles of Political Economy (1848) by John Stuart Mill was one of the most important economics or political economy textbooks of the mid-nineteenth century.

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Principles of Political Economy (Malthus)

Principles of Political Economy Considered with a View to their Applications, simply referred to as Principles of Political Economy, was written by nineteenth century British political economist Thomas Malthus in 1820.

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Profit motive

In economics, the profit motive is the motivation of firms that operate so as to maximize their profits.

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Radicalism (historical)

The term "Radical" (from the Latin radix meaning root) during the late 18th-century and early 19th-century identified proponents of democratic reform, in what subsequently became the parliamentary Radical Movement.

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Reform Act 1832

The Representation of the People Act 1832 (known informally as the 1832 Reform Act, Great Reform Act or First Reform Act to distinguish it from subsequent Reform Acts) was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom (indexed as 2 & 3 Will. IV c. 45) that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of England and Wales.

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Richard Cobden

Richard Cobden (3 June 1804 – 2 April 1865) was an English manufacturer and Radical and Liberal statesman, associated with two major free trade campaigns, the Anti-Corn Law League and the Cobden–Chevalier Treaty.

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Richard Price

Richard Price (23 February 1723 – 19 April 1791) was a British moral philosopher, nonconformist preacher and mathematician.

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Richard Rosecrance

Richard Newton Rosecrance (born 1930) is an American political scientist.

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Right-libertarianism (or right-wing libertarianism) refers to libertarian political philosophies that advocate negative rights, natural law and a major reversal of the modern welfare state.

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Robert E. Lerner

Robert E. Lerner (born 1940 in New York) is an American medieval historian and professor of history emeritus at Northwestern University.

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Robert Skidelsky, Baron Skidelsky

Robert Jacob Alexander, Baron Skidelsky, FBA (born 25 April 1939) is a British economic historian of Russian origin and the author of a major, award-winning, three-volume biography of British economist John Maynard Keynes (1883–1946).

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Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829

The Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829, passed by Parliament in 1829, was the culmination of the process of Catholic Emancipation throughout the UK.

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Roy Harrod

Sir Henry Roy Forbes Harrod (13 February 1900 – 8 March 1978) was an English economist.

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Rule of law

The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".

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SAGE Publications

SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.

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Say's law

In classical economics, Say's law, or the law of markets, states that aggregate production necessarily creates an equal quantity of aggregate demand.

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Separation of powers

The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.

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Social Darwinism

The term Social Darwinism is used to refer to various ways of thinking and theories that emerged in the second half of the 19th century and tried to apply the evolutionary concept of natural selection to human society.

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Social liberalism

Social liberalism (also known as modern liberalism or egalitarian liberalism) is a political ideology and a variety of liberalism that endorses a market economy and the expansion of civil and political rights while also believing that the legitimate role of the government includes addressing economic and social issues such as poverty, health care and education.

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Social network

A social network is a social structure made up of a set of social actors (such as individuals or organizations), sets of dyadic ties, and other social interactions between actors.

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Social progress

Social progress is the idea that societies can or do improve in terms of their social, political, and economic structures.

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Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture.

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State of nature

The state of nature is a concept used in moral and political philosophy, religion, social contract theories and international law to denote the hypothetical conditions of what the lives of people might have been like before societies came into existence.

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The dismal science

"The dismal science" is a derogatory alternative name for economics coined by the Victorian historian Thomas Carlyle in the 19th century.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.

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The Great Illusion

The Great Illusion is a book by Norman Angell, first published in the United Kingdom in 1909 under the title Europe's Optical Illusion and republished in 1910 and subsequently in various enlarged and revised editions under the title The Great Illusion.

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The Nation

The Nation is the oldest continuously published weekly magazine in the United States, and the most widely read weekly journal of progressive political and cultural news, opinion, and analysis.

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The Wealth of Nations

An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, generally referred to by its shortened title The Wealth of Nations, is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith.

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Thomas Hobbes

Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.

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Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.

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Thomas Paine

Thomas Paine (born Thomas Pain; – In the contemporary record as noted by Conway, Paine's birth date is given as January 29, 1736–37. Common practice was to use a dash or a slash to separate the old-style year from the new-style year. In the old calendar, the new year began on March 25, not January 1. Paine's birth date, therefore, would have been before New Year, 1737. In the new style, his birth date advances by eleven days and his year increases by one to February 9, 1737. The O.S. link gives more detail if needed. – June 8, 1809) was an English-born American political activist, philosopher, political theorist and revolutionary.

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Thomas Robert Malthus

Thomas Robert Malthus (13 February 1766 – 23 December 1834) was an English cleric and scholar, influential in the fields of political economy and demography.

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Time immemorial

Time immemorial (temps immémorial) is a phrase meaning time extending beyond the reach of memory, record, or tradition, indefinitely ancient, "ancient beyond memory or record".

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Traditionalist conservatism

Traditionalist conservatism, also known as classical conservatism and traditional conservatism, is a political philosophy emphasizing the need for the principles of a transcendent moral order, manifested through certain natural laws to which society ought to conform in a prudent manner.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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United States Declaration of Independence

The United States Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting at the Pennsylvania State House (now known as Independence Hall) in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776.

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Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.

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Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.

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Welfare state

The welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens.

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Whigs (British political party)

The Whigs were a political faction and then a political party in the parliaments of England, Scotland, Great Britain, Ireland and the United Kingdom.

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William Ewart Gladstone

William Ewart Gladstone, (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party.

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William Graham Sumner

William Graham Sumner (October 30, 1840 – April 12, 1910) was a classical liberal American social scientist.

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William Jennings Bryan

William Jennings Bryan (March 19, 1860 – July 26, 1925) was an American orator and politician from Nebraska.

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William Paley

William Paley (July 1743 – 25 May 1805) was an English clergyman, Christian apologist, philosopher, and utilitarian.

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World peace

World peace, or peace on Earth, is the concept of an ideal state of happiness, freedom and peace within and among all people and nations on earth.

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A yeoman was a member of a social class in late medieval to early modern England.

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Clasical Libralism, Clasical liberalism, Classic Liberalism, Classic liberal, Classic liberalism, Classical Liberal, Classical Liberal Party, Classical Liberalism, Classical Libertarian, Classical liberal, Classical liberalist, Classical liberalists, Classical liberals, Classical-liberal, Classically liberal, Free-market liberalism, History of Libetarianism, History of classical liberalism, Laissez-faire liberal, Laissez-faire liberalism, Laissez-faire liberals, Market liberal, Market liberalism, Neo-classical liberalism, Neoclassical liberalism, Traditional liberalism, True liberalism.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_liberalism

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