222 relations: Abdus Salam, Absolute space and time, Abu'l-Barakāt al-Baghdādī, Acceleration, Action (physics), Action at a distance, Al-Biruni, Al-Khazini, Analytical dynamics, Analytical mechanics, Ancient Greek philosophy, Ancient philosophy, Angle, Angular acceleration, Angular momentum, Angular resolution, Angular velocity, Antiderivative, Aristotelian physics, Aristotle, Astronomia nova, Astronomical object, Atom, Avempace, Avicenna, Banū Mūsā, Baseball, Calculus, Canonical coordinates, Causality, Cavity magnetron, Celestial mechanics, Center of mass, Centrifugal force, Cf., Christiaan Huygens, Classical antiquity, Classical Mechanics (Goldstein book), Classical Mechanics (Kibble and Berkshire book), Clinton Davisson, Common sense, Complex number, Conservation of energy, Conservative force, Continuum mechanics, Coordinate system, Coriolis force, Cornell University, Corpuscular theory of light, Course of Theoretical Physics, ..., Crystal, Cyclotron, Degrees of freedom (physics and chemistry), Density, Derivative, Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Diffraction, Dot product, Dynamical system, Electromagnetism, Electron, Ellipse, Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Energy, Energy density, Energy flux, Energy level, Engineering, Entropy, Euclidean geometry, Euclidean vector, Euler's laws of motion, Experiment, Exponential decay, Fictitious force, Field (physics), Field-effect transistor, Fluid, Fluid dynamics, Force, Frame of reference, Friction, Galaxy, Galilean invariance, Galilean transformation, Galileo Galilei, Gas, General relativity, Generalized coordinates, Geometrical optics, Gibbs paradox, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Gradient, Gravity, Group action, Gyrotron, Hamiltonian mechanics, High-frequency approximation, History of classical mechanics, History of Europe, Hooke's law, Hossein Nasr, Hydrostatics, Imperial College Press, Inclined plane, Inertia, Inertial frame of reference, Integral, Integrated circuit, International System of Units, Invariant mass, Irradiance, Isaac Newton, Jean Buridan, Jerk (physics), Jordanus de Nemore, Joseph-Louis Lagrange, Kepler's laws of planetary motion, Kinematics, Kinetic energy, Lagrangian mechanics, Leaning Tower of Pisa, Lester Germer, Light, Line integral, Liquid, List of equations in classical mechanics, Lorentz force, Machine (mechanical), Macroscopic scale, Mars, Mass, Mathematics, Matter wave, Measurement, Mechanical equilibrium, Mechanics, Michelson–Morley experiment, Middle Ages, Milliradian, Molecular dynamics, Moment of inertia, Momentum, Motion (physics), Newton's law of universal gravitation, Newton's laws of motion, Newton's rings, Non-inertial reference frame, Number density, Observer (special relativity), Ordinary differential equation, Parameter, Parameterized post-Newtonian formalism, Particle, Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Photoelectric effect, Physical body, Physical law, Physics, Physics in the medieval Islamic world, Planck constant, Planck's law, Planet, Poincaré group, Point particle, Potential energy, Power (physics), Poynting vector, Pressure, Projectile, Quantum, Quantum field theory, Quantum mechanics, Quantum optics, Quantum tunnelling, Reaction (physics), Relativistic mechanics, Robert Briffault, Rotation, Routledge, Schwarzschild radius, Science, Scientific method, Second, Shlomo Pines, Side lobe, Solid, Space, Spacecraft, Special relativity, Specific energy, Speculative reason, Speed of light, Spring (device), Standard Model, Star, Statics, Statistical mechanics, Stillman Drake, Structure and Interpretation of Classical Mechanics, Surface tension, Technology, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Theory, Theory of everything, Thermal physics, Thermodynamics, Time, Torque, Transistor, Tsiolkovsky rocket equation, Tunnel diode, Tycho Brahe, Unit vector, Vacuum chamber, Vector calculus, Velocity, Viscosity, Wave interference, William Rowan Hamilton, Work (physics), 0. Expand index (172 more) » « Shrink index
Mohammad Abdus Salam Salam adopted the forename "Mohammad" in 1974 in response to the anti-Ahmadiyya decrees in Pakistan, similarly he grew his beard.
Absolute space and time is a concept in physics and philosophy about the properties of the universe.
Abu'l-Barakāt Hibat Allah ibn Malkā al-Baghdādī (أبو البركات هبة الله بن ملكا البغدادي; c. 1080 – 1164 or 1165 CE) was an Islamic philosopher and physician of Jewish descent from Baghdad, Iraq.
In physics, acceleration is the rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time.
In physics, action is an attribute of the dynamics of a physical system from which the equations of motion of the system can be derived.
In physics, action at a distance is the concept that an object can be moved, changed, or otherwise affected without being physically touched (as in mechanical contact) by another object.
Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/ابوریحان بیرونی Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī; New Persian: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī) (973–1050), known as Al-Biruni (البيروني) in English, was an IranianD.J. Boilot, "Al-Biruni (Beruni), Abu'l Rayhan Muhammad b. Ahmad", in Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden), New Ed., vol.1:1236–1238.
Abū al-Fath Abd al-Rahman Mansūr al-Khāzini or simply al-Khāzini (flourished 1115–1130) was an astronomer of Byzantine origin from Seljuk Persia.
In classical mechanics, analytical dynamics, or more briefly dynamics, is concerned with the relationship between motion of bodies and its causes, namely the forces acting on the bodies and the properties of the bodies, particularly mass and moment of inertia.
In theoretical physics and mathematical physics, analytical mechanics, or theoretical mechanics is a collection of closely related alternative formulations of classical mechanics.
Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.
This page lists some links to ancient philosophy.
In plane geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two rays, called the sides of the angle, sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle.
Angular acceleration is the rate of change of angular velocity.
In physics, angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational equivalent of linear momentum.
Angular resolution or spatial resolution describes the ability of any image-forming device such as an optical or radio telescope, a microscope, a camera, or an eye, to distinguish small details of an object, thereby making it a major determinant of image resolution.
In physics, the angular velocity of a particle is the rate at which it rotates around a chosen center point: that is, the time rate of change of its angular displacement relative to the origin.
In calculus, an antiderivative, primitive function, primitive integral or indefinite integral of a function is a differentiable function whose derivative is equal to the original function.
Aristotelian physics is a form of natural science described in the works of the Greek philosopher Aristotle (384–).
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Astronomia nova (English: New Astronomy, full title in original Latin: Astronomia Nova ΑΙΤΙΟΛΟΓΗΤΟΣ seu physica coelestis, tradita commentariis de motibus stellae Martis ex observationibus G.V. Tychonis Brahe) is a book, published in 1609, that contains the results of the astronomer Johannes Kepler's ten-year-long investigation of the motion of Mars.
An astronomical object or celestial object is a naturally occurring physical entity, association, or structure that exists in the observable universe.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
Avempace (– 1138) is the Latinate form of Ibn Bâjja (ابن باجه), full name Abû Bakr Muḥammad Ibn Yaḥyà ibn aṣ-Ṣâ’igh at-Tûjîbî Ibn Bâjja al-Tujibi (أبو بكر محمد بن يحيى بن الصائغ), was an Arab Andalusian polymath: his writings include works regarding astronomy, physics, and music, as well as philosophy, medicine, botany, and poetry.
Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.
The Banū Mūsā brothers ("Sons of Moses"), namely Abū Jaʿfar, Muḥammad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir (before 803 – February 873), Abū al‐Qāsim, Aḥmad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir (d. 9th century) and Al-Ḥasan ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir (d. 9th century), were three 9th-century scholars who lived and worked in Baghdad.
Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting and fielding.
Calculus (from Latin calculus, literally 'small pebble', used for counting and calculations, as on an abacus), is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations.
In mathematics and classical mechanics, canonical coordinates are sets of coordinates on phase space which can be used to describe a physical system at any given point in time.
Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.
The cavity magnetron is a high-powered vacuum tube that generates microwaves using the interaction of a stream of electrons with a magnetic field while moving past a series of open metal cavities (cavity resonators).
Celestial mechanics is the branch of astronomy that deals with the motions of celestial objects.
In physics, the center of mass of a distribution of mass in space is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to zero, or the point where if a force is applied it moves in the direction of the force without rotating.
In Newtonian mechanics, the centrifugal force is an inertial force (also called a "fictitious" or "pseudo" force) directed away from the axis of rotation that appears to act on all objects when viewed in a rotating frame of reference.
The abbreviation cf. (short for the confer/conferatur, both meaning "compare") is used in writing to refer the reader to other material to make a comparison with the topic being discussed.
Christiaan Huygens (Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695) was a Dutch physicist, mathematician, astronomer and inventor, who is widely regarded as one of the greatest scientists of all time and a major figure in the scientific revolution.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Classical Mechanics is a textbook about the subject of that name written by Herbert Goldstein.
Classical Mechanics (5th ed.) is a well-established textbook written by Thomas Walter Bannerman Kibble, FRS, (born 1932) and Frank Berkshire of the Imperial College Mathematics Department.
Clinton Joseph Davisson (October 22, 1881 – February 1, 1958), was an American physicist who won the 1937 Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of electron diffraction in the famous Davisson-Germer experiment.
Common sense is sound practical judgment concerning everyday matters, or a basic ability to perceive, understand, and judge that is shared by ("common to") nearly all people.
A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form, where and are real numbers, and is a solution of the equation.
In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant, it is said to be ''conserved'' over time.
A conservative force is a force with the property that the total work done in moving a particle between two points is independent of the taken path.
Continuum mechanics is a branch of mechanics that deals with the analysis of the kinematics and the mechanical behavior of materials modeled as a continuous mass rather than as discrete particles.
In geometry, a coordinate system is a system which uses one or more numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of the points or other geometric elements on a manifold such as Euclidean space.
In physics, the Coriolis force is an inertial force that acts on objects that are in motion relative to a rotating reference frame.
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.
In optics, the corpuscular theory of light, arguably set forward by Descartes (1637) states that light is made up of small discrete particles called "corpuscles" (little particles) which travel in a straight line with a finite velocity and possess impetus.
The Course of Theoretical Physics is a ten-volume series of books covering theoretical physics that was initiated by Lev Landau and written in collaboration with his student Evgeny Lifshitz starting in the late 1930s.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
A cyclotron is a type of particle accelerator invented by Ernest O. Lawrence in 1929-1930 at the University of California, Berkeley, and patented in 1932.
In physics, a degree of freedom is an independent physical parameter in the formal description of the state of a physical system.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
The derivative of a function of a real variable measures the sensitivity to change of the function value (output value) with respect to a change in its argument (input value).
The Dictionary of Scientific Biography is a scholarly reference work that was published from 1970 through 1980.
--> Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit.
In mathematics, the dot product or scalar productThe term scalar product is often also used more generally to mean a symmetric bilinear form, for example for a pseudo-Euclidean space.
In mathematics, a dynamical system is a system in which a function describes the time dependence of a point in a geometrical space.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In mathematics, an ellipse is a curve in a plane surrounding two focal points such that the sum of the distances to the two focal points is constant for every point on the curve.
The Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science is a three-volume encyclopedia covering the history of Arabic contributions to science, mathematics and technology which had a marked influence on the Middle Ages in Europe.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume.
Energy flux is the rate of transfer of energy through a surface.
A quantum mechanical system or particle that is bound—that is, confined spatially—can only take on certain discrete values of energy.
Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.
In statistical mechanics, entropy is an extensive property of a thermodynamic system.
Euclidean geometry is a mathematical system attributed to Alexandrian Greek mathematician Euclid, which he described in his textbook on geometry: the Elements.
In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction.
In classical mechanics, Euler's laws of motion are equations of motion which extend Newton's laws of motion for point particle to rigid body motion.
An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.
A quantity is subject to exponential decay if it decreases at a rate proportional to its current value.
A fictitious force (also called a pseudo force, d'Alembert force, or inertial force) is an apparent force that acts on all masses whose motion is described using a non-inertial frame of reference, such as a rotating reference frame.
In physics, a field is a physical quantity, represented by a number or tensor, that has a value for each point in space and time.
The field-effect transistor (FET) is a transistor that uses an electric field to control the electrical behaviour of the device.
In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress.
In physics and engineering, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids - liquids and gases.
In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.
In physics, a frame of reference (or reference frame) consists of an abstract coordinate system and the set of physical reference points that uniquely fix (locate and orient) the coordinate system and standardize measurements.
Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.
A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter.
Galilean invariance or Galilean relativity states that the laws of motion are the same in all inertial frames.
In physics, a Galilean transformation is used to transform between the coordinates of two reference frames which differ only by constant relative motion within the constructs of Newtonian physics.
Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.
In analytical mechanics, specifically the study of the rigid body dynamics of multibody systems, the term generalized coordinates refers to the parameters that describe the configuration of the system relative to some reference configuration.
Geometrical optics, or ray optics, describes light propagation in terms of rays.
In statistical mechanics, a semi-classical derivation of the entropy that does not take into account the indistinguishability of particles, yields an expression for the entropy which is not extensive (is not proportional to the amount of substance in question).
Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.
In mathematics, the gradient is a multi-variable generalization of the derivative.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
In mathematics, an action of a group is a formal way of interpreting the manner in which the elements of the group correspond to transformations of some space in a way that preserves the structure of that space.
A gyrotron is a high-power linear-beam vacuum tube which generates millimeter-wave electromagnetic waves by the cyclotron resonance of electrons in a strong magnetic field.
Hamiltonian mechanics is a theory developed as a reformulation of classical mechanics and predicts the same outcomes as non-Hamiltonian classical mechanics.
A high-frequency approximation (or "high energy approximation") for scattering or other wave propagation problems, in physics or engineering, is an approximation whose accuracy increases with the size of features on the scatterer or medium relative to the wavelength of the scattered particles.
This article deals with the history of classical mechanics.
The history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting Europe from prehistory to the present.
Hooke's law is a principle of physics that states that the force needed to extend or compress a spring by some distance scales linearly with respect to that distance.
Hossein Nasr (سید حسین نصر, born April 7, 1933) is an Iranian professor emeritus of Islamic studies at George Washington University, and an Islamic philosopher.
Fluid statics or hydrostatics is the branch of fluid mechanics that studies fluids at rest.
Imperial College Press (ICP) was formed in 1995 as a partnership between Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine in London and World Scientific publishing.
An inclined plane, also known as a ramp, is a flat supporting surface tilted at an angle, with one end higher than the other, used as an aid for raising or lowering a load.
Inertia is the resistance of any physical object to any change in its position and state of motion.
An inertial frame of reference in classical physics and special relativity is a frame of reference in which a body with zero net force acting upon it is not accelerating; that is, such a body is at rest or it is moving at a constant speed in a straight line.
In mathematics, an integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that can describe displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
The invariant mass, rest mass, intrinsic mass, proper mass, or in the case of bound systems simply mass, is the portion of the total mass of an object or system of objects that is independent of the overall motion of the system.
In radiometry, irradiance is the radiant flux (power) received by a surface per unit area.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
Jean Buridan (Latin: Johannes Buridanus; –) was an influential 14th century French philosopher.
In physics, jerk is the rate of change of acceleration; that is, the time derivative of acceleration, and as such the second derivative of velocity, or the third time derivative of position.
Jordanus de Nemore (fl. 13th century), also known as Jordanus Nemorarius and Giordano of Nemi, was a thirteenth-century European mathematician and scientist.
Joseph-Louis Lagrange (or;; born Giuseppe Lodovico Lagrangia, Encyclopædia Britannica or Giuseppe Ludovico De la Grange Tournier, Turin, 25 January 1736 – Paris, 10 April 1813; also reported as Giuseppe Luigi Lagrange or Lagrangia) was an Italian Enlightenment Era mathematician and astronomer.
In astronomy, Kepler's laws of planetary motion are three scientific laws describing the motion of planets around the Sun.
Kinematics is a branch of classical mechanics that describes the motion of points, bodies (objects), and systems of bodies (groups of objects) without considering the mass of each or the forces that caused the motion.
In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.
Lagrangian mechanics is a reformulation of classical mechanics, introduced by the Italian-French mathematician and astronomer Joseph-Louis Lagrange in 1788.
The Leaning Tower of Pisa (Torre pendente di Pisa) or simply the Tower of Pisa (Torre di Pisa) is the campanile, or freestanding bell tower, of the cathedral of the Italian city of Pisa, known worldwide for its unintended tilt.
Lester Halbert Germer (October 10, 1896 – October 3, 1971) was an American physicist.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
In mathematics, a line integral is an integral where the function to be integrated is evaluated along a curve.
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.
Classical mechanics is the branch of physics used to describe the motion of macroscopic objects.
In physics (particularly in electromagnetism) the Lorentz force is the combination of electric and magnetic force on a point charge due to electromagnetic fields.
Machines employ power to achieve desired forces and movement (motion).
The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visible almost practically with the naked eye, without magnifying optical instruments.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
Matter waves are a central part of the theory of quantum mechanics, being an example of wave–particle duality.
Measurement is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events.
In classical mechanics, a particle is in mechanical equilibrium if the net force on that particle is zero.
Mechanics (Greek μηχανική) is that area of science concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.
The Michelson–Morley experiment was performed between April and July, 1887 by Albert A. Michelson and Edward W. Morley at what is now Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, and published in November of the same year.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
A milliradian, often called a mil or mrad, is an SI derived unit for angular measurement which is defined as a thousandth of a radian (0.001 radian).
Molecular dynamics (MD) is a computer simulation method for studying the physical movements of atoms and molecules.
The moment of inertia, otherwise known as the angular mass or rotational inertia, of a rigid body is a tensor that determines the torque needed for a desired angular acceleration about a rotational axis; similar to how mass determines the force needed for a desired acceleration.
In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.
In physics, motion is a change in position of an object over time.
Newton's law of universal gravitation states that a particle attracts every other particle in the universe with a force which is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers.
Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics.
Newton's rings is a phenomenon in which an interference pattern is created by the reflection of light between two surfaces—a spherical surface and an adjacent touching flat surface.
A non-inertial reference frame is a frame of reference that is undergoing acceleration with respect to an inertial frame.
In physics, astronomy, chemistry, biology and geography, number density (symbol: n or ρN) is an intensive quantity used to describe the degree of concentration of countable objects (particles, molecules, phonons, cells, galaxies, etc.) in physical space: three-dimensional volumetric number density, two-dimensional areal number density, or one-dimensional line number density.
In special relativity, an observer is a frame of reference from which a set of objects or events are being measured.
In mathematics, an ordinary differential equation (ODE) is a differential equation containing one or more functions of one independent variable and its derivatives.
A parameter (from the Ancient Greek παρά, para: "beside", "subsidiary"; and μέτρον, metron: "measure"), generally, is any characteristic that can help in defining or classifying a particular system (meaning an event, project, object, situation, etc.). That is, a parameter is an element of a system that is useful, or critical, when identifying the system, or when evaluating its performance, status, condition, etc.
Post-Newtonian formalism is a calculational tool that expresses Einstein's (nonlinear) equations of gravity in terms of the lowest-order deviations from Newton's law of universal gravitation.
In the physical sciences, a particle (or corpuscule in older texts) is a small localized object to which can be ascribed several physical or chemical properties such as volume, density or mass.
Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Latin for Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Isaac Newton, in Latin, first published 5 July 1687.
The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons or other free carriers when light shines on a material.
In physics, a physical body or physical object (or simply a body or object) is an identifiable collection of matter, which may be constrained by an identifiable boundary, and may move as a unit by translation or rotation, in 3-dimensional space.
A physical law or scientific law is a theoretical statement "inferred from particular facts, applicable to a defined group or class of phenomena, and expressible by the statement that a particular phenomenon always occurs if certain conditions be present." Physical laws are typically conclusions based on repeated scientific experiments and observations over many years and which have become accepted universally within the scientific community.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
The natural sciences saw various advancements during the Golden Age of Islam (from roughly the mid 8th to the mid 13th centuries), adding a number of innovations to the Transmission of the Classics (such as Aristotle, Ptolemy, Euclid, Neoplatonism).
The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, central in quantum mechanics.
Planck's law describes the spectral density of electromagnetic radiation emitted by a black body in thermal equilibrium at a given temperature T. The law is named after Max Planck, who proposed it in 1900.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
The Poincaré group, named after Henri Poincaré (1906), was first defined by Minkowski (1908) as the group of Minkowski spacetime isometries.
A point particle (ideal particle or point-like particle, often spelled pointlike particle) is an idealization of particles heavily used in physics.
In physics, potential energy is the energy possessed by an object because of its position relative to other objects, stresses within itself, its electric charge, or other factors.
In physics, power is the rate of doing work, the amount of energy transferred per unit time.
In physics, the Poynting vector represents the directional energy flux (the energy transfer per unit area per unit time) of an electromagnetic field.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
A projectile is any object thrown into space (empty or not) by the exertion of a force.
In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity (physical property) involved in an interaction.
In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is the theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Quantum optics (QO) is a field of research that uses semi-classical and quantum-mechanical physics to investigate phenomena involving light and its interactions with matter at submicroscopic levels.
Quantum tunnelling or tunneling (see spelling differences) is the quantum mechanical phenomenon where a particle tunnels through a barrier that it classically cannot surmount.
As described by the third of Newton's laws of motion of classical mechanics, all forces occur in pairs such that if one object exerts a force on another object, then the second object exerts an equal and opposite reaction force on the first.
In physics, relativistic mechanics refers to mechanics compatible with special relativity (SR) and general relativity (GR).
Robert Stephen Briffault (1874 – 11 December 1948) was a French surgeon who found fame as a social anthropologist and later in life as a novelist.
A rotation is a circular movement of an object around a center (or point) of rotation.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The Schwarzschild radius (sometimes historically referred to as the gravitational radius) is a physical parameter that shows up in the Schwarzschild solution to Einstein's field equations, corresponding to the radius defining the event horizon of a Schwarzschild black hole.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
The second is the SI base unit of time, commonly understood and historically defined as 1/86,400 of a day – this factor derived from the division of the day first into 24 hours, then to 60 minutes and finally to 60 seconds each.
Shlomo Pines (August 5, 1908 in Charenton-le-Pont – January 9, 1990 in Jerusalem) was an Israeli scholar of Jewish and Islamic philosophy, best known for his English translation of Maimonides' Guide of the Perplexed.
In antenna engineering, side lobes or sidelobes are the lobes (local maxima) of the far field radiation pattern that are not the main lobe.
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).
Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction.
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.
Specific energy is energy per unit mass.
Speculative reason or pure reason is theoretical (or logical, deductive) thought (sometimes called theoretical reason), as opposed to practical (active, willing) thought.
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.
A spring is an elastic object that stores mechanical energy.
The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.
A star is type of astronomical object consisting of a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its own gravity.
Statics is the branch of mechanics that is concerned with the analysis of loads (force and torque, or "moment") acting on physical systems that do not experience an acceleration (a.
Statistical mechanics is one of the pillars of modern physics.
Stillman Drake (December 24, 1910 – October 6, 1993) was a Canadian historian of science best known for his work on Galileo Galilei (1564–1642).
Structure and Interpretation of Classical Mechanics (SICM) is a classical mechanics textbook written by Gerald Jay Sussman and Jack Wisdom with Meinhard E. Mayer.
Surface tension is the elastic tendency of a fluid surface which makes it acquire the least surface area possible.
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".
The Feynman Lectures on Physics is a physics textbook based on some lectures by Richard P. Feynman, a Nobel laureate who has sometimes been called "The Great Explainer".
A theory is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking.
A theory of everything (ToE), final theory, ultimate theory, or master theory is a hypothetical single, all-encompassing, coherent theoretical framework of physics that fully explains and links together all physical aspects of the universe.
Thermal physics is the combined study of thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and kinetic theory.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.
Time is the indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future.
Torque, moment, or moment of force is rotational force.
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.
The Tsiolkovsky rocket equation, classical rocket equation, or ideal rocket equation, describes the motion of vehicles that follow the basic principle of a rocket: a device that can apply acceleration to itself using thrust by expelling part of its mass with high velocity and thereby move due to the conservation of momentum.
A tunnel diode or Esaki diode is a type of semiconductor that is capable of very fast operation, well into the microwave frequency region (up to), made possible by the use of the quantum mechanical effect called tunneling.
Tycho Brahe (born Tyge Ottesen Brahe;. He adopted the Latinized form "Tycho Brahe" (sometimes written Tÿcho) at around age fifteen. The name Tycho comes from Tyche (Τύχη, meaning "luck" in Greek, Roman equivalent: Fortuna), a tutelary deity of fortune and prosperity of ancient Greek city cults. He is now generally referred to as "Tycho," as was common in Scandinavia in his time, rather than by his surname "Brahe" (a spurious appellative form of his name, Tycho de Brahe, only appears much later). 14 December 154624 October 1601) was a Danish nobleman, astronomer, and writer known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations.
In mathematics, a unit vector in a normed vector space is a vector (often a spatial vector) of length 1.
A vacuum chamber is a rigid enclosure from which air and other gases are removed by a vacuum pump.
Vector calculus, or vector analysis, is a branch of mathematics concerned with differentiation and integration of vector fields, primarily in 3-dimensional Euclidean space \mathbb^3.
The velocity of an object is the rate of change of its position with respect to a frame of reference, and is a function of time.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
In physics, interference is a phenomenon in which two waves superpose to form a resultant wave of greater, lower, or the same amplitude.
Sir William Rowan Hamilton MRIA (4 August 1805 – 2 September 1865) was an Irish mathematician who made important contributions to classical mechanics, optics, and algebra.
In physics, a force is said to do work if, when acting, there is a displacement of the point of application in the direction of the force.
0 (zero) is both a number and the numerical digit used to represent that number in numerals.
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